WorldWideScience

Sample records for gravity purity luster

  1. The lustering of TBC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diver, R.B.; Jones, S.; Robb, S.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    Two test bed concentrators (TBCs) were designed to provide high-performance test beds for advanced solar receivers and converters. However, the second-surface silvered-glass mirror facets on the TBCs, which were originally manufactured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have experienced severe silver corrosion. To restore reflectance, TBC-2 was refurbished with a lustering technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In the lustering technique, second-surface silvered thin-glass mirrors were applied over the corroded facets, thereby increasing the dish reflectivity and raising the available power of TBC-2 from approximately 70 to 78 kW{sub t}. Degradation of the original optical accuracy of the TBC facets was determined to be minimal. Lustering was chosen over facet replacement because of the lower cost, the anticipated improvement in corrosion resistance, and the shorter project duration. This report includes background information, details of the lustering process, and test results from TBC-2 characterization, both before and after lustering.

  2. Characterization of Iraq-luster painted pottery by XRF and XAFS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Sanae; Kato, Norihiro; Nakai, Izumi; Shindo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    Luster is one of the most interesting Islamic ceramic decorations. Their origins are known to be due to a nanostructured thin layer formed by metallic copper and silver nanocrystals. The chemical composition of the glazes and decorations of Iraq luster potteries stored in IDEMITSU museum of art were studied using XRF quantitative analysis and XRF imaging. Moreover, the local environment of copper and silver dispersed in the glaze were analyzed by means of XAFS analysis. The white glaze of Iraq luster pottery can be classified into alkali-lime glaze and alkali-lead-lime glaze according to their contents of PbO and SnO 2 . The present XRF analysis revealed that the almost all samples belong to alkali-lead-lime glaze. In addition, it is found from XRF imaging that different copper/silver ratios affect the color of decorations. Cu K-edge and Ag K-edge XAFS spectra of these shards were measured to reveal the chemical state of copper and silver. Presence of metallic copper is found in the red luster. In olive green and brown luster, copper is almost present in the Cu (I) state. Also, in dark brown luster, both Cu (I) and Cu (II) states are found, while, silver always exists in the metallic form independent of the color. (author)

  3. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  4. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  5. Water Fastness of Screen Printed Pearl Luster Pigments based on Synthetic and Natural Mica on Polyvinyl Chloride Foil and Rich Mineral Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine water fastness of screen printed pearl luster pigments based on synthetic and natural mica on polyvinyl chloride foil and Rich Mineral Paper. Three types of pearl luster pigments were used, each different from the other in composition, interference colour and particle size: one pigment based on synthetic mica (Pigment 1 and two pigments based on natural mica (Pigment 2 and Pigment 3. Pearl luster pigments were applied to the printing base (PVC transparent base in 15wt.% concentration and printed by means of screen printing technique. The test of water fastness was made on prints, where the samples were soaked in distilled water for 6 and 12 days. It was established that this water treatment did not have any significant impact on the durability of screen printed pearl luster pigments. The pigments could demonstrate slightly better water fastness after being printed on Rich Mineral Paper.

  6. Steam purity in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, J.; Passell, T.

    1982-01-01

    Reports that 2 EPRI studies of PWRs prove that impure steam triggers decay of turbine metals. Reveals that EPRI is attempting to improve steam monitoring and analysis, which are key steps on the way to deciding the most cost-effective degree of steam purity, and to upgrade demineralizing systems, which can then reliably maintain that degree of purity. Points out that 90% of all cracks in turbine disks have occurred at the dry-to-wet transition zone, dubbed the Wilson line. Explains that because even very clean water contains traces of chemical impurities with concentrations in the parts-per-billion range, Crystal River-3's secondary loop was designed with even more purification capability; a deaerator to remove oxygen and prevent oxidation of system metals, and full-flow resin beds to demineralize 100% of the secondary-loop water from the condenser. Concludes that focusing attention on steam and water chemistry can ward off cracking and sludge problems caused by corrosion

  7. Firewalls from double purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  8. The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamowski, M.; Carls, B.; Dvorak, E.; Hahn, A.; Jaskierny, W.; Johnson, C.; Jostlein, H.; Kendziora, C.; Lockwitz, S.; Pahlka, B.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Rebel, B.; Schmitt, R.; Stancari, M.; Tope, T.; Voirin, E.; Yang, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Liquid Argon Purity Demonstrator was an R&D test stand designed to determine if electron drift lifetimes adequate for large neutrino detectors could be achieved without first evacuating the cryostat. We describe here the cryogenic system, its operations, and the apparatus used to determine the contaminant levels in the argon and to measure the electron drift lifetime. The liquid purity obtained by this system was facilitated by a gaseous argon purge. Additionally, gaseous impurities from the ullage were prevented from entering the liquid at the gas-liquid interface by condensing the gas and filtering the resulting liquid before returning to the cryostat. The measured electron drift lifetime in this test was greater than 6 ms, sustained over several periods of many weeks. Measurements of the temperature profile in the argon, to assess convective flow and boiling, were also made and are compared to simulation.

  9. Production of high purity radiothallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, E.; Greene, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    The method of producing high-purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprises the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction 203 Tl(p,3n) 201 Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used

  10. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  11. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  12. Disgust and the moralization of purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, E J; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher; Cohen, Adam B

    2009-12-01

    Guided by appraisal-based models of the influence of emotion upon judgment, we propose that disgust moralizes--that is, amplifies the moral significance of--protecting the purity of the body and soul. Three studies documented that state and trait disgust, but not other negative emotions, moralize the purity moral domain but not the moral domains of justice or harm/care. In Study 1, integral feelings of disgust, but not integral anger, predicted stronger moral condemnation of behaviors violating purity. In Study 2, experimentally induced disgust, compared with induced sadness, increased condemnation of behaviors violating purity and increased approval of behaviors upholding purity. In Study 3, trait disgust, but not trait anger or trait fear, predicted stronger condemnation of purity violations and greater approval of behaviors upholding purity. We found that, confirming the domain specificity of the disgust-purity association, disgust was unrelated to moral judgments about justice (Studies 1 and 2) or harm/care (Study 3). Finally, across studies, individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely than individuals of higher SES to moralize purity but not justice or harm/care.

  13. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Rham, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  14. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  15. Thermal conductivity of high purity vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of four high-purity vanadium samples were measured over the temperature range 5 to 300 0 K. The highest purity sample had a resistance ratio (rho 273 /rho 4 . 2 ) of 1524. The highest purity sample had a thermal conductivity maximum of 920 W/mK at 9 0 K and had a thermal conductivity of 35 W/mK at room temperature. At low temperatures, the thermal resistivity was limited by the scattering of electrons by impurities and phonons. The thermal resistivity of vanadium departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of high purity vanadium showed no anomalous behavior above 130 0 K. The intrinsic electrical resistivity at low temperatures was due primarily to interband scattering of electrons. The Seebeck coefficient was positive from 10 to 240 0 K and had a maximum which was dependent upon sample purity

  16. Determination of radiochemical purity using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The concepts of chromatography, gas chromatography, activity, radiochemical impurity are defined; the procedure of the application of gas chromatography for detecting radiochemical purity of substances is standardized. (E.F.)

  17. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  18. Massive gravity from bimetric gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)

  19. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  20. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  1. Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...

  2. Preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Daniela Moraes; Silva Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da; Santos Mucillo, Eliana Navarro dos

    1995-01-01

    The preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate has been carried out Cerium oxide has been prepared by fractioned precipitation and ionic exchange techniques, using a concentrate with approximately 85% of cerium oxide from NUCLEMON as raw material. Five sequential ion-exchange columns with a retention capacity of 170 g each have been used. The ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as eluent. The cerium content has been determined by gravimetry and iodometry techniques. The resulting cerium oxide has a purity > 99%. This material was transformed in cerium nitrate to be used as precursor for the preparation of Zirconia-ceria ceramics by the coprecipitation technique. (author)

  3. Spectral Purity Enhancement via Polyphase Multipath Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2004-01-01

    The central question of this paper is: can we enhance the spectral purity of nonlinear circuits by using polyphase multipath circuits? The basic idea behind polyphase multipath circuits is to split the nonlinear circuits into two or more paths and exploit phase differences between these paths to

  4. Low-cost high purity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  5. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  6. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  7. Simulating Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  8. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  9. Purity of targets prepared on Cu substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méens, A.; Rossini, I.; Sens, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    The purity of several elemental self-supporting targets usually prepared by evaporation onto soluble Cu substrates has been studied. The targets were analysed by Rutherford backscattering and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Because of the high percentage of Cu observed in some Si targets, further measurements, including transmission electron microscopy, have been performed on Si targets deposited by e-gun bombardment onto Cu and ion-beam sputtering onto betaine.

  10. Imaging Scanner Usage in Radiochemical Purity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhafizah Othman; Yahaya Talib; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Imaging Scanner model BIOSCAN AR-2000 has been used in the radiochemical purity test for the product of Mo-99/ Tc-99m generator. Result from this test was produced directly where the percentage of pertechnetate was calculated based on width peak area by thin layer chromatography. This paperwork will explain the function, procedure, calibration of the instrument and discussed the advantages compared to the previous method. (author)

  11. High purity radioactive beams at the bevalac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.; Chatterjee, A.; Tobias, C.A.

    1979-03-01

    Peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions of primary Bevalac heavy ion beams are used to produce secondary beams of radioactive nuclei. The large cross section and small deflection of the projectile fragments lead to high production and delivery efficiency for these beams. Dispersive beam transport allows good separation and purification of the desired secondary beams. 11 C and 19 Ne beams of high purity and good intensity (almost 0.2% of the primary beam current) are presently being used for biomedical experiments

  12. High-purity germanium crystal growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    The germanium crystals used for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors are required to have a purity and crystalline perfection which is unsurpassed by any other solid material. These crystals should not have a net electrically active impurity concentration greater than 10 10 cm - 3 and be essentially free of charge trapping defects. Such perfect crystals of germanium can be grown only because of the highly favorable chemical and physical properties of this element. However, ten years of laboratory scale and commercial experience has still not made the production of such crystals routine. The origin and control of many impurities and electrically active defect complexes is now fairly well understood but regular production is often interrupted for long periods due to the difficulty of achieving the required high purity or to charge trapping in detectors made from crystals seemingly grown under the required conditions. The compromises involved in the selection of zone refining and crystal grower parts and ambients is discussed and the difficulty in controlling the purity of key elements in the process is emphasized. The consequences of growing in a hydrogen ambient are discussed in detail and it is shown how complexes of neutral defects produce electrically active centers

  13. Method of high purity silane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Belov, Eugene P.; Gerlivanov, Vadim G.; Zadde, Vitali V.; Kleschevnikova, Solomonida I.; Korneev, Nikolai N.; Lebedev, Eugene N.; Pinov, Akhsarbek B.; Ryabenko, Eugene A.; Strebkov, Dmitry S.; Chernyshev, Eugene A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for the preparation of high purity silane, suitable for forming thin layer silicon structures in various semiconductor devices and high purity poly- and single crystal silicon for a variety of applications, is provided. Synthesis of high-purity silane starts with a temperature assisted reaction of metallurgical silicon with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. Alcoxysilanes formed in the silicon-alcohol reaction are separated from other products and purified. Simultaneous reduction and oxidation of alcoxysilanes produces gaseous silane and liquid secondary products, including, active part of a catalyst, tetra-alcoxysilanes, and impurity compounds having silicon-hydrogen bonds. Silane is purified by an impurity adsorption technique. Unreacted alcohol is extracted and returned to the reaction with silicon. Concentrated mixture of alcoxysilanes undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction in the presence of a catalyst at the temperature -20.degree. C. to +40.degree. C. during 1 to 50 hours. Tetra-alcoxysilane extracted from liquid products of simultaneous oxidation and reduction reaction is directed to a complete hydrolysis. Complete hydrolysis of tetra-alcoxysilane results in formation of industrial silica sol and alcohol. Alcohol is dehydrated by tetra-alcoxysilane and returned to the reaction with silicon.

  14. Analysis of the Purity of Cetrimide by Titrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Rasmussen, Claus/Dallerup; Nielsen, Hans/Boye

    2006-01-01

    . Titration by perchloric acid showed a 99.69 ± 0.05 % purity of cetrimide and titration by silver nitrate showed a 99.85% ± 0.05 % purity while the traditional assay method predicted a purity of only 97.1 ± 0.4. It was found that the discrepancy could be identified as differences in selectivity during...

  15. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  17. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  18. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  19. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  20. Preserving high-purity 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan; Giaquinto, Joe; Canaan, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The MARC X Conference hosted a workshop for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233 U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only small portions of the U.S. holdings of separated 233 U are being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233 U (>97 % pure) still are destined to be disposed, and it is unlikely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein. (author)

  1. Noncommutative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupp, P.

    2007-01-01

    Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)

  2. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  3. Southern Africa Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...

  4. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  5. Almost purity for overconvergent Witt vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2015-01-01

     . Here, we use almost purity to lift the finite étale extension of R[p−1]R[p−1] to a finite étale extension of rings of overconvergent Witt vectors. The point is that no hypothesis of p-adic completeness is needed; this result thus points towards potential global analogues of p  -adic Hodge theory....... As an illustration, we construct (φ,Γ)(φ,Γ)-modules associated with Artin Motives over QQ. The (φ,Γ)(φ,Γ)-modules we construct are defined over a base ring which seems well-suited to generalization to a more global setting; we plan to pursue such generalizations in later work....

  6. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  7. Neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Verevkin, G.V.; Obrazovskij, E.G.; Shatskaya, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A scheme of neutron activation analysis of high purity tellurium is developed. Weighed amount of Te (0.5 g) is irradiated for 20-40 hr in the flux of 2x10 13 neutron/(cm 2 xs). After decomposition of the sample impurities of gold and palladium are determined by the extraction with organic sulphides. Tellurium separation from the remaining impurities is carried out by the extraction with monothiobenzoic acid from weakly acidic HCl solutions in the presence of iodide-ions, suppressing silver extraction. Remaining impurity elements in the refined product are determined γ-spectrometrically. The method allows to determine 34 impurities with determination limits 10 -6 -10 -11 g

  8. Helium gas purity monitor based on low frequency acoustic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Jacob, S.; Karunanithi, R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Monitoring gas purity is an important aspect of gas recovery stations where air is usually one of the major impurities. Purity monitors of Katherometric type are commercially available for this purpose. Alternatively, we discuss here a helium gas purity monitor based on acoustic resonance of a cavity at audio frequencies. It measures the purity by monitoring the resonant frequency of a cylindrical cavity filled with the gas under test and excited by conventional telephone transducers fixed at the ends. The use of the latter simplifies the design considerably. The paper discusses the details of the resonant cavity and the electronic circuit along with temperature compensation. The unit has been calibrated with helium gas of known purities. The unit has a response time of the order of 10 minutes and measures the gas purity to an accuracy of 0.02%. The unit has been installed in our helium recovery system and is found to perform satisfactorily.

  9. Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

  10. 104 evaluation of microbiological purity of some brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Microbiological purity, tetracycline, contaminants, bacterial load, fungal load, microbiological ... Just like food substances, pharmaceutical products .... Malaysia. Chlortetracycline a. Mar. 2005. Mar. 2008. Ghana b. Aug. 2005. Aug.

  11. Uncertainty estimates of purity measurements based on current information: toward a "live validation" of purity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Izydor; Kelner, Drew; Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Huang, Gang; Wypych, Jette; Zhang, Xin; Gastwirt, Jessica; Chen, Kenneth; Fodor, Szilan; Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Meriage, Dave; Ye, Frank; Poppe, Leszek; Szpankowski, Wojciech

    2012-12-01

    To predict precision and other performance characteristics of chromatographic purity methods, which represent the most widely used form of analysis in the biopharmaceutical industry. We have conducted a comprehensive survey of purity methods, and show that all performance characteristics fall within narrow measurement ranges. This observation was used to develop a model called Uncertainty Based on Current Information (UBCI), which expresses these performance characteristics as a function of the signal and noise levels, hardware specifications, and software settings. We applied the UCBI model to assess the uncertainty of purity measurements, and compared the results to those from conventional qualification. We demonstrated that the UBCI model is suitable to dynamically assess method performance characteristics, based on information extracted from individual chromatograms. The model provides an opportunity for streamlining qualification and validation studies by implementing a "live validation" of test results utilizing UBCI as a concurrent assessment of measurement uncertainty. Therefore, UBCI can potentially mitigate the challenges associated with laborious conventional method validation and facilitates the introduction of more advanced analytical technologies during the method lifecycle.

  12. Fashion Brand Purity and Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hui Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of prior empirical research and case studies used qualitative methodology to discuss the fashion brand dilution resulting from consumer base extension from the target group(s to the nontarget groups and its impacts. From a different perspective, this paper establishes a dynamic brand dilution and performance model, demonstrating how dynamic changes of sales volumes involving the two consumer groups affect the degree of brand dilution and the performance of the brand. We incorporate the factor “brand purity” to the model as a quantitative measure of brand dilution level that affects firm annual revenue and profit change comprehensively in iteration. Our model suggests that fashion brands, especially luxury brands, can be easily diluted under the pressure of firm growth, and the brands suffer the significant negative impact on their revenues and profit. While increasing sales volume can aggravate the negative consequences, brand purity can be increased through limiting the consumer base to the target group only.

  13. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  14. Growth of high purity semiconductor epitaxial layers by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiconductor materials in high purity form by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Various possible sources of impurities in such ... reference to the growth of GaAs layers. The technique of growing very high purity layers ... the inner walls of the gas lines and (e) the containers for storing, handling and cleaning of the mate-.

  15. Determination of continuous variable entanglement by purity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-02-27

    We classify the entanglement of two-mode Gaussian states according to their degree of total and partial mixedness. We derive exact bounds that determine maximally and minimally entangled states for fixed global and marginal purities. This characterization allows for an experimentally reliable estimate of continuous variable entanglement based on measurements of purity.

  16. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  17. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  18. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  19. Determination of isotopic purity in heavy water to suit process requirement (Preprint No. CA-15)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanthiah, W S.A.; Srinivasan, K; Usuf Ali, M C.M. [Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin (India)

    1989-04-01

    In hydrogen/ammonia based heavy water plants, a simple specific gravity determination of heavy water without any purification or thermostating has proved to be simple and easy. The accuracy is found to be well within +- 0.5% in the isotopic purity (I.P) range of 30 to 90% W/W. There are three main methods that can be adopted for determination of I.P in this range: (1)refractometry, (2) infrared spectrophotometry, and (3) pycnometry. Refractrometry requires thermostating and the practical accuracy attainable is +- 1.5% W/W. Infrared spectrophotometer has a reported accuracy/ precision of +- 0.4%. Pycnometric analysis is simple and requires much less expertise and most suited for plant analyses. An accuracy better than +- 0.5% is attained without giving any correction for buoyancy, weighing to accuracy +- 0.1 mg, measuring temperature +- 0.2degC and sample having pH upto 3. (author). 8 annexures.

  20. Quantum W3 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY

    1991-11-01

    We briefly review some results in the theory of quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge. We compare them with similar results in the analogous but simpler cases of d = 2 induced gauge theories and d = 2 induced gravity

  1. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  2. Cadiz, California Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...

  3. Andes 1997 Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...

  4. DNAG Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...

  5. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  6. Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...

  7. Idaho State Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  8. Strings and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, H.J. de

    1990-01-01

    One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)

  9. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  10. Geometric Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint

  11. Covariant w∞ gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.

  12. Induced quantum conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1988-11-01

    Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs

  13. Quantum Gravity Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"

  14. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  15. High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Chemical interaction of chalcogenides and some impurities (CS 2, TeO2 ) with the quartz glass at high temperature leads to the thin layers formation...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO1 1523 TITLE: High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides...Materials Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2001, p. 341 - 349 HIGH-PURITY GLASSES BASED ON ARSENIC CHALCOGENIDES M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S

  16. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  17. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  18. Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1983-01-01

    We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action

  19. Effect of phosphorus on hot ductility of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, K.; Liu, C.M.; Ichikawa, M..; Suenaga, H.; Tanino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Tensile tests on high purity Fe-P alloys with 0, 0.05 and 0.1 mass%P were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 1073 K to clarify the intrinsic effect of phosphorus on the mechanical properties of iron at elevated temperatures. Microstructures of as-quenched, interrupted and ruptured specimens were observed. Experimental results show that the addition of phosphorus causes a remarkable increase in proof stress of high purity iron at 300 K, but the increase in proof stress by phosphorus decreases with increasing test temperature. The strengthening effect of phosphorus reduces to zero at 1073 K. High purity iron and Fe-P alloys rupture at almost 100% reduction in area at the whole test temperatures. However, Fe-P alloys show much larger elongation at test temperatures above 773 K than high purity iron. The increased elongation of high purity iron by addition of phosphorus was shown to be related to the effect of phosphorus on dynamic recovery and recrystallization of iron as its intrinsic effect. (orig.)

  20. Lower dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant

  1. Gravity interpretation via EULDPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, V.

    2003-01-01

    Euler's homogeneity equation for determining the coordinates of the source body especially to estimate the depth (EULDPH) is discussed at this paper. This method is applied to synthetic and high-resolution real data such as gradiometric or microgravity data. Low-quality gravity data especially in the areas with a complex geology structure has rarely been used. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are computed from absolute gravity data after the required corrections. Bouguer anomaly is transferred to residual gravity anomaly. The gravity gradients are estimated from residual anomaly values. Bouguer anomaly is the gravity gradients, using EULDPH. The coordinates of the perturbing body will be determined. Two field examples one in the east of Tehran (Mard Abad) where we would like to determine the location of the anomaly (hydrocarbon) and another in the south-east of Iran close to the border with Afghanistan (Nosrat Abad) where we are exploring chromite are presented

  2. Thermal and electrical conductivities of high purity tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of three high purity tantalum samples have been measured as functions of temperature over a temperature range of 5K to 65K. Sample purities ranged up to a resistivity ratio of 1714. The highest purity sample had a residual resistivity of .76 x 10 -10 OMEGA-m. The intrinsic resistivity varied as T 3 . 9 from 10K to 31K. The thermal conductivity of the purest sample had a maximum of 840 W/mK at 9.8K. The intrinsic thermal resistivity varied as T 2 . 4 from 10K to 35K. At low temperatures electrons were scattered primarily by impurities and by phonons with both interband and intraband transitions observed. The electrical and thermal resistivity is departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures

  3. Anomalies and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2006-01-01

    Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed

  4. Purity and adulterant analysis of crack seizures in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, André R; Carvalho, Virginia M; Carvalho, Débora G; Diaz, Ernesto; Bustillos, Jose Oscar William Vega; Spinosa, Helenice de S; Chasin, Alice A M

    2014-10-01

    Cocaine represents a serious problem to society. Smoked cocaine is very addictive and it is frequently associated with violence and health issues. Knowledge of the purity and adulterants present in seized cocaine, as well as variations in drug characteristics are useful to identify drug source and estimate health impact. No data are available regarding smoked cocaine composition in most countries, and the smoked form is increasing in the Brazilian market. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the current knowledge on the status of crack cocaine seized samples on the illicit market by the police of São Paulo. Thus, 404 samples obtained from street seizures conducted by the police were examined. The specimens were macroscopically characterized by color, form, odor, purity, and adulterant type, as well as smoke composition. Samples were screened for cocaine using modified Scott test and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) technique. Analyses of purity and adulterants were performed with gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Additionally, smoke composition was analyzed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS), after samples burning. Samples showed different colors and forms, the majority of which is yellow (74.0%) or white (20.0%). Samples free of adulterants represented 76.3% of the total. Mean purity of the analyzed drug was 71.3%. Crack cocaine presented no correlations between macroscopic characteristics and purity. Smoke analysis showed compounds found also in the degradation of diesel and gasoline. Therefore, the drug marketed as crack cocaine in São Paulo has similar characteristics to coca paste. High purity can represent a greater risk of dependency and smoke compounds are possibly worsening drug health impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. influence of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Mukherjee

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.

  6. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  7. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  8. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosimo, S.J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S.; Lazarus, I.H.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-01-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array

  9. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  10. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  11. Development of high purity niobium material for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Koichi; Sakita, Kohei; Suzuki, Takafusa; Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi.

    1993-01-01

    For the superconducting niobium cavities, issues of thermal quench and field emission have to be solved to achieve a high field gradient (>25MV/m) for TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator). In order to overcome the quench, upgrading of thermal conductivity of niobium material at the low temperature is very important. On the reduction of the field emission not only dust particles but also defect, impurity and inhomogeneity should be considered. Therefore development of high purity niobium material is very important to solve these issues. This paper describes the our latest R and D for high purity niobium material. (author)

  12. Strengthening Purity: Moral Purity as a Mediator of Direct and Extended Cross-Group Friendships on Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Brambilla, Marco; Giovannini, Dino; Paolo Colucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether enhanced perceptions of moral purity drive the effects of intergroup cross-group friendships on the intentions to interact with homosexuals. High-school students (N = 639) reported their direct and extended cross-group friendships with homosexuals as well as their beliefs regarding the moral character of the sexual minority. Participants further reported their desire to interact with homosexuals in the future. Results showed that both face-to-face encounters and extended contact with homosexuals increased their perceived moral purity, which in turn fostered more positive behavioral intentions. Results further revealed the specific role of moral purity in this sense, as differential perceptions along other moral domains (autonomy and community) had no mediation effects on behavioral tendencies toward homosexuals. The importance of these findings for improving intergroup relations is discussed, together with the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact and morality.

  13. Evaluation of purity with its uncertainty value in high purity lead stick by conventional and electro-gravimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar; Singh, Niranjan; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Soni, Daya; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2013-06-26

    A conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry study has been carried out for the precise and accurate purity determination of lead (Pb) in high purity lead stick and for preparation of reference standard. Reference materials are standards containing a known amount of an analyte and provide a reference value to determine unknown concentrations or to calibrate analytical instruments. A stock solution of approximate 2 kg has been prepared after dissolving approximate 2 g of Pb stick in 5% ultra pure nitric acid. From the stock solution five replicates of approximate 50 g have been taken for determination of purity by each method. The Pb has been determined as PbSO4 by conventional gravimetry, as PbO2 by electro gravimetry. The percentage purity of the metallic Pb was calculated accordingly from PbSO4 and PbO2. On the basis of experimental observations it has been concluded that by conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry the purity of Pb was found to be 99.98 ± 0.24 and 99.97 ± 0.27 g/100 g and on the basis of Pb purity the concentration of reference standard solutions were found to be 1000.88 ± 2.44 and 1000.81 ± 2.68 mg kg-1 respectively with 95% confidence level (k = 2). The uncertainty evaluation has also been carried out in Pb determination following EURACHEM/GUM guidelines. The final analytical results quantifying uncertainty fulfills this requirement and gives a measure of the confidence level of the concerned laboratory. Gravimetry is the most reliable technique in comparison to titremetry and instrumental method and the results of gravimetry are directly traceable to SI unit. Gravimetric analysis, if methods are followed carefully, provides for exceedingly precise analysis. In classical gravimetry the major uncertainties are due to repeatability but in electro-gravimetry several other factors also affect the final results.

  14. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  15. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  16. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  17. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Concha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a

  19. Construction, assembling and operation of an equipment for sodium purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquart, E.T.; Botbol, J.; Echenique, P.N.; Fruchtenicht, F.W.; Gil, D.A.; Perillo, P.; Vardich, R.N.; Vigo, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the production of high purity metallic sodium for bench-scale, research studies. A stainless steel equipment was built and assembled, including high vacuum, heating and cooling systems. It was satisfactorily operated in two successive steps, filtration and vacuum distillation, with a good yield. (Author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Monitoring the Microbial Purity of the Treated Water and Dialysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaud Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysate purity has become a major concern in recent years since it has been proven that contamination of dialysate is able to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines, putatively implicated in the development of dialysis related pathology. In order to reduce this risk, it is advised to use ultrapure dialysate as a new standard of dialysate purity. Ultrapure dialysate preparation may be easily achieved with modern water treatment technologies. The reliable production of ultrapure dialysate requires several prerequisites: use of ultrapure water, use of clean electrolytic concentrates, implementation of ultrafilters in the dialysate pathway to ensure cold sterilization of the fresh dialysate. The regular supply with such high-grade purity dialysate relies on predefined microbiological monitoring of the chain using adequate and sensitive methods, and hygienic handling including frequent disinfection to reduce the level of contamination and to prevent biofilm formation. Reliability of this process requires compliance with a very strict quality assurance process. In this paper, we summarized the principles of the dialysate purity monitoring and the criteria used for surveillance in order to establish good antimicrobial practices in dialysis.

  1. High purity in steels as a criterion for materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, H.

    1995-01-01

    This summarizing report discusses the materials and application prospects for higher purity in steels, which will make possible further advances in materials behaviour and workability. Improvements in purity and homogeneity permit in particular more rational production of thin foils and wire, one-piece shaping of complicated bodywork components and the drawing, wall-ironing and flanging of two-piece beverage cans. Welded designs in plant and mechanical engineering can be fabricated with less effort and less weight. Difficult component geometries and shaping processes can be more easily mastered. Steels with optimized fracture toughness can be exposed to more extreme loads at even lower temperatures: applications worthy of mention include offshore engineering and large-diameter linepipes for use in arctic regions and at great underwater depths. Liquefied-gas transport vessels can be made more resistant to brittle rupture. The bending fatigue strength and service-life of valve-spring and rolling-bearing steels can be significantly increased. High-purity surfaces on piston rods and cylinders guarantee reliability in hydraulic systems, and high-purity calendering rolls permit defect-free embossing of paper surfaces. (orig.)

  2. High purity hydrogen production system by the PSA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    In a process developed by Nippon Steel, coke oven gas is compressed and purified of tarry matter, sulphur compounds and gum-formers by adsorption. It is then passed through a three-tower pressure-swing adsorption system to recover hydrogen whose purity can be selected in the range 99 to 99.999%. A composite adsorption agent is used.

  3. High purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide nuclear radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.

    1991-11-01

    Surface barrier radiation detector made from high purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide wafers have been operated as X- and γ-ray detectors at various operating temperatures. Low energy isotopes are resolved including 241 Am at 40 deg C. and the higher gamma energies of 235 U at -80 deg C. 15 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  4. Purity of potassium iodide necessary for its use in phasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, B R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-08-16

    The purity requirements in KI crystals are discussed necessary to have longer lifetimes of phonons for its use in phasers. The main contribution to the phonon scattering at low temperatures arises from the scattering by natural isotopes (/sup 39/K, /sup 40/K, /sup 41/K, /sup 127/I).

  5. Surface passivation of high purity granular metals: zinc, cadmium, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirozhenko L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the high purity metals (99.9999%, such as zinc, cadmium, and lead, which are widely used as initial components in growing semiconductor and scintillation crystals (CdTe, CdZnTe, ZnSe, (Cd, Zn, Pb WO4, (Cd, Zn, Pb MoO4 et al., it is very important to ensure reliable protection of the surface from oxidation and adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere. The specific features of surface passivation of high purity cadmium, lead and zinc are not sufficiently studied and require specific methodologies for further studies. The use of organic solutions in the schemes of chemical passivation of the investigated metals avoids hydrolysis of the obtained protective films. The use of organic solvents with pure cation and anion composition as the washing liquid prevents chemisorption of ions present in the conventionally used distilled water. This keeps the original purity of the granular metals. Novel compositions of etchants and etching scheme providing simultaneous polishing and passivation of high purity granular Zn, Cd and Pb are developed. Chemical passivation allows storing metals in the normal atmospheric conditions for more than half a year for Zn and Cd and up to 30 days for Pb without changing the state of the surface. The use of the glycerol-DMF solution in the processes for obtaining Pb granules provides self-passivation of metal surfaces and eliminates the additional chemical processing while maintaining the quality of corrosion protection.

  6. Purity Evaluation of Bulk Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Hornbostel, B.; Cech, J.; Roth, S.; Wang, J.; Liang, J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our experience using a preliminary protocol for quality control of bulk single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) materials produced by the electric arc-discharge and laser ablation method. The first step in the characterization of the bulk material is mechanical homogenization. Quantitative evaluation of purity has been performed using a previously reported procedure based on solution phase near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results confirm that this method is reliable in determining the nanotube content in the arc-discharge sample containing carbonaceous impurities (amorphous carbon and graphitic particles). However, the application of this method to laser ablation samples gives a relative purity value over 100 %. The possible reason for that might be different extinction coefficient meaning different oscillator strength of the laser ablation tubes. At the present time, a 100 % pure reference sample of laser ablation SWNT is not available, so we chose to adopt the sample showing the highest purity as a new reference sample for a quantitative purity evaluation of laser ablation materials. The graphitic part of the carbonaceous impurities has been estimated using X-ray diffraction of 1:1 mixture of nanotube material and C60 as an internal reference. To evaluate the metallic impurities in the as prepared and homogenized carbon nanotube soot inductive coupled plasma (ICP) has been used

  7. Pressure-assisted sintering of high purity barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Cruijsem, S.; Varst, van der P.G.T.; With, de G.; Bortzmeyer, D.; Boussuge, M.; Chartier, Th.; Hausonne, J.M.; Mocellin, A.; Rousset, A.; Thevenot, F.

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of High Purity Barium titanate (HPB) ceramics is strongly dependent on the grain size and porosity. For applications, control of grain size and porosity is required. Pressure-assisted sintering techniques at relatively low temperatures meet these requirements. In this study,

  8. Isolation of high purity americium metal via distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Leah N.; King, James A.; Fielding, Randall S.; Lessing, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Pure americium metal is a crucial component for the fabrication of transmutation fuels. Unfortunately, americium in pure metal form is not available; however, a number of mixed metals and mixed oxides that include americium are available. In this manuscript a method is described to obtain high purity americium metal from a mixture of americium and neptunium metals with lead impurity via distillation.

  9. Improved methods to determine radionuclidic purity of F-18 compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Micheelsen, Mille Ankerstjerne; Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Current revisions of monographs for F-18 pharmaceuticals in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) (Ph. Eur., 2011) call for a radionuclidic purity (RNP) of or better than 99.9%. However, the current method is not sufficient nor effective for testing this required RNP level. We present a theoretical...

  10. Lattice gravity and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.

    1985-01-01

    We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)

  11. The Future of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.

  12. Scaling in quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ambjørn

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.

  13. Event timing in high purity germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The timing of gamma ray radiation in systems using high purity coaxial germanium detectors is analyzed and compared to that of systems using Ge(Li) detectors. The analysis takes into account the effect of the residual impurities on the electric field distribution, and hence on the rate of rise of the electrical pulses delivered to the timing module. Conditions under which the electric field distribution could lead to an improvement in timing performance, are identified. The results of the analysis confirm the experimental results published elsewhere and when compared with those for Ge(Li) detectors, which usually operate under conditions of charge carrier velocity saturation, confirm that high purity germanium detectors need not have inferior timing characteristics. A chart is given to provide a quantitative basis on which the trade off between the radius of the detector and its time resolution may be made

  14. Policosanol extraction from beeswax and improvement of the purity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisaipet Anakhaorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policosanol is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic long chain alcohols (20-36 carbon atoms. It has been use in pharmaceutical composition and food supplements. This research aimed to isolate and improve the purity of policosanol extracted from beeswax. Triglycerides and other impurities were eliminated from beeswax by refluxing with hexane followed by isopropanol. The purified beeswax was hydrolyzed by refluxing with 1 M ethanolic NaOH for 2 hours. Purification of policosanol was performed by extracting the hydrolyzed product with acetone at 50-60 °C for 3 hours and it was stored at 4 °C for precipitation. The precipitate was refluxed with heptanes followed by washing with hot water. The heptanes layer was kept for policosanol precipitation at 4 °C. The purity of policosanol was confirmed by TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The yield of purified policosanol was 13.23-13.89 %.

  15. The Research about Preparation of High Purity Hexachlorodisilane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ye; Zhao, Xiong; Yan, Dazhou; Zhao, Yu; Guo, Shuhu; Wang, Lei; Yang, Dian

    2017-12-01

    This article demonstrated a technology for producing high purity hexachlorodisilane what is one raw material of Semiconductor industry, which using the method of combination adsorption with rectification, whose material was from polysilicon residues of polysilicon company. This technology could remove most high boiling points chloro-silicane impurities and metal impurities effectively. The purity of Si2Cl6 produced by this technology can be up to 99.9%, the content of metal impurities can be low at 4ppb, which can meet the requirement of industy using completely. The technology extends the routes of Si2Cl6 in localization, having the advantages of simple process, continuous operation, and large capacity and so on.

  16. Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

    1981-10-01

    High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10 15 cm -3 has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium β-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H 2 with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10 7 cm -3 and are estimated to contain 10 8 H atoms each

  17. High purity zirconium obtainment through the iodine compounds transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolcich, J.C.; Zuzek, E.; Dutrus, S.M.; Corso, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental method and the equipment designed, constructed and actually applied for the high purity zirconium obtainment from a zirconium sponge of the nuclear type. The mechanism of purification is based on the impure metal attack with gaseous iodine (at 200 deg C) to obtain zirconium tetra iodine as main product which is then transformed into a pure zirconium base (at 1000-1300 deg C), precipitating the metallic zirconium and releasing the gaseous iodine. From the first experiences carried out, pure zirconium has been obtained from an initial filament of 0.5 mm of diameter as well as wires up to 2.5 mm of diameter. This work presents the results from the studies and analysis made to characterize the material obtained. Finally, the refining methods to which the zirconium produced may be submitted so as to optimize the final purity are discussed. (Author)

  18. Recovery of high-purity hydrogen from COG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Y

    1982-01-01

    A general account of the latest trends in the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas (COG), the article being based on both Japanese and overseas literature: 1) Deep-freeze separation: impurities are liquefied and removed. This method make use of the fact that hydrogen is hard to liquefy. 2) The PSA method: high-purity hydrogen is recovered by the adsorption of other constituents at high pressures. This technique makes use of the fact that the adsorption capacity of an adsorbent varies with the partial pressure of the substances being adsorbed. 3) Membrane separation: a permeation separation method that uses a functional polymer separation membrane, and that depends on the fact that hydrogen has a low molecular weight in comparison with the other constituents. (19 refs.) (In Japanese)

  19. Electrophoresis for the analysis of heparin purity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Suwan, Jiraporn; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007-2008 produced a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional methods for the analysis of heparin purity. As a consequence, a wide variety of innovative analytical approaches have been developed for the quality assurance and purity of unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. This review discusses recent developments in electrophoresis techniques available for the sensitive separation, detection, and partial structural characterization of heparin contaminants. In particular, this review summarizes recent publications on heparin quality and related impurity analysis using electrophoretic separations such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) of intact polysaccharides and hexosamines derived from their acidic hydrolysis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the separation of heparin samples without and in the presence of its relatively specific depolymerization process with nitrous acid treatment. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Gravity Data for Egypt

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...

  1. New massive gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.

  2. DMA Antarctic Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...

  3. Gravity Data for Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...

  4. Stability in designer gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertog, Thomas; Hollands, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    We study the stability of designer gravity theories, in which one considers gravity coupled to a tachyonic scalar with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. We construct Hamiltonian generators of the asymptotic symmetries using the covariant phase space method of Wald et al and find that they differ from the spinor charges except when W = 0. The positivity of the spinor charge is used to establish a lower bound on the conserved energy of any solution that satisfies boundary conditions for which W has a global minimum. A large class of designer gravity theories therefore have a stable ground state, which the AdS/CFT correspondence indicates should be the lowest energy soliton. We make progress towards proving this by showing that minimum energy solutions are static. The generalization of our results to designer gravity theories in higher dimensions involving several tachyonic scalars is discussed

  5. Carroll versus Galilei gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-30

    We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.

  6. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday

  7. Preparation of high-purity zirconium dioxide from baddeleyite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikov, N.B.; Skiba, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of baddeleyite concentrate with calcium oxide and calcium chloride in the process of caking is studied. The influence of grain size on calcium zirconate formation is tested. Conditions for cake leaching by hydrochloric acid and zirconium(4) oxychloride purification from calcium and silicon compounds by recrystallization are reported. Zirconium dioxide corresponding to specifications (6-2 special purity) is obtained with a high (more than 90%) chemical yield. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Demands made on high-purity copper for special purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettges, D.

    1977-01-01

    The properties (electrical resistivity, residual impurities) of high-purity copper produced on a technical scale are reported as well as its practical applications. The paper discusses a high-oxygen copper (SV) with low residual resistivity at low temperatures and an oxygen-free (hydrogen-stable) copper (BE electronic) with low gas content. The SV quality has been specially developed for use as stabilizer in superconductors while the BE quality is used in high and ultrahigh vacuum. (GSC) [de

  9. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  10. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  11. Synthesis of High Purity Nonsymmetric Dialkylphosphinic Acid Extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlian; Xie, Meiying; Liu, Xinyu; Xu, Shengming

    2017-10-19

    We present the synthesis of (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid as an example to demonstrate a method for the synthesis of high purity nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid extractants. Low toxic sodium hypophosphite was chosen as the phosphorus source to react with olefin A (2,3-dimethyl-1-butene) to generate a monoalkylphosphinic acid intermediate. Amantadine was adopted to remove the dialkylphosphinic acid byproduct, as only the monoalkylphosphinic acid can react with amantadine to form an amantadine∙mono-alkylphosphinic acid salt, while the dialkylphosphinic acid cannot react with amantadine due to its large steric hindrance. The purified monoalkylphosphinic acid was then reacted with olefin B (diisobutylene) to yield nonsymmetric dialkylphosphinic acid (NSDAPA). The unreacted monoalkylphosphinic acid can be easily removed by a simple base-acid post-treatment and other organic impurities can be separated out through the precipitation of the cobalt salt. The structure of the (2,3-dimethylbutyl)(2,4,4'-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was confirmed by 31 P NMR, 1 H NMR, ESI-MS, and FT-IR. The purity was determined by a potentiometric titration method, and the results indicate that the purity can exceed 96%.

  12. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVA) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. Measurement of oxygen purity above 99.5% is problematic, and currently only complex instruments such as gas chromatographs or mass spectrometers are used for these determinations. Because liquid oxygen boil-off from the space shuttle will no longer be available to supply oxygen for EVA use, other concepts are being developed to produce and validate high purity oxygen from cabin air aboard the International Space Station. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen was developed at White Sands Test Facility. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. System design and optimized measurement parameters are presented.

  13. On the purity assessment of solid sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botasini, Santiago; Méndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Since sodium borohydride has become extensively used as chemical hydrogen storage material in fuel cells, many techniques have been proposed to assess the purity of this substance. However, all of them are developed in aqueous media, where the reagent is unstable. In addition, its hygroscopic nature was difficults in any attempt to make precise quantifications. The present work compares three different methods, namely, voltammetric, titrimetric, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to assess the purity of sodium borohydride, using an expired and a new sodium borohydride samples as references. Our results show that only the FTIR measurements provide a simple and semi-quantitative means to assess the purity of sodium borohydride due to the fact that it is the only one that measures the sample in the solid state. A comparison between the experimental data and theoretical calculation reveals the identification of the absorption bands at 1437 cm-1 of sodium metaborate and 2291 cm-1 of sodium borohydride which represent a good fingerprint for the qualitative assessment of the sample quality.

  14. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  15. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  16. What Is Gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George

    2004-01-01

    Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…

  17. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  18. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  19. Extended Theories of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2011-01-01

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  20. 7 CFR 201.51b - Purity procedures for coated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.51b Purity...). Use of fine mesh sieves is recommended for this procedure, and stirring or shaking the coated units...

  1. Determination of isotopic purity in heavy water to suit process requirement (Preprint No. CA-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanthiah, W.S.A.; Srinivasan, K.; Usuf Ali, M.C.M.

    1989-04-01

    In hydrogen/ammonia based heavy water plants, a simple specific gravity determination of heavy water without any purification or thermostating has proved to be simple and easy. The accuracy is found to be well within ± 0.5% in the isotopic purity (I.P) range of 30 to 90% W/W. There are three main methods that can be adopted for determination of I.P in this range: (1)refractometry, (2) infrared spectrophotometry, and (3) pycnometry. Refractrometry requires thermostating and the practical accuracy attainable is ± 1.5% W/W. Infrared spectrophotometer has a reported accuracy/ precision of ± 0.4%. Pycnometric analysis is simple and requires much less expertise and most suited for plant analyses. An accuracy better than ± 0.5% is attained without giving any correction for buoyancy, weighing to accuracy ± 0.1 mg, measuring temperature ± 0.2degC and sample having pH upto 3. (author). 8 annexures

  2. Analysis the parameters of seed quality in ns sunflower hybrid after processing in gravity separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad before and after processing in gravity separator. The cultivars were Pegaz, Duško, NS Fantazija, Sumo 1 PR and NS Oskar. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed in 2015 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1.000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of sclerotinia per 1.000. The results showed that all the parameters of seed quality of sunflower hybrids were better after processing seeds in the gravity separator.

  3. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A.; Pedreira, Walter dos R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd 2 O 3 in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in μg g -1 : Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  4. Polarimetric purity and the concept of degree of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, José J.; Norrman, Andreas; Friberg, Ari T.; Setälä, Tero

    2018-02-01

    The concept of degree of polarization for electromagnetic waves, in its general three-dimensional version, is revisited in the light of the implications of the recent findings on the structure of polarimetric purity and of the existence of nonregular states of polarization [J. J. Gil et al., Phys Rev. A 95, 053856 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.053856]. From the analysis of the characteristic decomposition of a polarization matrix R into an incoherent convex combination of (1) a pure state Rp, (2) a middle state Rm given by an equiprobable mixture of two eigenstates of R, and (3) a fully unpolarized state Ru -3 D, it is found that, in general, Rm exhibits nonzero circular and linear degrees of polarization. Therefore, the degrees of linear and circular polarization of R cannot always be assigned to the single totally polarized component Rp. It is shown that the parameter P3 D proposed formerly by Samson [J. C. Samson, Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 34, 403 (1973), 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1973.tb02404.x] takes into account, in a proper and objective form, all the contributions to polarimetric purity, namely, the contributions to the linear and circular degrees of polarization of R as well as to the stability of the plane containing its polarization ellipse. Consequently, P3 D constitutes a natural representative of the degree of polarimetric purity. Some implications for the common convention for the concept of two-dimensional degree of polarization are also analyzed and discussed.

  5. Process for the production of high purity deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrathoon, R.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the electrolysis of heavy water which results in the production of high purity deuterium without periodic replenishment of the electrolyte with additional deuterated compounds is defined. Electrolysis is effected through the use of an inexpensive cation-action permselective membrane which is essentially a solid polymer electrolyte and which is capable of automatically separating the evolved deuterium and oxygen gas. This cation-active permselective membrane does not introduce any intrinsic impurities or tritium contamination in the generated deuterium gas, does not require periodic revitalization with deuterated compounds or other chemical compounds, and is characterized by an unusually high electrical efficiency

  6. Shock loading influence on mechanical behavior of high purity iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buy, Francois; Voltz, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the analysis of shock wave effects for high purity iron. The method developed is based on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of as received and shocked material. Shock effect is generated through plate impact tests performed in the range of 4 GPa to 39 GPa on a single stage light gas gun or a powder gun. Therefore, as-received and impacted materials are characterized. A formalism proposed by J.R.Klepaczko and based on physical relations has been adopted to describe stress strain curves

  7. Neutron activation analysis of high-purity zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhamberdyeva, A.A.; Usmanova, M.M.; Gil'bert, Eh.N.; Ivanov, I.M.; Yankovskaya, T.A.; Kholyavko, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation analysis of high-purity zinc with preliminary separation of the zinc base using extraction by trialkylbenzylammonium rhodanide in carbon tetrachloride from 0.5-2.0 M nitric acid solutions is developed. Only rhenium is quantitatively extracted together with zinc. Gold, iridium and molybdenum are extracted to 50-60%, and selenium - to 20%. The Na, K, La, Cr, Sc, Co, Cs, Rb, Fe, Zr, Sn, Te, As, Cd, Hf, W, Sb, Sm impurities remain in the aqueous phase. The methods permits to determine the impurities above with detection limits from 1x10 -6 to 4x10 -11 g

  8. The ion-exchange obtaining of high purity samarium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzyska, W.; Soltysiak, I.; Cygan, J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of lactic acid - EDTA mixture as an eluent for the obtaining of high purity samarium oxide was studied. The studies were carried out at room temperature on cation exchange resin Wofatit KPS X 8. The best results were obtained for lactic acid (0,26 mol/dm 3 ) - EDTA (0,013 mol/dm 3 ) mixture at pH 3,3. As the result of 57% samarium concentrate elution with column load 1:3 and flow rate 0,4 cm/min, over 99% pure samarium oxide with 73% yield has been obtained. The yield of spectrally pure Sm 2 O 3 exceeded 45%. (author)

  9. Release characteristics of tritium from high-purity lithium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of tritium release from neutronirradiated lithium oxide were determined from isothermal release experiments. High-purity, monocrystalline lithium oxide was purged ex-reactor with helium and helium-hydrogen gas streams. Overall release was found to be controlled by solid-phase diffusion, and was predominantly in the form of condensible species. The result of an independent concentration profile analysis at 923 K was in agreement with the gas release diffusion coefficient. Sweeping the Li 2 O with hydrogen-containing gas was found to enhance tritium removal during the early stage of each run

  10. Initial Stages of Recrystallization in Aluminum of Commercial Purity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Bay, Bent

    1979-01-01

    In commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct, the formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei were studied by techniques such asin-situ annealing in a high voltage electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (370...... by the FeAl3 particles present in the commercial aluminum as impurities. The nucleation temperatures determined by high voltage electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy decrease markedly when the initial grain size is decreased both after 50 and 90 pct cold rolling; a less pronounced...

  11. Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N

    2004-01-01

    Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)

  12. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Persano

    2016-01-01

    ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States) nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ ...

  13. Quantum Gravity Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.

  14. Gravity and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Ortín, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.

  15. Solitons in Newtonian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the plane-wave solutions for the equations governing the motion of a self-gravitating isothermal fluid in Newtonian hydrodynamics are generated by a sine-Gordon equation which is solvable by an 'inverse scattering' transformation. A transformation procedure is outlined by means of which one can construct solutions of the gravity system out of a pair of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, which are interrelated via an auto-Baecklund transformation. In general the solutions to the gravity system are obtained in a parametric representation in terms of characteristic coordinates. All solutions of the gravity system generated by the one-and two-soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation can be constructed explicitly. These might provide models for the evolution of flat structures as they are predicted to arise in the process of galaxy formation. (author)

  16. Stochastic quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1987-01-01

    We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)

  17. No slip gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2018-03-01

    A subclass of the Horndeski modified gravity theory we call No Slip Gravity has particularly interesting properties: 1) a speed of gravitational wave propagation equal to the speed of light, 2) equality between the effective gravitational coupling strengths to matter and light, Gmatter and Glight, hence no slip between the metric potentials, yet difference from Newton's constant, and 3) suppressed growth to give better agreement with galaxy clustering observations. We explore the characteristics and implications of this theory, and project observational constraints. We also give a simple expression for the ratio of the gravitational wave standard siren distance to the photon standard candle distance, in this theory and others, and enable a direct comparison of modified gravity in structure growth and in gravitational waves, an important crosscheck.

  18. The quantization of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  1. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN08 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2016 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  2. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CN02 (2013 & 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...

  3. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  4. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...

  5. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  6. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES01 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...

  7. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-05-14

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.

  8. Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.

    2016-12-01

    Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.

  9. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  10. Towards a quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, B.; Barrau, A.; Vidotto, F.; Le Meur, H.; Noui, K.

    2011-01-01

    The loop quantum gravity is the only theory that proposes a quantum description of space-time and therefore of gravitation. This theory predicts that space is not infinitely divisible but that is has a granular structure at the Planck scale (10 -35 m). Another feature of loop quantum gravity is that it gets rid of the Big-Bang singularity: our expanding universe may come from the bouncing of a previous contracting universe, in this theory the Big-Bang is replaced with a big bounce. The loop quantum theory predicts also the huge number of quantum states that accounts for the entropy of large black holes. (A.C.)

  11. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  12. High purity samarium oxide from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da S.; Seneda, Jose A.; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Pedreira Filho, Walter dos R.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for the production of highly pure samarium oxides is discussed. The raw material, which was used in the form of rare earth carbonates was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography was performed using a strong cationic resin that is typically employed in water treatment processes to fractionate rare earth elements (REE) without the use of retention ions. Under these conditions, 99.9% pure Sm 2 O 3 was eluted using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at a controlled pH. The EDTA-samarium complex was separated from EDTA and then precipitated as oxalate and fired to samarium oxide. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the samarium content during the proposed process, and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the samarium oxide. Typical samarium oxide obtained from the proposed procedure contained the following contaminants in micrograms per gram: Sc (20.90); Y (11.80); La (8.4); Ce (4.3); Pr (2.5); Nd (5.1); Eu (94); Gd (114); Tb (3.6); Dy (2.5), Ho (2.3); Er (3.0); Tm (2.3); Yb (38,2); Lu (25.6). The high-purity samarium oxides produced in the present study can be used as an alternative to imported products in research and development applications. (author)

  13. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  14. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  15. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria; Guimarães, Rogério Contato; Ribas, Rogério Marques; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins; Menezes, Andréia Duarte; Fridman, Daniel Pallos; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-01-01

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient

  16. A Cultural Look at Moral Purity: Wiping the Face Clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike W. S. eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morality is associated with bodily purity in the custom of many societies. Does that imply moral purity is a universal psychological phenomenon? Empirically, it has never been examined, as all prior experimental data came from Western samples. Theoretically, we suggest the answer is not so straightforward—it depends on the kind of universality under consideration. Combining perspectives from cultural psychology and embodiment, we predict a culture-specific form of moral purification. Specifically, given East Asians’ emphasis on the face as a representation of public self-image, we hypothesize that facial purification should have particularly potent moral effects in a face culture. Data show that face-cleaning (but not hands-cleaning reduces guilt and regret most effectively against a salient East Asian cultural background. It frees East Asians from guilt-driven prosocial behavior. In the wake of their immorality, they find a face-cleaning product especially appealing and spontaneously choose to wipe their face clean. These patterns highlight both culturally variable and universal aspects of moral purification. They further suggest an organizing principle that informs the vigorous debate between embodied and amodal perspectives.

  17. Gravity Data for South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (152,624 records) were compiled by the University of Texas at Dallas. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters...

  18. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  19. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  20. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  1. Massive Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, F. F.

    2014-01-01

    We construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depends on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and analyze its weak-field approximation and Newtonian limit.

  2. Colossal creations of gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skielboe, Andreas

    Gravity governs the evolution of the universe on the largest scales, and powers some of the most extreme objects at the centers of galaxies. Determining the masses and kinematics of galaxy clusters provides essential constraints on the large-scale structure of the universe, and act as direct probes...

  3. A Trick of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.

  4. Discrete Lorentzian quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loll, R.

    2000-01-01

    Just as for non-abelian gauge theories at strong coupling, discrete lattice methods are a natural tool in the study of non-perturbative quantum gravity. They have to reflect the fact that the geometric degrees of freedom are dynamical, and that therefore also the lattice theory must be formulated

  5. Loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Loop quantum gravity is one of the approaches that are being studied to apply the rules of quantum mechanics to the gravitational field described by the theory of General Relativity . We present an introductory summary of the main ideas and recent results. (Author)

  6. A finite quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, A.

    1984-05-01

    In case the graviton has a very small non-zero mass, the existence of six additional massive gravitons with very big masses leads to a finite quantum gravity. There is an acausal behaviour on the scales that is determined by the masses of additional gravitons. (author)

  7. Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

  8. Torsion induces gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Contreras, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    In this work the Poincare-Chern-Simons and anti-de Sitter-Chern-Simons gravities are studied. For both, a solution that can be cast as a black hole with manifest torsion is found. Those solutions resemble Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-AdS solutions, respectively

  9. Discrete quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief introduction to Regge calculus, some examples of its application is quantum gravity are described in this paper. In particular, the earliest such application, by Ponzano and Regge, is discussed in some detail and it is shown how this leads naturally to current work on invariants of three-manifolds

  10. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Research in loop quantum gravity today forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained are: (i The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematically well-defined realization of Wheeler's intuition of a spacetime ``foam''. Long standing open problems within the approach (lack of a scalar product, over-completeness of the loop basis, implementation of reality conditions have been fully solved. The weak part of the approach is the treatment of the dynamics: at present there exist several proposals, which are intensely debated. Here, I provide a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  11. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Je-An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  12. Even-dimensional topological gravity from Chern-Simons gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, N.; Perez, A.; Salgado, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the topological action for gravity in 2n-dimensions can be obtained from the (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity genuinely invariant under the Poincare group. The 2n-dimensional topological gravity is described by the dynamics of the boundary of a (2n+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gravity theory with suitable boundary conditions. The field φ a , which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).

  13. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  14. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  15. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high-purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.; Riehm, M.P.; Thompson, D.A.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. Using multilayer permeation theory the effects of surface oxide were eliminated and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 =6.7x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =28.4 kJ/mol. For the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 =8.0x10 -9 m 2 /s and E D =35.1 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  16. Deuterium permeation and diffusion in high purity beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.

    1990-05-01

    The permeation rate of deuterium through high-purity beryllium membranes was measured using the gas-driven permeation technique. The time-dependent and the steady-state deuterium flux data were analyzed and the effective diffusivities of the samples were determined. A multilayer permeation theory was used in order to eliminate the surface oxide effects and the diffusion coefficients of the bulk beryllium were determined. The diffusion parameters obtained for the extra-grade beryllium samples (99.8%) are D 0 = 6.7 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 28.4 [KJ/mol]; and for the high-grade beryllium samples (99%) the parameters are D 0 = 8.0 x 10 -9 [m 2 /s] and E D = 35.1 [KJ/mol

  17. Preparation of high purity yttrium single crystals by electrotransport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.T.; Nikiforova, T.V.; Ionov, A.M.; Pustovit, A.N.; Sikharulidse, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining yttrium crystals of high purity by the method of solid state electrotransport (SSE) was investigated in the present work. The behaviour of low contents of iron, aluminium, silicon, tantalum, copper, silver and vanadium as metallic impurities was studied using mass spectrometry. It is shown that all the impurities investigated, except copper, migrate to the anode. During electrotransfer a purification with respect to these impurities by a factor of 4 - 6 is obtained. It is proposed that the diffusion coefficients of the metallic impurities investigated are anomalously high and that the behaviour of the impurities during SSE in adapters necessitates further investigation. By using a three-stage process with intermediate removal of the anode end yttrium single crystals with a resistance ratio rho 293 /rhosub(4.2)=570 were produced. (Auth.)

  18. TIGRESS highly-segmented high-purity germanium clover detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scraggs, H. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Hackman, G.; Smith, M. B.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Boston, A. J.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Cowan, N.; Cronkhite, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.; Zimmerman, L.

    2005-05-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) will consist of twelve units of four high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals in a common cryostat. The outer contacts of each crystal will be divided into four quadrants and two lateral segments for a total of eight outer contacts. The performance of a prototype HPGe four-crystal unit has been investigated. Integrated noise spectra for all contacts were measured. Energy resolutions, relative efficiencies for both individual crystals and for the entire unit, and peak-to-total ratios were measured with point-like sources. Position-dependent performance was measured by moving a collimated source across the face of the detector.

  19. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  20. A study of Cirus heavy water system isotopic purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Shibu; Sahu, A.K.; Unni, V.K.P.; Pant, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cirus uses heavy water as moderator and helium as cover gas. Approximately one tonne of heavy water was added to the system every year for routine make up. Isotopic purity (IP) of this water used for addition was always higher than that of the system. Though this should increase IP of heavy water in the system, it has remained almost at the same level, over the years. A study was carried out to estimate the extent of improvement in IP of heavy water in the system that should have occurred because of this and other factors in last 30 years. Reasons for non-occurrence of such an improvement were explored. Ion exchange resins used for purification of heavy water and air ingress into helium cover gas system appear to be the principal sources of entry of light water into heavy water system. (author)

  1. Precipitation of hydrides in high purity niobium after different treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkov, F.; Romanenko, A.; Trenikhina, Y.; Grassellino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation of lossy non-superconducting niobium hydrides represents a known problem for high purity niobium in superconducting applications. Using cryogenic optical and laser confocal scanning microscopy we have directly observed surface precipitation and evolution of niobium hydrides in samples after different treatments used for superconducting RF cavities for particle acceleration. Precipitation is shown to occur throughout the sample volume, and the growth of hydrides is well described by the fast diffusion-controlled process in which almost all hydrogen is precipitated at $T=140$~K within $\\sim30$~min. 120$^{\\circ}$C baking and mechanical deformation are found to affect hydride precipitation through their influence on the number of nucleation and trapping centers.

  2. Investigation of sulphides in iron alloys of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyjadlowski, T.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the morphology and composition of sulphides in iron alloys with respect to metal composition and to the nature of impurities. In order to understand the specific action of each addition on inclusion morphology, this work has started with high-purity alloys (binary alloys and then ternary alloys). The author studied whether solubility variations would entail either intergranular or intragranular or hybrid iron sulphide precipitation. He examined whether sulphide morphology is depending on thermal treatment, and whether equilibrium precipitates were different in terms of morphology and composition at high and room temperature. He studied the influence of addition elements on sulphide morphology and composition, an important issue as some elements may reduce brittleness. These elements are classified in terms of affinity with sulphur

  3. Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungjai; Yang, Hyunseok

    2014-01-01

    We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.

  4. Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jungjai [Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyunseok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.

  5. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  6. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia; Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U.; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y.; Mayén-Hernández, S.A.; Hu, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb_2S_3 were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb_2S_3 can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb_2S_3 were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb_2S_3 with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb_2S_3 obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb_2S_3 microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb_2S_3 microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb_2S_3 nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb_2S_3 nanorods.

  7. The gravity field and GGOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...

  8. Purity of Gaussian states: Measurement schemes and time evolution in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Matteo G.A.; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Serafini, Alessio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme are tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and in squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state

  9. Cosmological Tests of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.

  10. The relativistic gravity train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Max

    2018-05-01

    The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.

  11. Antimatter gravity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development

  12. Lectures on Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gomberoff, Andres

    2006-01-01

    The 2002 Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute School on Quantum Gravity was held at the Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS),Valdivia, Chile, January 4-14, 2002. The school featured lectures by ten speakers, and was attended by nearly 70 students from over 14 countries. A primary goal was to foster interaction and communication between participants from different cultures, both in the layman’s sense of the term and in terms of approaches to quantum gravity. We hope that the links formed by students and the school will persist throughout their professional lives, continuing to promote interaction and the essential exchange of ideas that drives research forward. This volume contains improved and updated versions of the lectures given at the School. It has been prepared both as a reminder for the participants, and so that these pedagogical introductions can be made available to others who were unable to attend. We expect them to serve students of all ages well.

  13. Topics in quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamon, Raphael

    2010-06-29

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem

  14. Tensor Galileons and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Khoo, Fech Scen [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen,Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Roest, Diederik [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Schupp, Peter [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen,Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2017-03-13

    The particular structure of Galileon interactions allows for higher-derivative terms while retaining second order field equations for scalar fields and Abelian p-forms. In this work we introduce an index-free formulation of these interactions in terms of two sets of Grassmannian variables. We employ this to construct Galileon interactions for mixed-symmetry tensor fields and coupled systems thereof. We argue that these tensors are the natural generalization of scalars with Galileon symmetry, similar to p-forms and scalars with a shift-symmetry. The simplest case corresponds to linearised gravity with Lovelock invariants, relating the Galileon symmetry to diffeomorphisms. Finally, we examine the coupling of a mixed-symmetry tensor to gravity, and demonstrate in an explicit example that the inclusion of appropriate counterterms retains second order field equations.

  15. Topics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamon, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Quantum gravity is an attempt to unify general relativity with quantum mechanics which are the two highly successful fundamental theories of theoretical physics. The main difficulty in this unification arises from the fact that, while general relativity describes gravity as a macroscopic geometrical theory, quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena. As a further complication, not only do both theories describe different scales but also their philosophical ramifications and the mathematics used to describe them differ in a dramatic way. Consequently, one possible starting point of an attempt at a unification is quantum mechanics, i.e. particle physics, and try to incorporate gravitation. This pathway has been chosen by particle physicists which led to string theory. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity (LQG) chooses the other possibility, i.e. it takes the geometrical aspects of gravity seriously and quantizes geometry. The first part of this thesis deals with a generalization of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) to toroidal topologies. LQC is a quantization of homogenous solutions of Einstein's field equations using tools from LQG. First the general concepts of closed topologies is introduced with special emphasis on Thurston's theorem and its consequences. It is shown that new degrees of freedom called Teichmueller parameters come into play and their dynamics can be described by a Hamiltonian. Several numerical solutions for a toroidal universe are presented and discussed. Following the guidelines of LQG this dynamics are rewritten using the Ashtekar variables and numerical solutions are shown. However, in order to find a suitable Hilbert space a canonical transformation must be performed. On the other hand this transformation makes the quantization of geometrical quantities less tractable such that two different ways are presented. It is shown that in both cases the spectrum of such geometrical operators depends on the initial value problem. Furthermore, we

  16. Simplicial quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Simplicial approximation and the ideas associated with the Regge calculus provide a concrete way of implementing a sum over histories formulation of quantum gravity. A simplicial geometry is made up of flat simplices joined together in a prescribed way together with an assignment of lengths to their edges. A sum over simplicial geometries is a sum over the different ways the simplices can be joined together with an integral over their edge lengths. The construction of the simplicial Euclidean action for this approach to quantum general relativity is illustrated. The recovery of the diffeomorphism group in the continuum limit is discussed. Some possible classes of simplicial complexes with which to define a sum over topologies are described. In two dimensional quantum gravity it is argued that a reasonable class is the class of pseudomanifolds

  17. Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the evolution of purity, entanglement, and total correlations of general two-mode continuous variable Gaussian states in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity, and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes

  18. Instantons and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The problems of application of nonperturbative quantization methods in the theories of the gauge fields and gravity are discussed. Unification of interactions is considered in the framework of the geometrical gauge fields theory. Vacuum conception in the unified theory of interactions and instantons role in the vacuum structure are analyzed. The role of vacuum solutions of Einstein equations in definition of the gauge field vacuum is demonstrated

  19. Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…

  20. Spontaneously generated gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-01-01

    We show, following a recent suggestion of Adler, that gravity may arise as a consequence of dynamical symmetry breaking in a scale- and gauge-invariant world. Our calculation is not tied to any specific scheme of dynamical symmetry breaking. A representation for Newton's coupling constant in terms of flat-space quantities is derived. The sign of Newton's coupling constant appears to depend on infrared details of the symmetry-breaking mechanism

  1. Loop Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime , is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i) The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii) A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler's "spacetime foam" intuition. (iii) Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv) A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black-hole entropy. (v) Low-energy calculations, yielding n -point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  2. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam” intuition. (iii Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv A derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking black-hole entropy. (v Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  3. Semiclassical unimodular gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiol, Bartomeu; Garriga, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Classically, unimodular gravity is known to be equivalent to General Relativity (GR), except for the fact that the effective cosmological constant Λ has the status of an integration constant. Here, we explore various formulations of unimodular gravity beyond the classical limit. We first consider the non-generally covariant action formulation in which the determinant of the metric is held fixed to unity. We argue that the corresponding quantum theory is also equivalent to General Relativity for localized perturbative processes which take place in generic backgrounds of infinite volume (such as asymptotically flat spacetimes). Next, using the same action, we calculate semiclassical non-perturbative quantities, which we expect will be dominated by Euclidean instanton solutions. We derive the entropy/area ratio for cosmological and black hole horizons, finding agreement with GR for solutions in backgrounds of infinite volume, but disagreement for backgrounds with finite volume. In deriving the above results, the path integral is taken over histories with fixed 4-volume. We point out that the results are different if we allow the 4-volume of the different histories to vary over a continuum range. In this ''generalized'' version of unimodular gravity, one recovers the full set of Einstein's equations in the classical limit, including the trace, so Λ is no longer an integration constant. Finally, we consider the generally covariant theory due to Henneaux and Teitelboim, which is classically equivalent to unimodular gravity. In this case, the standard semiclassical GR results are recovered provided that the boundary term in the Euclidean action is chosen appropriately

  4. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  5. Venus gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Ananda, M.; Williams, B. G.; Birkeland, P. W.; Esposito, P. S.; Wimberly, R. N.; Ritke, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results of Pioneer Venus Orbiter observations concerning the gravity field of Venus are presented. The gravitational data was obtained from reductions of Doppler radio tracking data for the Orbiter, which is in a highly eccentric orbit with periapsis altitude varying from 145 to 180 km and nearly fixed periapsis latitude of 15 deg N. The global gravity field was obtained through the simultaneous estimation of the orbit state parameters and gravity coefficients from long-period variations in orbital element rates. The global field has been described with sixth degree and order spherical harmonic coefficients, which are capable of resolving the three major topographical features on Venus. Local anomalies have been mapped using line-of-sight accelerations derived from the Doppler residuals between 40 deg N and 10 deg S latitude at approximately 300 km spatial resolution. Gravitational data is observed to correspond to topographical data obtained by radar altimeter, with most of the gravitational anomalies about 20-30 milligals. Simulations evaluating the isostatic states of two topographic features indicate that at least partial isostasy prevails, with the possibility of complete compensation.

  6. Analytical monitoring of systems for the production of high-purity, desalinated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert, I.

    1988-01-01

    The purity requirements to be met by high-purity water currently push the most sensitive analytical methods to their utmost limits of sensitivity. The required degree of purity of the water at present can only be achieved by application of membrane processes, and pre-purification of the feedwater to a quality corresponding to that of the raw water source. The contribution in hand discusses the analytical monitoring of the raw water treatment plant, the water treatment prior to the treatment by reverse osmosis, monitoring and control of the modules for reverse osmosis, and the monitoring of high-purity water production for the microelectronics industry. (orig./RB) [de

  7. Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...

  8. Gravity signatures of terrane accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heather; Abbott, Dallas

    1999-01-01

    In modern collisional environments, accreted terranes are bracketed by forearc gravity lows, a gravitational feature which results from the abandonment of the original trench and the initiation of a new trench seaward of the accreted terrane. The size and shape of the gravity low depends on the type of accreted feature and the strength of the formerly subducting plate. Along the Central American trench, the accretion of Gorgona Island caused a seaward trench jump of 48 to 66 km. The relict trench axes show up as gravity lows behind the trench with minimum values of -78 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -49 mgal (S of Gorgona) respectively. These forearc gravity lows have little or no topographic expression. The active trench immediately seaward of these forearc gravity lows has minimum gravity values of -59 mgal (N of Gorgona) and -58 mgal (S of Gorgona), respectively. In the north, the active trench has a less pronounced gravity low than the sediment covered forearc. In the Mariana arc, two Cretaceous seamounts have been accreted to the Eocene arc. The northern seamount is most likely a large block, the southern seamount may be a thrust slice. These more recent accretion events have produced modest forearc topographic and gravity lows in comparison with the topographic and gravity lows within the active trench. However, the minimum values of the Mariana forearc gravity lows are modest only by comparison to the Mariana Trench (-216 mgal); their absolute values are more negative than at Gorgona Island (-145 to -146 mgal). We speculate that the forearc gravity lows and seaward trench jumps near Gorgona Island were produced by the accretion of a hotspot island from a strong plate. The Mariana gravity lows and seaward trench jumps (or thrust slices) were the result of breaking a relatively weak plate close to the seamount edifice. These gravity lows resulting from accretion events should be preserved in older accreted terranes.

  9. Radiochemical purity of Mo and Tc solution obtained after irradiation and dissolution of Mo-100-enriched and ultra-high-purity natural Mo disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Four irradiations of ultra-high-purity natural Mo targets and one irradiation using 97.4% Mo-100-enriched material were performed. The purpose of these irradiations was to determine whether the presence of Sn stabilizer in the H2O2 used for the dissolution of sintered Mo disks can affect the radiochemical purity of the final K2MoO4 in 5M KOH solution. Results from radiochemical purity tests performed using thin-layer paper chromatography show that even 2– 3× excess of Sn-stabilized H2O2 typically used for dissolution of sintered Mo disks did not affect the radiochemical purity of the final product.

  10. Automation of the Characterization of High Purity Germanium Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Charles ``Chip''

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of the detectors must be characterized. A robotic arm is being tested for future calibration of HPGe detectors. The arm will hold a source at locations relative to the crystal while data is acquired. Several radioactive sources of varying energy levels will be used to determine the characteristics of the crystal. In this poster, I will present our work with the robot, as well as the characterization of data we took with an underground HPGe detector at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, NM (2013). Neutrinoless double beta decay is a rare hypothesized process that may yield valuable insight into the fundamental properties of the neutrino. Currently there are several experiments trying to observe this process, including the Majorana DEMONSTRAOR experiment, which uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors to generate and search for these events. Because the event happens internally, it is essential to have the lowest background possible. This is done through passive detector shielding, as well as event discrimination techniques that distinguish between multi-site events characteristic of gamma-radiation, and single-site events characteristic of neutrinoless double beta decay. Before fielding such an experiment, the radiation response of

  11. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  12. The determination of boron in aluminium of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.B.T.; Holan, H.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the investigations that led to the development of chemical methods for the determination of boron within the range 0,25 to 1,0 p.p.m. in aluminium of high purity. Methods were developed that incorporated fluorimetry, directly in solutions containing aluminium and after separation of boron by liquid-liquid extraction into 2-ethyl-1,3 hexanediol. A published spectrophotometric method, involving extraction of the BF 4 sup(-) complex with methylene blue into dichloroethane, was modified for application to alluminium samples. Details of this modified procedure and the fluorimetric-extraction procedure are appended. The precision of the methylene-blue method is about 6 percent relative and is recommended for precision and speed in preference to others. Separation of boron by distillation and spectrophotometric determination with curcumin gave low values in comparison with those obtained by the other methods. Agreement between the boron values obtained on the samples tested was good for the fluorimetric and methylene-blue spectrophotometric methods

  13. Dynamical recrystallization of high purity austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavard, L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the performance of structural materials. The elementary mechanisms (strain hardening and dynamical regeneration, germination and growth of new grains) occurring during the hot working of metals and low pile defect energy alloys have been studied for austenitic stainless steels. In particular, the influence of the main experimental parameters (temperature, deformation velocity, initial grain size, impurities amount, deformation way) on the process of discontinuous dynamical recrystallization has been studied. Alloys with composition equal to those of the industrial stainless steel-304L have been fabricated from ultra-pure iron, chromium and nickel. Tests carried out in hot compression and torsion in order to cover a wide range of deformations, deformation velocities and temperatures for two very different deformation ways have allowed to determine the rheological characteristics (sensitivity to the deformation velocity, apparent activation energy) of materials as well as to characterize their microstructural deformations by optical metallography and electron back-scattered diffraction. The influence of the initial grain size and the influence of the purity of the material on the dynamical recrystallization kinetics have been determined. An analytical model for the determination of the apparent mobility of grain boundaries, a semi-analytical model for the dynamical recrystallization and at last an analytical model for the stationary state of dynamical recrystallization are proposed as well as a new criteria for the transition between the refinement state and the state of grain growth. (O.M.)

  14. Hot flow of a commercial-purity copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V. G.; El Wahabi, M.; Cabrera, J. M.; Riera, L. M.; Prado, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study is to model the flow curve at high temperature of a commercial-purity copper which contains 297 ppm of phosphorus. For this purpose a theoretical model is applied to derive a constitutive equation that reliably predicts the behaviour at higher strain rates than experimentally tested. The test temperature range was from 873 K to 1223 K in increments of 50 K, using six true strain rates at every temperature, which span from 0.3 s''-1 to 0.001 s''-1. The hot flow tests were performed on a copper with a relatively large grain size (637 μm) but of similar scale to pertinent industrial processes. This metal presents two antagonistic phenomena during the hot working: strain hardening and softening by dynamic restoration, which in turns can be divided into dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization. A quantification of the mentioned mechanisms is done through the use of physically based constitutive equations. (Author) 20 refs

  15. Static strain-aging in commercial purity alpha titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J.R.; Reed-Hill, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Static strain-aging was investigated in commercial purity α-Ti, containing 0.41 at. percent of oxygen as the principal interstitial impurity. 17 μM grain size specimens, prestrained to 0.02 strain at a nominal strain-rate of 3.3 x 10 -4 s -1 , were aged in situ between 555 and 630 0 K for lengths of time between 150 and 2.55 x 10 5 seconds. Both the upper and lower yield point increments were employed as measures of the aging progress. Under the stated conditions, the static strain-aging response of the titanium appeared to consist of four stages, of which only Stages 1 and 2 were considered in this work. Stage 1 corresponded to a Haasen and Kelly type of yield point, while Stage 2, after correcting for the time-independent yield point increment of Stage 1, conformed to Cottrell aging, i.e., the increase in flow stress after aging followed a t/sup 2 / 3 / behavior. The activation energy deduced for the process is in good agreement with that for the diffusion of oxygen in titanium

  16. Electron beam welding of high-purity copper accelerator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, K.; Haas, H.; Schlebusch, P.; Sigismund, E.

    1986-01-01

    The operating conditions of accelerator cells require high thermal conductivity, low gas release in the ultrahigh vacuum, low content of low-melting metals and an extremely good surface quality. In order to meet these requirements, high-purity copper (OFHC, Grade 1, according to ASTM B 170-82 and extra specifications) is used as structural material. The prefabricated components of the accelerator cells (noses, jackets, flanges) are joined by electron beam welding, the weld seam being assessed on the basis of the same criteria as the base material. The welding procedures required depend, first, on the material and, secondly, on the geometries involved. Therefore experimental welds were made first on standardized specimens in order to study the behaviour of the material during electron beam welding and the influence of parameter variations. The welded joints of the cell design were planned on the basis of these results. Seam configuration, welding procedures and the parameters were optimized on components of original geometry. The experiments have shown that high-quality joints of this grade of copper can be produced by the electron beam welding process, if careful planning and preparation of the seams and adequate containment of the welding pool are assured. (orig.)

  17. Power and Purity: Nature as Resource in a Troubled Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gremaud, Ann-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses representations of nature as brand and resource in current Icelandic society. This is done through an interdisciplinary approach consisting of concepts from the discipline of cultural geography and the analytical methodologies of visual cultural, imagology, discourse and brand analysis used to highlight key narratives in images and written sources. The article discusses how ideas of purity are used in branding strategies and what they mean in Iceland today e.g. as a part of the emerging regional consciousness of ‘Arctic Iceland.’ The current overlapping crises of the economy, the environment and the collective self-image in Iceland have fostered critical representations of the past, present and future of the relationship between humans and the environment. Thus utilitarian environmental policies and shallow ecology is treated critically in contemporary Icelandic art, as is the question of what constitutes pollution. Such internal conflicts of interest are analysed to show critical perspectives on the dominant narratives about Icelandic nature and society that are communicated to the outside world through nation branding.

  18. Thermal conductivity of uranium: effects of purity and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandenaw, T.A.

    1975-10-01

    Thermal conductivity curves for polycrystalline uranium are presented for the temperature range below 373 0 K. The curves are for specimens prepared by different fabrication procedures from material of known purity and hardness. Included is a curve for U/2wt percent Mo alloy. Different mechanisms appear to be influencing the thermal conductivity behavior of uranium in well-defined temperature regions: below 37 to 43 0 K, approximately 40 to approximately 80 0 K, 80 to approximately 280 0 K, and from 280 0 K to the α → β transformation temperature. Mechanisms responsible for results in one temperature region continue to exert a strong influence in the next higher temperature region. Impurities and initial microstructure seem to influence results at any starting temperature. Evidence is presented for the possibility of imperfection ordering in uranium between approximately 40 and approximately 280 0 K. It is postulated that the type of ordering is capable with a martensite-like behavior and that all physical property results depend on the extent of a modification of the α-phase on cooling below approximately 280 0 K

  19. Spall behaviors of high purity copper under sweeping detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhi-qiang, Peng; Xing-zhi, Chen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhao-liang, Guo; Tie-gang, Tang; Hai-bo, Hu [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Qing-ming, Zhang [National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-10

    Suites of sweeping detonation experiments were conducted to assess the spall behavior of high purity copper samples with different heat treatment histories. Incipient spall samples were obtained at different sweeping detonation condition. Metallographic and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) analyses were performed on the soft-recovered samples. The effects of grain boundaries, grain size, crystal orientation and loading direction on the spall behaviors were discussed. Spall plane branching was found in the main spall plane of the damage samples. For similar microstructure, the area of voids increase with the increase of shock stress, and the coalescence of voids also become more obvious. Results from EBSD analysis show that the grain sizes were decreased and the grains were elongated along the direction of the plate width. Triple junctions composed of two or more general high angle boundaries are the preferred locations for intergranular damage. Voids prefer to nucleate in the grain boundaries composed of grain with high Taylor Factor (TF) than other grains. The damage areas in the grains with high TF are more severe. Boundaries close to perpendicular to the loading direction are more susceptible to void nucleation than the boundaries close to parallel to the loading direction, but the difference of voids nucleated in these two boundaries is less significant than the results obtained by plate impact experiment. It would be caused by the obliquity between the shock loading direction and the plate normal.

  20. High-power laser diodes with high polarization purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Peleg, Ophir; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Klumel, Genady

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diode modules employ power scaling of single emitters for fiber laser pumping. To this end, techniques such as geometrical, spectral and polarization beam combining (PBC) are used. For PBC, linear polarization with high degree of purity is important, as any non-perfectly polarized light leads to losses and heating. Furthermore, PBC is typically performed in a collimated portion of the beams, which also cancels the angular dependence of the PBC element, e.g., beam-splitter. However, we discovered that single emitters have variable degrees of polarization, which depends both on the operating current and far-field divergence. We present data to show angle-resolved polarization measurements that correlate with the ignition of high-order modes in the slow-axis emission of the emitter. We demonstrate that the ultimate laser brightness includes not only the standard parameters such as power, emitting area and beam divergence, but also the degree of polarization (DoP), which is a strong function of the latter. Improved slow-axis divergence, therefore, contributes not only to high brightness but also high beam combining efficiency through polarization.

  1. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  2. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  3. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  4. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  5. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  6. Improvement in fuel utilization in pressurized heavy water reactors due to increased heavy water purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), the reactivity of the reactor and, consequently, the discharge burnup of the fuel depend on the isotopic purity of the heavy water used in the reactor. The optimal purity of heavy water used in PHWRs, in turn, depends on the cost of fabricated uranium fuel and on the incremental cost incurred in improving the heavy water purity. The physics and economics aspects of the desirability of increasing the heavy water purity in PHWRs in India were first examined in 1978. With the cost data available at that time, it was found that improving the heavy water purity from 99.80% to 99.95% was economically attractive. The same problem is reinvestigated with current cost data. Even now, there is sufficient incentive to improve the isotopic purity of heavy water used in PHWRs. Admittedly, the economic advantage that can be derived depends on the cost of the fabricated fuel. Nevertheless, irrespective of the economics, there is also a fairly substantial saving in natural uranium. That the increase in the heavy water purity is to be maintained only in the low-pressure moderator system, and not in the high-pressure coolant system, makes the option of achieving higher fuel burnup with higher heavy water purity feasible

  7. Animal Sex: Purity Education and the Naturalization of the Abstinence Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Christabelle

    2010-01-01

    An early-twentieth-century movement for social purity in England, Canada and the United States aimed to eradicate prostitution, the double standard of sexual morals and their dreaded corollary, the venereal diseases. Social purists suggested that "purity education" for children was the best pedagogical prophylaxis against such…

  8. Perspectives of data-driven LPV modeling of high-purity distillation columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachnas, A.A.; Toth, R.; Mesbah, A.; Ludlage, J.H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—This paper investigates data-driven, Linear- Parameter-Varying (LPV) modeling of a high-purity distillation column. Two LPV modeling approaches are studied: a local approach, corresponding to the interpolation of Linear Time- Invariant (LTI) models identified at steady-state purity levels,

  9. The analytical of radiochemical purity of tumor receptor imaging agent 99Tcm-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xufu; Zuo Shuyao; Shao Wenbo; Wang Guoming; Sun Jianwen; Zhang Qin

    2003-01-01

    The radiochemical purity of tumor receptor imaging agent 99 Tc m -octreotide is measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and two systems of chromatography combining method of silver stain. The results show that the radiochemical purity of 98 Tc m -octreotide measured by both methods are effective and correct. It can separate 99 Tc m -octreotide from other radioactive compositions correctly and effectively

  10. Differential scanning calorimetry method for purity determination: A case study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestens, V.; Zeleny, R.; Auclair, G.; Held, A.; Roebben, G.; Linsinger, T.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Purity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol by DSC. → DSC results compared with traditional purity methods. → Different methods give different results, multiple method approach recommended. → DSC sensitive to impurities that have similar structures as main component. - Abstract: In this study the validity and suitability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the purity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol has been investigated. The study materials were two candidate certified reference materials (CRMs), 6-methylchrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, and two different batches of commercially available highly pure chloramphenicol. The DSC results were compared with those obtained by other methods, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The purity results obtained by these different analytical methods confirm the well-known challenges of comparing results of different method-defined measurands. In comparison with other methods, DSC has a much narrower working range. This limits the applicability of DSC as purity determination method, for instance during the assignment of the purity value of a CRM. Nevertheless, this study showed that DSC can be a powerful technique to detect impurities that are structurally very similar to the main purity component. From this point of view, and because of its good repeatability, DSC can be considered as a valuable technique to investigate the homogeneity and stability of candidate purity CRMs.

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN05 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  12. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN06 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  13. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS08 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for CS08 collected in 2006 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  14. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES02 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida and the Gulf of Mexico collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American...

  16. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN04 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  17. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS05 (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  18. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS07 (2014 & 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2014 & 2016 over 3 surveys,TX14-2, TX16-1 and TX16-2. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...

  19. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AS01 (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2008 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  20. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for CS04 (2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Texas collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  1. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN02 (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D)...

  2. Lovelock gravities from Born–Infeld gravity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Concha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a Born–Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as Cm. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.

  3. Lovelock gravities from Born-Infeld gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, P. K.; Merino, N.; Rodríguez, E. K.

    2017-02-01

    We present a Born-Infeld gravity theory based on generalizations of Maxwell symmetries denoted as Cm. We analyze different configuration limits allowing to recover diverse Lovelock gravity actions in six dimensions. Further, the generalization to higher even dimensions is also considered.

  4. Contravariant gravity on Poisson manifolds and Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi; Muraki, Hisayoshi

    2017-01-01

    A relation between gravity on Poisson manifolds proposed in Asakawa et al (2015 Fortschr. Phys . 63 683–704) and Einstein gravity is investigated. The compatibility of the Poisson and Riemann structures defines a unique connection, the contravariant Levi-Civita connection, and leads to the idea of the contravariant gravity. The Einstein–Hilbert-type action yields an equation of motion which is written in terms of the analog of the Einstein tensor, and it includes couplings between the metric and the Poisson tensor. The study of the Weyl transformation reveals properties of those interactions. It is argued that this theory can have an equivalent description as a system of Einstein gravity coupled to matter. As an example, it is shown that the contravariant gravity on a two-dimensional Poisson manifold can be described by a real scalar field coupled to the metric in a specific manner. (paper)

  5. Aspects of Quadratic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Kounnas, Costas; Lust, Dieter; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We discuss quadratic gravity where terms quadratic in the curvature tensor are included in the action. After reviewing the corresponding field equations, we analyze in detail the physical propagating modes in some specific backgrounds. First we confirm that the pure $R^2$ theory is indeed ghost free. Then we point out that for flat backgrounds the pure $R^2$ theory propagates only a scalar massless mode and no spin-two tensor mode. However, the latter emerges either by expanding the theory around curved backgrounds like de Sitter or anti-de Sitter, or by changing the long-distance dynamics by introducing the standard Einstein term. In both cases, the theory is modified in the infrared and a propagating graviton is recovered. Hence we recognize a subtle interplay between the UV and IR properties of higher order gravity. We also calculate the corresponding Newton's law for general quadratic curvature theories. Finally, we discuss how quadratic actions may be obtained from a fundamental theory like string- or M-...

  6. Newtonian quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.R.W.

    1995-01-01

    We develop a nonlinear quantum theory of Newtonian gravity consistent with an objective interpretation of the wavefunction. Inspired by the ideas of Schroedinger, and Bell, we seek a dimensional reduction procedure to map complex wavefunctions in configuration space onto a family of observable fields in space-time. Consideration of quasi-classical conservation laws selects the reduced one-body quantities as the basis for an explicit quasi-classical coarse-graining. These we interpret as describing the objective reality of the laboratory. Thereafter, we examine what may stand in the role of the usual Copenhagen observer to localise this quantity against macroscopic dispersion. Only a tiny change is needed, via a generically attractive self-potential. A nonlinear treatment of gravitational self-energy is thus advanced. This term sets a scale for all wavepackets. The Newtonian cosmology is thus closed, without need of an external observer. Finally, the concept of quantisation is re-interpreted as a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. To illustrate, we exhibit an elementary family of gravitationally self-bound solitary waves. Contrasting this theory with its canonically quantised analogue, we find that the given interpretation is empirically distinguishable, in principle. This result encourages deeper study of nonlinear field theories as a testable alternative to canonically quantised gravity. (author). 46 refs., 5 figs

  7. Gravity and antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    No one has ever dropped a single particle of antimatter. Yet physicists assume that it would fall to the ground just like ordinary matter. Their arguments are based on two well established ideas: the equivalence principle of gravitation and the quantum-mechanical symmetry between matter and antimatter. Today this line of reasoning is being undermined by the possibility that the first of these ideas, the principle of equivalence, may not be true. Indeed all modern attempts to include gravity with the other forces of nature in a consistent, unified quantum theory predict the existence of new gravitational-strength forces, that among other things, will violate the principle. Such effects have been seen already in recent experiments. Hence, an experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antimatter could be of great importance to the understanding of quantum gravity. An international team has been formed to measure the graviational acceleration of antiprotons. Such an experiment would provide an unambiquous test, if new gravitational interactions do exist. 10 figs

  8. Studying of Nano SiO2 Preparation from Rice Husk Ash by Using High Gravity Reaction Precipitation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Ngoc Ha; Hoang Van Duc

    2013-01-01

    A novel method (High-gravity reactive precipitation - HGRP) was developed to prepare nano-SiO 2 from rice husk ash using gas-liquid reaction system. The precipitated silica produced by our proposed method had average size of 20 nm with narrow size distribution and purity of SiO 2 was approximately 99.2%. The principles of the method as well as experimental conditions were also described. (author)

  9. External cultic tradition and internal ethical purity in Matthew 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Matthew 15:1–20, Jesus responds to the accusation made by the Pharisees and the scribes that his disciples do not observe the tradition of hand-washing (οὐ γὰρ νίπτονται τὰς χεῖραςὅταν ἄρτον ἐσθίωσιν, because they do not wash their hands before they eat bread. In this story of dispute, two ideas are interwoven, namely the locus of impurity (external or internal and the manmade tradition of the elders (ἡ παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων versus the Word of God (ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ. The Pharisees are depicted as obsessed with external manmade rules to ensure purity, whilst Jesus is concerned with inner purity based on God’s Word. In this article, the story is interpreted on two levels. The first level describes the dispute between Jesus and the Pharisees. The second level explores the tension the Matthean community experienced in their encounter with Pharisean Judaism of their day – the Judaism of the dual Torah. The question is which aspect of the Torah is challenged by Matthew’s Jesus, and what he considers to be the true meaning of the Law. It seems that Matthew uses this story to define and maintain the identity and values of his community over and against that of the Pharisees and their successors. Devices that Matthew uses to define the identity and required morality for his community, are identified. Such devices demonstrate how a community’s values can influence the identity and ethics of a society. In Matteus 15:1–20 reageer Jesus op die aantyging van die Fariseërs en skrifgeleerdes dat sy dissipels nie die handewas-tradisie eerbiedig nie. In hierdie verhaal van dispuut word twee idees vervleg: eerstens dié van die locus van onreinheid, en tweedens dié van mensgemaakte tradisies teenoor die Woord van God. Die Fariseërs word voorgestel as mense wat obsessiefis oor mensgemaakte reëls wat reinheid verseker, terwyl Jesus op innerlike reinheid

  10. Is there a quantum theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns attempts to construct a unitary, renormalizable quantum field theory of gravity. Renormalizability and unitarity in quantum gravity; the 1/N expansion; 1/D expansions; and quantum gravity and particle physics; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Mesophase Formation Stabilizes High-purity Magic-sized Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Williamson, Curtis B.; Savitzky, Benjamin H; Hadar, Ido; Banin, Uri; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hanrath, Tobias; Robinson, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Magic-sized clusters (MSCs) are renowned for their identical size and closed-shell stability that inhibit conventional nanoparticle (NP) growth processes. Though MSCs have been of increasing interest, understanding the reaction pathways toward their nucleation and stabilization is an outstanding issue. In this work, we demonstrate that high concentration synthesis (1000 mM) promotes a well-defined reaction pathway to form high-purity MSCs (>99.9%). The MSCs are resistant to typical growth and dissolution processes. Based on insights from in-situ X-ray scattering analysis, we attribute this stability to the accompanying production of a large, hexagonal organic-inorganic mesophase (>100 nm grain size) that arrests growth of the MSCs and prevents NP growth. At intermediate concentrations (500 mM), the MSC mesophase forms, but is unstable, resulting in NP growth at the expense of the assemblies. These results provide an alternate explanation for the high stability of MSCs. Whereas the conventional mantra has been that the stability of MSCs derives from the precise arrangement of the inorganic structures (i.e., closed-shell atomic packing), we demonstrate that anisotropic clusters can also be stabilized by self-forming fibrous mesophase assemblies. At lower concentration (<200 mM or >16 acid-to-metal), MSCs are further destabilized and NPs formation dominates that of MSCs. Overall, the high concentration approach intensifies and showcases inherent concentration-dependent surfactant phase behavior that is not accessible in conventional (i.e., dilute) conditions. This work provides not only a robust method to synthesize, stabilize, and study identical MSC products, but also uncovers an underappreciated stabilizing interaction between surfactants and clusters.

  12. Spectroscopic Determination of Trace Contaminants in High-Purity Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen used for extravehicular activities (EVAs) must be free of contaminants because a difference in a few tenths of a percent of argon or nitrogen content can mean significant reduction in available EVA time. These inert gases build up in the extravehicular mobility unit because they are not metabolized or scrubbed from the atmosphere. A prototype optical emission technique capable of detecting argon and nitrogen below 0.1% in oxygen has been developed. This instrument uses a glow discharge in reduced-pressure gas to produce atomic emission from the species present. Because the atomic emission lines from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are discrete, and in many cases well-separated, trace amounts of argon and nitrogen can be detected in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. This is a straightforward, direct measurement of the target contaminants, and may lend itself to a device capable of on-orbit verification of oxygen purity. A glow discharge is a plasma formed in a low-pressure (1 to 10 Torr) gas cell between two electrodes. Depending on the configuration, voltages ranging from 200 V and above are required to sustain the discharge. In the discharge region, the gas is ionized and a certain population is in the excited state. Light is produced by the transitions from the excited states formed in the plasma to the ground state. The spectrum consists of discrete, narrow emission lines for the atomic species, and broader peaks that may appear as a manifold for molecular species such as O2 and N2, the wavelengths and intensities of which are a characteristic of each atom. The oxygen emission is dominated by two peaks at 777 and 844 nm.

  13. Mesophase Formation Stabilizes High-purity Magic-sized Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Nevers, Douglas R.

    2018-01-27

    Magic-sized clusters (MSCs) are renowned for their identical size and closed-shell stability that inhibit conventional nanoparticle (NP) growth processes. Though MSCs have been of increasing interest, understanding the reaction pathways toward their nucleation and stabilization is an outstanding issue. In this work, we demonstrate that high concentration synthesis (1000 mM) promotes a well-defined reaction pathway to form high-purity MSCs (>99.9%). The MSCs are resistant to typical growth and dissolution processes. Based on insights from in-situ X-ray scattering analysis, we attribute this stability to the accompanying production of a large, hexagonal organic-inorganic mesophase (>100 nm grain size) that arrests growth of the MSCs and prevents NP growth. At intermediate concentrations (500 mM), the MSC mesophase forms, but is unstable, resulting in NP growth at the expense of the assemblies. These results provide an alternate explanation for the high stability of MSCs. Whereas the conventional mantra has been that the stability of MSCs derives from the precise arrangement of the inorganic structures (i.e., closed-shell atomic packing), we demonstrate that anisotropic clusters can also be stabilized by self-forming fibrous mesophase assemblies. At lower concentration (<200 mM or >16 acid-to-metal), MSCs are further destabilized and NPs formation dominates that of MSCs. Overall, the high concentration approach intensifies and showcases inherent concentration-dependent surfactant phase behavior that is not accessible in conventional (i.e., dilute) conditions. This work provides not only a robust method to synthesize, stabilize, and study identical MSC products, but also uncovers an underappreciated stabilizing interaction between surfactants and clusters.

  14. Trace radioactive measurement in foodstuffs using high purity germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morco, Ryan P.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalina V.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trace radioactivity in food has been seriously considered sources of potential harm after the accidental radioactive releases in the last decades which led to contamination of the food chain. Countermeasures are being used to reduce the radiological health risk to the population and to ensure that public safety and international commitments are met. Investigation of radioactive traces in foods was carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclides being measured were fission products 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs and naturally occurring 4 0Κ. Gamma-ray measurements were performed using a hybrid gamma-ray counting system with coaxial p-type Tennelec High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with relative efficiency of 18.4%. Channels were calibrated to energies using a standard check source with 1 37Cs and 6 0Co present. Self-shielding within samples was taken into account by comparing directly with reference standards of similar matrix and geometry. Efficiencies of radionuclides of interests were accounted in calculating the activity concentrations in the samples. Efficiency calibration curve was generated using an in-house validated program called FINDPEAK, a least-square method that fits a polynomial up to sixth-order of equation. Lower Limits of Detection (LLD) obtained for both 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs ranges from 1-6 Bq/Kg depending on the sample matrix. In the last five years, there have been no foodstuffs analyzed exceeded the local and international regulatory limit of 1000Bq/Kg for the summed activities of 1 37Cs and 1 34Cs. (author)

  15. Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Asger Cronberg

    The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...

  16. Topological strings from Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, N.; Li, M.

    1991-01-01

    We study constrained SU(2) WZW models, which realize a class of two-dimensional conformal field theories. We show that they give rise to topological gravity coupled to the topological minimal models when they are coupled to Liouville gravity. (orig.)

  17. Newton-Cartan gravity revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Roel

    2016-01-01

    In this research Newton's old theory of gravity is rederived using an algebraic approach known as the gauging procedure. The resulting theory is Newton's theory in the mathematical language of Einstein's General Relativity theory, in which gravity is spacetime curvature. The gauging procedure sheds

  18. Fixed points of quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Litim, D F

    2003-01-01

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalisation group methods. Analytical results for a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameter in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  19. Neutron Stars : Magnetism vs Gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    however, in the magnetosphere, electromagnetic forces dominate over gravity : Fgr = mg ~ 10-18 Newton ; Fem = e V B ~ 10-5 Newton; (for a single electron of mass m and charge e ) ; Hence, the electromagnetic force is 1013 times stronger than gravity !!

  20. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  1. Establishing comparability and compatibility in the purity assessment of high purity zinc as demonstrated by the CCQM-P149 intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Kipphardt, Heinrich; Richter, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram; del Rocío Arvizu Torres, María; Manzano, Judith Velina Lara; Buzoianu, Mirella; Hill, Sarah; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike; Fisicaro, Paola; Labarraque, Guillaume; Zhou, Tao; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael; Miura, Tsutomu; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph; Jährling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Mariassy, Michal; Hankova, Zuzana; Sobina, Egor; Ivanovich Krylov, Anatoly; Anatolievich Kustikov, Yuri; Vladimirovich Smirnov, Vadim

    2018-04-01

    For the first time, an international comparison was conducted on the determination of the purity of a high purity element. Participants were free to choose any analytical approach appropriate for their institute’s applications and services. The material tested was a high purity zinc, which had earlier been assessed for homogeneity and previously used in CCQM-K72 for the determination of six defined metallic impurities. Either a direct metal assay of the Zn mass fraction was undertaken by EDTA titrimetry, or an indirect approach was used wherein all impurities, or at least the major ones, were determined and their sum subtracted from ideal purity of 100%, or 1 kg kg-1. Impurity assessment techniques included glow discharge mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carrier gas hot extraction/combustion analysis. Up to 91 elemental impurities covering metals, non-metals and semi-metals/metalloids were quantified. Due to the lack of internal experience or experimental capabilities, some participants contracted external laboratories for specific analytical tasks, mainly for the analysis of non-metals. The reported purity, expressed as zinc mass fraction in the high purity zinc material, showed excellent agreement for all participants, with a relative standard deviation of 0.011%. The calculated reference value, w(Zn)  =  0.999 873 kg kg-1, was assigned an asymmetric combined uncertainty of  +0.000 025 kg kg-1 and  -0.000 028 kg kg-1. Comparability amongst participating metrology institutes is thus demonstrated for the purity determination of high purity metals which have no particular difficulties with their decomposition/dissolution process when solution-based analytical methods are used, or which do not have specific difficulties when direct analysis approaches are used. Nevertheless, further development is required in terms of uncertainty assessment, quantification of non-metals and the determination of purity

  2. Magnetic Fields Versus Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    Deep within giant molecular clouds, hidden by dense gas and dust, stars form. Unprecedented data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the intricate magnetic structureswoven throughout one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way.How Stars Are BornThe Horsehead Nebulasdense column of gas and dust is opaque to visible light, but this infrared image reveals the young stars hidden in the dust. [NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team]Simple theory dictates that when a dense clump of molecular gas becomes massive enough that its self-gravity overwhelms the thermal pressure of the cloud, the gas collapses and forms a star. In reality, however, star formation is more complicated than a simple give and take between gravity and pressure. Thedusty molecular gas in stellar nurseries is permeated with magnetic fields, which are thought to impede the inward pull of gravity and slow the rate of star formation.How can we learn about the magnetic fields of distant objects? One way is by measuring dust polarization. An elongated dust grain will tend to align itself with its short axis parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. This systematic alignment of the dust grains along the magnetic field lines polarizes the dust grains emission perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This allows us to infer the direction of the magnetic field from the direction of polarization.Magnetic field orientations for protostars e2 and e8 derived from Submillimeter Array observations (panels a through c) and ALMA observations (panels d and e). Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Koch et al. 2018]Tracing Magnetic FieldsPatrick Koch (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) and collaborators used high-sensitivity ALMA observations of dust polarization to learn more about the magnetic field morphology of Milky Way star-forming region W51. W51 is one of the largest star-forming regions in our galaxy, home to high-mass protostars e2, e8, and North.The ALMA observations reveal

  3. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges

  4. Activation analysis of high purity metals and application to study on physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshitake; Hashimoto, Eiji; Matsushita, Rokuji.

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine the true characteristics of matters, the utmost reduction of impurities is indispensable. By the heightening of the purity of aluminum, that of 99.9999% purity has been obtained, but efforts have been exerted to further heighten the purity. For the purpose, it is important to know the behavior of trace impurities during refining, and the quantitative research by neutron activation analysis for various impurities has been carried out. The research on the electron condition of trace impurity atoms in refined aluminum is also important. The band refining of high purity aluminum is explained. By repeating the refining 10 times, the sample of RRR exceeding 30000 was obtained. The impurities contributing to the resistivity are Sc, Ti, V and Cr. Based on the results, the heightening of aluminum purity was attempted by devising the new procedure. As for the electric properties of solute elements in high purity metals, those of transition elements and rare earth elements in aluminum are reported. As the result of measuring the remaining resistance, the sample having the RRR exceeding 45000 after the correction for size effect was done has been obtained. At present, the efforts toward further high purity are continued. (K.I.)

  5. DBI from gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Travis; Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-22

    We study the dynamics of gravitational lumps. By a lump, we mean a metric configuration that asymptotes to a flat space-time. Such lumps emerge in string theory as strong coupling descriptions of D-branes. We provide a physical argument that the broken global symmetries of such a background, generated by certain large diffeomorphisms, constrain the dynamics of localized modes. These modes include the translation zero modes and any localized tensor modes. The constraints we find are gravitational analogues of those found in brane physics. For the example of a Taub-NUT metric in eleven-dimensional supergravity, we argue that a critical value for the electric field arises from standard gravity without higher derivative interactions.

  6. Alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M.

    1990-01-01

    Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)

  7. Is quantum gravity unpredictable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation of Hawking's proposal that the inclusion of topologically non-trivial manifolds in the functional integral of quantum gravity leads to the loss of quantum coherence is carried out. We discuss some of the problems associated with Hawking's Dollar-matrix theory, including the breakdown of the connection between symmetry principles and conservation laws. It is proposed to use Kaluza-Klein theories to study this issue, since these theories contain well-defined euclidean instantons. These can be used to perform explicit semiclassical calculations of the effects of space-time foam. A general method is presented for constructing Kaluza-Klein instantons based on solutions of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. It is argued that none of these will lead to a breakdown of quantum mechanics. The physical effects of space-time foam are discussed in some detail using explicit instantons of a four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. (orig.)

  8. Brane-Localized Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    The study of braneworlds has been an area of intense activity over the past decade, with thousands of papers being written, and many important technical advances being made. This book focuses on a particular aspect of braneworlds, namely perturbative gravity in one specific model: the Randall-Sundrum model. The book starts with an overview of the Randall-Sundrum model, discussing anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and the Israel equations in some detail. It then moves on to discuss cosmological branes, focusing on branes with constant curvature. The book then turns to brane gravity, i.e. what do we, as brane observers, perceive the gravitational interaction to be on the brane as derived from the actual five-dimensional gravitational physics? After a derivation of the general brane equations from the Israel equations, the remainder of the book deals with perturbative gravity. This part of the book is extremely detailed, with calculations given explicitly. Overall, the book is quite pedagogical in style, with the aim being to explain in detail the topics it chooses to cover. While it is not unusual to have books written on current and extremely popular research areas, it is unusual to have calculations written so explicitly. This is both a strength and a weakness of this book. It is a strength because the calculations are presented in a detail that students learning the topic will definitely appreciate; however, the narrow focus of the book also means that it lacks perspective and fails to present the broader context. In choosing to focus on one particular aspect of Randall-Sundrum branes, the book has not managed to communicate why a large number of theorists have worked so intensively on this model. In its early stages, the explicit detail of the Randall-Sundrum model would be extremely useful for a student starting out in this research area. In addition, the calculational detail later in the computation of the graviton propagator on the brane would also be welcome not

  9. Duality in linearized gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case

  10. Stochastic quantization and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1984-01-01

    We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)

  11. Gravity mediated preheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a mechanism of natural preheating of our universe induced by the inflation field dependent effective mass term for the gravitational wave. For any single field inflationary model, the inflation must go through the oscillatory phase after the end of inflation. As has recently been shown, if the gravitational fluctuation has inflation dependent mass term, there will be a resonant amplification of the amplitude of the gravitational wave during the oscillatory phase of inflation though parametric resonance. Because of this large enhancement of the amplitude of the gravitational wave, we show that universe can be naturally pre-heated through a minimally coupled matter field with gravity. Therefore, during the pre-heating phase, there is no need to introduce any arbitrary coupling between the matter field and the inflation. (author)

  12. Teleparallel Gravity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Teleparallel Gravity (TG) is an alternative theory for gravitation, which is equivalent to General Relativity (GR). However, it is conceptually different. For example in GR geometry replaces the concept of force, and the trajectories are determined by geodesics. TG attributes gravitation to torsion, which accounts for gravitation by acting as a force. TG has already solved some old problems of gravitation (like the energy-momentum density of the gravitational field). The interest in TG has grown in the last few years. The book here proposed will be the first one dedicated exclusively to TG, and will include the foundations of the theory, as well as applications to specific problems to illustrate how the theory works.

  13. Gravity, a geometrical course

    CERN Document Server

    Frè, Pietro Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications,  updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes.   Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed  account  of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations.  Differe...

  14. Brane-Localized Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, Philip D

    2005-01-01

    This timely and valuable book provides a detailed pedagogical introduction and treatment of the brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, in which gravitational signals are able to localize around our four-dimensional world in the event that it is a brane embedded in an infinitely-sized, higher dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk space. A completely self-contained development of the material needed for brane-world studies is provided for both students and workers in the field, with a significant amount of the material being previously unpublished. Particular attention is given to issues not ordinarily treated in the brane-world literature, such as the completeness of tensor gravitational fluctuation modes, the causality of brane-world propagators, and the status of the massless graviton fluctuation mode in brane worlds in which it is not normalizable.

  15. Instantons in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C.N.

    1980-02-01

    The material contained in this thesis is concerned with the functional integral approach to the quantum theory of gravity. It seems to be necessary to work with metrics of positive definite signature (Euclidean metrics) and then analytically continue the result back to the Lorentzian regime. The dominant contributions to the functional integral come from metrics which are stationary points of the action, i.e. classical solutions of the Euclideanized Einstein equations. These are known as Gravitational Instantons. Boundary conditions have to be placed upon the metrics included in the functional integral, and these are determined by the physical problem being considered. Three types of boundary condition have arisen in this context, corresponding to (i) zero temperature physics, and the calculation of particle scattering amplitudes, (ii) finite temperature effects, such as black hole radiance, and (iii) the study of the structure of the gravitational vacuum on Planck length scales. Instantons in the first category are asymptotically flat in all four directions, those in the second are asymptotically flat in three directions and periodic in the fourth, and those which arise in studying the gravitational vacuum are compact without boundaries. Much of the thesis is concerned with considering these various kinds of instanton, and particularly with the effects of their non-trivial topology. One way in which this can be investigated is by means of the various topological index theorems, and these are applied to a variety of situations. Self-dual metrics seem to have particular significance in quantum gravity, and they are discussed in detail. Finally, some recent work on the calculation of the propagation of particles in the gravitational vacuum is described. (author)

  16. Tests of chameleon gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade classical fifth-force searches, and there has been an intense effort towards designing new and novel tests to probe them, both in the laboratory and using astrophysical objects, and by reinterpreting existing datasets. The results of these searches are often presented using different parametrizations, which can make it difficult to compare constraints coming from different probes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present state-of-the-art searches for screened scalars coupled to matter, and to translate the current bounds into a single parametrization to survey the state of the models. Presently, commonly studied chameleon models are well-constrained but less commonly studied models have large regions of parameter space that are still viable. Symmetron models are constrained well by astrophysical and laboratory tests, but there is a desert separating the two scales where the model is unconstrained. The coupling of chameleons to photons is tightly constrained but the symmetron coupling has yet to be explored. We also summarize the current bounds on f( R) models that exhibit the chameleon mechanism (Hu and Sawicki models). The simplest of these are well constrained by astrophysical probes, but there are currently few reported bounds for theories with higher powers of R. The review ends by discussing the future prospects for constraining screened modified gravity models further using upcoming and planned experiments.

  17. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  18. Gravity-matter entanglement in Regge quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunković, Nikola; Vojinović, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about “matter in a point of space” is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional “effective interaction”, which could possibly bring corrections to the weak equivalence principle. (paper)

  19. Artificial gravity - The evolution of variable gravity research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Keefe, J. Richard

    1987-01-01

    The development of a space life science research program based on the use of rotational facilities is described. In-flight and ground centrifuges can be used as artificial gravity environments to study the following: nongravitational biological factors; the effects of 0, 1, and hyper G on man; counter measures for deconditioning astronauts in weightlessness; and the development of suitable artificial gravity for long-term residence in space. The use of inertial fields as a substitute for gravity, and the relations between the radius of the centrifuge and rotation rate and specimen height and rotation radius are examined. An example of a centrifuge study involving squirrel monkeys is presented.

  20. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, H., E-mail: helena.fajfar@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Z. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šmit, Ž. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-11-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  1. Analysis of metals with luster: Roman brass and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajfar, H.; Rupnik, Z.; Šmit, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Non-destructive PIXE analysis using in-air proton beam was used for the studies of earliest brass coins issued during the 1st century BC by Greek cities in Asia Minor, Romans and Celts, and for the studies of plated low grade silver coins of the 3rd century AD. The analysis determined the levels of zinc and important trace elements, notably selenium, which confirms spread of selenium-marked copper from the east. For plating, combined tinning and silvering was identified by the mapping technique for the mid 3rd century AD, which evolved into mere plating by 270 AD.

  2. Radioactive preparations. Determination of radiochemical purity by thin-layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The standard sets the data which must be attached to every sample, and the equipment, chemicals and auxiliary substances used in the determination of radiochemical purity of substances by chromatography. Described are preparation of the sample, the procedure of sample deposition, the development, drying and detection of the radioactive preparation. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of the radiochromatogram is described as are the calculation of radiochemical purity and the determination of the reproducibility of measurement of radiochemical purity of radioactive preparations. (E.S.)

  3. Evaluation of measurement uncertainty for purity of a monoterpenic acid by small-scale coulometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, L. C.; de Carvalho, E. M.; Tappin, M. R. R.; Borges, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Purity of the perylic acid (HPe) which is a monoterpenic acid from natural product (NP) with anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties was analyzed by small-scale coulometry (SSC), due to the low availability of HPe on the pharmaceutic market and its high cost. This work aims to present the evaluation of the measurements uncertainty from the purity of HPe by using SSC. Coulometric mean of purity obtained from 5 replicates resulted in 94.23% ± 0.88% (k = 2.06, for an approximately 95% confidence level). These studies aim in the future to develop the production of certified reference materials from NPs.

  4. Corrosion of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in 13 N boiling nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Mayuzumi, Masami; Kusanagi, Hideo; Takaku, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in boiling nitric acid was investigated for high purity Fe-18%Cr-12%Ni alloys and type 304L stainless steels (SS). Owing to very low impurity concentration, the solution treated high purity alloys show almost no intergranular corrosion while the type 304L SS show severe intergranular corrosion. Both in the high purity alloys and type 304L SS, aging treatments ranging from 873 K to 1073 K for 1 h enhance intergranular corrosion. During the aging treatments, impurities should be segregated to the grain boundaries. The corrosion behaviors were discussed from a standpoint of impurity segregation to grain boundaries. This study is of importance for purex reprocessing of spent fuels

  5. The Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Recovery of High-Purity Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James E.

    2012-06-01

    -bearing inputs, will be described in detail to demonstrate how typical chemical engineering unit process and unit operations have supplanted classic smelting and fire refining techniques. The Kennecott Copper Company, which has operated a hydrometallurgical circuit successfully for the recovery of high-purity silver from the slimes wet chlorination residue, has permitted me to provide some operation information and results using the technology. Both Phelps Dodge and Kennecott should be recognized for their forward-looking attitude in undertaking the conversion of conceptual chemistry into successful, full-scale plants. The process as employed at Phelps Dodge is discussed at length in reference (J.E. Hoffmann and B. Wesstrom: Hydrometallurgy, 1994, vol. 94, pp. 69-105).

  6. A light hydrocarbon fuel processor producing high-purity hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Daniel G.; Taylor, Kyle; Mason, Dylan

    This paper discusses the design process and presents performance data for a dual fuel (natural gas and LPG) fuel processor for PEM fuel cells delivering between 2 and 8 kW electric power in stationary applications. The fuel processor resulted from a series of design compromises made to address different design constraints. First, the product quality was selected; then, the unit operations needed to achieve that product quality were chosen from the pool of available technologies. Next, the specific equipment needed for each unit operation was selected. Finally, the unit operations were thermally integrated to achieve high thermal efficiency. Early in the design process, it was decided that the fuel processor would deliver high-purity hydrogen. Hydrogen can be separated from other gases by pressure-driven processes based on either selective adsorption or permeation. The pressure requirement made steam reforming (SR) the preferred reforming technology because it does not require compression of combustion air; therefore, steam reforming is more efficient in a high-pressure fuel processor than alternative technologies like autothermal reforming (ATR) or partial oxidation (POX), where the combustion occurs at the pressure of the process stream. A low-temperature pre-reformer reactor is needed upstream of a steam reformer to suppress coke formation; yet, low temperatures facilitate the formation of metal sulfides that deactivate the catalyst. For this reason, a desulfurization unit is needed upstream of the pre-reformer. Hydrogen separation was implemented using a palladium alloy membrane. Packed beds were chosen for the pre-reformer and reformer reactors primarily because of their low cost, relatively simple operation and low maintenance. Commercial, off-the-shelf balance of plant (BOP) components (pumps, valves, and heat exchangers) were used to integrate the unit operations. The fuel processor delivers up to 100 slm hydrogen >99.9% pure with <1 ppm CO, <3 ppm CO 2. The

  7. Recent advancements in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Moss, Robert J.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing. (paper)

  8. Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bei Lok

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein–Langevin equation, which has, in addition, sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operator-valued stress-energy bitensor, which describes the fluctuations of quantum-matter fields in curved spacetimes. A new improved criterion for the validity of semiclassical gravity may also be formulated from the viewpoint of this theory. In the first part of this review we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. The axiomatic approach is useful to see the structure of the theory from the framework of semiclassical gravity, showing the link from the mean value of the stress-energy tensor to the correlation functions. The functional approach uses the Feynman–Vernon influence functional and the Schwinger–Keldysh closed-time-path effective action methods. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic-gravity viewpoint, which can go beyond the standard treatment by incorporating the full quantum effect of the inflaton fluctuations. Third, using the Einstein–Langevin equation, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation and the behavior of metric fluctuations for both the quasi-equilibrium condition of a black-hole in a box and the fully nonequilibrium condition of an evaporating black hole spacetime. Finally, we briefly discuss the theoretical structure of stochastic gravity in relation to quantum gravity and point out

  9. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for ES03 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, Virginia, Delaware, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data...

  10. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN10 (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the...

  11. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN09 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 1 survey. This data set is...

  12. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  13. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.

  14. Why is gravity so weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Why is gravity weak? Gravity is plagued with this and many other questions. After decades of exhausting work we do not have a clear answer. In view of this fact it will be shown in the following pages that there are reasons for thinking that gravity is just a composite force consisting of the long-range manifestations of short range nuclear forces that are too tiny to be measured at illuminated or long ranges by particle colliders. This is consistent with Einstein's proposal in 1919

  15. Mars - Hellas Planitia gravity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Wimberley, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Doppler radio tracking data from Viking Orbiter 1 has provided new detailed observations of gravity variations over Hellas Planitia. Line-of-sight Bouguer gravity definitely indicates that isostatic adjustment has occurred. Two theoretical models were tested to obtain fits to the gravity data. Results for a surface deficit model, and a model with a surface deficit and a mass excess at depth are displayed. The mass-at-depth model produced very marked improvement in the data fit as compared to the surface deficit model. The optimum depth for the mass excess is 130 km.

  16. Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware–Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity. (paper)

  17. [Research on determination of chemical purity of andrographolide by coulometric titration method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Yang, Dezhi; Xu, Lishen; Lv, Yang

    2010-04-01

    The determination of chemical purity of andrographolide by coulometric titration method is studied in this paper. The coulometric titration was carried out in a mixture composed of 4 mol x L(-1) hydrochloric acid and 1 mol x L(-1) potassium bromide solution and 1 mol x L(-1) potassium nitrate solution (1:1). Bromine is electrogenerated at the anode and reacts with the andrographolide. The number of electrons involved in the eleatrode reaction is 2. Purity of andrographolide is 99.76% compared with 99.77% utilizing area normalization method by HPLC. The RSD are 0.33% and 0.02% respectively. The results from two methods are consistent, so the determination of chemical purity of andrographolide by coulometric titration method is scientific and feasible. The method is rapid, simple, convenient, sensitive and accurate. The reference material is not essential in the method. The method is suitable for determination of chemical purity of andrographolide.

  18. Void swelling in fast reactor irradiated high purity binary iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.A.; Stow, D.A.

    The void swelling characteristics of a series of high purity binary iron-chromium alloys containing 0 - 615 0 C. The void swelling behaviour can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of point defect trapping and precipitation processes involving chromium atoms

  19. Purity Evaluation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goak, Jeung Choon; Kim, Tae Yang; Jung, Jongwan; Seo, Young-Soo; Lee, Naesung; Sok, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the purity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the arc-synthesized SWCNT samples by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The as-produced SWCNT samples were heat-treated in air for 20 h at 275-475°C and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and TGA to establish oxidation temperature ranges of SWCNTs and carbonaceous impurities comprising the samples. Based on these oxidation temperature ranges, derivative thermogravimetric curves were deconvoluted, and differentiated peaks were assigned to SWCNTs and carbonaceous impurities. The compositions and the SWCNT purities of the samples were obtained simply by calculating the areal ratios under the deconvoluted curves. TGA studies on purity evaluation and thermal stabilities of SWCNTs and carbonaceous impurities are likely to provide us with a simple route of thermal oxidation purification to acquire high-purity SWCNT samples.

  20. Purity and Defect Characterization of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumitsu Miyata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the purity and defects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced by various synthetic methods including chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge, and laser ablation. The SWCNT samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of SEM images suggested that the G-band Raman intensity serves as an index for the purity. By contrast, the intensity ratio of G-band to D-band (G/D ratio reflects both the purity and the defect density of SWCNTs. The combination of G-band intensity and G/D ratio is useful for a quick, nondestructive evaluation of the purity and defect density of a SWCNT sample.

  1. Confined recrystallization of high-purity aluminium during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhonin, Paul; Beausir, Benoît; Scharnweber, Juliane; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Hausöl, Tina; Höppel, Heinz Werner; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Skrotzki, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium laminates consisting of high-purity aluminium and commercially pure aluminium have been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at ambient temperature for up to 10 cycles. To study the microstructure and texture development of the high-purity aluminium layers with regard to the shrinking layer thickness during ARB, microstructure and texture investigations were carried out by electron backscatter diffraction and neutron and X-ray diffraction, respectively. While the commercially pure aluminium layers develop an ultrafine-grained microstructure, partial discontinuous recrystallization occurs in the high-purity layers. The texture of the high-purity layers mainly consists of Cube and “Tilted Cube” (tilted with respect to the transverse direction) components. The experimental results are discussed with respect to confined recrystallization in the ARB aluminium laminates.

  2. Gauge theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The relatively simple Fibre-Bundle geometry of a Yang-Mills gauge theory - mainly the clear distinction between base and fibre - made it possible, between 1953 and 1971, to construct a fully quantized version and prove that theory's renormalizability; moreover, nonperturbative (topological) solutions were subsequently found in both the fully symmetric and the spontaneously broken modes (instantons, monopoles). Though originally constructed as a model formalism, it became in 1974 the mathematical mold holding the entire Standard Model (i.e. QCD and the Electroweak theory). On the other hand, between 1974 and 1984, Einstein's theory was shown to be perturbatively nonrenormalizable. Since 1974, the search for Quantum Gravity has therefore provided the main motivation for the construction of Gauge Theories of Gravity. Earlier, however, in 1958-76 several such attempts were initiated, for aesthetic or heuristic reasons, to provide a better understanding of the algebraic structure of GR. A third motivation has come from the interest in Unification, making it necessary to bring GR into a form compatible with an enlargement of the Standard Model. Models can be classified according to the relevant structure group in the fibre. Within the Poincare group, this has been either the R 4 translations, or the Lorentz group SL(2, C) - or the entire Poincare SL(2, C) x R 4 . Enlarging the group has involved the use of the Conformal SU(2, 2), the special Affine SA(4, R) = SL(4, R) x R 4 or Affine A(4, R) groups. Supergroups have included supersymmetry, i.e. the graded-Poincare group (n =1...8 m its extensions) or the superconformal SU(2, 2/n). These supergravity theories have exploited the lessons of the aesthetic-heuristic models - Einstein-Cartan etc. - and also achieved the Unification target. Although perturbative renormalizability has been achieved in some models, whether they satisfy unitarity is not known. The nonperturbative Ashtekar program has exploited the understanding of

  3. Analysis technique of impurity in high purity deuterium by cryogenic gas-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junbo; Gao Liping

    2007-01-01

    A veracious and applicable quantitative analysis method of O 2 , N 2 and H 2 , HD in high purity deuterium by the chromatogram columniation filled with 5A molecular sieve and alumina was researched and constituted at natural temperature and 77 K, respectively. Minimum detecting limit of the present method is (150-200) x 10 -6 for H 2 and HD, and it can meet the need of quantitative analysis of the impurity during high purity deuterium preparation. (authors)

  4. Renormalization and asymptotic freedom in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomboulis, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews some recent attempts to construct satisfactory theories of quantum gravity within the framework of local, continuum field theory. Quantum gravity; the renormalization group and its fixed points; fixed points and dimensional continuation in gravity; and quantum gravity at d=4-the 1/N expansion-asymptotic freedom; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe.   While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.   ...

  6. Topological gravity with minimal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keke

    1991-01-01

    Topological minimal matter, obtained by twisting the minimal N = 2 supeconformal field theory, is coupled to two-dimensional topological gravity. The free field formulation of the coupled system allows explicit representations of BRST charge, physical operators and their correlation functions. The contact terms of the physical operators may be evaluated by extending the argument used in a recent solution of topological gravity without matter. The consistency of the contact terms in correlation functions implies recursion relations which coincide with the Virasoro constraints derived from the multi-matrix models. Topological gravity with minimal matter thus provides the field theoretic description for the multi-matrix models of two-dimensional quantum gravity. (orig.)

  7. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity.

  8. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R

    2007-01-01

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity

  9. Random manifolds and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywicki, A.

    2000-01-01

    The non-perturbative, lattice field theory approach towards the quantization of Euclidean gravity is reviewed. Included is a tentative summary of the most significant results and a presentation of the current state of art

  10. Gravity Data For Colombia 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (9,050 records), were observed and processed by the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi(IGAC), in Colombia from 1958 to 1996. This data...

  11. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  12. Unifying Einstein and Palatini gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, Luca; Enqvist, Kari; Koivisto, Tomi

    2011-01-01

    We consider a novel class of f(R) gravity theories where the connection is related to the conformally scaled metric g μν =C(R)g μν with a scaling that depends on the scalar curvature R only. We call them C theories and show that the Einstein and Palatini gravities can be obtained as special limits. In addition, C theories include completely new physically distinct gravity theories even when f(R)=R. With nonlinear f(R), C theories interpolate and extrapolate the Einstein and Palatini cases and may avoid some of their conceptual and observational problems. We further show that C theories have a scalar-tensor formulation, which in some special cases reduces to simple Brans-Dicke-type gravity. If matter fields couple to the connection, the conservation laws in C theories are modified. The stability of perturbations about flat space is determined by a simple condition on the Lagrangian.

  13. Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

  14. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  15. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations

  16. Gravity from strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1987-01-01

    We obtain the Einstein action plus quadratic curvature corrections generated by closed bosonic, heterotic and supersymmetric strings by matching the four-graviton amplitude (to first order in the slope parameter and fourth power of momenta) with an effective local gravitational action. The resulting corrections are first shown to be of the Gauss-Bonnet form. It is then noted that, by the very nature of the slope expansion, the field-redefinition theorem applies. Consequently, only the curvature-squared term is determined, while squares of its contractions are explicitly seen not to contribute. This latter property has a generalization to all orders which implies that the effective gravitational action is unavoidably ghost-free. The properties of solutions to these corrected theories are then examined. First neglecting dilatons, we find the explicit 'Schwarzschild' metrics. Both asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions are present. The latter are however shown to be unstable. The former have horizons and singularities which are respectively smaller and less violent than in Einstein gravity; the correct sign of the slope parameter also ensures absence of naked singularities. When dilatons are included, the cosmological vacua are gratifyingly excluded. (orig.)

  17. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  18. Phases of massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovsky, S L

    2004-01-01

    We systematically study the most general Lorentz-violating graviton mass invariant under three-dimensional Eucledian group using the explicitly covariant language. We find that at general values of mass parameters the massive graviton has six propagating degrees of freedom, and some of them are ghosts or lead to rapid classical instabilities. However, there is a number of different regions in the mass parameter space where massive gravity can be described by a consistent low-energy effective theory with cutoff $\\sim\\sqrt{mM_{Pl}}$ free of rapid instabilities and vDVZ discontinuity. Each of these regions is characterized by certain fine-tuning relations between mass parameters, generalizing the Fierz--Pauli condition. In some cases the required fine-tunings are consequences of the existence of the subgroups of the diffeomorphism group that are left unbroken by the graviton mass. We found two new cases, when the resulting theories have a property of UV insensitivity, i.e. remain well behaved after inclusion of ...

  19. Distinguishing modified gravity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.

  20. Nonperturbative quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Görlich, A.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

    2012-01-01

    Asymptotic safety describes a scenario in which general relativity can be quantized as a conventional field theory, despite being nonrenormalizable when expanding it around a fixed background geometry. It is formulated in the framework of the Wilsonian renormalization group and relies crucially on the existence of an ultraviolet fixed point, for which evidence has been found using renormalization group equations in the continuum. “Causal Dynamical Triangulations” (CDT) is a concrete research program to obtain a nonperturbative quantum field theory of gravity via a lattice regularization, and represented as a sum over spacetime histories. In the Wilsonian spirit one can use this formulation to try to locate fixed points of the lattice theory and thereby provide independent, nonperturbative evidence for the existence of a UV fixed point. We describe the formalism of CDT, its phase diagram, possible fixed points and the “quantum geometries” which emerge in the different phases. We also argue that the formalism may be able to describe a more general class of Hořava–Lifshitz gravitational models.

  1. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  2. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q 0 -values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3–1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb of medium (RRR = 100–150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q 0 -value of 2 × 10 10 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. The performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching. (paper)

  3. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q 0-values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3-1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb of medium (RRR = 100-150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q 0-value of 2 × 1010 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. The performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching.

  4. PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.

  5. Radion and holographic brane gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    The low energy effective theory for the Randall-Sundrum two-brane system is investigated with an emphasis on the role of the nonlinear radion in the brane world. The equations of motion in the bulk are solved using a low energy expansion method. This allows us, through the junction conditions, to deduce the effective equations of motion for gravity on the brane. It is shown that the gravity on the brane world is described by a quasi-scalar-tensor theory with a specific coupling function ω(Ψ)=3Ψ/2(1-Ψ) on the positive tension brane and ω(Φ)=-3Φ/2(1+Φ) on the negative tension brane, where Ψ and Φ are nonlinear realizations of the radion on the positive and negative tension branes, respectively. In contrast with the usual scalar-tensor gravity, the quasi-scalar-tensor gravity couples with two kinds of matter; namely, the matter on both positive and negative tension branes, with different effective gravitational coupling constants. In particular, the radion disguised as the scalar fields Ψ and Φ couples with the sum of the traces of the energy-momentum tensor on both branes. In the course of the derivation, it is revealed that the radion plays an essential role in converting the nonlocal Einstein gravity with generalized dark radiation to local quasi-scalar-tensor gravity. For completeness, we also derive the effective action for our theory by substituting the bulk solution into the original action. It is also shown that quasi-scalar-tensor gravity works as a hologram at low energy in the sense that the bulk geometry can be reconstructed from the solution of quasi-scalar-tensor gravity

  6. Curved backgrounds in emergent gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Shikha; Erlich, Joshua; Zhou, Yiyu

    2018-06-01

    Field theories that are generally covariant but nongravitational at tree level typically give rise to an emergent gravitational interaction whose strength depends on a physical regulator. We consider emergent gravity models in which scalar fields assume the role of clock and rulers, addressing the problem of time in quantum gravity. We discuss the possibility of nontrivial dynamics for clock and ruler fields, and describe some of the consequences of those dynamics for the emergent gravitational theory.

  7. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  8. Scattering of internal gravity waves

    OpenAIRE

    Leaman Nye, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Internal gravity waves play a fundamental role in the dynamics of stably stratified regions of the atmosphere and ocean. In addition to the radiation of momentum and energy remote from generation sites, internal waves drive vertical transport of heat and mass through the ocean by wave breaking and the mixing subsequently produced. Identifying regions where internal gravity waves contribute to ocean mixing and quantifying this mixing are therefore important for accurate climate ...

  9. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  10. Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Calmet, Xavier; Latosh, Boris

    2018-01-01

    We show that quantum gravity, whatever its ultra-violet completion might be, could account for dark matter. Indeed, besides the massless gravitational field recently observed in the form of gravitational waves, the spectrum of quantum gravity contains two massive fields respectively of spin 2 and spin 0. If these fields are long-lived, they could easily account for dark matter. In that case, dark matter would be very light and only gravitationally coupled to the standard model particles.

  11. The quest for quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, G.

    1995-03-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing theoretical physics lies in reconciling Einstein's classical theory of gravity - general relativity -with quantum field theory. Although both theories have been experimentally supported in their respective regimes, they are as compatible as a square peg and a round hole. This article summarises the current status of the superstring approach to the problem, the status of the Ashtekar program, and problem of time in quantum gravity

  12. Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2010-01-01

    We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...

  13. Gravity as a thermodynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Moustos, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The analogy between the laws of black hole mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics led Bekenstein and Hawking to argue that black holes should be considered as real thermodynamic systems that are characterised by entropy and temperature. Black hole thermodynamics indicates a deeper connection between thermodynamics and gravity. We review and examine in detail the arguments that suggest an interpretation of gravity itself as a thermodynamic theory.

  14. The quest for quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, G

    1995-03-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing theoretical physics lies in reconciling Einstein`s classical theory of gravity - general relativity -with quantum field theory. Although both theories have been experimentally supported in their respective regimes, they are as compatible as a square peg and a round hole. This article summarises the current status of the superstring approach to the problem, the status of the Ashtekar program, and problem of time in quantum gravity.

  15. Fabrication of high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) on low purity aluminum—A comparative study with the AAO produced on high purity aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Norek, Małgorzata; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Budner, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous alumina was fabricated by anodization in sulfuric acid solution with glycol. • The AAO manufacturing on low- and high-purity Al was compared. • The pores size was ranging between 30 and 50 nm. • No difference in the quality of the AAO fabricated on both Al types was observed. • The current vs. anodization time curves were recorded. -- Abstract: In this work the quality, arrangement, composition, and regularity of nanoporous AAO formed on the low-purity (AA1050) and high-purity aluminum during two-step anodization in a mixture of sulfuric acid solution (0.3 M), water and glycol (3:2, v/v), at various voltages (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 V) and at temperature of −1 °C, are investigated. The electrochemical conditions have allowed to obtain pores with the size ranging from 30 to 50 nm, which are much larger than those usually obtained by anodization in a pure sulfuric acid solution (<20 nm). The mechanism of the AAO growth is discussed. It was found that with the increase of applied anodizing voltage a number of incorporated sulfate ions in the aluminum oxide matrix increases, which was connected with the appearance of an unusual area in the current vs. time curves. On the surface of anodizing low- and high-purity aluminum, the formation of hillocks was observed, which was associated with the sulfate ions incorporation. The sulfate ions are replacing the oxygen atom/atoms in the AAO amorphous crystal structure and, consequently, the AAO template swells, the oxide cracks and uplifts causing the formation of hillocks. The same mechanism occurs for both low- and high-purity aluminum. Nanoporous AAO characterized by a very high regularity, not registered previously for low purity aluminum, was obtained. Furthermore, no significant difference in the regularity ratio between the AAO obtained on low- and high-purity aluminum, was observed. The electrochemical conditions applied in this study can be, thus, used for the fabrication of high quality

  16. Gravity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...

  17. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  18. Relativistic theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes

  19. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer has been constructed and tested. Coupling to gravity signals is obtained by having two superconducting proof masses modulate magnetic fields produced by persistent currents. The induced electrical currents are differenced by a passive superconducting circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device. The experimental behavior of this device has been shown to follow the theoretical model closely in both signal transfer and noise characteristics. While its intrinsic noise level is shown to be 0.07 E Hz/sup -1/2/ (1 Eequivalent10/sup -9/ sec/sup -2/), the actual performance of the gravity gradiometer on a passive platform has been limited to 0.3--0.7 E Hz/sup -1/2/ due to its coupling to the environmental noise. The detailed structure of this excess noise is understood in terms of an analytical error model of the instrument. The calibration of the gradiometer has been obtained by two independent methods: by applying a linear acceleration and a gravity signal in two different operational modes of the instrument. This device has been successfully operated as a detector in a new null experiment for the gravitational inverse-square law. In this paper we report the design, fabrication, and detailed test results of the superconducting gravity gradiometer. We also present additional theoretical analyses which predict the specific dynamic behavior of the gradiometer and of the test

  20. Purity-activity relationships of natural products: the case of anti-TB active ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Chadwick, Lucas R; Lankin, David C; Zhang, Fangqiu; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-10-01

    The present study explores the variability of biological responses from the perspective of sample purity and introduces the concept of purity-activity relationships (PARs) in natural product research. The abundant plant triterpene ursolic acid (1) was selected as an exemplary natural product due to the overwhelming number yet inconsistent nature of its approximate 120 reported biological activities, which include anti-TB potential. Nine different samples of ursolic acid with purity certifications were obtained, and their purity was independently assessed by means of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR). Biological evaluation consisted of determining MICs against two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IC50 values in Vero cells. Ab initio structure elucidation provided unequivocal structural confirmation and included an extensive 1H NMR spin system analysis, determination of nearly all J couplings and the complete NOE pattern, and led to the revision of earlier reports. As a net result, a sigmoid PAR profile of 1 was obtained, demonstrating the inverse correlation of purity and anti-TB bioactivity. The results imply that synergistic effects of 1 and its varying impurities are the likely cause of previously reported antimycobacterial potential. Generating PARs is a powerful extension of the routinely performed quantitative correlation of structure and activity ([Q]SAR). Advanced by the use of primary analytical methods such as qHNMR, PARs enable the elucidation of cases like 1 when increasing purity voids biological activity. This underlines the potential of PARs as a tool in drug discovery and synergy research and accentuates the need to routinely combine biological testing with purity assessment.

  1. Light fermions in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of quantum gravity, formulated as a quantum field theory of the metric, on chiral symmetry in a fermionic matter sector. Specifically we address the question of whether metric fluctuations can induce chiral symmetry breaking and bound state formation. Our results based on the functional renormalization group indicate that chiral symmetry is left intact even at strong gravitational coupling. In particular, we found that asymptotically safe quantum gravity where the gravitational couplings approach a non-Gaußian fixed point generically admits universes with light fermions. Our results thus further support quantum gravity theories built on fluctuations of the metric field such as the asymptotic-safety scenario. A study of chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational quantum effects may also serve as a significant benchmark test for other quantum gravity scenarios, since a completely broken chiral symmetry at the Planck scale would not be in accordance with the observation of light fermions in our universe. We demonstrate that this elementary observation already imposes constraints on a generic UV completion of gravity. (paper)

  2. Quantum gravity as Escher's dragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The main obstacle in attempts to construct a consistent quantum gravity is the absence of independent flat time. This can in principle be cured by going out to higher dimensions. The modern paradigm assumes that the fundamental theory of everything is some form of string theory living in space of more than four dimensions. We advocate another possibility that the fundamental theory is a form of D = 4 higher derivative gravity. This class of theories has a nice feature of renormalizability, so that perturbative calculations are feasible. There are also finite N = 4 supersymmetric conformal supergravity theories. This possibility is particularly attractive. Einstein's gravity is obtained in a natural way as an effective low-energy theory. The N= 1 supersymmetric version of the theory has a natural higher dimensional interpretation due to V.I. Ogievetsky and E.S. Sokatchev, which involves embedding our curved Minkowski spacetime manifold into flat eight-dimensional space. Assuming that a variant of the finite N = 4 theory also admits a similar interpretation, this may eventually allow one to construct consistent quantum theory of gravity. We argue, however, that, even though future gravity theory will probably use higher dimensions as construction scaffolds, its physical content and meaning should refer to four dimensions, where an observer lives

  3. The Juno Gravity Science Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.

  4. Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...

  5. Scale-invariant gravity: geometrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward; Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan; Murchadha, Niall O

    2003-01-01

    We present a scale-invariant theory, conformal gravity, which closely resembles the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity (GR). While previous attempts to create scale-invariant theories of gravity have been based on Weyl's idea of a compensating field, our direct approach dispenses with this and is built by extension of the method of best matching w.r.t. scaling developed in the parallel particle dynamics paper by one of the authors. In spatially compact GR, there is an infinity of degrees of freedom that describe the shape of 3-space which interact with a single volume degree of freedom. In conformal gravity, the shape degrees of freedom remain, but the volume is no longer a dynamical variable. Further theories and formulations related to GR and conformal gravity are presented. Conformal gravity is successfully coupled to scalars and the gauge fields of nature. It should describe the solar system observations as well as GR does, but its cosmology and quantization will be completely different

  6. Gravity gradient preprocessing at the GOCE HPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, J.; Rispens, S.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Tscherning, C. C.; Veicherts, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the products derived from the GOCE observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. In order to use these gravity gradients for application in Earth sciences and gravity field analysis, additional pre-processing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and non-tidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection the 1/f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this method.

  7. Generalized uncertainty principle, quantum gravity and Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a close connection between generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and deformed Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity. The GUP commutation relations correspond to the UV-quantum theory, while the canonical commutation relations represent the IR-quantum theory. Inspired by this UV/IR quantum mechanics, we obtain the GUP-corrected graviton propagator by introducing UV-momentum p i =p 0i (1+βp 0 2 ) and compare this with tensor propagators in the HL gravity. Two are the same up to p 0 4 -order.

  8. Dilaton gravity, Poisson sigma models and loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Reyes, Juan D

    2009-01-01

    Spherically symmetric gravity in Ashtekar variables coupled to Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions and its relation to dilaton gravity and Poisson sigma models are discussed. After introducing its loop quantization, quantum corrections for inverse triad components are shown to provide a consistent deformation without anomalies. The relation to Poisson sigma models provides a covariant action principle of the quantum-corrected theory with effective couplings. Results are also used to provide loop quantizations of spherically symmetric models in arbitrary D spacetime dimensions.

  9. Dualities and emergent gravity: Gauge/gravity duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Sebastian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper I develop a framework for relating dualities and emergence: two notions that are close to each other but also exclude one another. I adopt the conception of duality as 'isomorphism', from the physics literature, cashing it out in terms of three conditions. These three conditions prompt two conceptually different ways in which a duality can be modified to make room for emergence; and I argue that this exhausts the possibilities for combining dualities and emergence (via coarse-graining). I apply this framework to gauge/gravity dualities, considering in detail three examples: AdS/CFT, Verlinde's scheme, and black holes. My main point about gauge/gravity dualities is that the theories involved, qua theories of gravity, must be background-independent. I distinguish two senses of background-independence: (i) minimalistic and (ii) extended. I argue that the former is sufficiently strong to allow for a consistent theory of quantum gravity; and that AdS/CFT is background-independent on this account; while Verlinde's scheme best fits the extended sense of background-independence. I argue that this extended sense should be applied with some caution: on pain of throwing the baby (general relativity) out with the bath-water (extended background-independence). Nevertheless, it is an interesting and potentially fruitful heuristic principle for quantum gravity theory construction. It suggests some directions for possible generalisations of gauge/gravity dualities. The interpretation of dualities is discussed; and the so-called 'internal' vs. 'external' viewpoints are articulated in terms of: (i) epistemic and metaphysical commitments; (ii) parts vs. wholes. I then analyse the emergence of gravity in gauge/gravity dualities in terms of the two available conceptualisations of emergence; and I show how emergence in AdS/CFT and in Verlinde's scenario differ from each other. Finally, I give a novel derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula based on

  10. A High-Purity Alumina for Use in Studies of Shock Loaded Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, David; Neel, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of plate impact experiments on a potential new ``standard'' material, Coorstek Plasmapure-UC (99.9% purity) polycrystalline alumina, for use in non-conduction, impact environment, shock loading studies. This work was motivated by a desire to find a 99.9% purity alumina to replace the now unavailable Coors Vistal (99.9%) alumina, as it was hoped the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) of the new standard would match the 9-11 GPa value of Vistal. Shock response data, including the HEL, Hugoniot particle velocities, Hugoniot shock velocities, stress vs volume, and release wave speeds, was obtained up to 14 GPa. This data will be compared with Hugoniot curve data for other high purity alumina to contrast differences in the shock response, and is intended to be useful in impedance matching calculations. We will show that the HEL of Plasmapure-UC alumina is 5.5 GPa and speculate on causes for this lower than expected value. We will also explore why the elastic-plastic response for Plasmapure-UC alumina differs from what has been observed from other high purity alumina. The final result of this work is to recommend a well-characterized, lower purity alumina (Coorstek AD-995) as a potential new ``standard'' material.

  11. High-temperature mechanical properties of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, M.; Harima, N.; Takaki, S.; Abiko, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2002-01-16

    An ingot of high-purity 70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy was prepared by high-frequency induction melting in a high-purity argon atmosphere using a cold copper crucible. Its tensile properties such as hot-ductility and tensile strength were measured, and compared with the results for a high-purity 50 mass% Cr-Fe alloy, a high-purity 60 mass% Cr-Fe alloy and a Ni-based super-alloy. The formation of {sigma}-phase was also examined. The purity of a 70Cr-Fe alloy (70 mass% Cr-Fe alloy) ingot is more than 99.98 mass% and the total amount of gaseous impurities (C, N, O, S, H) in the 70Cr-Fe alloy is 69.9 mass ppm. The strength of the 70Cr-Fe alloy is higher than those of the 60Cr-Fe alloy and the 50Cr-Fe alloy at the temperatures between 293 and 1573 K, without decrease in ductility with increasing Cr content. The 70Cr-Fe alloy also possesses excellent high-temperature ductility. The {sigma}-phase was not observed after aging of 3.6 Ms at 873 K. Consequently, the 70Cr-Fe alloy is an excellent alloy as the base of super heat-resistant alloys. (orig.)

  12. Partial gravity - Human impacts on facility design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Stephen; Moore, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Partial gravity affects the body differently than earth gravity and microgravity environments. The main difference from earth gravity is human locomotion; while the main dfference from microgravity is the specific updown orientation and reach envelopes which increase volume requirements. Much data are available on earth gravity and microgravity design; however, very little information is available on human reactions to reduced gravity levels in IVA situations (without pressure suits). Therefore, if humans commit to permanent lunar habitation, much research should be conducted in the area of partial gravity effects on habitat design.

  13. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2015)202.

  14. Universality of quantum gravity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C

    2008-11-28

    We show that the existence of a minimum measurable length and the related generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), predicted by theories of quantum gravity, influence all quantum Hamiltonians. Thus, they predict quantum gravity corrections to various quantum phenomena. We compute such corrections to the Lamb shift, the Landau levels, and the tunneling current in a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that these corrections can be interpreted in two ways: (a) either that they are exceedingly small, beyond the reach of current experiments, or (b) that they predict upper bounds on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, compatible with experiments at the electroweak scale. Thus, more accurate measurements in the future should either be able to test these predictions, or further tighten the above bounds and predict an intermediate length scale between the electroweak and the Planck scale.

  15. Experimental tests of relativistic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault

    2000-01-01

    The confrontation between Einstein's gravitation theory and experimental results, notably binary pulsar data, is summarized and its significance discussed. Experiment and theory agree at the 10 -3 level or better. All the basic structures of Einstein's theory (coupling of gravity matter; propagation and self-interaction of the gravitational field, including in strong field conditions) have been verified. However, the theoretical possibility that scalar couplings be naturally driven toward zero by the cosmological expansion suggests that the present agreement between Einstein's theory and experiment might be compatible with the existence of a long-range scalar contribution to gravity (such as the dilation field, or a moduli field, of string theory). This provides a new theoretical paradigm, and new motivations for improving the experimental tests of gravity

  16. Rheological measurements in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.

  17. Studies in gravity and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, L.

    1981-01-01

    The canonical treatment for theories with local gauge invariances is reviewed and an algorithm for the construction of all the gauge generators is found. This algorithm is then applied to Yang-Mills theories and to (metric) gravity. The first part of the work is concluded with a complete treatment of hamiltonian first order tetrad gravity. In the second part, the geometrical aspects of (super)gravity theories are concentrated on. After an interlude with path integrals in curved space (equivalence is shown with canonical quantization), N = 2 supergravity in superspace, and conformal supergravity in the group manifold scenario are studied. A progress report is added, regarding a study on higher divergences in quantum field theory

  18. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  19. Lorentzian wormholes in Lovelock gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Dayyani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the n-dimensional Lorentzian wormhole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. In contrast to Einstein gravity and as in the case of Gauss-Bonnet gravity, we find that the wormhole throat radius r 0 has a lower limit that depends on the Lovelock coefficients, the dimensionality of the spacetime, and the shape function. We study the conditions of having normal matter near the throat, and find that the matter near the throat can be normal for the region r 0 ≤r≤r max , where r max depends on the Lovelock coefficients and the shape function. We also find that the third order Lovelock term with negative coupling constant enlarges the radius of the region of normal matter, and conclude that the higher order Lovelock terms with negative coupling constants enlarge the region of normal matter near the throat.

  20. Observational tests of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhang Pengjie

    2008-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the Universe. Modified gravity theories have richer observational consequences for large-scale structures than conventional dark energy models, in that different observables are not described by a single growth factor even in the linear regime. We examine the relationships between perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields, and discuss strategies for measuring them using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering/dynamics, and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. We show how a broad class of gravity theories can be tested by combining these probes. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining two key functions: the ratio of the two metric potentials, and the ratio of the gravitational 'constant' in the Poisson equation to Newton's constant. We also discuss quasilinear effects that carry signatures of gravity, such as through induced three-point correlations. Clustering of dark energy can mimic features of modified gravity theories and thus confuse the search for distinct signatures of such theories. It can produce pressure perturbations and anisotropic stresses, which break the equality between the two metric potentials even in general relativity. With these two extra degrees of freedom, can a clustered dark energy model mimic modified gravity models in all observational tests? We show with specific examples that observational constraints on both the metric potentials and density perturbations can in principle distinguish modifications of gravity from dark energy models. We compare our result with other recent studies that have slightly different assumptions (and apparently contradictory conclusions).

  1. Acoustic-gravity nonlinear structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jovanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of nonlinear vortex structures associated with acoustic-gravity perturbations in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Besides the previously known Kelvin-Stewart cat's eyes, dipolar and tripolar structures, new solutions having the form of a row of counter-rotating vortices, and several weakly two-dimensional vortex chains are given. The existence conditions for these nonlinear structures are discussed with respect to the presence of inhomogeneities of the shear flows. The mode-coupling mechanism for the nonlinear generation of shear flows in the presence of linearly unstable acoustic-gravity waves, possibly also leading to intermittency and chaos, is presented.

  2. Lovelock-Brans-Dicke gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie Tian, David; Booth, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    According to Lovelock’s theorem, the Hilbert-Einstein and the Lovelock actions are indistinguishable from their field equations. However, they have different scalar-tensor counterparts, which correspond to the Brans-Dicke and the Lovelock-Brans-Dicke (LBD) gravities, respectively. In this paper the LBD model of alternative gravity with the Lagrangian density {{L}}{LBD}=\\frac{1}{16π }≤ft[φ ≤ft(R+\\frac{a}{\\sqrt{-g}}{}*{RR}+b{ G }\\right)-\\frac{{ω }{{L}}}{φ }{{{\

  3. Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhishen; Gan, Jiulin; Heng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yuqing; Li, Qingyu; Qian, Qi; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2015-11-16

    The purity of the synthesized orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) light in the fiber is inversely proportional to channel crosstalk level in the OAM optical fiber communication system. Here the relationship between the fiber structure and the purity is firstly demonstrated in theory. The graded-index optical fiber is proposed and designed for the OAM light propagation with the purity higher than 99.9%. 16 fiber modes (10 OAM modes) have been supported by a specific designed graded-index optical fiber with dispersion less than 35 ps/(km∙nm). Such fiber design has suppressed the intrinsic crosstalk to be lower than -30 dB, and can be potentially used for the long distance OAM optical communication system.

  4. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zhang, D X; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Jiang, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra. (paper)

  5. Method of determination of radiochemical purity of gallium-67 citrate injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanji

    1985-01-01

    A simple method is used to compare the effect of five developing agents on the radiochemical purity of neutral products of 67 GaCit and on Rsub(f) values. Two preferable developing agents are recommended as suitable for the identification of 67 GaCit injection in its production. The effect of six pH values of different developing agents on radiochemical purity, Rsub(f) and chromatogram are compared for the neutral products. The results of the experiments show that the ascending paper chromatography with 1:2:4 pyridine/ethanol/water and 85:15 methanol/water is preferable for the determination of the radiochemical purity of 67 GaCit. The other developing agents also can be used if there are not any impurities except gallium radioisotopes

  6. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  7. Tuning for optimal performance in angle control, uniformity, and energy purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Reuel B.; Olson, Joseph C.; Arevalo, Edwin A.; Downey, Daniel F.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in reducing the sizes of device structures and line widths place increasing demands on the accuracy of dopant placement and the control of dopant motion during activation anneals. Serial process high current ion implantation systems seek to produce beams in which the angles are controlled to high precision avoiding the angles introduced by conical structures used for holding wafers on spinning discs in batch systems. However, ion optical corrections and control of incident beam angle, dose uniformity, high throughput and energy purity often present apparently contradictory requirements in machine design. Data is presented to illustrate that tuning procedures can be used to simultaneously optimize angle purity in both x and y planes as well as control energy purity and dose uniformity

  8. Synthesis of high purity monoglycerides from crude glycerol and palm stearin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for the glycerolysis of palm stearin and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel process werefound to be a reaction temperature of 200oC with a molar ratio of crude glycerol to palm stearin of 2.5:1, and a reaction timeof 20 minutes. The yield and purity of monoglycerides obtained under these conditions was satisfactory as compared withthe glycerolysis of pure glycerol. To increase the purity of monoglycerides a two-step process, removal of residual glyceroland crystallization, was proposed instead of either vacuum or molecular distillation. Residual glycerol was removed byadding hydrochloric acid followed by washing with hot water. Optimum conditions for crystallization were achieved byusing isooctane as a solvent and a turbine impeller speed of 200 rpm at a crystallization temperature of 35oC. A purity notexceeding 99 percent of monoglycerides was obtained with monopalmitin as the major product.

  9. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for MS02 (2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data over southern Arizona and New Mexico overlapping into Mexico collected in 2016 over 2 surveys, AZ16-1 and AZ16-2. This data set is part of the...

  10. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  11. Enhanced color purity of blue OLEDs based on well-design structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianqian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Qingru; Xia, Shuzhen; Zhang, Bingyuan; Wang, Minghong; Fan, Quli

    2016-09-01

    We have fabricated blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with higher color purity and stability by optimizing the structure of the Glass/ITO/NPB(50 nm)/ BCzVBi (30 nm)/ TPBi (x nm)/Alq3(20 nm)/LiF/Al. The results show that the introducing of hole blocking layer(HBL) TPBi greatly can improve not only the color purity but the color stability, which owe to its higher the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) energy levels of 6.2 eV. We expect our work will be useful to optimizing the blue OLEDs structure to enhancing the color property.

  12. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled......-up biosynthesis reactions was established. Acylation reactions of rutin and palmitic or lauric acids were efficient in systems containing dried acetone and molecular sieves, yielding from 70–77% bioconversion after 96 h. Thereafter, high purity isolates (>97%) were easily obtained in significant quantities...

  13. Kit preparation of 153Sm-EDTMP and factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, G.; Tendilla, J.I.; Lopez-Gomez, M.A.; Aguilar-Hernandez, F.; Gonzalez-Zavala, M.A.; Parades-Gutierrez, L.; Avila-Ramirez, E.

    1996-01-01

    A fast kit method was developed for the production of 153 Sm-EDTMP in two steps avoiding the use of nitric acid, evaporation and sterilization of the final solution by autoclave. Methods of analysis for the determination of chemical and radiochemical purity in the radiopharmaceutical solution were established. Factors affecting radiochemical purity and stability of the complex as the molar ratio of EDTMP/Sm, concentration of phosphate buffer and neutralization of EDTMP prior kit preparation were also analyzed. The use of this radiopharmaceutical in rabbits and patients showed selective skeletal uptake. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Dependence on liquid temperature and purity of light emission characteristics in single cavitation bubble luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaglia, Mario O; Bonetto, Fabian J [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP8400, Rio Negro (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Instituto Balseiro, and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Laboratorio de Cavitacion y Biotecnologia, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP8400, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2004-02-15

    We produced single bubbles in water using a visible pulsed laser and studied the characteristics of the light emitted during the bubble collapse time as a function of the water temperature for different water purity values. The water temperature ranged from freezing point (0 deg. C) to near boiling. We measured the luminescence pulse for the mentioned temperature range at various purity values. We also obtained the average bubble lifetime and the average luminescence pulse emitted as a function of water temperature. The main conclusion was that the luminescence can be modified by the water quality and by the water temperature. Maximum luminescence was obtained near the water freezing point.

  15. Dependence on liquid temperature and purity of light emission characteristics in single cavitation bubble luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaglia, Mario O.; Bonetto, Fabian J.

    2004-01-01

    We produced single bubbles in water using a visible pulsed laser and studied the characteristics of the light emitted during the bubble collapse time as a function of the water temperature for different water purity values. The water temperature ranged from freezing point (0 deg. C) to near boiling. We measured the luminescence pulse for the mentioned temperature range at various purity values. We also obtained the average bubble lifetime and the average luminescence pulse emitted as a function of water temperature. The main conclusion was that the luminescence can be modified by the water quality and by the water temperature. Maximum luminescence was obtained near the water freezing point

  16. Preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate; Preparacao de nitrato de cerio de alta pureza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Daniela Moraes; Silva Queiroz, Carlos Alberto da; Santos Mucillo, Eliana Navarro dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The preparation of high-purity cerium nitrate has been carried out Cerium oxide has been prepared by fractioned precipitation and ionic exchange techniques, using a concentrate with approximately 85% of cerium oxide from NUCLEMON as raw material. Five sequential ion-exchange columns with a retention capacity of 170 g each have been used. The ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as eluent. The cerium content has been determined by gravimetry and iodometry techniques. The resulting cerium oxide has a purity > 99%. This material was transformed in cerium nitrate to be used as precursor for the preparation of Zirconia-ceria ceramics by the coprecipitation technique. (author) 2 tabs.

  17. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajdakhmedov, U.A.; Arslanov, Sh.S.; Vulikh, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  18. Dissolution of high-purity lead and subsequent crystal growth during the preparation of corrosion coupons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); McDougall, T.E.; Owen, D.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    High-purity lead discs were prepared using several combinations of polishing, rinsing and ultrasonic treatment. Physical degradation of the lead surface and the premature generation and deposition of oxides on the surface were observed for certain combinations of preparation steps. Ultrasonic treatment of the discs was found to be particularly detrimental as it induced significant crystal growth and, in several instances, deterioration of the polished surface. Simple air drying of freshly rinsed discs also led to oxide formation on the surface after as short a time as 1 min. An effective method for preparing discs from high-purity lead is described. (author)

  19. Dissolution of high-purity lead and subsequent crystal growth during the preparation of corrosion coupons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarvey, G.B.; McDougall, T.E.; Owen, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    High-purity lead discs were prepared using several combinations of polishing, rinsing and ultrasonic treatment. Physical degradation of the lead surface and the premature generation and deposition of oxides on the surface were observed for certain combinations of preparation steps. Ultrasonic treatment of the discs was found to be particularly detrimental as it induced significant crystal growth and, in several instances, deterioration of the polished surface. Simple air drying of freshly rinsed discs also led to oxide formation on the surface after as short a time as 1 min. An effective method for preparing discs from high-purity lead is described. (author)

  20. Gravity Data for California and Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (88,514 records) were compiled largely from a state-wide regional gravity study program organized by the California Division of Mines and Geology in...

  1. Gravity Data for Indiana (300 records compiled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (300 records) were compiled by Purdue University. This data base was received in February 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air...

  2. Gravity Data for the Greater Portland Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,522 records) were compiled by the Portland State University. This data base was received in August 1990. Principal gravity parameters...

  3. Steps towards a quantum theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns simple experiments in quantum gravity. 'Schroedinger's Cat' experiment to test semiclassical quantum gravity, and the gravitational single slit experiment to demonstrate the wave-particle duality for photons, are both described and discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Idaho Batholith Study Area Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32,152 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  5. Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...

  6. SEG US Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEG gravity data are the product of the ad hoc Gravity Anomaly Map (GAM) Committee, sponsored by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the U.S....

  7. Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Rhinelader Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (195 records) were compiled by Barbara Eckstein. This data base was received in January 1987. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...

  8. Gravity Data For The State of Ohio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (6,591 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity parameters...

  9. Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Marshfield Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (8388 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in April 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...

  10. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  11. Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Prentice Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (898 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in January 1987. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...

  12. Gravity Data for the State of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity data for the entire state of Nevada and adjacent parts of California, Utah, and Arizona are presented. About 80,000 gravity stations were compiled primarily...

  13. Gravity Data For The State of Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (41,960 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  14. Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Sawyers Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (3814 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in April 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...

  15. Gravity Data for portions of Ohio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1,037 records) were compiled by Doctor Stierman. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...

  16. Maine Offshore Free-air Anomaly Gravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (5,363 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity parameters...

  17. Gravity theories in more than four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumino, B.

    1985-03-01

    String theories suggest particular forms for gravity interactions in higher dimensions. We consider an interesting class of gravity theories in more than four dimensions, clarify their geometric meaning and discuss their special properties. 9 refs

  18. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose; Ferraro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  19. Observing coseismic gravity change from the Japan Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake with GOCE gravity gradiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.J.; Bouman, J.; Broerse, D.B.T.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Tohoku-Oki earthquake (9.0 Mw) of 11 March 2011 has left signatures in the Earth's gravity field that are detectable by data of the Gravity field Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Because the European Space Agency's (ESA) satellite gravity mission Gravity field and

  20. Light, Gravity and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, David

    2012-01-01

    The nature of light and how it is affected by gravity is discussed. Einstein's prediction of the deflection of light as it passes near the Sun was verified by observations made during the solar eclipse of 1919. Another prediction was that of gravitational redshift, which occurs when light emitted by a star loses energy in the gravitational field…

  1. Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.

  2. Baby universes with induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Gao Hongbo

    1989-01-01

    In this paper some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. It is proved that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential

  3. Ghost quintessence in fractal gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost ... Here a(t) is the cosmic scale factor and it measures the expansion of the Universe. ..... effectively appear as self-conserved dark energy, with a non-trivial ...

  4. Gravity and body mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  5. Towards conformal loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2006-01-01

    A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity

  6. Antimatter, the SME, and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasson, Jay D., E-mail: jtasson@carleton.edu [Whitman College, Department of Physics (United States)

    2012-12-15

    A general field-theoretic framework for the analysis of CPT and Lorentz violation is provided by the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This work discusses a number SME-based proposals for tests of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, including antihydrogen spectroscopy and antimatter gravity tests.

  7. Antimatter, the SME, and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    A general field-theoretic framework for the analysis of CPT and Lorentz violation is provided by the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This work discusses a number SME-based proposals for tests of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, including antihydrogen spectroscopy and antimatter gravity tests.

  8. Topologically Massive Higher Spin Gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, A.; Lal, S.; Saha, A.; Sahoo, B.

    2011-01-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the

  9. Gravity across Space and Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasing, Mariko; Milionis, Petros; Zymek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    How well can the standard gravity equation account for the evolution of global trade flows over the long run? This paper provides the first systematic attempt to answer this question using a newly-assembled data set of bilateral trade flows, income levels and trade frictions that spans the years

  10. Ghost quintessence in fractal gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost dark energy model which was recently suggested to explain the present acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Next, we establish a connection between the quintessence scalar field and fractal ghost dark energy density.

  11. Quintic quasi-topological gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisterna, Adolfo [Vicerrectoría académica, Universidad Central de Chile,Toesca 1783 Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile,Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Guajardo, Luis; Hassaïne, Mokhtar [Instituto de Matemática y Física, Universidad de Talca,Casilla 747, Talca (Chile); Oliva, Julio [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla, 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-04-11

    We construct a quintic quasi-topological gravity in five dimensions, i.e. a theory with a Lagrangian containing R{sup 5} terms and whose field equations are of second order on spherically (hyperbolic or planar) symmetric spacetimes. These theories have recently received attention since when formulated on asymptotically AdS spacetimes might provide for gravity duals of a broad class of CFTs. For simplicity we focus on five dimensions. We show that this theory fulfils a Birkhoff’s Theorem as it is the case in Lovelock gravity and therefore, for generic values of the couplings, there is no s-wave propagating mode. We prove that the spherically symmetric solution is determined by a quintic algebraic polynomial equation which resembles Wheeler’s polynomial of Lovelock gravity. For the black hole solutions we compute the temperature, mass and entropy and show that the first law of black holes thermodynamics is fulfilled. Besides of being of fourth order in general, we show that the field equations, when linearized around AdS are of second order, and therefore the theory does not propagate ghosts around this background. Besides the class of theories originally introduced in https://arxiv.org/abs/1003.4773, the general geometric structure of these Lagrangians remains an open problem.

  12. The Lighter Side of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    From the drop of an apple to the stately dance of the galaxies, gravity is omnipresent in the Cosmos. Even with its high profile, gravity is the most enigmatic of all the known basic forces in nature. The Lighter Side of Gravity presents a beautifully clear and completely nontechnical introduction to the phenomenon of this force in all its manifestations. Astrophysicist Jayant Narlikar begins with an historical background to the discovery of the law of gravitation by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century. Using familiar analogies, interesting anecdotes, and numerous illustrations to get across subtle effects and difficult points to readers, he goes on to describe the general theory of relativity and some of its strange and unfamiliar ideas such as curved spacetime, the bending of light, and black holes. Since first publication in 1982 (W.H. Freeman), Dr. Narlikar has brought his book completely up to date and expanded it to include the discovery of gigantic gravitational lenses in space, the findings of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, the detection of dark matter in galaxies, the investigation of the very early Universe, and other new ideas in cosmology. This lucid and stimulating book presents a clear approach to the intriguing phenomenon of gravity for everyone who has ever felt caught in its grip. Jayant Narlikar is the winner of many astronomical prizes and the author of Introduction to Cosmology (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  13. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Testera, G; Lagomarsino, V E; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Nesteruk, K P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Mariazzi, S; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  14. A modified theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Pinto Neto, N.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of gravity wich considers the topological invariant I = R* α βμυ R αβμυ as one of the basic quantities to be present in the description of the dynamics of gravitational interactions is presented. A cosmical scenario induced by this theory is sketched. (Author) [pt

  15. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  16. Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toros, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A.; Barker, Peter F.; Kim, M. S.; Milburn, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no

  17. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    In this study, the GOCE (Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gradiometry data were used to study geologic structures and mass variations within the lithosphere in areas of known subduction zones. The advantage of gravity gradiometry over other gravity methods is that gradie...

  18. Workshop on Topics in Three Dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Gravity in three dimensions has rather special features which makes it particularly suitable for addressing questions related to the quantization of gravity and puzzles concerning black hole physics. AdS3 gravity and in particular AdS3/CFT2 has played a crucial role in black hole microstate counting, and more recently in studying holographic entanglement entropy and higher spin theories.

  19. 2-Dim. gravity and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    The role of 2-dim. gravity in string theory is discussed. In particular d=25 string theory coupled to 2-d. gravity is described and shown to give rise to the physics of the usual 26-dim. string theory (where one does not quantise 2-d. gravity. (orig.)

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Gravity: third edition Quantum Gravity: third edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    The request by Classical and Quantum Gravity to review the third edition of Claus Kiefer's 'Quantum Gravity' puts me in a slightly awkward position. This is a remarkably good book, which every person working in quantum gravity should have on the shelf. But in my opinion quantum gravity has undergone some dramatic advances in the last few years, of which the book makes no mention. Perhaps the omission only attests to the current vitality of the field, where progress is happening fast, but it is strange for me to review a thoughtful, knowledgeable and comprehensive book on my own field of research, which ignores what I myself consider the most interesting results to date. Kiefer's book is unique as a broad introduction and a reliable overview of quantum gravity. There are numerous books in the field which (often notwithstanding titles) focus on a single approach. There are also countless conference proceedings and article collections aiming to be encyclopaedic, but offering disorganized patchworks. Kiefer's book is a careful and thoughtful presentation of all aspects of the immense problem of quantum gravity. Kiefer is very learned, and brings together three rare qualities: he is pedagogical, he is capable of simplifying matter to the bones and capturing the essential, and he offers a serious and balanced evaluation of views and ideas. In a fractured field based on a major problem that does not yet have a solution, these qualities are precious. I recommend Kiefer's book to my students entering the field: to work in quantum gravity one needs a vast amount of technical knowledge as well as a grasp of different ideas, and Kiefer's book offers this with remarkable clarity. This novel third edition simplifies and improves the presentation of several topics, but also adds very valuable new material on quantum gravity phenomenology, loop quantum cosmology, asymptotic safety, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, analogue gravity, the holographic principle, and more. This is a testament

  1. Determination of the radiochemical purity of phosphorus-32 and tritium-labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, R.E.; Sheppard, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the radiochemical purity of labeled diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP), based on the irreversible inhibition reaction with the enzyme α-chymotrypsin. The nature of the impurities in commercially available 32 P- and 3 H-labeled DFP is discussed

  2. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Statistical distribution of the local purity in a large quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pasquale, A; Pascazio, S; Facchi, P; Giovannetti, V; Parisi, G; Scardicchio, A

    2012-01-01

    The local purity of large many-body quantum systems can be studied by following a statistical mechanical approach based on a random matrix model. Restricting the analysis to the case of global pure states, this method proved to be successful, and a full characterization of the statistical properties of the local purity was obtained by computing the partition function of the problem. Here we generalize these techniques to the case of global mixed states. In this context, by uniformly sampling the phase space of states with assigned global mixedness, we determine the exact expression of the first two moments of the local purity and a general expression for the moments of higher order. This generalizes previous results obtained for globally pure configurations. Furthermore, through the introduction of a partition function for a suitable canonical ensemble, we compute the approximate expression of the first moment of the marginal purity in the high-temperature regime. In the process, we establish a formal connection with the theory of quantum twirling maps that provides an alternative, possibly fruitful, way of performing the calculation. (paper)

  4. High-Purity Fe3S4 Greigite Microcrystals for Magnetic and Electrochemical Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Guowei; Zhang, Baomin; Yu, Feng; Novakova, Alla A.; Krivenkov, Maxim S.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Y.; Chang, Liao; Rao, Jiancun; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Blake, Graeme R.; de Groot, Robert A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Fe3S4 (greigite) microcrystals with octahedral shape were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method using a surfactant. The as-prepared samples have the inverse spinel structure with high crystallinity. The saturation magnetization (M-s) reaches 3.74 mu(B) at 5 K and 3.51 mu(B) at

  5. Measurement scheme for purity based on two two-body gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, H.; Tanaka, T.; Yuasa, K.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-04-01

    A scheme for measuring the purity of a quantum system with a finite number of levels is presented. The method makes use of two swap gates and hinges only on measurements performed on a reference system, prepared in a certain pure state and coupled with the target system. Neither tomographic methods, with the complete reconstruction of the state, nor interferometric setups are needed.

  6. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool

  7. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'-Val', P.P.; Kaufmann, Kh.-J.

    1983-01-01

    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples sub ected to microplastic deformation (epsilon 0 approximately 10 -4 , during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples

  8. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal-Val, P.P.; Kaufmann, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation. (author)

  9. Tests of ball bearing used in high-temperature and high-purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng Chengmu; Hao Shouxin.

    1987-01-01

    According to the particular conditions and the operation environments in high-temperature and high-purity water, the test content and the measurement instrumentation for the ball bearing were defined. Through various tests, operational performances of the bearing have preliminarily been understood. It provided some useful information for the engineering application of the bearing

  10. Definition of the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintibidze, N.; Valishvili, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of actual problems is the estimation of hygienic and ecological properties of fabrics on the basis of the data on the properties of initial fiber. In the present article, the definition of generalized criterion of the estimation of ecological purity of textile products is discussed. The estimation is based on the International Standard EKO-TEX-100, regulating the contents of inorganic and organic compounds in textile production. The determination of all listed substances is made according to appropriate techniques for each parameter. The quantity of substances is determined and compared with norms. The judgement about ecological purity is made by separate parameters. There is no uniform parameter which could estimate the degree of ecological purity of textile products. For calculating the generalized criterion of estimation of ecological purity of textile products, it is offered to estimate each criterion by the points corresponding to each factor. The textile product is recognized as ecologically pure (environment friendly) if the total estimate is more than 1. (author)

  11. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1.4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm 2 by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.)

  12. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, F.M.A.; Brandt, M.J.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2018-01-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority,

  13. Cross Purposes: Love and Purity at a Puerto Rican Protestant High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale-Collazo, James

    2013-01-01

    A "native" Christian ethnographer finds religious education at this church-sponsored school to pursue two distinct, and occasionally conflicting, curricula: "love" and "purity." The curriculum of love draws on what Turner called liminality and communitas in an effort to promote spiritual "encounters with…

  14. State-of-the-art in analytical characterization of high purity solid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Facilities and some results of several spectroscopic methods which have potential applications in the field of analysis of solid high purity substances and which have been elaborated in Russia, will be discussed in this paper. Laser nondispersive atomic fluorescence method with glow discharge cathode sputtering atomiser, ...

  15. Determination of radiochemistry purity and pH of radiopharmaceutical in Northeast nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Wellington; Santos, Poliane; Lima, Fernando de Andrade; Lima, Fabiana Farias de

    2013-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical is a chemical compound associated with a radionuclide, which is selected so that meets the need cf diagnosis and capable of producing quality images. Drugs labeled with 99m Tc radionuclide kits consist of lyophilized, and be handled by the nuclear medicine services (NMS) must pass tests as the resolution of ANVISA (RDC 38) published in 2008. Among these tests are those of radiochemical purity and pH determination. This study evaluated the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals and pH SMN manipulated in the Northeast. The radiochemical purity (RCP) was determined by thin layer chromatography, which were used Whatman ® and silica gel, with dimensions of 1 x 10 cm, as stationary phase, and solvents indicated in the inserts of manufacturers. The chromatographic strips were placed in sealed containers so as not to touch the walls thereof. After the chromatographic run, the tape was cut every centimeter and the activities determined in doses of each calibrator NMS. The pH of the radiopharmaceutical was assessed through the use of universal pH paper (Merck®) and obtained staining compared with its color scale. The results showed (hat 82.6% and 100% of the radiopharmaceuticals of the samples were within the limits recommended by international pharmacopoeias for radiochemical purity and pl-l, respectively. There is then the need to include in routine tests indicated SMN by ANVISA. Well, they can detect possible problems in the marking of radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patient and avoid inappropriate material. (author)

  16. Evaluation of radiochemical purities of some radiopharmaceuticals in Shiraz Namazi teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadeghpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many radiopharmaceuticals, as a special group of drugs, are eventually prepared at the nuclear medicine departments of the hospitals. Therefore, their quality control procedures such as sterility tests, radionuclide, radiochemical and chemical purity should be carried out in the hospitals. In this study, radiochemical purity for more than 300 preparations of three different radiopharmaceutical formulations from commercial kits were tested using instant thin layer chromatography. The formulations 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-MIBI were obtained from Pars Isotope Co. Several paper chromatographic systems including standard and factory recommended thin layer chromatography systems were used in this study. In addition different equipments for detection of radioactivity in paper chromatography like gamma camera and dose calibrator were used. The results showed that the most observed impurities were hydrolyzed reduced technetium (HR-Tc. There were no significant differences between calculated 99mTc-MIBI radiochemical purities when the radioactive detection device was gamma camera instead of dose calibrator. In case of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-MDP, there were significant differences in detection of HR-Tc. On the contrary, no significant differences in free pertechnetate were observed when package insert procedures for quality control were used instead of those recommended in the references. Finally, we observed that the package insert procedures for quality control can offer higher radiochemical purities.

  17. Effect of Aluminum Purity on the Pore Formation of Porous Anodic Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2014-01-01

    Anodic alumina oxide (AAO), a self-ordered hexagonal array, has various applications in nanofabrication such as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. In order to obtain highly ordered porous alumina membranes, a two-step anodization or prepatterning of aluminum are mainly conducted with straight electric field. Electric field is the main driving force for pore growth during anodization. However, impurities in aluminum can disturb the direction of the electric field. To confirm this, we anodized two different aluminum foil samples with high purity (99.999%) and relatively low purity (99.8%), and compared the differences in the surface morphologies of the respective aluminum oxide membranes produced in different electric fields. Branched pores observed in porous alumina surface which was anodized in low-purity aluminum and the size; dimensions of the pores were found to be usually smaller than those obtained from high-purity aluminum. Moreover, anodization at high voltage proceeds to a significant level of conversion because of the high speed of the directional electric field. Consequently, anodic alumina membrane of a specific morphology, i. e., meshed pore, was produced

  18. Effect of Aluminum Purity on the Pore Formation of Porous Anodic Alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok [Sookmyung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Anodic alumina oxide (AAO), a self-ordered hexagonal array, has various applications in nanofabrication such as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. In order to obtain highly ordered porous alumina membranes, a two-step anodization or prepatterning of aluminum are mainly conducted with straight electric field. Electric field is the main driving force for pore growth during anodization. However, impurities in aluminum can disturb the direction of the electric field. To confirm this, we anodized two different aluminum foil samples with high purity (99.999%) and relatively low purity (99.8%), and compared the differences in the surface morphologies of the respective aluminum oxide membranes produced in different electric fields. Branched pores observed in porous alumina surface which was anodized in low-purity aluminum and the size; dimensions of the pores were found to be usually smaller than those obtained from high-purity aluminum. Moreover, anodization at high voltage proceeds to a significant level of conversion because of the high speed of the directional electric field. Consequently, anodic alumina membrane of a specific morphology, i. e., meshed pore, was produced.

  19. Fabrication and research of high purity germanium detectors with abrupt and thin diffusion layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    1997-01-01

    A different high purity germanium detector's fabrication method is described. A very thin diffusion film with an abrupt change of the type of conductivity is obtained. The fine diffusion layer thickness makes possibly their utilization in experimental systems in which all the data are elaborated directly on the computer. (author) [es

  20. Homochiral Acyl Isocyanates as Diagnostic NMR Probes for the Enantiomeric Purity of Chiral Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. P. Roos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The first reported acyl and sulfonylisocyanates were developed and tested in reactions with chiral alcohols to afford diastereomeric carbamates. NMR analysis of these investigates the chemical shift discrimination that would allow these activated isocyanates to be used as diagnostic probes of enantiomeric purity.

  1. Determination of nanoparticle surface coatings and nanoparticle purity using microscale thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Tyner, Katherine M; Poling, Christopher M; Blacklock, Jenifer L

    2014-02-04

    The use of nanoparticles in some applications (i.e., nanomedical, nanofiltration, or nanoelectronic) requires small samples with well-known purities and composition. In addition, when nanoparticles are introduced into complex environments (e.g., biological fluids), the particles may become coated with matter, such as proteins or lipid layers. Many of today's analytical techniques are not able to address small-scale samples of nanoparticles to determine purity and the presence of surface coatings. Through the use of an elevated-temperature quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method we call microscale thermogravimetric analysis, or μ-TGA, the nanoparticle purity, as well as the presence of any surface coatings of nanomaterials, can be measured. Microscale thermogravimetric analysis is used to determine the presence and amount of surface-bound ligand coverage on gold nanoparticles and confirm the presence of a poly(ethylene glycol) coating on SiO2 nanoparticles. Results are compared to traditional analytical techniques to demonstrate reproducibility and validity of μ-TGA for determining the presence of nanoparticle surface coatings. Carbon nanotube samples are also analyzed and compared to conventional TGA. The results demonstrate μ-TGA is a valid method for quantitative determination of the coatings on nanoparticles, and in some cases, can provide purity and compositional data of the nanoparticles themselves.

  2. Variation of low temperature internal friction of microplastic deformation of high purity molybdenum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal-Val, P.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur); Kaufmann, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin)

    1984-08-01

    Amplitude and temperature spectra of ultrasound absorption in weakly deformed high purity molybdenum single crystals of different orientations were measured. The results were discussed in terms of parameter changes related to quasiparticle or dislocation oscillations, respectively, dislocation point defect interactions as well as defect generation at microplastic deformation.

  3. Law and Behavioral Sciences: Why We Need Less Purity Rather than More

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn his inaugural lecture, Peter Mascini takes issue with the goal of scientific purity in the behavioral study of the law, conceived as the deliberate choice to postulate a limited number of universally applicable behavioral principles. The guiding principle of behavioral sociology

  4. Effect of the microstructure on electrical properties of high-purity germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkopaev, O. I.; Shimanskii, A. F.; Molotkovskaya, N. O.; Kulakovskaya, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    The interrelation between the electrical properties and the microstructure of high-purity germanium crystals has been revealed. The electrical conductivity of polycrystalline samples increases and the life-time of nonequilibrium charge carriers in them decreases with a decrease in the crystallite sizes.

  5. The radiochemical purity of radiotracers as the criterion of their usefulness in investigations of hydrocarbons distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, M.

    1976-01-01

    Among numerous analytic techniques of separation and analysis of radioactive products gas radiochromatography has proved to be particularly suitable. Organic bromides labelled with 82 Br-radionuclide are investigated. The analytic gas chromatographs equipped with appropriately constructed radiochromatographic attachments are used. The results of radiochemical purity determination of radiotracers are compared for various techniques. (author)

  6. Preparation of uranium-plutonium mixed nitride pellets with high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuo; Shiozawa, Ken-ichi; Ohmichi, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    Uranium-plutonium mixed nitride pellets have been prepared in the gloveboxes with high purity Ar gas atmosphere. Carbothermic reduction of the oxides in N 2 -H 2 mixed gas stream was adopted for synthesizing mixed nitride. Sintering was carried out in various conditions and the effect on the pellet characteristics was investigated. (author)

  7. Analytical techniques for the determination of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals prepared from kits. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, J.R.; Rockwell, L.J.; Welsh, W.J.

    The evaluation of efficacy of commercially available kits used for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is one aspect of the Radiation Protection Bureau's radiopharmaceutical quality control program. This report describes some of the analytical methodology employed in the program. Many of the tests can be performed rapidly and with a minimum of special equipment, thus enabling the confirmation of radiopharmaceutical purity prior to patient administration

  8. An ICP AES method for determination of dysprosium and terbium in high purity yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupawate, V.H.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    High purity yttrium finds interesting application in astronavigation, luminescence, nuclear energy and metallurgical industries. Most of these applications require yttrium oxide of highest purity. Consequently there is a need for production of high purity yttrium oxide. Separation and purification of yttrium from other rare earths is a challenging task due to their close chemical properties. Liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange have been widely used in the production of yttrium oxide of highest purity. Determination of impurities, especially other rare earths, in ppm level is required for process development and chemical characterization of the high purity Y 2 O 3 . Many methods have been described in literature. However since the advent of ICP AES much work in this area has been carried out by this technique. This paper describes the work done for determination of dysprosium (Dy) and terbium (Tb) in yttrium oxide using a high resolution sequential ICP AES. Emission spectra of rare earth elements are very complex and due to this complexity it is important to select spectral interference free analyte lines for determination of rare earths in rare earth matrix. For the determination of Dy and Tb in Y 2 O 3 , sensitive lines of Dy and Tb are selected from the instrument wavelength table and spectral interference free emission lines for the determination is selected by scanning around the selected wavelengths using 5 g/L Y solution and 5 mg/L standard solutions of Dy and Tb prepared in 4% nitric acid. It is found 353.170 nm line of Dy and 350.917 nm line Tb is suitable for quantitative determination. The signal to background ratio increases with increase in matrix concentration, i.e. from 1 to 5 mg/L. The optimum forward power is determined and it is found to be 1100W for Dy and 1000W for Tb. The instrument is calibrated using matrix matched standards containing 5g/L of Y matrix. Samples are dissolved in nitric acid and Y concentration is maintained at 5g/L. Two

  9. Vaidya spacetime in massive gravity's rainbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Heydarzade

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the energy dependent deformation of massive gravity using the formalism of massive gravity's rainbow. So, we will use the Vainshtein mechanism and the dRGT mechanism for the energy dependent massive gravity, and thus analyze a ghost free theory of massive gravity's rainbow. We study the energy dependence of a time-dependent geometry, by analyzing the radiating Vaidya solution in this theory of massive gravity's rainbow. The energy dependent deformation of this Vaidya metric will be performed using suitable rainbow functions.

  10. Venus gravity - Analysis of Beta Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Sjogren, W. L.; Mottinger, N. A.; Bills, B. G.; Abbott, E.

    1982-01-01

    Radio tracking data acquired over Beta Regio were analyzed to obtain a surface mass distribution from which a detailed vertical gravity field was derived. In addition, a corresponding vertical gravity field was evaluated solely from the topography of the Beta region. A comparison of these two maps confirms the strong correlation between gravity and topography which was previously seen in line-of-sight gravity maps. It also demonstrates that the observed gravity is a significant fraction of that predicted from the topography alone. The effective depth of complete isostatic compensation for the Beta region is estimated to be 330 km, which is somewhat deeper than that found for other areas of Venus.

  11. [Purity Detection Model Update of Maize Seeds Based on Active Learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin-ya; Huang, Min; Zhu, Qi-bing

    2015-08-01

    Seed purity reflects the degree of seed varieties in typical consistent characteristics, so it is great important to improve the reliability and accuracy of seed purity detection to guarantee the quality of seeds. Hyperspectral imaging can reflect the internal and external characteristics of seeds at the same time, which has been widely used in nondestructive detection of agricultural products. The essence of nondestructive detection of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technique is to establish the mathematical model between the spectral information and the quality of agricultural products. Since the spectral information is easily affected by the sample growth environment, the stability and generalization of model would weaken when the test samples harvested from different origin and year. Active learning algorithm was investigated to add representative samples to expand the sample space for the original model, so as to implement the rapid update of the model's ability. Random selection (RS) and Kennard-Stone algorithm (KS) were performed to compare the model update effect with active learning algorithm. The experimental results indicated that in the division of different proportion of sample set (1:1, 3:1, 4:1), the updated purity detection model for maize seeds from 2010 year which was added 40 samples selected by active learning algorithm from 2011 year increased the prediction accuracy for 2011 new samples from 47%, 33.75%, 49% to 98.89%, 98.33%, 98.33%. For the updated purity detection model of 2011 year, its prediction accuracy for 2010 new samples increased by 50.83%, 54.58%, 53.75% to 94.57%, 94.02%, 94.57% after adding 56 new samples from 2010 year. Meanwhile the effect of model updated by active learning algorithm was better than that of RS and KS. Therefore, the update for purity detection model of maize seeds is feasible by active learning algorithm.

  12. The effect of foil purity on morphology of anodized nanoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbicka, Ewa; Syrek, Karolina [Department of Physical Chemistry & Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Sulka, Grzegorz D., E-mail: sulka@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry & Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Pisarek, Marcin; Janik-Czachor, Maria [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Anodization of Zr with different purities in an aqueous electrolyte was studied. • The structural parameters of formed anodic oxides were compared. • Effect of Zr foil purity on the hexagonal arrangement of pores and cells in anodic ZrO{sub 2} was investigated. • Current efficiency and rate of anodic oxide formation were estimated. - Abstract: A two-step electrochemical formation of nanoporous zirconium oxide layers on different zirconium foils (purity 99.2% and 99.8%) was investigated. Anodizations were carried out at 20 V in an electrolyte composed of 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.15 M NH{sub 4}F. It was found that the thickness of grown oxide layer, and consequently, the rate of oxide formation depend slightly on the Zr substrate purity. The pore nucleation and anodization process occur easier in the presence of higher concentration of impurities. From top view SEM images, the structural parameters of oxide layers such as pore diameter, interpore distance, pore density, wall thickness and porosity of anodic oxide layers were estimated for both types of used substrates. On the other hand, cell size, intercell distance and cell density were evaluated from the bottom side of anodic oxide layers. A special emphasis was put on the qualitative analysis of hexagonal arrangement of nanopores and cells. The nanopore and cells arrangements in formed oxides were evaluated using various approaches based on Delaunay triangulations, angular distribution functions (ADFs) and pair distribution functions (PDFs). These results were supported by calculations of percentage of defective pores and cells for both types of used Zr substrates. The use of low purity Zr for anodizing does not affect drastically the morphology of formed nanoporous zirconia and offers a promising perspective to reduce production costs and increase availability of this material.

  13. Observational constraints on transverse gravity: A generalization of unimodular gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Villarejo, J J

    2010-01-01

    We explore the hypothesis that the set of symmetries enjoyed by the theory that describes gravity is not the full group of diffeomorphisms (Diff(M)), as in General Relativity, but a maximal subgroup of it (TransverseDiff(M)), with its elements having a jacobian equal to unity; at the infinitesimal level, the parameter describing the coordinate change x μ → x μ + ξ μ (x) is transverse, i.e., δ μ ξ μ = 0. Incidentally, this is the smaller symmetry one needs to propagate consistently a graviton, which is a great theoretical motivation for considering these theories. Also, the determinant of the metric, g, behaves as a 'transverse scalar', so that these theories can be seen as a generalization of the better-known unimodular gravity. We present our results on the observational constraints on transverse gravity, in close relation with the claim of equivalence with general scalar-tensor theory. We also comment on the structure of the divergences of the quantum theory to the one-loop order.

  14. Nonsingular universe in massive gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Momennia, M.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the fundamental open questions in cosmology is whether we can regard the universe evolution without singularity like a Big Bang or a Big Rip. This challenging subject stimulates one to regard a nonsingular universe in the far past with an arbitrarily large vacuum energy. Considering the high energy regime in the cosmic history, it is believed that Einstein gravity should be corrected to an effective energy dependent theory which could be acquired by gravity's rainbow. On the other hand, employing massive gravity provided us with solutions to some of the long standing fundamental problems of cosmology such as cosmological constant problem and self acceleration of the universe. Considering these aspects of gravity's rainbow and massive gravity, in this paper, we initiate studying FRW cosmology in the massive gravity's rainbow formalism. At first, we show that although massive gravity modifies the FRW cosmology, but it does not itself remove the big bang singularity. Then, we generalize the massive gravity to the case of energy dependent spacetime and find that massive gravity's rainbow can remove the early universe singularity. We bring together all the essential conditions for having a nonsingular universe and the effects of both gravity's rainbow and massive gravity generalizations on such criteria are determined.

  15. Topics in string theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis

    1992-01-01

    These are the lecture notes for the Les Houches Summer School on Quantum Gravity held in July 1992. The notes present some general critical assessment of other (non-string) approaches to quantum gravity, and a selected set of topics concerning what we have learned so far about the subject from string theory. Since these lectures are long (133 A4 pages), we include in this abstract the table of contents, which should help the user of the bulletin board in deciding whether to latex and print the full file. 1-FIELD THEORETICAL APPROACH TO QUANTUM GRAVITY: Linearized gravity; Supergravity; Kaluza-Klein theories; Quantum field theory and classical gravity; Euclidean approach to Quantum Gravity; Canonical quantization of gravity; Gravitational Instantons. 2-CONSISTENCY CONDITIONS: ANOMALIES: Generalities about anomalies; Spinors in 2n dimensions; When can we expect to find anomalies?; The Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem and the computation of anomalies; Examples: Green-Schwarz cancellation mechanism and Witten's SU(2) ...

  16. Black holes in pure Lovelock gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Lovelock gravity is a fascinating extension of general relativity, whose action consists of dimensionally extended Euler densities. Compared to other higher order derivative gravity theories, Lovelock gravity is attractive since it has a lot of remarkable features such as the fact that there are no more than second order derivatives with respect to the metric in its equations of motion, and that the theory is free of ghosts. Recently, in the study of black strings and black branes in Lovelock gravity, a special class of Lovelock gravity is considered, which is named pure Lovelock gravity, where only one Euler density term exists. In this paper we study black hole solutions in the special class of Lovelock gravity and associated thermodynamic properties. Some interesting features are found, which are quite different from the corresponding ones in general relativity

  17. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  18. And what if gravity is intrinsically quantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2009-01-01

    Since the early days of search for a quantum theory of gravity the attempts have been mostly concentrated on the quantization of an otherwise classical system. The two most contentious candidate theories of gravity, string theory and quantum loop gravity are based on a quantum field theory - the latter is a quantum field theory of connections on a SU(2) group manifold and the former is a quantum field theory in two dimensional spaces. Here we argue that there is a very close relation between quantum mechanics (QM) and gravity. Without gravity, QM becomes ambiguous. We consider this observation as the evidence for an intrinsic relation between these fundamental laws of nature. We suggest a quantum role and definition for gravity in the context of a quantum Universe, and present a preliminary formulation for gravity in a system with a finite number of particles.

  19. Micro gravity - an important tool for development of advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, S.

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity provides the researchers the opportunity to investigate and improve the methods of creating advanced materials on earth. This can in turn assist in the advanced of economically significant technologies and technology infusement into the private sector. In some unique cases, involving inherently expensive materials that must have high purity, such as composites, high grade alloys etc. small amounts be made in space commercially and viably. A number of developed countries have gained sufficient expertise in material processing and other experiments under microgravity conditions, and their progress has been quite tremendous in this vital area of space research. The four important modes of platform, i.e., space shuttle/satellite, rocket flights, aircraft and drop tower tests have been employed for this purpose. Processing of materials in all such cases differs from the point of view of its cost effectiveness, time required to perform the expertise, instrumentation set up etc. In region of Far East and South East Asia, only one or two countries have made some advances in material processing experiments under microgravity conditions both in the upper atmosphere as well as using Drop Tower Test, but limited experimental means have made these countries to strive in this research area compared to work done in author advanced countries. The paper describes a brief history of microgravity experiments, their types and mode of transport employed for processing of novel materials under extreme low gravity or zero gravity conditions. This will definitely be useful and beneficial to developing nations of this region have entered an era of sophisticated and advanced materials processing and its utilization for industries such as aerospace, nuclear power plants, strategic materials, electronics, biological communication etc. (author)

  20. Measurement analysis and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, Mark; Kiefer, Claus; Reginatto, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    We consider the question of whether consistency arguments based on measurement theory show that the gravitational field must be quantized. Motivated by the argument of Eppley and Hannah, we apply a DeWitt-type measurement analysis to a coupled system that consists of a gravitational wave interacting with a mass cube. We also review the arguments of Eppley and Hannah and of DeWitt, and investigate a second model in which a gravitational wave interacts with a quantized scalar field. We argue that one cannot conclude from the existing gedanken experiments that gravity has to be quantized. Despite the many physical arguments which speak in favor of a quantum theory of gravity, it appears that the justification for such a theory must be based on empirical tests and does not follow from logical arguments alone.

  1. Minimal theory of massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than) −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.

  2. Conformal invariance from nonconformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which classically conformally invariant models in four dimensions can arise out of nonconformal (Einstein) gravity. As an 'existence proof' that this is indeed possible we show how to derive N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with any compact gauge group G from nonconformal gauged N=4 supergravity as a special flat space limit. We stress the role that the anticipated UV finiteness of the (so far unknown) underlying theory of quantum gravity would have to play in such a scheme, as well as the fact that the masses of elementary particles would have to arise via quantum gravitational effects which mimic the conformal anomalies of standard (flat space) UV divergent quantum field theory.

  3. Spin-3 topologically massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Bin, E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Long Jiang, E-mail: longjiang0301@gmail.com [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu Junbao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-11-24

    In this Letter, we study the spin-3 topologically massive gravity (TMG), paying special attention to its properties at the chiral point. We propose an action describing the higher spin fields coupled to TMG. We discuss the traceless spin-3 fluctuations around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum and find that there is an extra local massive mode, besides the left-moving and right-moving boundary massless modes. At the chiral point, such extra mode becomes massless and degenerates with the left-moving mode. We show that at the chiral point the only degrees of freedom in the theory are the boundary right-moving graviton and spin-3 field. We conjecture that spin-3 chiral gravity with generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary condition is holographically dual to 2D chiral CFT with classical W{sub 3} algebra and central charge c{sub R}=3l/G.

  4. Minimal theory of massive gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Felice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new theory of massive gravity with only two propagating degrees of freedom. While the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology and the tensor linear perturbations around it are described by exactly the same equations as those in the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, the scalar and vector gravitational degrees of freedom are absent in the new theory at the fully nonlinear level. Hence the new theory provides a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution that was originally found in the dRGT theory. The cosmological solution in the other branch, often called the normal branch, is also rendered stable in the new theory and, for the first time, makes it possible to realize an effective equation-of-state parameter different from (either larger or smaller than −1 without introducing any extra degrees of freedom.

  5. Gravity in 2+ 1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbert, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    A review of 2+1-dimensional gravity, and recent results concerning the quantum scattering of Klein-Gordon and Dirac test particles in background of point sources with and without spin are presented. The classical theory and general remarks of 2+1 dimensional gravity are reviewed. The space-time in presence of point sources is described. The classical scattering and applications to (Spinning) cosmic strings are discussed. The quantum theory is considered analysing the two body scattering problem. The scattering of spinless particles is discussed including spin-effects. Some classifying remarks about three-dimensional analogue of hte Weyl tensor and Chern-Simons theories of gravitation are also presented. (M.C.K.)

  6. Exact solutions to quadratic gravity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Podolský, J.; Švarc, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 084025. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : quadratic gravity * exact solutions * Kundt spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084025

  7. Assessing Hypothetical Gravity Control Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Millis, Marc G.

    2006-01-01

    Gauging the benefits of hypothetical gravity control propulsion is difficult, but addressable. The major challenge is that such breakthroughs are still only notional concepts rather than being specific methods from which performance can be rigorously quantified. A recent assessment by Tajmar and Bertolami used the rocket equation to correct naive misconceptions, but a more fundamental analysis requires the use of energy as the basis for comparison. The energy of a rocket is compared to an ide...

  8. Composite gravity and composite supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.

    1982-09-01

    It is known that the composite YM H-gauge theory can be constructed from σ-fields taking values in a symmetric Riemannian space G/H. We extend such a framework to graded σ-fields taking values in supercosets. We show that from supercoset σ-fields one can construct composite gravity, and from supercoset σ-superfields the composite supergravity models. (author)

  9. Testing Gravity Using Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Generic scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict deviations from Newtonian physics inside astrophysical bodies. In this paper, we point out that low mass stellar objects, red and brown dwarf stars, are excellent probes of these theories. We calculate two important and potentially observable quantities: the radius of brown dwarfs and the minimum mass for hydrogen burning in red dwarfs. The brown dwarf radius can differ significantly from the GR prediction and upcoming surveys that probe the m...

  10. Nonlocal gravity simulates dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    A nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is constructed within the framework of the translational gauge theory of gravity. In the linear approximation, the nonlocal theory can be interpreted as linearized general relativity but in the presence of "dark matter" that can be simply expressed as an integral transform of matter. It is shown that this approach can accommodate the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.

  11. Gravity and domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  12. Minimal massive 3D gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Merbis, Wout; Hohm, Olaf; Routh, Alasdair J; Townsend, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with the same ‘minimal’ bulk properties; i.e. a single local degree of freedom that is realized as a massive graviton in linearization about an anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacuum. However, in contrast to TMG, the new ‘minimal massive gravity’ has both a positive energy graviton and positive central charges for the asymptotic AdS-boundary conformal algebra. (paper)

  13. Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The functional quantization of the Liouville gravity on bordered surfaces in the conformal gauge is developed. It was shown that the geometrical interpretation of the Polyakov path integral as a sum over bordered surfaces uniquely determines the boundary conditions for the fields involved. The gravitational scaling dimensions of boundary and bulk operators and the critical exponents are derived. In particular, the boundary Hausdorff dimension is calculated. (author). 21 refs

  14. Exact solutions to quadratic gravity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Podolský, J.; Švarc, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 084025. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : quadratic gravity * exact solutions * Kundt spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals. aps .org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084025

  15. Cosmological dynamics of mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jibitesh; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tamanini, Nicola; Vagnozzi, Sunny

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the dynamical behavior of mimetic gravity with a general potential for the mimetic scalar field. Performing a phase-space and stability analysis, we show that the scenario at hand can successfully describe the thermal history of the universe, namely the successive sequence of radiation, matter, and dark-energy eras. Additionally, at late times the universe can either approach a de Sitter solution, or a scaling accelerated attractor where the dark-matter and dark-energy density parameters are of the same order, thus offering an alleviation of the cosmic coincidence problem. Applying our general analysis to various specific potential choices, including the power-law and the exponential ones, we show that mimetic gravity can be brought into good agreement with the observed behavior of the universe. Moreover, with an inverse square potential we find that mimetic gravity offers an appealing unified cosmological scenario where both dark energy and dark matter are characterized by a single scalar field, and where the cosmic coincidence problem is alleviated.

  16. The affine quantum gravity programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, John R

    2002-01-01

    The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix { g-hat ab (x)} composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that still retain some basic characteristics of gravity, specifically a partial second-class constraint operator structure. Although perturbatively nonrenormalizable, gravity may possibly be understood nonperturbatively from a hard-core perspective that has proved valuable for specialized models. Finally, developing a procedure to pass to the genuine physical Hilbert space involves several interconnected steps that require careful coordination

  17. New 'phase' of quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2006-12-15

    The emergence of loop quantum gravity over the past two decades has stimulated a great resurgence of interest in unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics. Among a number of appealing features of this approach is the intuitive picture of quantum geometry using spin networks and powerful mathematical tools from gauge field theory. However, the present form of loop quantum gravity suffers from a quantum ambiguity, owing to the presence of a free (Barbero-Immirzi) parameter. Following the recent progress on conformal decomposition of gravitational fields, we present a new phase space for general relativity. In addition to spin-gauge symmetry, the new phase space also incorporates conformal symmetry making the description parameter free. The Barbero-Immirzi ambiguity is shown to occur only if the conformal symmetry is gauge fixed prior to quantization. By withholding its full symmetries, the new phase space offers a promising platform for the future development of loop quantum gravity. This paper aims to provide an exposition, at a reduced technical level, of the above theoretical advances and their background developments. Further details are referred to cited references.

  18. Induced gravity II: grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einhorn, Martin B. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall,University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Jones, D.R. Timothy [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall,University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool,Peach Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-31

    As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass){sup 2} from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.

  19. Solid holography and massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.

  20. Solid holography and massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-17

    Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric response. We show that the types of response that can be consistently described within this framework is much wider than what is captured by the narrow class of models mostly considered so far.