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Sample records for grasshopper individual characteristics

  1. Level of heat shock proteins decreases in individuals carrying B-chromosomes in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teruel, M; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of B-chromosome presence on expression level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cerebral ganglion and gonad in both males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans. Two natural Spanish populations, Salobreña (Granada) and Torrox (Málaga) were assayed, the former...... harbouring a neutralized (non-driving) B-chromosome (B2) and the latter a parasitic (driving) B-chromosome (B24). The analysis was performed by Western blotting, immunostaining and densitometric measuring expression level of the Hsp70 family in adult individuals. The results showed that Hsp70 levels...

  2. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  3. Grasshoppers as a food source? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as insects. Literature. From a nutritional point of view, of all the insects consumed globally, grasshoppers are particularly important as a human food. Data from the literature regarding the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, mineral composition and vitamin content of grasshoppers as reviewed in this paper, suggest that a number of grasshopper species are a good source of nutrients. It also highlights some of the health related aspects that might arise from the consumption of grasshoppers, mostly linked to agricultural practices and the allergic response of sensitive individuals. The paper also summarizes some religious, social and economic factors that are associated with grasshopper consumption. Conclusions. The success of introducing grasshoppers as a novel food in western countries depends on changes in consumer attitudes. It would be interesting to develop food products derived from grasshoppers in a form acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, it is important to explore the food potential of some grasshopper species native to western countries and to develop their rearing methodologies to enhance availability.

  4. [Applications of spectral analysis technique to monitoring grasshoppers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Han, Jian-guo; Zhang, Lu-da

    2008-12-01

    Grasshopper monitoring is of great significance in protecting environment and reducing economic loss. However, how to predict grasshoppers accurately and effectively is a difficult problem for a long time. In the present paper, the importance of forecasting grasshoppers and its habitat is expounded, and the development in monitoring grasshopper populations and the common arithmetic of spectral analysis technique are illustrated. Meanwhile, the traditional methods are compared with the spectral technology. Remote sensing has been applied in monitoring the living, growing and breeding habitats of grasshopper population, and can be used to develop a forecast model combined with GIS. The NDVI values can be analyzed throughout the remote sensing data and be used in grasshopper forecasting. Hyper-spectra remote sensing technique which can be used to monitor grasshoppers more exactly has advantages in measuring the damage degree and classifying damage areas of grasshoppers, so it can be adopted to monitor the spatial distribution dynamic of rangeland grasshopper population. Differentialsmoothing can be used to reflect the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and leaf area index (LAI), and indicate the intensity of grasshopper damage. The technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been employed in judging grasshopper species, examining species occurrences and monitoring hatching places by measuring humidity and nutrient of soil, and can be used to investigate and observe grasshoppers in sample research. According to this paper, it is concluded that the spectral analysis technique could be used as a quick and exact tool in monitoring and forecasting the infestation of grasshoppers, and will become an important means in such kind of research for their advantages in determining spatial orientation, information extracting and processing. With the rapid development of spectral analysis methodology, the goal of sustainable monitoring

  5. The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Long, R J; Liu, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    1. Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of a diet containing grasshoppers on the carcase, physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a free-range, grassland-based broiler production system. 2. A total of 80, 28-d-old male broilers were reared on grassland containing a large population of grasshoppers (treatment PB). Control birds were reared intensively on a maize-soybean diet (treatment CB). At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to evaluate carcase, meat and sensory characteristics. 3. Treatment PB produced birds with significantly lower live weights, breast, wing, thigh and drum weights, and higher dressing percentage and breast percentage of carcase, compared with CB. Treatment PB produced breast meat with significantly higher redness values, shear force and protein content, and lower pH values, cooking loss, moisture and fat content compared with CB. Sensory panel results for breast and thigh meats showed no treatment effect on colour and juiciness, but significantly higher scores for chewiness, flavour, aroma and overall appreciation, and lower scores for tenderness from treatment PB compared with CB. 4. Rearing chickens on rangeland may provide an alternative way to produce poultry meat which is considered superior by modern consumers.

  6. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  7. The radioactive grasshopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-15

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  8. The radioactive grasshopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Grasshoppers are 'tagged' with radiation in order to trace their movements for purposes of agricultural research. They are fed on young wheat containing iridium-192; the radioactivity taken up by the grasshoppers can then be observed by a portable scintillation counter. Laboratory tests have shown the biological period of the iridium to be of the order of seven days, and that about one microcurie per insect is needed to enable them to be traced during two months. (author)

  9. The grasshopper problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulko, Olga; Kent, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We introduce and physically motivate the following problem in geometric combinatorics, originally inspired by analysing Bell inequalities. A grasshopper lands at a random point on a planar lawn of area 1. It then jumps once, a fixed distance d, in a random direction. What shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper remains on the lawn after jumping? We show that, perhaps surprisingly, a disc-shaped lawn is not optimal for any d>0. We investigate further by introducing a spin model whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a discrete version of the grasshopper problem. Simulated annealing and parallel tempering searches are consistent with the hypothesis that, for dcogs, where the integer n is close to π (arcsin⁡(√{π }d / 2 )) -1. We find transitions to other shapes for d ≳π-1 / 2.

  10. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders. Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  11. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  12. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  13. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  14. Grasshopper species composition shifts following a severe rangeland grasshopper outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how grasshopper species abundances shift during and following severe outbreaks, as sampling efforts usually end when outbreaks subside. Grasshopper densities, species composition and vegetation have infrequently been sampled during and after a severe outbreak in the western U.S...

  15. Grasshopper fecundity responses to grazing and fire in a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Angela N; Joern, Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Grasshopper abundance and diversity vary with management practices such as fire and grazing. Understanding how grasshopper life history traits such as fecundity respond to management practices is key to predicting grasshopper population dynamics in heterogeneous environments. Landscape-level experimental fire and bison grazing treatments at the Konza Prairie Biological Station (Manhattan, KS) provide an opportunity to examine how management affects grasshopper fecundity. Here we report on grasshopper fecundity for nine common species at Konza Prairie. From 2007 to 2009, adult female grasshoppers were collected every 3 wk from eight watersheds that varied in fire and grazing treatments. Fecundity was measured by examining female reproductive tracts, which contain a record of past and current reproductive activity. Body size was a poor predictor of fecundity for all species. Despite large differences in vegetation structure and composition with management regime (grazing and fire interval), we observed little effect of management on grasshopper fecundity. Habitat characteristics (grasshopper density, vegetation biomass, and vegetation quality; measured in 2008 and 2009) were better predictors of past fecundity than current fecundity, with species-specific responses. Fecundity increased throughout the summer, indicating that grasshoppers were able to acquire sufficient nutritional resources for egg production in the early fall when vegetation quality is generally low. Because fecundity did not vary across management treatments, population stage structure may be more important for determining population level reproduction than management regime at Konza Prairie.

  16. Construction of a GeogDetector-based model system to indicate the potential occurrence of grasshoppers in Inner Mongolia steppe habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J; Zhang, N; Gexigeduren; He, B; Liu, C-Y; Li, Y; Zhang, H-Y; Chen, X-Y; Lin, H

    2015-06-01

    Grasshopper plagues have seriously disturbed grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, China. The accurate prediction of grasshopper infestations and control of grasshopper plagues have become urgent needs. We sampled 234, 342, 335, and 369 plots in Xianghuangqi County of Xilingol League in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively, and measured the density of the most dominant grasshopper species, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus, and the latitude, longitude, and associated relatively stable habitat factors at each plot. We used Excel-GeogDetector software to explore the effects of individual habitat factors and the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density. We estimated the membership of each grasshopper density rank and determined the weights of each habitat category. These results were used to construct a model system evaluating grasshopper habitat suitability. The results showed that our evaluation system was reliable and the fuzzy evaluation scores of grasshopper habitat suitability were good indicators of potential occurrence of grasshoppers. The effects of the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density were greater than the effects of any individual factors. O. d. asiaticus was most likely to be found at elevations of 1300-1400 m, flat terrain or slopes of 4-6°, typical chestnut soil with 70-80% sand content in the top 5 cm of soil, and medium-coverage grassland. The species preferred temperate bunchgrass steppe dominated by Stipa krylovii and Cleistogenes squarrosa. These findings may be used to improve models to predict grasshopper occurrence and to develop management guidelines to control grasshopper plagues by changing habitats.

  17. Patterns of vegetation and grasshopper community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W P; Harvey, S J; O'Neill, K M

    1990-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate differences in rangeland grasshopper communities over environmental gradients in Gallatin Valley, Montana, USA. The concept of habitat type (Daubenmire 1966) was used as a basis for discriminating between groupings of patches based on vegetation. A total of 39 patches were selected that represented five recognized grassland habitat types (Mueggler and Stewart 1980), as well as two disturbed types (replanting within a known habitat type). Repeated sampling in 1988 of both the insect and plant communities yielded a total of 40 grasshopper (19 664 individuals) and 97 plant species. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicated that patch classifications based on presence and percent cover of plants were appropriate and showed good between-group (habitat type) separation for patches along gradients of precipitation/elevation and plant community complexity. Results from undisturbed habitats showed that plant and grasshopper species composition changed over observed environmental gradients and suggested that habitat type influenced not only species presence, but also relative abundance. Discussion is presented that relates results with patch-use and core and satellite species paradigms.

  18. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Influence of a large late summer precipitation event on food limitation and grasshopper population dynamics in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David H

    2008-06-01

    The complex interplay between grasshoppers, weather conditions, and plants that cause fluctuations in grasshopper populations remains poorly understood, and little is known about the ecological processes that generate grasshopper outbreaks. Grasshopper populations respond to interacting extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with yearly and decadal weather patterns and the timing of precipitation all potentially important. The effects of initial and increasing grasshopper densities on grasshopper survival and reproductive correlates were examined at a northern mixed-grass prairie site through manipulations of grasshopper densities inside 10-m2 cages. High-quality grass growth occurred after a 9.1-cm mid-August rain. Reduced proportional survival was apparent in the two higher density treatments before the rain, indicative of food-limited density-dependent mortality. However, the large late summer rainfall event mediated the effects of exploitative competition on demographic characteristics because of the high-quality vegetation growth. This led to weaker effects of food limitation on survival and reproduction at the end of the experiment. The results indicate a direct link between weather variation, resource quality and grasshopper population dynamics led to a severe grasshopper outbreak and show that infrequent large precipitation events can have significant effects on population dynamics. Additional research is needed to examine the importance of infrequent large precipitation events on grasshopper population dynamics in grassland ecosystems.

  20. Tolerating Toxins: Grasshoppers that Feast on Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids §.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housecroft, Catherine E

    2018-03-30

    The elegant grasshopper (Zonocerus elegans) and the variegated grasshopper (Z. variegatus) are among insects that deliberately consume and store pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are subsequently used in defence mechanisms.

  1. Analysis of Spatial Pattern among Grasshopper and Vegetation in Heihe based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, KeMing; Zhao, Chengzhang; Zhang, Qi-peng

    Geostatistics was used to analyze the grasshopper and dominant plants population spatial pattern and their relationship in the upper reaches of Heihe River under GIS platform. The results showed that the plants and grasshoppers populations have strong spatial correlation in study area. The Semivariogram curve of Chorthippus brunneus huabeiensis, Filchnerella, Aneurolepidium dasystanchys and Artemisia dalailamae is spherical model, Gomphocerus licenti and Stipa krylovii's Semivariogram curve is exponential and Gaussian model respectively, and their spatial autocorrelation scope is 10.8, 11.3, 11.5, 12.4, 23.5 and 59.7 meters respectively. Stipa krylovii and Artemisia dalailamae spatial distribution was patchy, Aneurolepidium dasystanchys showed flaky distribution; Gomphocerus licenti and Chorthippus brunneus huabeiensis mainly located in southeast areas with high coverage of Stipa krylovii and Aneurolepidium dasystanchys. Filchnerella nearly located in North areas with high coverage of Artemisia dalailamae, but were rarely found in south and east areas. The effects of different plants coverage on grasshopper abundance are significantly different. Filchnerella abundance and Artemisia dalailamae coverage showed significantly positive correlation, Chorthippus brunneus huabeiensis and Gomphocerus licenti positively correlated with Aneurolepidium dasystanchys and Stipa krylovii. Grasshopper spatial patterns and occurrence numbers are both influenced by grasshopper biological characteristics and plant community composition, which reflected complex coupled relation between grasshopper and plant.

  2. Genomic gigantism: DNA loss is slow in mountain grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensasson, D; Petrov, D A; Zhang, D X; Hartl, D L; Hewitt, G M

    2001-02-01

    Several studies have shown DNA loss to be inversely correlated with genome size in animals. These studies include a comparison between Drosophila and the cricket, Laupala, but there has been no assessment of DNA loss in insects with very large genomes. Podisma pedestris, the brown mountain grasshopper, has a genome over 100 times as large as that of Drosophila and 10 times as large as that of Laupala. We used 58 paralogous nuclear pseudogenes of mitochondrial origin to study the characteristics of insertion, deletion, and point substitution in P. pedestris and Italopodisma. In animals, these pseudogenes are "dead on arrival"; they are abundant in many different eukaryotes, and their mitochondrial origin simplifies the identification of point substitutions accumulated in nuclear pseudogene lineages. There appears to be a mononucleotide repeat within the 643-bp pseudogene sequence studied that acts as a strong hot spot for insertions or deletions (indels). Because the data for other insect species did not contain such an unusual region, hot spots were excluded from species comparisons. The rate of DNA loss relative to point substitution appears to be considerably and significantly lower in the grasshoppers studied than in Drosophila or Laupala. This suggests that the inverse correlation between genome size and the rate of DNA loss can be extended to comparisons between insects with large or gigantic genomes (i.e., Laupala and Podisma). The low rate of DNA loss implies that in grasshoppers, the accumulation of point mutations is a more potent force for obscuring ancient pseudogenes than their loss through indel accumulation, whereas the reverse is true for Drosophila. The main factor contributing to the difference in the rates of DNA loss estimated for grasshoppers, crickets, and Drosophila appears to be deletion size. Large deletions are relatively rare in Podisma and Italopodisma.

  3. Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  4. Characteristics of individuals with integrated pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, K A

    1999-01-01

    Employer pensions that integrate benefits with Social Security have been the focus of relatively little research. Since changes in Social Security benefit levels and other program characteristics can affect the benefit levels and other features of integrated pension plans, it is important to know who is covered by these plans. This article examines the characteristics of workers covered by integrated pension plans, compared to those with nonintegrated plans and those with no pension coverage. Integrated pension plans are those that explicitly adjust their benefit structure to help compensate for the employer's contributions to the Social Security program. There are two basic integration methods used by defined benefit (DB) plans. The offset method causes a reduction in employer pension benefits by up to half of the Social Security retirement benefit; the excess rate method is characterized by an accrual rate that is lower for earnings below the Social Security taxable maximum than above it. Defined contribution (DC) pension plans can be integrated along the lines of the excess rate method. To date, research on integrated pensions has focused on plan characteristics, as reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) through its Employee Benefits Survey (EBS). This research has examined the prevalence of integration among full-time, private sector workers by industry, firm size, and broad occupational categories. However, because the EBS provides virtually no data on worker characteristics, analyses of the effects of pension integration on retirement benefits have used hypothetical workers, varying according to assumed levels of earnings and job tenure. This kind of analysis is not particularly helpful in examining the potential effects of changes in the Social Security program on workers' pension benefits. However, data on pension integration at the individual level are available, most recently from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally

  5. Morphometric Variations in the Grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa from Two Localities of Pernambuco in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneiros, Roberta Araújo; de Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas; da Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes morphometric variations in the grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg, 1824) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) from two locations in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The distance between the sites chosen for collections (Recife and São Lourenço da Mata) is approximately 16 km. The investigation was based on a comparative study of external morphological characteristics of the grasshoppers. Morphometric measurements took into account the different body parts and appendages. Statistical analysis of the measurements revealed significant differences in the size of the specimens between the two locations. Homogeneity tests of the covariance and equality matrices between mean vectors of the results revealed that the grasshopper populations in Recife and São Lourenço da Mata are distinctly different. These findings provide morphological evidence for intraspecific variation in morphological characteristics of the C. speciosa populations from the two locations. PMID:23421530

  6. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  7. Monitoring grasshopper and locust habitats in Sahelian Africa using GIS and remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappan, G. Gray; Moore, Donald G.; Knauseberger, Walter I.

    1991-01-01

    Development programmes in Sahelian Africa are beginning to use geographic information system (GIS) technology. One of the GIS and remote sensing programmes introduced to the region in the late 1980s was the use of seasonal vegetation maps made from satellite data to support grasshopper and locust control. Following serious outbreaks of these pests in 1987, the programme addressed a critical need, by national and international crop protection organizations, to monitor site-specific dynamic vegetation conditions associated with grasshopper and locust breeding. The primary products used in assessing vegetation conditions were vegetation index (greenness) image maps derived from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite imagery. Vegetation index data were integrated in a GIS with digital cartographic data of individual Sahelian countries. These near-real-time image maps were used regularly in 10 countries for locating potential grasshopper and locust habitats. The programme to monitor vegetation conditions is currently being institutionalized in the Sahel.

  8. Plant functional traits reveal the relative contribution of habitat and food preferences to the diet of grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Manneville, Olivier; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Valentini, Alice; Aubert, Serge; Coissac, Eric; Colace, Marie-Pascale; Duparc, Quentin; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Food preferences and food availability are two major determinants of the diet of generalist herbivores and of their spatial distribution. How do these factors interact and eventually lead to diet differentiation in co-occurring herbivores? We quantified the diet of four grasshopper species co-occurring in subalpine grasslands using DNA barcoding of the plants contained in the faeces of individuals sampled in the field. The food preferences of each grasshopper species were assessed by a choice (cafeteria) experiment from among 24 plant species common in five grassland plots, in which the four grasshoppers were collected, while the habitat was described by the relative abundance of plant species in the grassland plots. Plant species were characterised by their leaf economics spectrum (LES), quantifying their nutrient vs. structural tissue content. The grasshoppers' diet, described by the mean LES of the plants eaten, could be explained by their plant preferences but not by the available plants in their habitat. The diet differed significantly across four grasshopper species pairs out of six, which validates food preferences assessed in standardised conditions as indicators for diet partitioning in nature. In contrast, variation of the functional diversity (FD) for LES in the diet was mostly correlated to the FD of the available plants in the habitat, suggesting that diet mixing depends on the environment and is not an intrinsic property of the grasshopper species. This study sheds light on the mechanisms determining the feeding niche of herbivores, showing that food preferences influence niche position whereas habitat diversity affects niche breadth.

  9. A test of the thermal melanism hypothesis in the wingless grasshopper Phaulacridium vittatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca M; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Altitudinal clines in melanism are generally assumed to reflect the fitness benefits resulting from thermal differences between colour morphs, yet differences in thermal quality are not always discernible. The intra-specific application of the thermal melanism hypothesis was tested in the wingless grasshopper Phaulacridium vittatum (Sjöstedt) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) first by measuring the thermal properties of the different colour morphs in the laboratory, and second by testing for differences in average reflectance and spectral characteristics of populations along 14 altitudinal gradients. Correlations between reflectance, body size, and climatic variables were also tested to investigate the underlying causes of clines in melanism. Melanism in P. vittatum represents a gradation in colour rather than distinct colour morphs, with reflectance ranging from 2.49 to 5.65%. In unstriped grasshoppers, darker morphs warmed more rapidly than lighter morphs and reached a higher maximum temperature (lower temperature excess). In contrast, significant differences in thermal quality were not found between the colour morphs of striped grasshoppers. In support of the thermal melanism hypothesis, grasshoppers were, on average, darker at higher altitudes, there were differences in the spectral properties of brightness and chroma between high and low altitudes, and temperature variables were significant influences on the average reflectance of female grasshoppers. However, altitudinal gradients do not represent predictable variation in temperature, and the relationship between melanism and altitude was not consistent across all gradients. Grasshoppers generally became darker at altitudes above 800 m a.s.l., but on several gradients reflectance declined with altitude and then increased at the highest altitude.

  10. Linking Measured Risk Aversion to Individual Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Jonker, N.

    2002-01-01

    From the stated price of a specified lottery in three unrelated surveys we deduce individuals' Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion. We find that risk aversion indeed falls with income and wealth. Entrepreneurs are less risk averse than employees, civil servants are more risk averse than private

  11. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to

  12. Individual characteristics and religiousness among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Snežana D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the research data on religiousness collected at different periods in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. The aim of the paper is to point to the tendencies in religious practice and the expansion of religiousness among young people in different periods, as well as individual psychological factors of religiousness. The data shows that the number of young people who declare themselves religious has increased significantly in the last 15 years, compared to the period of a quarter of century ago. In addition to the revival of tradition as an answer to social crisis and uncertainty which affects young people most, the increase in religiousness is connected to certain forms of social democratization as well as it being socially desirable. The data on social-demographic correlates of religiousness shows that the degree of religiousness varies depending on the age, gender, social background and education level. However, the more recent research data shows that these differences have become smaller which indicates a certain homogenization among young people. Religiousness is consistently and positively connected to authoritarianism, conformism and intolerance, while certain changes have occurred in regard to its connection with desirable social values. Similar to the tendency observed in other research on values the data on factors and correlates of religiousness, especially among young people, point to a specific value relativism and confused values.

  13. Abundance and guild structure of grasshoppers (Orthoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lightly grazed area, characterised by tall vegetation and high aerial cover, low greenness of grass, and low frequency of forbs, was inhabited by grasshopper species associated with long and/or thick grass, that were mixed feeders or tough grass feeders. The mowed area, characterised by short vegetation and low ...

  14. Personality characteristics and body image in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarısoy, Gökhan; Atmaca, Ayşegül; Ecemiş, Gülçin; Gümüş, Kübra; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the personality characteristics of obese and morbidly obese individuals with no psychiatric disorder and the correlation between these characteristics and body image and self-esteem. Sixty-nine obese individuals and 69 healthy controls, matched in age, sex and marital status, were included in the study. Psychiatric disorders were excluded for all participants using SCID-I and II. Obese and healthy volunteers were compared in terms of body image, self-esteem and personality characteristics. TCI harm avoidance scores were higher in obese individuals compared to healthy controls. Harm avoidance scores were also higher in individuals with morbid obesity compared to non-morbid individuals, while self-directedness and persistence scores were lower. Body image dissatisfaction was higher in obese individuals. There was a negative correlation in obese individuals between body image and self-esteem scale scores and harm avoidance scores, and a positive correlation with self-directedness scores. An elevated harm avoidance temperament characteristic may be correlated with obesity. Furthermore, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness and low persistence may be significant personality characteristics in a process leading to morbid obesity. In addition, harm avoidance temperament and self-directedness personality characteristics may be correlated with body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem in obese individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  16. Grazing damage to plants and gastropod and grasshopper densities in a CO 2-enrichment experiment on calcareous grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledergerber, Stephan; Thommen, G. Heinrich; Baur, Bruno

    Plant-herbivore interactions may change as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. We examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2-exposure chambers on the grazing damage to plants, and on the abundances of potential herbivores (terrestrial gastropods and grasshoppers) in a calcareous grassland in the Jura mountains of Switzerland (village of Nenzlingen). Individuals of most plant species examined showed slight grazing damage. However, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in the extent of grazing damage. Similarly, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in either gastropod or grasshopper density. Experimental plots with and without chambers did not differ in the number of gastropods. However, the densities of gastropods and grasshoppers and extent of grazing damage to plants were generally lower in the experimental area than in the grassland outside the experimental field.

  17. Characteristics of Stuttering in Dutch-Speaking Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Ronny A.; Wuyts, Floris L.; van de Heyning, Paul H.; Heylen, Louis; de Bodt, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedures to distinguish stuttering from non-stuttering individuals partially rely on the observation of characteristics of stuttered words or syllables. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of such a procedure, and to describe the observed characteristics of stuttered words. Methods…

  18. Grasshopper beam line for utilization of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Norio; Suzuki, I.H.; Onuki, Hideo; Nishi, Morotake

    1989-01-01

    Optical characteristics of a new beam line consisting of a pre-mirror, a Grasshopper monochromator and a re-focusing mirror have been investigated. A ray-tracing calculation was performed for designing the mirrors so as to optimize the photon intensity and the spot size at the sample point. The intensity of the monochromatic soft x-ray was about 10 8 photons/(sec·100mA) at 25 A under the storage electron energy of 600 MeV with the minimum slit width which corresponded to a resolution of about 500. The sum of stray light and higher order components was less than 10% of the total intensity except around the C-K edge. Using an appropriate filter, it was reduced to less than a few percent. (author)

  19. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction.

  20. Individual Characteristics of Entrepreneurs in Transition Countries. The Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti Stringa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition process in Albania, as in other ex-communist countries, stopped the enterprise development. The increasing number of small and medium enterprises is the most promising consequence of the transition process. Several researches in western countries have demonstrated that entrepreneurship involves objective and subjective factors and is interrelated with environmental objective factors and individual subjective ones. Our research examines clear characteristics of the businesses’ analysis, the performance of the entrepreneurs themselves (their background and personal characteristics, their motivation to start a business and the perceptions of the different characteristics and the aspects of the businesses they run.

  1. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  2. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  3. Facility for sustained positive affect as an individual difference characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S. Schutte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies investigated a proposed new individual difference characteristic or trait, facility for sustained positive affect, consisting of tendencies that allow individuals to maintain a high level of positive mood. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the creation of a measure, the self-congruent and new activities (SANA scale which identified two core aspects of sustainable positive affect, engaging in self-congruent activities and engaging in new activities. A higher level of facility for sustainable affect, as operationalized by the SANA scale, was associated with maintenance of positive mood for a month, fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work satisfaction, mindfulness, personal expansion and growth, and emotional intelligence. The results provided initial evidence that facility to maintain positive affect may be an emotion-related individual difference characteristic.

  4. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGE SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. М. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is scientific substantiation of the importance of the individual characteristics of the age specific youth development which will result in the rational modelling of students’ physical education.Methodology and research methods. The methods involve collection of experimental data carried out by means of evaluation of motor abilities and general intelligence of students. Motor abilities of students were studied by measuring of strength (dead lift dynamometry, strength endurance (pull-up, speed and power abilities (standing jump, as well as speed ability (running 30, 60 or 100 m, depending on age, aerobic endurance (running 1000 or 3000 m, depending on age. The dynamics of integral physical preparedness (DIPP of each student was calculated by calculation the arithmetic mean values of the growth rates of the development of motor abilities. Assessment of General Intelligence (GI of the 8th, 10th and 11th-grades school pupils as well as the 1st to 3rd year students was carried out through the test of R. Amthauer in the adaptation of L. A. Yazykova, and school pupils of the 6th grade were assessed through the Intelligent Test (GIT.Results. Discrepancies in the dynamics of the mental and motor areas development of maturing personality, which are interpreted as individual characteristics of the age specific development are experimentally revealed. Individual psychological differences leading to the different susceptibility to the development of motor and intellectual abilities appearing in adolescence and early adolescence are analysed. A leading role of activity in formation of the individual characteristics of the age specific development is substantiated. The conclusion of necessity to formulate to the students differing in individual characteristics of the age specific development differentiated in the complexity requirements and motor tasks in the course of physical training is made.Scientific novelty. For the first time

  5. Diet alters performance and transcription patterns in Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Whitman, Douglas W; Ma, Jingchuan; McNeill, Mark Richard; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    We reared Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers under four different single-plant diets to examine the relationships among diet, performance, stress, and transcription patterns. Grasshoppers fed only Artemisia frigida (Asteraceae) were stressed, as indicated by their lower growth, size, development, and survival, in comparison to grasshoppers fed on any of three grasses, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis, or Stipa krylovii (all Poaceae). We then used transcriptome analysis to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus were altered by feeding on these diets. Nymphs fed A. frigida had the largest variation in gene expression profiles with a total of 299 genes significantly up- or down-regulated compared to those feeding on the three grasses: down-regulated genes included those involved in cuticle biosynthesis, DNA replication, biosynthesis and metabolism of nutrition. The up-regulated genes included stress-resistant and detoxifying enzymes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis also showed that feeding on A. frigida could down-regulate biosynthesis and metabolism related pathways, and up-regulate stress-resistant and detoxification terms and pathways. Our results show that diet significantly altered gene-expression, and that unfavorable, stressful diets induce more transcriptional changes than favorable diets. Altered gene-expression represents phenotypic plasticity, and many such changes appear to be evolved, adaptive responses. The ease and regularity by which individuals shift phenotypes via altered transcription suggests that populations consist not of similar, fixed phenotypes, but of a collection of ever-changing, divergent phenotypes.

  6. A conserved plan for wiring up the fan-shaped body in the grasshopper and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Liu, Yu; Khalsa, Sat Kartar; Hartenstein, Volker

    2017-07-01

    The central complex comprises an elaborate system of modular neuropils which mediate spatial orientation and sensory-motor integration in insects such as the grasshopper and Drosophila. The neuroarchitecture of the largest of these modules, the fan-shaped body, is characterized by its stereotypic set of decussating fiber bundles. These are generated during development by axons from four homologous protocerebral lineages which enter the commissural system and subsequently decussate at stereotypic locations across the brain midline. Since the commissural organization prior to fan-shaped body formation has not been previously analyzed in either species, it was not clear how the decussating bundles relate to individual lineages, or if the projection pattern is conserved across species. In this study, we trace the axonal projections from the homologous central complex lineages into the commissural system of the embryonic and larval brains of both the grasshopper and Drosophila. Projections into the primordial commissures of both species are found to be lineage-specific and allow putatively equivalent fascicles to be identified. Comparison of the projection pattern before and after the commencement of axon decussation in both species reveals that equivalent commissural fascicles are involved in generating the columnar neuroarchitecture of the fan-shaped body. Further, the tract-specific columns in both the grasshopper and Drosophila can be shown to contain axons from identical combinations of central complex lineages, suggesting that this columnar neuroarchitecture is also conserved.

  7. Do Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics Influence Perceived Air Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Padilla, Manon; Padilla, Cindy; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida

    2017-12-12

    Background : Despite improvements, air pollution still remains a major public health issue. Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure based on modeled measures, but only a few have considered the health impact of perceived air quality. Improving our knowledge of individual perceptions is crucial to defining targeted actions and promoting appropriate intervention measures. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between subjective and objective measures of air pollution and to focus on how individual characteristics combined with the neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation index, measured at a fine spatial scale, may or may not alter this relationship. Materials and Methods : The subjective measures of air quality reported by a sample of Lyon residents were collected via an individual questionnaire. The objective measures of air pollution were modeled by the local air quality monitoring network of the Rhône-Alpes region at census block level. We used a socioeconomic deprivation index to capture the different socioeconomic dimensions at census block level. The statistical analysis was structured in two steps: (1) identification of individual determinants of the subjective measures of air quality using multiple correspondence analysis followed by hierarchical clustering; (2) identification of individual and contextual characteristics that may alter the relationship between the objective and subjective measures of air pollution. Results : Among the youngest and the middle aged population (ages 30 to 59), consistent results between level of satisfaction, perceived air quality and objective measures of air pollution were found whatever the individual characteristics of the population. It is less clear among the oldest population: globally no significant difference between the NO₂ concentrations and the level of satisfaction was observed. Conclusion s : We found a significant relationship between the

  8. MicroRNAs of the mesothorax in Qinlingacris elaeodes, an alpine grasshopper showing a wing polymorphism with unilateral wing form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Jiang, G F; Ren, Q P; Wang, Y T; Zhou, X M; Zhou, C F; Qin, D Z

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as key post-transcriptional regulators in regulation of phenotypic diversity. Qinlingacris elaeodes is a species of the alpine grasshopper, which is endemic to China. Adult individuals have three wing forms: wingless, unilateral-winged and short-winged. This is an ideal species to investigate the phenotypic plasticity, development and evolution of insect wings because of its case of unilateral wing form in both the sexes. We sequenced a small RNA library prepared from mesothoraxes of the adult grasshoppers using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. Approximately 12,792,458 raw reads were generated, of which the 854,580 high-quality reads were used only for miRNA identification. In this study, we identified 49 conserved miRNAs belonging to 41 families and 69 species-specific miRNAs. Moreover, seven miRNA*s were detected both for conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs, which were supported by hairpin forming precursors based on polymerase chain reaction. This is the first description of miRNAs in alpine grasshoppers. The results provide a useful resource for further studies on molecular regulation and evolution of miRNAs in grasshoppers. These findings not only enrich the miRNAs for insects but also lay the groundwork for the study of post-transcriptional regulation of wing forms.

  9. Characteristics of individuals who make impulsive suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has identified only a few variables that have been associated with making an impulsive suicide attempt. The aim of the current study was to compare individuals who made an impulsive suicide attempt with those who made a premeditated attempt on both previously examined and novel characteristics. Participants were classified as making an impulsive or premeditated attempt based on the Suicide Intent Scale (Beck et al., 1974a) and were compared on a number of characteristics relevant to suicidality, psychiatric history, and demographics. Individuals who made an impulsive attempt expected that their attempts would be less lethal; yet the actual lethality of both groups' attempts was similar. Those who made an impulsive attempt were less depressed and hopeless than those who made a premeditated attempt. Participants who made an impulsive attempt were less likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse and more likely to be diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder than those who made a premeditated attempt. Although the sample size was adequate for bivariate statistics, future studies using larger sample sizes will allow for multivariate analyses of characteristics that differentiate individuals who make impulsive and premeditated attempts. Clinicians should not minimize the significance of impulsive attempts, as they are associated with a similar level of lethality as premeditated attempts. Focusing mainly on depression and hopelessness as indicators of suicide risk has the potential to under-identify those who are at risk for making impulsive attempts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M.; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Peng, Timothy R.; Zhu, Carolyn W.; Feldman, Penny H.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure–related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. PMID:26180045

  11. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H; Peng, Timothy R; Zhu, Carolyn W; Feldman, Penny H

    2016-02-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure-related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Sexuality in Older Couples: Individual and Dyadic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Linda J; Iveniuk, James; Laumann, Edward O; McClintock, Martha K

    2017-02-01

    Sexuality is a key component of health and functioning that changes with age. Although most sexual activity takes place with a partner, the majority of research on sexuality has focused on individuals. In this paper, we focused on the sexual dyad. We proposed and tested a conceptual model of the predictors of partnered sexual activity in older adulthood. This model began with the personality of each of the partners, which affects individuals' views of sex and characteristics of the partnership, which in turn affected sexual expression in the couple. We measured a key feature of personality, Positivity, which reflected the individual's tendency to present his or herself positively in social situations. This trait, we posited, increased frequency of sex through increased desire for sex, and the subjective importance of sex to each member of the couple. In this model, Positivity also impacted characteristics of the relationship that promoted dyadic sexual behavior. These processes differed for men and women in the model. We tested this model with data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which conducted personal interviews with both partners in 940 American dyads (average male age 72; average female age 69). We found that couples in which the husbands' (but not wives') were high in Positivity show higher levels of sexual activity, and that this association was partially mediated by dimensions of relationship quality, but more so by individual factors such as thinking about sex and believing sex is important.

  13. Variable effects of dipteran parasitoids and management treatment on grasshopper fecundity in a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A N; Joern, A

    2012-04-01

    Grasshoppers host a number of parasitoids, but little is known about their impact on grasshopper life history attributes or how those impacts may vary with land use. Here, we report on a three-year survey of nine grasshopper species in a tallgrass prairie managed with fire and bison grazing treatments. We measured parasitoid prevalence and the impact of parasitoid infection on grasshopper fecundity to determine if grasshopper-parasitoid interactions varied with management treatment. Adult female grasshoppers were collected every three weeks from eight watersheds managed with different prescribed burning and grazing treatments. Grasshopper fecundity with and without parasitoids was estimated through dissections of reproductive tracts. Dipteran parasitoids from two families (Nemestrinidae and Tachinidae) were observed infecting grasshoppers. We found significant effects of grazing treatment, but not burn interval, on grasshopper-parasitoid interactions. Parasitoids were three times more abundant in watersheds with bison grazing than in ungrazed watersheds, and the relative abundance of nemestrinid and tachinid flies varied with grazing treatment. Parasitoid prevalence varied among grasshopper species from grasshopper fecundity, with stronger effects on current reproduction than on past reproduction. Furthermore, current fecundity in parasitized grasshoppers was lower in grazed watersheds compared to ungrazed watersheds. Nemestrinid parasitoids generally had stronger impacts on grasshopper fecundity than tachinid parasitoids, the effects of which were more variable.

  14. Nymphal RNAi: systemic RNAi mediated gene knockdown in juvenile grasshopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ying

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grasshopper serves as important model system in neuroscience, development and evolution. Representatives of this primitive insect group are also highly relevant targets of pest control efforts. Unfortunately, the lack of genetics or gene specific molecular manipulation imposes major limitations to the study of grasshopper biology. Results We investigated whether juvenile instars of the grasshopper species Schistocerca americana are conducive to gene silencing via the systemic RNAi pathway. Injection of dsRNA corresponding to the eye colour gene vermilion into first instar nymphs triggered suppression of ommochrome formation in the eye lasting through two instars equivalent to 10–14 days in absolute time. QRT-PCR analysis revealed a two fold decrease of target transcript levels in affected animals. Control injections of EGFP dsRNA did not result in detectable phenotypic changes. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization detected ubiquitous expression of the grasshopper homolog of the dsRNA channel protein gene sid-1 in embryos, nymphs and adults. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that systemic dsRNA application elicits specific and long-term gene silencing in juvenile grasshopper instars. The conservation of systemic RNAi in the grasshopper suggests that this pathway can be exploited for gene specific manipulation of juvenile and adult instars in a wide range of primitive insects.

  15. Individual class evaluation and effective teaching characteristics in integrated curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Eun; Kim, Na Jin; Song, Meiying; Cui, Yinji; Kim, Eun Ju; Park, In Ae; Lee, Hye In; Gong, Hye Jin; Kim, Su Young

    2017-12-12

    In an integrated curriculum, multiple instructors take part in a course in the form of team teaching. Accordingly, medical schools strive to manage each course run by numerous instructors. As part of the curriculum management, course evaluation is conducted, but a single, retrospective course evaluation does not comprehensively capture student perception of classes by different instructors. This study aimed to demonstrate the need for individual class evaluation, and further to identify teaching characteristics that instructors need to keep in mind when preparing classes. From 2014 to 2015, students at one medical school left comments on evaluation forms after each class. Courses were also assessed after each course. Their comments were categorized by connotation (positive or negative) and by subject. Within each subject category, test scores were compared between positively and negatively mentioned classes. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to test group differences in scores. The same method was applied to the course evaluation data. Test results for course evaluation showed group difference only in the practice/participation category. However, test results for individual class evaluation showed group differences in six categories: difficulty, main points, attitude, media/contents, interest, and materials. That is, the test scores of classes positively mentioned in six domains were significantly higher than those of negatively mentioned classes. It was proved that individual class evaluation is needed to manage multi-instructor courses in integrated curricula of medical schools. Based on the students' extensive feedback, we identified teaching characteristics statistically related to academic achievement. School authorities can utilize these findings to encourage instructors to develop effective teaching characteristics in class preparation.

  16. Characteristics of the tinnitus and hyperacusis in normal hearing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daila Urnau1,

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tinnitus has become a common otological complaint. Another complaint is found in bearers of the tinnitus is the hyperacusis. Objective: Analyze the characteristics of tinnitus and hyperacusis in normal hearing individuals with associated complaints of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Method: 25 normal hearing individuals who complained of hyperacusis and tinnitus were surveyed in this form of cross-sectional study. They were questioned about the location and type of the tinnitus. The evaluation of the tinnitus was made using the Brazilian Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and acuphenometry. A questionnaire was made about the hyperacusis covering aspects such as: sounds considered uncomfortable, sensations in the presence of such sounds, and difficulty understanding speech in noise. Results: Of the 25 individuals, 64% were women and 36% men. Regarding tinnitus, 84% referred to bilateral location and 80% high pitch. The most common degree found was light (44%. The women presented tinnitus degree statistically superior to those of men. The strong intensity sounds and the reactions of irritation, anxiety and the need to move away from the sound were the most mentioned. From the analyzed individuals, 68% referred to difficulty understanding speech in noise and 12% reported using hearing protection. The most found frequencies at the acuphenometry were 6 and 8 KHz. Conclusion: Normal hearing individuals who complain of tinnitus and hyperacusis present mainly high pitch tinnitus, located bilaterally and light degree. The sounds considered uncomfortable were the high intensity ones and the most cited reaction to sound was irritation. The difficulty to understand speech in noise was reported by most of the individuals.

  17. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  18. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  19. The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) floating meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, María Celeste; De Wysiecki, María Laura; Poi de Neiff, Alicia; Galassi, María Eugenia; Martínez Fedra, Solange

    2011-09-01

    Cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the Neotropics. The development, feeding and oviposition of C. aquaticum take place on Pontederiaceae, especially on species of Eichhornia. Several aspects of the feeding of C. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating Eichhornia crassipes in native areas. The aims of this paper were: (1) to quantify the amount of E. crassipes consumed by C. aquaticum, (2) to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3) to determine the possible effect of consumption on E. crassipes productivity. Thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs A, nymphs B, adult males and adult females. Insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of E. crassipes. We estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (GR) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI). The impact of C. aquaticum consumption on E. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. Food intake of C. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. Food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. Damage caused by C. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native E. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high.

  20. Grasshopper Population Ecology: Catastrophe, Criticality, and Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Lockwood

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasshopper population dynamics are an important part of the North American rangeland ecosystem and an important factor in the economies that derive from the rangeland. Outbreak dynamics have plagued management strategies in the rangeland, and attempts to find simple, linear and mechanistic solutions to both understanding and predicting the dynamics have proved fruitless. These efforts to ground theory in a correspondence with the "real" world, including whether the population dynamics are ultimately density dependent or density independent, have generated abundant heat but little light. We suggest that a pragmatic approach, in which theories are taken to be "tools" rather than competing claims of truth, has greater promise to move ecological research in a constructive direction. Two recent non-linear approaches exploiting the tools of complexity science provide insights relevant to explaining and forecasting population dynamics. Observation and data collection were used to structure models derived from catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality. These models indicate that nonlinear processes are important in the dynamics of the outbreaks. And the conceptual structures of these approaches provide clear, albeit constrained or contingent, implications for pest managers. We show that, although these two frameworks, catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality, are very different, the frequency distributions of time series from both systems result in power law relationships. Further, we show that a simple lattice-based model, similar to SOC but structured on the biology of the grasshoppers gives a spatial time series similar to data over a 50-year span and the frequency distribution is also a power law relationship. This demonstration exemplifies how a "both-and" rather than an "either-or" approach to ecological modeling, in which the useful elements of particular theories or conceptual structures are extracted, may provide a way forward

  1. Identification of lipid fraction constituents from grasshopper (Chorthippus spp.) abdominal secretion with potential activity in wound healing with the use of GC-MS/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewska-Forajta, Magdalena; Siluk, Danuta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2014-02-01

    In recent years biologically active compounds isolated from insects call special interest of drug researchers. According to some Polish etnopharmacological observations, secretion from the grasshopper's abdomen (Orthoptera family) is believed to speed up the process of wound healing. In the present work we focused on determination of main components of the lipid fraction of material from grasshopper abdomen using GC-MS/MS. Samples were qualitatively analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction pretreatment methods were used to concentrate and fractionate the compounds from the insect. In the derivatized fractions ca. 350 compounds were identified, including substances of known biological activity. The potential agents affecting wound healing have been indicated. A set of compounds characteristic for all the studied Chorthippus spp., have been identified. Data analysis revealed different lipidomic profiles of grasshoppers depending on the insects origin and collection area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oviposition site selection by the grasshoppers Melanoplus borealis and M. sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female grasshoppers can affect the fitness of their offspring through their selection of oviposition sites. Successful embryological development depends on suitable temperature and moisture levels, factors which may vary considerably on a fine scale in natural environments where grasshoppers occur. ...

  3. Application of Bayesian Networks for Estimation of Individual Psychological Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-07-19

    In this paper we apply Bayesian networks for developing more accurate final overall estimations of psychological characteristics of an individual, based on psychological test results. Psychological tests which identify how much an individual possesses a certain factor are very popular and quite common in the modern world. We call this value for a given factor -- the final overall estimation. Examples of factors could be stress resistance, the readiness to take a risk, the ability to concentrate on certain complicated work and many others. An accurate qualitative and comprehensive assessment of human potential is one of the most important challenges in any company or collective. The most common way of studying psychological characteristics of each single person is testing. Psychologists and sociologists are constantly working on improvement of the quality of their tests. Despite serious work, done by psychologists, the questions in tests often do not produce enough feedback due to the use of relatively poor estimation systems. The overall estimation is usually based on personal experiences and the subjective perception of a psychologist or a group of psychologists about the investigated psychological personality factors.

  4. Application of Bayesian Networks for Estimation of Individual Psychological Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Litvinenko, Natalya

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply Bayesian networks for developing more accurate final overall estimations of psychological characteristics of an individual, based on psychological test results. Psychological tests which identify how much an individual possesses a certain factor are very popular and quite common in the modern world. We call this value for a given factor -- the final overall estimation. Examples of factors could be stress resistance, the readiness to take a risk, the ability to concentrate on certain complicated work and many others. An accurate qualitative and comprehensive assessment of human potential is one of the most important challenges in any company or collective. The most common way of studying psychological characteristics of each single person is testing. Psychologists and sociologists are constantly working on improvement of the quality of their tests. Despite serious work, done by psychologists, the questions in tests often do not produce enough feedback due to the use of relatively poor estimation systems. The overall estimation is usually based on personal experiences and the subjective perception of a psychologist or a group of psychologists about the investigated psychological personality factors.

  5. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  6. The effects of job characteristics and individual characteristics on job satisfaction and burnout in community nursing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Huijer-Abu Saad, H.; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe job satisfaction and burnout among two categories of community-based nurses (N = 402) in the Netherlands taking account of job and individual characteristics. Results show that these nurses are moderately satisfied with their jobs and the effects of burnout are

  7. MODEL OF EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT NURSE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON ASSOCIATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC, ORGANIZATION CHARACTERISTIC AND JOB CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaretha Bogar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing care is integral part of health care and having important role in management of patient with emergency condition. The purpose of this research was to develop nurse performance improvement model based on individual, organization and job characteristics association in Emergency Department of RSUD dr TC Hillers Maumere. Method: This was an explanative survey by cross sectional approach held on July -August 2012. Respondents in this study were 22 nurses and 44 patients were obtained by purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed by partial least square test and signi fi cant t value > 1.64 (alpha 10%. Result: Results showed that individual characteristic had effect on nurse performance (t = 7.59, organization characteristic had effect on nurse performance (t = 2.03 and job characteristic didn’t have effect on nurse performance (t = 0.88. Nurse performance had effect on patient satisfaction (t = 6.54 but nurse satisfaction didn’t have effect on nurse performance (t = 1.31, and nurse satisfaction didn’t have effect either on patient satisfaction (t = 0.94. Discussion: This research concluded that individual characteristics which in fl uence nurse performance in nursing care were ability and skill, experience, age, sex, attitude and motivation. Organization characteristic that influence nurse performance was reward while job characteristic that include job design and feedback didn’t influence nurse performance in nursing care. Nurse performance influenced patient satisfaction but nurse satisfaction didn’t influence patient satisfaction and nurse performance.

  8. "Ant" and "grasshopper" life-history strategies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spor, Aymé; Wang, Shaoxiao; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2008-02-13

    From the evolutionary and ecological points of view, it is essential to distinguish between the genetic and environmental components of the variability of life-history traits and of their trade-offs. Among the factors affecting this variability, the resource uptake rate deserves particular attention, because it depends on both the environment and the genetic background of the individuals. In order to unravel the bases of the life-history strategies in yeast, we grew a collection of twelve strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different industrial and geographical origins in three culture media differing for their glucose content. Using a population dynamics model to fit the change of population size over time, we estimated the intrinsic growth rate (r), the carrying capacity (K), the mean cell size and the glucose consumption rate per cell. The life-history traits, as well as the glucose consumption rate, displayed large genetic and plastic variability and genetic-by-environment interactions. Within each medium, growth rate and carrying capacity were not correlated, but a marked trade-off between these traits was observed over the media, with high K and low r in the glucose rich medium and low K and high r in the other media. The cell size was tightly negatively correlated to carrying capacity in all conditions. The resource consumption rate appeared to be a clear-cut determinant of both the carrying capacity and the cell size in all media, since it accounted for 37% to 84% of the variation of those traits. In a given medium, the strains that consume glucose at high rate have large cell size and low carrying capacity, while the strains that consume glucose at low rate have small cell size but high carrying capacity. These two contrasted behaviors may be metaphorically defined as "ant" and "grasshopper" strategies of resource utilization. Interestingly, a strain may be "ant" in one medium and "grasshopper" in another. These life-history strategies are discussed

  9. "Ant" and "grasshopper" life-history strategies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymé Spor

    Full Text Available From the evolutionary and ecological points of view, it is essential to distinguish between the genetic and environmental components of the variability of life-history traits and of their trade-offs. Among the factors affecting this variability, the resource uptake rate deserves particular attention, because it depends on both the environment and the genetic background of the individuals. In order to unravel the bases of the life-history strategies in yeast, we grew a collection of twelve strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different industrial and geographical origins in three culture media differing for their glucose content. Using a population dynamics model to fit the change of population size over time, we estimated the intrinsic growth rate (r, the carrying capacity (K, the mean cell size and the glucose consumption rate per cell. The life-history traits, as well as the glucose consumption rate, displayed large genetic and plastic variability and genetic-by-environment interactions. Within each medium, growth rate and carrying capacity were not correlated, but a marked trade-off between these traits was observed over the media, with high K and low r in the glucose rich medium and low K and high r in the other media. The cell size was tightly negatively correlated to carrying capacity in all conditions. The resource consumption rate appeared to be a clear-cut determinant of both the carrying capacity and the cell size in all media, since it accounted for 37% to 84% of the variation of those traits. In a given medium, the strains that consume glucose at high rate have large cell size and low carrying capacity, while the strains that consume glucose at low rate have small cell size but high carrying capacity. These two contrasted behaviors may be metaphorically defined as "ant" and "grasshopper" strategies of resource utilization. Interestingly, a strain may be "ant" in one medium and "grasshopper" in another. These life

  10. Age structure and feeding of the neotropical grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M C; de Wysiecki, M L; Poi, A

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the variation in the age structure of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) population and its relation to the host plant biomass and the feeding of the different age classes of this grasshopper on the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes along 2 years, in a Paraná River floodplain lake (Chaco, Argentina). Individuals of C. aquaticum were captured with a 70-cm diameter sweep and separated in nymphs A (instars I and II), nymphs B (instars III to VI), adult females, and adult males; host plant biomass was sampled using a ring with a 0.30-m(2) diameter. Relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum population was calculated by multiplying the number of individuals captured per minute by the daily consumption by individual obtained in each age classes. We found that the age structure and the relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum varied between seasons and years. The highest values of grasshopper abundance, leaf biomass, and relative daily feeding of C. aquaticum population were observed in summer 2006. Plant biomass was directly correlated with nymph abundance and not correlated with adult abundance. Plant biomass available as refuge (leaves), food (laminas), and oviposition site (petioles) to C. aquaticum represented up to 62% of the total plant biomass. The results obtained in C. aquaticum show the importance of considering total plant biomass and plant biomass available for herbivores separately. Our study highlights the need to find an adequate method to estimate the density of C. aquaticum and other semiaquatic grasshoppers in the Paraná River floodplain involving different seasons, years, and water phases (rising and falling).

  11. Discrimination of acoustic communication signals by grasshoppers (Chorthippus biguttulus): temporal resolution, temporal integration, and the impact of intrinsic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronacher, Bernhard; Wohlgemuth, Sandra; Vogel, Astrid; Krahe, Rüdiger

    2008-08-01

    A characteristic feature of hearing systems is their ability to resolve both fast and subtle amplitude modulations of acoustic signals. This applies also to grasshoppers, which for mate identification rely mainly on the characteristic temporal patterns of their communication signals. Usually the signals arriving at a receiver are contaminated by various kinds of noise. In addition to extrinsic noise, intrinsic noise caused by stochastic processes within the nervous system contributes to making signal recognition a difficult task. The authors asked to what degree intrinsic noise affects temporal resolution and, particularly, the discrimination of similar acoustic signals. This study aims at exploring the neuronal basis for sexual selection, which depends on exploiting subtle differences between basically similar signals. Applying a metric, by which the similarities of spike trains can be assessed, the authors investigated how well the communication signals of different individuals of the same species could be discriminated and correctly classified based on the responses of auditory neurons. This spike train metric yields clues to the optimal temporal resolution with which spike trains should be evaluated. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Acoustic characteristics used by Japanese macaques for individual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The vocalizations of primates contain information about speaker individuality. Many primates, including humans, are able to distinguish conspecifics based solely on vocalizations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acoustic characteristics used by Japanese macaques in individual vocal discrimination. Furthermore, we tested human subjects using monkey vocalizations to evaluate species specificity with respect to such discriminations. Two monkeys and five humans were trained to discriminate the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. We created a stimulus continuum between the vocalizations of the two monkeys as a set of probe stimuli (whole morph). We also created two sets of continua in which only one acoustic parameter, fundamental frequency ( f 0 ) or vocal tract characteristic (VTC), was changed from the coo call of one monkey to that of another while the other acoustic feature remained the same ( f 0 morph and VTC morph, respectively). According to the results, the reaction times both of monkeys and humans were correlated with the morph proportion under the whole morph and f 0 morph conditions. The reaction time to the VTC morph was correlated with the morph proportion in both monkeys, whereas the reaction time in humans, on average, was not correlated with morph proportion. Japanese monkeys relied more consistently on VTC than did humans for discriminating monkey vocalizations. Our results support the idea that the auditory system of primates is specialized for processing conspecific vocalizations and suggest that VTC is a significant acoustic feature used by Japanese macaques to discriminate conspecific vocalizations. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. ABOUT SOME DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIVIDUAL METEOREACTIONS: GENERAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Zhuravishkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of organism and environment is essential for human existence, and in the natural impact the main are solar-terrestrial relations. Influence of solar activity is carried out directly through the electro-magnetic field, and indirectly, through the effects of meteorological factors. All people are meteo-sensitive. The degree of sensitivity depends of health, age and type of the estimated impact factor, and environmental features of human location. The basic laws of individual meteo-helio-reactions of human psychophysiological indicators at an early and mature age stages are determined. These researches were carried out with a single cycle of observation, but the same patterns and features of meteo-helio-influence with repeated observation are poorly understood. Article is devoted to dynamic characteristics of individual meteo-reactions of healthy people and patients with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The study involved shift workers Siberia. Studied the effect of changes in air temperature and atmospheric pressure on the dynamics of blood pressure and heart rate in a two cycles of observation, the dynamics of adaptation levels in cycles is examined. The study revealed the existence of both conserved and different parameters for dynamic monitoring of human meteo-reactions. That allows to put forward a hypothesis that meteo-adaptation it is not a reaction to the current external impact, but the result of the realization of adaptation program, already existing in the body, in specific conditions.

  14. Caution: Reptile pets shuttle grasshopper allergy and asthma into homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen, Sebastian A F; Robibaro, Bruno; Kinaciyan, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The numbers of reptiles in homes has at least doubled in the last decade in Europe and the USA. Reptile purchases are increasingly triggered by the attempt to avoid potentially allergenic fur pets like dogs and cats. Consequently, reptiles are today regarded as surrogate pets initiating a closer relationship with the owner than ever previously observed. Reptile pets are mostly fed with insects, especially grasshoppers and/or locusts, which are sources for aggressive airborne allergens, best known from occupational insect breeder allergies. Exposure in homes thus introduces a new form of domestic allergy to grasshoppers and related insects. Accordingly, an 8-year old boy developed severe bronchial hypersensitivity and asthma within 4 months after purchase of a bearded dragon. The reptile was held in the living room and regularly fed with living grasshoppers. In the absence of a serological allergy diagnosis test, an IgE immunoblot on grasshopper extract and prick-to-prick test confirmed specific sensitization to grasshoppers. After 4 years of allergen avoidance, a single respiratory exposure was sufficient to trigger a severe asthma attack again in the patient. Based on literature review and the clinical example we conclude that reptile keeping is associated with introducing potent insect allergens into home environments. Patient interviews during diagnostic procedure should therefore by default include the question about reptile pets in homes.

  15. Canalization of freeze tolerance in an alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Timothy C

    2015-10-01

    In the Rock and Pillar Range, New Zealand, the alpine grasshopper, Sigaus australis Hutton, survives equilibrium freezing (EF) all-year round. A comparison of freeze tolerance (FT) in grasshoppers over four austral seasons for a 1 year period finds that: (a) the majority (>70%) of the sample population of grasshoppers survive single freeze-stress throughout the year; (b) exposure to increased freeze stress (multiple freeze-stress events) does not lead to a loss of freeze tolerance; and (c) responses to increased freeze stress reveal seasonal tuning of the FT adaptation to environmental temperatures. The Rock and Pillar sample population provides a clear example of the canalization of the FT adaptation. Seasonal variability in the extent of tolerance of multiple freezing events indicates that physiology is modulated to environmental temperatures by phenotypic plasticity - i.e. the FT adaptation is permanent and adjustable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  17. Relationships between Plant Diversity and Grasshopper Diversity and Abundance in the Little Missouri National Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Branson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuing challenge in orthopteran ecology is to understand what determines grasshopper species diversity at a given site. In this study, the objective was to determine if variation in grasshopper abundance and diversity between 23 sites in western North Dakota (USA could be explained by variation in plant species richness and diversity. In this system with relatively low plant diversity, grasshopper species richness and abundance were not significantly associated with plant species richness in either year. Although a number of significant associations between plant diversity and grasshopper diversity were found through regression analyses, results differed greatly between years indicating that plant species richness and diversity did not lead to strong effects on grasshopper diversity metrics. Plant species richness appears to be too coarse grained to lead to accurate predictions of grasshopper species richness in this system dominated by generalist grasshopper species.

  18. First Jurassic grasshopper (Insecta, Caelifera) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun-Jie; Yue, Yanli; Shi, Fuming; Tian, He; Ren, Dong

    2016-09-20

    Orthoptera is divided into two suborders, the Ensifera (katydids, crickets and mole crickets) and the Caelifera (grasshoppers and pygmy mole crickets). The earliest definitive caeliferans are those found in the Triassic (Bethoux & Ross 2005). The extinct caeliferan families, such as Locustopsidae and Locustavidae, may prove to be stem groups to some of the modern superfamilies (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Locustopsidae is known from the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, consisting of two subfamilies (Gorochov et al. 2006). They are recorded from Europe, England, Russia, central Asia, China, Egypt, North America, Brazil and Australia. Up to now, Late Mesozoic fossil deposits of China has been reported plenty taxa of orthopterids, e.g. ensiferans, phasmatodeans, grylloblattids (Cui et al. 2012; Gu et al. 2010; Gu et al. 2012a; Gu et al. 2012b; Ren et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2014); but, with few caeliferans records, only four species, Pseudoacrida costata Lin 1982, Mesolocustopsis sinica Hong 1990, Tachacris stenosis Lin 1977 and T. turgis Lin 1980, were reported from the Early Cretaceous of Ningxia, Shandong, Yunnan and Zhejiang of China.

  19. Photoemission Experiments for Charge Characteristics of Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Spann, James F., Jr.; Craven, Paul D.; West, E.; Pratico, Jared; Scheianu, D.; Tankosic, D.; Venturini, C. C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission experiments with UV radiation have been performed to investigate the microphysics and charge characteristics of individual isolated dust grains of various compositions and sizes by using the electrodynamic balance facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Dust particles of 1 - 100 micrometer diameter are levitated in a vacuum chamber at pressures approx. 10(exp -5) torr and exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation in the 120-300 nanometers spectral range from a deuterium lamp source with a MgF2 window. A monochromator is used to select the UV radiation wavelength with a spectral resolution of 8 nanometers. The electrodynamic facility permits measurements of the charge and diameters of particles of known composition, and monitoring of photoemission rates with the incident UV radiation. Experiments have been conducted on Al2O3 and silicate particles, and in particular on JSC-1 Mars regolith simulants, to determine the photoelectron yields and surface equilibrium potentials of dust particles when exposed to UV radiation in the 120-250 micrometers spectral range. A brief discussion of the experimental procedure, the results of photoemission experiments, and comparisons with theoretical models will be presented.

  20. MMPI-2-RF characteristics of individuals with interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Wunderlich, Ted; Wilson, Nicolas; Akeson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the psychological functioning of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients utilizing MMPI-2-RF scoring. The MMPI-2 was administered to 60 individuals who reported a diagnosis of IC. Responses were scored in the MMPI-2-RF format. Fifty-one protocols were deemed valid. Elevations were discovered on scales FBS-r (symptom validity), RC1 (somatic complaints), and MLS (malaise). Participants were split into two groups based on extreme elevations on RC1; the high RC1 group produced higher scores on 39 scales including clinically significant elevations on 17 scales. Over 25% of this sample had an emotional component to their physical concerns. This knowledge about the psychological characteristics of IC patients may have clinical utility for physicians and other treatment providers. The results argue strongly for psychological evaluation as a component of IC diagnosis and treatment. Those with significant emotional overlay to their somatic complaints may be best managed through psychological interventions and minimally invasive treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Identification of the meiotic events in grasshopper spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Hao; Zhao, Kai-Qiang; Wang, Ya-Dong; Yang, Meng-Ping; Zhao, Ning-Ning; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    The grasshoppers are ideal materials to study various meiotic stages of spermatogenesis due to their easy availability, fairly large chromosomes, and fewer numbers of chromosomes. It is easy to make temporary squash preparation of grasshopper testes; however, it is usually difficult for the beginners to differentiate between stages of meiosis. In view of this, we demonstrated the method of identification of meiotic stages by chromosome number and chromosome conformation, taking spermatogonial meiosis of Locusta migratoria manilensis as an example. We described briefly the mitosis of spermatogonia and the spermatogenesis of this species as well.

  2. Model Of Emergency Department Nurse Performance Improvement Based on Association of Individual Characteristic, Organization Characteristic and Job Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Bogar, Maria Margaretha; Nursalam, Nursalam; Dewi, Yulis Setiya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing care is integral part of health care and having important role in management of patient with emergency condition. The purpose of this research was to develop nurse performance improvement model based on individual, organization and job characteristics association in Emergency Department of RSUD dr TC Hillers Maumere. Method: This was an explanative survey by cross sectional approach held on July -August 2012. Respondents in this study were 22 nurses and 44 patients were ...

  3. Factors associated with arrival densities of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and baird's sparrow (A. bairdii) in the upper great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, John

    2009-01-01

    Although critical to habitat and population management, the proximate cues that birds use to establish territories are largely unknown. Understanding these cues is important for birds, such as many grassland birds, that exhibit high annual variability in population density and make new habitat-selection decisions annually. Identifying the actual cues used is difficult in the field, but the factors associated with the arrival densities of birds can help uncover variables that are involved in or correlated with cues used for selection. During the summers of 2002–2004, we investigated how weather and local vegetation factors were related to arrival densities of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird's Sparrows (A. bairdii) at three locations across North Dakota and Saskatchewan. Spring densities of Grasshopper Sparrows were positively correlated with concurrent May precipitation, whereas densities of Baird's Sparrows were negatively correlated with the previous winter's snowfall. We used a model-selection approach to evaluate the vegetation characteristics associated with arrival densities of birds. Grasshopper Sparrow densities showed a strong negative relationship to woody cover, and Baird's Sparrow densities showed a negative relationship to vegetation height and vegetation density near the ground. Our results provide a first detailed look at habitat and weather associations immediately after arrival in spring and an important first step in uncovering factors that may be involved in habitat selection in two grassland species.

  4. Mesoherbivores affect grasshopper communities in a megaherbivore-dominated South African savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Olff, Han

    2014-06-01

    African savannahs are among the few places on earth where diverse communities of mega- and meso-sized ungulate grazers dominate ecosystem functioning. Less conspicuous, but even more diverse, are the communities of herbivorous insects such as grasshoppers, which share the same food. Various studies investigated the community assembly of these groups separately, but it is poorly known how ungulate communities shape grasshopper communities. Here, we investigated how ungulate species of different body size alter grasshopper communities in a South African savannah. White rhino is the most abundant vertebrate herbivore in our study site. Other common mesoherbivores include buffalo, zebra and impala. We hypothesized that white rhinos would have greater impact than mesoherbivores on grasshopper communities. Using 10-year-old exclosures, at eight sites we compared the effects of ungulates on grasshopper communities in three nested treatments: (i) unfenced plots ('control plots') with all vertebrate herbivores present, (ii) plots with a low cable fence, excluding white rhino ('megaherbivore exclosures'), and (iii) plots with tall fences, excluding all herbivores larger than rodents ('complete ungulate exclosures'). In each plot, we collected data of vegetation structure, grass and grasshopper community composition. Complete ungulate exclosures contained 30% taller vegetation than megaherbivore exclosures and they were dominated by different grass and grasshopper species. Grasshoppers in complete ungulate exclosures were on average 3.5 mm longer than grasshoppers in megaherbivore exclosures, possibly due to changes in plant communities or vegetation structure. We conclude that surprisingly, in this megaherbivore hotspot, mesoherbivores, instead of megaherbivores, most strongly affect grasshopper communities.

  5. Breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, R.; Kortekaas, K.; Folkertsma, I.; Velde, van der M.; Komdeur, J.; Iongh, de H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the effect of environmental variables on reproductive success of tropical raptors is often constrained by the lack of information on breeding biology. We provide the first detailed information of the breeding biology and nestling development of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur

  6. Modifications to improve entrance slit thermal stability for grasshopper monochromators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Crossley, Sherry L.

    1994-08-01

    As new monochromators are designed for high-flux storage rings, computer modeling and thermal engineering can be done to process increased heat loads and achieve mechanical stability. Several older monochromators, such as the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators, which were designed in 1974, have thermal instabilities in their entrance slit mechanisms. The Grasshoppers operating with narrow slits experience closure of the entrance slit from thermal expansion. In extreme cases, the thermal expansion of the precision components has caused permanent mechanical damage, leaving the slit uncalibrated and/or inoperable. For the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, the original 440 stainless steel entrance slit jaws were retrofitted with an Invar (low expansion Fe, Ni alloy) slit jaw. To transfer the heat from the critical components, two flexible heat straps of Cu were attached. These changes allow safe operation with a 10 μm entrance slit width where the previous limit was 30 μm. After an initial 2 min equilibration, the slit remains stable to 10%, with 100 mA of beam current. Additional improvements in slit thermal stability are planned for a third Grasshopper.

  7. A comparison of the grasshopper fauna ( Orthoptera: Acridoidea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The grasshopper fauna of the Uluguru Mountains and the East Usambara Mountains is compared. There is a marked relationship between habitat and similarity in species composition. The faunal similarity between sites rises with distance from the forest, evidently because the savannah species are widespread species ...

  8. The diversity of caeliferins in American grasshoppers, what possible function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeliferins is a new class of compounds recently identified from regurgitant of the American grasshopper (Schistocerca americana)1. Two closely related caeliferins were shown to induce the release of volatiles in corn plants comparable to what earlier has been shown with volicitin and other fatty a...

  9. chromosome study of some grasshopper species from different

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, 2012 ... ABSTRACT: Around 200 grasshopper species have been identified in ... degree of karyotypic conservatism. ... This leaves a gap in further molecular studies of .... various minor differences observed are briefly ... chromosome are of about equal size with only.

  10. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  11. Studies of the effect of grasshopper abdominal secretion on wound healing with the use of murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewska-Forajta, M; Siluk, D; Daghir-Wojtkowiak, E; Sejda, A; Staśkowiak, D; Biernat, W; Kaliszan, R

    2015-12-24

    Grasshopper, belonging to Chorthippus sp., is a widespread insect inhabiting Polish territory. According to folk knowledge and folk tales, the grasshopper abdominal secretion was used by villagers of Central and South-West Poland as a natural drug accelerating the wound healing process. In the reported study the hypothesis about beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion on hard to heal wounds was verified. The study was carried out with the use of a murine model (mice C57BL/6). In order to verify the beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion, the wounds of 8mm in diameter were formed on one side of each tested mouse. The influence of ethanolic extract of insects' secretion on healing process was evaluated in comparison to ethanolic solution of allantoin and 30% aqueous solution of ethanol (medium). The observation was carried out over a 14 day period. Finally the statistical analysis (ANOVA) was carried out to highlight the differences in wound healing rate between applied preparations. Moreover, qualitative composition of grasshoppers' secretion was studied with the use of GC/MS technique. During the first three days of observation, wounds treated with allantoin were healed with higher efficiency in comparison to ethanol and insect secretion preparations. The trend of healing changed from the 4th day of observation. Wounds treated with grasshoppers' abdominal secretion were closuring faster than wounds treated with allantoin or ethanol. In this part of observation, in the case of allantoin and ethanol application, the wound healing efficiency was similar. Since the 9th day of experiment the measurement of wounds size was problematic, due to crust formation. Finally at the 14th day of the study, wounds were totally healed. Morphological study enabled to observe all the phases of healing. In the 5th and 8th day, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in dermis was observed, which is characteristic for inflammatory phase

  12. High similarity in physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan from nymphs and adults of a grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Sevil; Kaya, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to explain the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan obtained from the nymphs and adults of Dociostaurus maroccanus using the same method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis results demonstrated that the chitins from both the adults and nymphs were in the α-form. The chitin contents of the adults (14%) and nymphs (12%) were of the same order of magnitude. The crystalline index values of chitins from the adult and nymph grasshoppers were 71% and 74%, respectively. Thermal stabilities of the chitins and chitosans from adult and nymph grasshoppers were close to each other. Both the adult (7.2kDa) and nymph (5.6kDa) chitosans had low molar masses. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface morphologies of both chitins consisted of nanofibers and nanopores together, and they were very similar to each other. Consequently, it was determined that the physicochemical properties of the chitins and chitosans from adults and nymphs of D. maroccanus were not very different, so it can be hypothesized that the development of the chitin structure in the nymph has almost been completed and the nymph chitin has the same characteristics as the adult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual Characteristics and Their Influence on Innovation : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, Georgiana; Faems, Dries; van der Bij, Hans; Duysters, G; DeHoyos, A; Kaminishi, K

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is widely acknowledged nowadays as the source for firms' competitive advantage. Whereas previous innovation research mainly focus on the group and organisational levels, only a relatively small number of studies cover individual perspectives on innovation performance. Based on a

  14. Individual Variation in Life History Characteristics Can Influence Extinction Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, H I

    2001-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  15. Rating Students' Problem Behaviour: The Role of Teachers' Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…

  16. Populations of the northern grasshopper, Melanoplus borealis (Orthoptera: Acrididae), in Alaska are rarely food limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; Zhang, Mingchu

    2011-06-01

    In some systems, grasshoppers appear to be food limited in most years, whereas in other systems top down forces, for example, predators, are more often implicated in population regulation. Sustainable strategies to manage grasshopper populations through habitat management require knowledge of the forces that regulate grasshopper populations. This experiment was undertaken to determine whether populations of Melanoplus borealis (Fieber), a common pest species in Alaska, are food-limited in Alaska. Cages were set up in a fallow field near Delta Junction, AK, in 3 yr (2007-2009). In 2007 and 2008, fertilizer was added to half the plots to increase primary production, and, in all years, cages within each plot were stocked with 0, 5, 9, or 13 fourth-instar M. borealis (equivalent to 0, 20, 36, or 52 grasshoppers/m(2)). Grasshoppers in each cage were counted weekly. Near the end of the growing season, surviving female grasshoppers (≈40% of the original number) were collected. Femur length was taken as a measure of adult size, and functional ovarioles were counted as a measure of current fecundity. If the grasshoppers were food limited, we expected to see significant effects of either density or fertilizer on grasshopper survival, size, or fecundity. The fertilizer treatment greatly increased primary production in both years. Neither fertilizer treatment nor grasshopper density had consistent effects on survival, size, or potential fecundity, leading us to conclude that food is seldom limiting to populations in the interior of Alaska at densities <50 m(-2).

  17. Labor Market Characteristics and the Labor Force Participation of Individuals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    dependent variable are well-known and range from frequent uninterpretability of results to bias in statistical tests (see, e.g., Hanushek and Jackson...shown that logit and probit analysis yield almost identical results near the means of relevant variables ( Hanushek and Jackson, 1977: 188- 189). We choose...general and lucid treatment of these and related points, see Hanushek and Jackson (1977:Ch. 7). Step 2: Analysis of labor market impact on individual

  18. Presencia de Malameba locustae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda en acridios (Orthoptera: Acrididae de la provincia de Misiones, Argentina Presence of Malameba locustae (Protozoa: Rhizopoda in grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae of Misiones province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lange

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La ameba patógena Malameba locustae King y Taylor fue detectada parasitando ejemplares del acridio Ronderosia bergi (Stal recolectados en las cercanías del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones. El hallazgo constituye el segundo registro de M. locustae para acridios sudamericanos.Individuals of the grasshopper Ronderosia bergi (Stal collected in the surroundings of Iguazú National Park, Misiones, were found to be parasitized by the pathogenic amoeba Malameba locustae King & Taylor. The finding constitutes the second record of M. locustae for southamerican grasshoppers.

  19. Associations between individual and relationship characteristics and genital herpes disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Micro-Evolution in Grasshoppers Mediated by Polymorphic Robertsonian Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Pablo C.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed. PMID:23909914

  1. Chemical cues from females trigger male courtship behaviour in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Jonas; Kuntze, Janine; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Gomphocerine grasshoppers use species-specific calling songs for sex recognition and mate attraction. In two closely related species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, acoustic communication is the only experimentally characterized communication channel that elicits male courtship behaviour. However, courtship in these species involves extensive close-range interactions that are likely to be mediated by other signalling modalities, in particular chemical cues. We developed a bioassay to determine if female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) act as chemical cues that induce courtship behaviour, and if males assess variation in CHCs to determine whether or not to court a female. The results of this approach provide evidence that grasshopper males use species- and sex-specific information from CHC signals and respond with a courtship song to the CHC profile of conspecific females but not to the CHC profile of heterospecific females and conspecific males. We conclude that males of C. biguttulus and C. mollis use multimodal channels for mating decisions, based on both acoustic and olfactory cues. We discuss various factors that might favour the evolution of male choosiness in grasshoppers.

  2. Mark IV 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence mono-chromator for the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility (CSRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.H.; Bancroft, G.M.; Coatsworth, L.L.; Yates, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The vacuum, mechanical, and optical characteristics of a 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence monochromator for use with a synchrotron radiation source in the 30-300 eV range is described. The monochromator is compatible with ultrahigh vacuum ( -10 Torr throughout), and the motor driven scan mechanism is linear and reliable. The monchromator has been calibrated using several known absorption edges between 36 and 102 eV and a nonlinear least squares fit to the scan equation. These same absorption edges, plus a scan over zero order, show that the present resolution of the monochromator (with 10 and 16 μm exit and entrance slits respectively) is 0.16 A (0.06 eV at the AlLsub(2,3) edge). With 10 μm entrance and exit slits the resolution will be very close to the theoretical Δlambda = 0.083 A

  3. Angular distribution measurement of fragment ions from a molecule using a new beamline consisting of a Grasshopper monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norio; Suzuki, Isao H.; Onuki, Hideo; Nishi, Morotake

    1989-07-01

    Optical characteristics of a new beamline consisting of a premirror, a Grasshopper monochromator, and a refocusing mirror have been investigated. The intensity of the monochromatic soft x-ray was estimated to be about 108 photons/(s 100 mA) at 500 eV with the storage electron energy of 600 MeV and the minimum slit width. This slit width provides a resolution of about 500. Angular distributions of fragment ions from an inner-shell excited nitrogen molecule have been measured with a rotatable time-of-flight mass spectrometer by using this beamline.

  4. Angular distribution measurement of fragment ions from a molecule using a new beamline consisting of a Grasshopper monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, N.; Suzuki, I.H.; Onuki, H.; Nishi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Optical characteristics of a new beamline consisting of a premirror, a Grasshopper monochromator, and a refocusing mirror have been investigated. The intensity of the monochromatic soft x-ray was estimated to be about 10 8 photons/(s 100 mA) at 500 eV with the storage electron energy of 600 MeV and the minimum slit width. This slit width provides a resolution of about 500. Angular distributions of fragment ions from an inner-shell excited nitrogen molecule have been measured with a rotatable time-of-flight mass spectrometer by using this beamline

  5. Auditory characteristics of individuals with temporomandibular dysfunctions and dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Totta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is any relationship between otological as well as vestibular symptoms, audiological findings and type of temporomandibular disorder (articular, muscular and mixed; and to check the distribution of the temporomandibular disorders (TMD dysfunction degree in the research population. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 30 patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 49 years old, diagnosed with TMD and dentofacial deformities, who were subject to clinical evaluation (muscle palpation, auscultation of temporomandibular joint during mandibular motion and measurement of jaw movement, audiological testing (pure tone audiometry and immittance testing and two questionnaires, one on otological and vestibular symptoms and the other on TMD anamnesis. Based on both the anamnesis questionnaire and the clinical assessment, the subjects were divided according to the type and degree of TMD dysfunction (mild, moderate and severe, and compared regarding the occurrence of auditory signs and symptoms, vestibular symptoms and audiological findings according to TMD type. RESULTS: The anamnesis questionnaire demonstrated higher prevalence (83.33% of severe TMD. Subjects with mixed TMD had more complaints about hypoacusis than those with muscular TMD (p < 0.05. The results showed no change in either audiological and immittance testing for all assessed individuals. CONCLUSION: Otological symptoms are present in subjects with TMD and dentofacial deformities, regardless of the classification of TMD (articular, muscular or mixed. Those with mixed TMD may have higher incidence of complaints about hypoacusis than subjects with muscular TMD. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between otological symptoms and the different types of TMD.

  6. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  7. Spatial autocorrelation in farmland grasshopper assemblages (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhausser, I; Gouat, M; Goarant, A; Cornulier, T; Bretagnolle, V

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural intensification in western Europe has caused a dramatic loss of grassland surfaces in farmlands, which have resulted in strong declines in grassland invertebrates, leading to cascade effects at higher trophic levels among consumers of invertebrates. Grasshoppers are important components of grassland invertebrate assemblages in European agricultural ecosystems, particularly as prey for bird species. Understanding how grasshopper populations are distributed in fragmented landscapes with low grassland availability is critical for both studies in biodiversity conservation and insect management. We assessed the range and strength of spatial autocorrelation for two grasshopper taxa (Gomphocerinae subfamily and Calliptamus italicus L.) across an intensive farmland in western France. Data from surveys carried out over 8 yr in 1,715 grassland fields were analyzed using geostatistics. Weak spatial patterns were observed at small spatial scales, suggesting important local effects of management practices on grasshopper densities. Spatial autocorrelation patterns for both grasshopper taxa were only detected at intermediate scales. For Gomphocerinae, the range of spatial autocorrelation varied from 802 to 2,613 m according to the year, depending both on grasshopper density and on grassland surfaces in the study site, whereas spatial patterns for the Italian locust were more variable and not related to grasshopper density or grassland surfaces. Spatial patterns in the distribution of Gomphocerinae supported our hypothesis that habitat availability was a major driver of grasshopper distribution in the landscape, and suggested it was related to density-dependent processes such as dispersal.

  8. Effects of nymph-overwintering grasshopper density on Ageneotettix deorum survival in a northern mixed grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most pest grasshopper species in North America hatch in late spring or early summer, some species hatch in late summer and become adults in late spring. It is not well understood how they impact densities of later developing pest grasshopper species. In an earlier study examining temporall...

  9. Positive interactions between large herbivores and grasshoppers, and their consequences for grassland plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhiwei; Wang, Deli; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Ling; Feng, Chao; Wang, Zhongnan

    2014-04-01

    Although the influence of positive interactions on plant and sessile communities has been well documented, surprisingly little is known about their role in structuring terrestrial animal communities. We evaluated beneficial interactions between two distantly related herbivore taxa, large vertebrate grazers (sheep) and smaller insect grazers (grasshoppers), using a set of field experiments in eastern Eurasian steppe of China. Grazing by large herbivores caused significantly higher grasshopper density, and this pattern persisted until the end of the experiment. Grasshoppers, in turn, increased the foraging time of larger herbivores, but such response occurred only during the peak of growing season (August). These reciprocal interactions were driven by differential herbivore foraging preferences for plant resources; namely, large herbivores preferred Artemisia forbs, whereas grasshoppers preferred Leymus grass. The enhancement of grasshopper density in areas grazed by large herbivores likely resulted from the selective consumption of Artemisia forbs by vertebrate grazers, which may potentially improve the host finding of grasshoppers. Likewise, grasshoppers appeared to benefit large herbivores by decreasing the cover and density of the dominant grass Leymus chinensis, which hampers large herbivores' access to palatable forbs. Moreover, we found that large herbivores grazing alone may significantly decrease plant diversity, yet grasshoppers appeared to mediate such negative effects when they grazed with large herbivores. Our results suggest that the positive, reciprocal interactions in terrestrial herbivore communities may be more prevalent and complex than previously thought.

  10. Effects of livestock grazing on grasshopper abundance on a native rangeland in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; Olson, Bret E; Wallander, Roseann; Rolston, Marni G; Seibert, Catherine E

    2010-06-01

    Livestock grazing can affect habitat quality for grasshoppers through effects on food and oviposition site availability, microclimate, and other factors. Because of this, some authors have suggested that grazing programs can be used to help manage pest grasshopper populations. In a 6-yr study, we controlled access of cattle to replicated experimental plots on an Agropyron spicatum/Poa sandbergii pasture to create consistent year-to-year differences in postgrazing plant cover, with resultant affects on microclimate. After sampling grasshoppers multiple times after grazing treatments each summer, we found evidence of between-treatment differences in grasshopper abundance for the entire assemblage during 4 of the 6 yr. Some species, including Melanoplus sanguinipes (perhaps the worse rangeland grasshopper pest in the western United States), tended to be more abundant on ungrazed plots, whereas Melanoplus gladstoni often had greater densities on heavily-grazed plots. The effect of grazing on grasshopper densities in this study was lower in magnitude and less consistent among years than in a study we conducted simultaneously at a nearby site where the vegetation was dominated by the exotic species crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). Our results generally support proposals that grazing could be used to reduce pest grasshopper densities, although the effectiveness of a particular grazing scheme may vary among sites, years, and grasshopper and vegetation assemblages.

  11. Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  12. Relationships between plant diversity and grasshopper diversity and abundance in the Little Missouri National Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    A continuing challenge in Orthoptera ecology is to understand what determines grasshopper species diversity at a given site. In this study, the objective was to determine if variation in grasshopper abundance and diversity between 23 sites in western North Dakota (USA) could be explained by variatio...

  13. Grasshopper responses to fire and postfire grazing in the northern Great Plains vary among species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland management practices such as burning and grazing management may affect grasshopper populations by impacting development, survival and reproduction. Experiments are lacking in the northern Great Plains examining the effects of fire and grazing intensity on grasshoppers. As part of a larger ...

  14. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  15. Multielectrode recordings from auditory neurons in the brain of a small grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Mit Balvantray; Heinrich, Ralf; Stumpner, Andreas

    2015-12-30

    Grasshoppers have been used as a model system to study the neuronal basis of insect acoustic behavior. Auditory neurons have been described from intracellular recordings. The growing interest to study population activity of neurons has been satisfied so far with artificially combining data from different individuals. We for the first time used multielectrode recordings from a small grasshopper brain. We used three 12μm tungsten wires (combined in a multielectrode) to record from local brain neurons and from a population of auditory neurons entering the brain from the thorax. Spikes of the recorded units were separated by sorting algorithms and spike collision analysis. The tungsten wires enabled stable recordings with high signal to noise ratio. Due to the tight temporal coupling of auditory activity to the stimulus spike collisions were frequent and collision analysis retrieved 10-15% of additional spikes. Marking the electrode position was possible using a fluorescent dye or electrocoagulation with high current. Physiological identification of units described from intracellular recordings was hard to achieve. 12μm tungsten wires gave a better signal to noise ratio than 15μm copper wires previously used in recordings from bees' brains. Recording the population activity of auditory neurons in one individual prevents interindividual and trial-to-trial variability which otherwise reduce the validity of the analysis. Double intracellular recordings have quite low success rate and therefore are rarely achieved and their stability is much lower than that of multielectrode recordings which allows sampling of data for 30min or more. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship of Some Personality and Individual Characteristics with an Individual's Commitment to an Ideal Vision for Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ryan

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among specified personality and individual characteristics of university students with their level of commitment to a measurable, results-focused statement of an ideal vision. Discusses locus of control, generativity, self-efficacy, values, and risk taking in the use of an ideal vision for strategic planning, needs…

  17. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes Grasshoppers following Ingestion of Rangeland Plant Species Harboring Vesicular Stomatitis Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Stuart, Melissa A.; Derner, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV. PMID:19286779

  18. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes grasshoppers following ingestion of rangeland plant species harboring vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Stuart, Melissa A; Derner, Justin D

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV.

  19. Growth, development, and nutritional physiology of grasshoppers from subarctic and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; Defoliart, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of developmental rate, growth rate, and size at maturity in the life history of poikliotherms, the trade-offs among these traits and selection pressures involved in the evolution of these traits are not well understood. This study compared these traits in a grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes F. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), from two contrasting geographical regions, subarctic Alaska and temperate Idaho. The growing season in the interior of Alaska is about 80 d shorter than at low-elevation sites in Idaho. We hypothesized that the Alaskan grasshoppers would show more rapid growth and development than grasshoppers from Idaho, at the cost of greater sensitivity to food quality. On a diet of lettuce and wheat bran, grasshoppers from Alaska developed from egg hatch to adult more rapidly than those from Idaho at each of three different temperature regimes. Averaged over all temperature treatments, the weight of the Alaskan grasshoppers was about 5% less than that of the Idaho grasshoppers at the adult molt. Feeding and digestive efficiencies were determined for the final two instars using two meridic diets: one with a high concentration of nutrients and the other with the same formulation but diluted with cellulose. Alaskan grasshoppers again developed more rapidly, weighed less, and had faster growth rates than those from Idaho. Alaskan grasshoppers supported their more rapid growth by increasing postingestive efficiencies; that is, they had higher conversion rates of digested matter to biomass on the high-quality diet, greater assimilation of food on the low-quality diet, and greater efficiency of nitrogen assimilation or retention on both diets. There was no evidence that performance of Alaskan grasshoppers suffered any more than that of the Idaho grasshoppers on the low-quality diet.

  20. Characterization and analysis of a de novo transcriptome from the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhongying; Liu, Fei; Lu, Huimeng; Huang, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica is a common insect distributed throughout the world, and it has the potential for use in studies of body colour polymorphism, genomics and the biology of Tetrigoidea (Insecta: Orthoptera). However, limited biological information is available for this insect. Here, we conducted a de novo transcriptome study of adult and larval T. japonica to provide a better understanding of its gene expression and develop genomic resources for future work. We sequenced and explored the characteristics of the de novo transcriptome of T. japonica using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 107 608 206 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 61 141 unigenes using the trinity software; the mean unigene size was 771 bp, and the N50 length was 1238 bp. A total of 29 225 unigenes were functionally annotated to the NCBI nonredundant protein sequences (Nr), NCBI nonredundant nucleotide sequences (Nt), a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of putative genes that are potentially involved in pigment pathways, juvenile hormone (JH) metabolism and signalling pathways were identified in the T. japonica transcriptome. Additionally, 165 769 and 156 796 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms occurred in the adult and larvae transcriptomes, respectively, and a total of 3162 simple sequence repeats were detected in this assembly. This comprehensive transcriptomic data for T. japonica will provide a usable resource for gene predictions, signalling pathway investigations and molecular marker development for this species and other pygmy grasshoppers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Liou, Shwu-Ru; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-09-01

    To understand the relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived personal creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome (receiving the Nursing Innovation Award). Since the idea of applying creativity and innovation to clinical nursing practice and management was first advocated in the Nursing Administration Quarterly in 1982, the topic of nursing innovation has gained worldwide attention. To increase the prevalence of nursing innovation, it is important to identify and understand the related factors that influence nurses' innovative outcome. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 32 award winners and 506 nonawarded clinical nurses in Taiwan. The level of creativity perceived by all participants was moderate-to-high. Individual characteristics (r = 0·61) and worksite support (r = 0·27) were both correlated with perceived creativity. Individual characteristics and worksite support showed some correlation as well (r = 0·21). Individual characteristics and worksite support could predict perceived creativity after controlling for demographic variables, but only individual characteristics had an effect on innovative outcome. Perceived creativity did not have mediation effects either between individual characteristics and innovative outcome or between worksite support and innovative outcome. Clinical nurses' individual characteristics had a direct relationship to innovative outcome, whereas neither worksite support nor creativity was correlated with innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not show effects on innovative outcome, it was related to both perceived creativity and individual characteristics. As suggested by other scholars, there might be other related factors between creativity and innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not have effect on clinical nurses' innovative outcome, it was related to individual characteristics

  2. Distribution, habitat and behavior of grasshopper sparrows, Ammodramus savannarum(Passeriformes: Emberizidae in northeastern Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Arguedas-Negrini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During March and April of 1996, I made field observations of the sedentary subspecies of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum cracens, in 600 points of the pine savannas of northeastern Nicaragua. Isolated individuals were found in the humid depressions, but breeding populations were located exclusively in areas that had suffered a recent fire. Territorial behavior varied in intensity apparently as a function of territory size: the most aggressive males were those trying to defend smaller territories in populations close to Miskito villages, where most of the fires occur. In contrast to what is happening in other parts of Central America, the Nicaraguan grasshopper sparrow may be indirectly protected from extinction by the Miskito’s traditional fire practices.En marzo y abril de 1996, llevé a cabo observaciones del semillero colicorto (Ammodramus savannarum cracens en las sabanas de pino del noreste de Nicaragua. Encontré individuos aislados en las depresiones más húmedas, pero las poblaciones en estado reproductivo ocupaban solamente áreas que hubieran sido quemadas recientemente. El comportamiento territorial de las aves parecía estar relacionado al tamaño del territorio: las aves más agresivas defendían territorios relativamente pequeños, cercanos a los poblados miskitos, que es adonde los fuegos se producen con mayor frequencia. Fue notable la ausencia de posibles depredadores en las áreas más abiertas de la savanna. Contrario a lo que sucede en otras partes de Centroamérica, la persistencia de esta ave en las savannas de pino de Nicaragua podría estar asegurada por las tradiciones miskitas en el uso del fuego.

  3. Vitellogenin RNAi halts ovarian growth and diverts reproductive proteins and lipids in young grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Derek R; Veleta, Katherine A; Canzano, Joseph; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2014-11-01

    Reduced reproduction extends lifespan of females in many animals. To test the effects of reproduction on storage of macronutrients, we block reproductive output in the lubber grasshopper by injecting RNAi against the precursor to egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in early adulthood. Controls were injected with either buffer or RNAi against the major storage protein in the hemolymph, hexamerin-90. Vitellogenin RNAi greatly reduced both levels of mRNA for vitellogenin and ovarian growth, in comparison to both controls. Fat body mass was increased upon vitellogenin RNAi, but concentrations of the three hexameric storage proteins from the hemolymph were not. Surprisingly, hemolymph vitellogenin levels were increased upon vitellogenin RNAi. Total reproductive protein (hemolymph vitellogenin plus ovarian vitellin) was unchanged by vitellogenin RNAi, as reproductive protein was diverted to the hemolymph. Similarly, the increased lipid storage upon vitellogenin RNAi was largely attributable to the reduction in lipid in the ovary, due to decreased ovarian growth. A BLAST search revealed that the 515 bp sequence of vitellogenin used for RNAi had three 11 bp regions identical to the vitellogenin receptor of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. This suggests that our treatment, in addition to reducing levels of vitellogenin transcript, may have also blocked transport of vitellogenin from the hemolymph to the ovary. This would be consistent with halted ovarian growth simultaneous with high levels of vitellogenin in the hemolymph. Nonetheless, the accumulation of vitellogenin, instead of hexameric storage proteins, is inconsistent with a simple model of the trade-off between reproduction and storage. This was observed in young females; future studies will address whether investment of proteins may shift to the soma as individuals age. Overall, our results suggest that blockage of reproduction in young grasshoppers redirects lipids to storage and reproductive proteins to the hemolymph

  4. Characteristics and Diffusion Model of the Individual Knowledge in the WeChat Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingzhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] According to the model of the individual knowledge diffusion, we conduct a behavior research and analyze the characteristics of that based on WeChat which is the most popular communication platform in China.[Method/process] By analyzing the methods of the diffusion on WeChat, we analyzed the characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion. [Result/conclusion]The characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion include real-time, short-term, speciality, friendship and transmission.

  5. The impact of humanitarian context conditions and individual characteristics on aid worker retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, Valeska P.; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael

    High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Holland. The study extends

  6. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the factors impacting individual vehicle energy consumption, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow. A fleet of 18 vehicles with a variety of ownership, size...

  7. Density mediates grasshopper performance in response to temperature manipulation and spider predation in tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, A N; Joern, A

    2017-04-01

    Species interactions are often context-dependent, where outcomes require an understanding of influences among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. However, it remains unclear how abiotic factors such as temperature combine with important biotic factors such as density-dependent food limitation and predation to influence species interactions. Using a native grassland - grasshopper - wolf spider model food chain in tallgrass prairie, we conducted a manipulative field experiment to examine how predator-prey interactions respond to manipulations of temperature, grasshopper density, and food chain length. We find that grasshopper performance responses to temperature and predator treatments were density dependent. At high densities, grasshopper survival decreased with increased temperature when no spiders were present. When spiders were present, grasshopper survival was reduced, and this effect was strongest in the cooled treatment. In contrast, grasshopper survival did not vary significantly with spider presence or among temperature treatments at low grasshopper densities. Our results indicate that context-dependent species interactions are common and highlight the importance of understanding how and when key biotic and abiotic factors combine to influence species interactions.

  8. Horizontal transmission of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in grasshopper populations via predatory natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Peng, Shi; Zheng, Xuan; Jia, Wan-Tong; Li, Ao-Mei; Camara, Ibrahima; Chen, Hong-Xing; Tan, Shu-Qian; Liu, Yi-Qing; Ji, Rong

    2018-04-24

    Paranosema locustae Canning, 1953 (Microsporidia) provides effective control of grasshoppers. While horizontal transmission of P. locustae is known to occur, evidence for the mechanisms of such transmission via predatory natural enemies was found. We conducted a three-year laboratory and field study to assess the potential impact of feces both from grasshoppers Locusta migratoria L. and from their natural enemies on the persistence of P. locustae. We found that P. locustae persisted among grasshopper populations in treated areas and in adjacent untreated areas for up to two years, and the density of grasshoppers decreased in both areas. We showed that healthy grasshoppers could be infected by feeding on food contaminated by feces from their natural enemies. Predators of grasshoppers retained a large number of spores acquired from eating grasshoppers infected with P. locustae. Spores in the feces of the main natural enemy, the beetle Pterostichus gebleri Dejean 1828 in treated area showed clear viability. These results demonstrate that predatory natural enemies are important vectors for this microsporidian disease, and suggest that sustainable transmission and continuing population suppression might be achieved by horizontal transmission through natural enemies, which should be maximized to increase the effectiveness of P. locustae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Species composition of grasshoppers (Orthoptera) in open plots and farmlands in calabar metropolis, southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, E E; Arong, G A; Bassey, D A

    2011-04-15

    The grasshoppers are strategic in the welfare of man and may constitute a major threat when its population is not checked. A study on the distribution of grasshoppers in open plots and farmlands was carried out within Calabar Metropolis between August to November, 2010. A total of 295 grasshoppers belonging to 11 species grouped under 3 families (Tettigoniidae, Acrididae and Pyrgomorphidae) were collected from 8 study locations. Grasshoppers were collected weekly from all study sites using sweep nets between 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. The collection was done using sweep nets between 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. when grasshoppers baked themselves under the sun. The percentage abundance of these species were Spathosterrium pygmaeum (16.27%), Tettigonia viridissima (11.86%), Catantops spissus (11.19%) Acridaturita sp. (10.17%), Gastrimargus acrididae (9.83%), Schistocerca nitens (9.49%), Tylopsis sp. (7.46%), Zonocerus variegatus (6.78%), Omocestus viridulus (6.10%), Scudderia mexicana (5.76%) and Zonocerus elegans (5.08%). Tettigonia viridissima and Acridaturita sp. were largely distributed as it occurred in 7 of 8 study sites while Scudderia mexicana was the least distributed, as it was reported in 3 sites only. The dominant grasshopper species in open plot was Spathosterrium pygmaeum (19%) in relative abundance and the least was Zonocerus variegatus (0.64%). Zonocerus variegatus was the dominant species in farmland (14%) in relative abundance and the least was Schistocerca nitens (4%). Chi-square test showed a high significant difference between the distribution of grasshoppers in open plots and farmlands (p grasshopper species composition were attributed to lizard predation and management practices such as grass cutting, fertilizer and pesticide applications. It was therefore concluded that species abundance and population of grasshoppers could be enhanced by minimizing human activities that interfere with land use.

  10. Interaction of Participant Characteristics and Type of AAC with Individuals with ASD: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Mason, Rose A.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Boles, Margot B.; Heath, Amy K.; Davis, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and complex communication needs often rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) as a means of functional communication. This meta-analysis investigated how individual characteristics moderate effectiveness of three types of aided AAC: the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS),…

  11. Grasshoppers of the Mascarene Islands: new species and new records (Orthoptera, Caelifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugel, Sylvain

    2014-12-23

    The grasshopper fauna of Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion), in South Western Indian ocean is examined. Numerous field surveys and examination of museum specimens recorded twenty species of Grasshoppers on the archipelago. Five of them are new records, including a new species: Odontomelus ancestrus n. sp. restricted to Round Island, a 2 km² islet North to Mauritius. Despite intensive searching, five of the non endemic species once recorded on the archipelago have not been recorded again and might correspond to temporary settlements/introductions. A key to Mascarene grasshoppers is given.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of ontogeny in the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdan, Emma L; Finck, Jonas; Johnston, Paul R; Waurick, Isabelle; Mazzoni, Camila J; Mayer, Frieder

    2017-01-01

    Acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera:Acrididae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological research. Although there has been recent influx of orthopteran transcriptomic resources, many use pooled ontogenetic stages obscuring information about changes in gene expression during development. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Samples from different stages encompassing embryonic development through adults were used for transcriptomic profiling, revealing patterns of differential gene expression that highlight processes in the different life stages. These patterns were validated with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Embryonic development showed a strongly differentiated expression pattern compared to all of the other stages and genes upregulated in this stage were involved in signaling, cellular differentiation, and organ development. Our study is one of the first to examine gene expression during post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect and we found that only the fourth and fifth instars had clusters of genes upregulated during these stages. These genes are involved in various processes ranging from synthesis of biogenic amines to chitin binding. These observations indicate that post-embryonic ontogeny is not a continuous process and that some instars are differentiated. Finally, genes upregulated in the imago were generally involved in aging and immunity. Our study highlights the importance of looking at ontogeny as a whole and indicates promising directions for future research in orthopteran development.

  13. Song variation and environmental auditory masking in the grasshopper sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Bernard; Dooling, Robert J.; Gill, Douglas E.

    2004-05-01

    Some grassland bird species, in particular grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), sing songs with especially high mean frequencies (7.0-8.0 kHz). Acoustic interference is one potential explanation for the evolution of high frequency vocalizations, particularly in open habitats. We tested predictions from a model of effective auditory communication distances to understand the potential effects of vocal production and environmental auditory masking on vocal behavior and territoriality. Variation in the spectral structure of songs and the size and shape of territories was measured for grasshopper sparrows in typical grassland habitats. Median territory areas were 1629 m2 at a site in the center of the species range in Nebraska, and 1466 m2 at our study site in Maryland, with average territory diameters measuring 20.2 m. Species densities and sound pressure levels also were determined for stridulating insects and other noise sources in the habitat. Based on current models of effective communication distances, known noise levels, and information on hearing abilities, our results suggest that auditory sensitivity and environmental noise could be factors influencing the mean frequency and spatial dynamics of territorial behavior in grassland birds. [Work supported by NIH and the CRFRC.

  14. Morphological differentiation despite gene flow in an endangered grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, Eddy J; Morgan-Richards, Mary; Trewick, Steven A

    2014-10-16

    Gene flow is traditionally considered a limitation to speciation because selection is required to counter the homogenising effect of allele exchange. Here we report on two sympatric short-horned grasshoppers species in the South Island of New Zealand; one (Sigaus australis) widespread and the other (Sigaus childi) a narrow endemic. Of the 79 putatively neutral markers (mtDNA, microsatellite loci, ITS sequences and RAD-seq SNPs) all but one marker we examined showed extensive allele sharing, and similar or identical allele frequencies in the two species where they co-occur. We found no genetic evidence of deviation from random mating in the region of sympatry. However, analysis of morphological and geometric traits revealed no evidence of morphological introgression. Based on phenotype the two species are clearly distinct, but their genotypes thus far reveal no divergence. The best explanation for this is that some loci associated with the distinguishing morphological characters are under strong selection, but exchange of neutral loci is occurring freely between the two species. Although it is easier to define species as requiring a barrier between them, a dynamic model that accommodates gene flow is a biologically more reasonable explanation for these grasshoppers.

  15. Transferable Antibiotic Resistances in Marketed Edible Grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Pasquini, Marina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-05-01

    Grasshoppers are the most commonly eaten insects by humans worldwide, as they are rich in proteins and micronutrients. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes in commercialized edible grasshoppers. To this end, the prevalence of 12 selected genes [aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia, blaZ, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mecA, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), vanA, vanB] coding for resistance to antibiotics conventionally used in clinical practice was determined. The majority of samples were positive for tet(M) (70.0%), tet(K) (83.3%) and blaZ (83.3%). A low percentage of samples were positive for erm(B) (16.7%), erm(C) (26.7%), and aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia (13.3%), whereas no samples were positive for erm(A), vanA, vanB, tet(O), and mecA. Cluster analysis identified 4 main clusters, allowing a separation of samples on the basis of their country of origin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Some individual psychological characteristics as protective or risk factors for occurrence of conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 30 pairs of siblings aged 12-18 years; one sibling with and one without conduct disorder in each pair. The aim of the study was to assess individual characteristics of those siblings, i.e. to determine differences in psychological characteristics of the siblings with regard to locus of control, stress coping strategies and frequency and structure of behavioral problems and emotions. The results suggested significant differences in individual characteristics of children with conduct disorder and their healthy siblings. These results mainly confirm previous results of foreign research on a sample of our population. Exception of findings was related to strategies for coping with stress: religious behavior that didn’t turn out as a protective factor and avoiding confrontation and withdrawal which are shown as a protective factor. These results suggest the importance of individual psychological characteristics for the occurrence of conduct disorders and have implications in therapy and in preventive work with adolescents.

  17. [Photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of female and male Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhong, Zhang-cheng; Wang, Xiao-xue; Xie, Jun; Yang, Wen-ying

    2011-03-01

    A field research was conducted on the photosynthesis and transpiration characteristics of dioecious Trichosanthes kirilowii individuals at four key development stages. At vegetative growth stage, the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency of male individuals were higher than those of female individuals, and hence, male individuals entered into reproductive growth stage 22 days earlier than female individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, male individuals had higher photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance, but slightly lower water use efficiency than female individuals. As the female individuals started to reproductive growth, their photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were significantly lower, while the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were higher than those of the male individuals. The effects of climate factors on the growth and development of T. kirilowii mainly occurred at its vegetative growth and early reproductive growth stages, and weakened at later reproductive growth stages. Higher temperature and lower relative humidity benefited the growth and development of T. kirilowii, and illumination could enhance the photosynthesis rate of T. kirilowii, especially its male individuals. After entering into reproductive growth stage, the photosynthesis rate of male individuals increased significantly with increasing illumination, but that of female individuals only had a slight increase, and the transpiration rate of male individuals as well as the photosynthesis rate of female individuals all increased significantly with increasing temperature.

  18. Effect of ethyl methanesulphonate and X-irradiation on the spermatocyte chromosomes of the grasshopper, Gesonula punctifrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Mita; Majumdar, K.C.; Duttagupta, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Present investigation was performed to find out the effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and X-irradiation on the meiotic cells of the grasshopper Gesonula punctifrons. Adult male grasshoppers were administered EMS (intraperitoneal injection) with one of the following concentration : 0.05%, 0.05% + 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%. Only 0.002 ml of required concentration were injected/animal and irradiated with 200R of X-ray in one acute dose/animal as per experimental schedule. Controls were injected with distilled water with a quantity 0.002 ml/animal. Treated and control animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 48 hours after treatment and the dividing spermatocytes were analysed for chromosomal aberrations. It was shown that EMS had stage spcificity as compared to the 200R of X-ray on the production of chromosome aberrations. Combined treatment of X-ray and EMS showed an additive effect compared to the individual effect of X-irradiation or EMS. (author)

  19. [Students' perceptions of team-based learning by individual characteristics in a medical school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Choi, Chang-Hyu; Jeon, Yang-Bin; Park, Kook-Yang; Park, Chul-Hyun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of team-based learning (TBL) according to their individual characteristics: gender, team efficacy, interpersonal understanding, proactivity in problem solving, and academic ability. Thirty-eight second-year medical students who took an integrated cardiology course participated in this study; 28 were male and 10 were female. A questionnaire on individual characteristics and a questionnaire on the perception of TBL were administered, and the scores of individual characteristics were grouped into three: high, middle, and low. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. The TBL efficacy perception scale consisted of 3 factors: team skill, learning ability, and team learning. The group of male students and the group of students with high academic ability recognized the effect of TBL on improvements in learning ability more than females and those with low academic ability. The group of students with high team efficacy reported that TBL was effective with regard to team skill improvement. The group of students with high scores on interpersonal understanding and high proactive problem solving tended to perceive the TBL's effect on team skill improvement. Team efficacy and proactivity in problem solving had a positive effect on the perception of TBL. Medical students' perceptions of the effectiveness of TBL differ according to individual characteristics. The results of this study suggest that these individual characteristics should be considered in planning of team learning, such as TBL, to have a positive impact and stronger effects.

  20. Phylogenetic Characterization of Encephalitozoon Romaleae (Microsporidia) from a Grasshopper Host: Relationship to Encephalitozoon spp. Infecting Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encephalitozoon species are the most common microsporidian pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. We recently discovered a new microsporidium, Encephalitozoon romaleae, infecting the eastern lubber grasshopper Romalea microptera. To understand its evolutionary relationships, we compared par...

  1. Can individual health differences be explained by workplace characteristics?--A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Staffan; Bolin, Malin; von Essen, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Research on work-related health has mainly focused on individual factors. The present study expands the focus by exploring the role of organizational characteristics of workplaces for different individual health outcomes. The aim of the study was to look at differences in relative effect of workplace variations on five health outcomes, and to explain those differences in health outcomes by organizational characteristics. The sample encompassed 90 workplaces in Sweden and about 4300 individuals employed within these workplaces. Measurement of the workplace characteristics was carried out independently of the measurement of the individual's working conditions and health. Organizational data were collected by interviews with local managers at participating workplaces, and individual data were obtained by means of a survey of the employees. The results showed that a significant proportion of the variance in sickness absence, work ability, general health, and musculoskeletal disorders was attributed to the workplace. Of eight tested organizational characteristics, customer adaptation, lean production, and performance control could explain some of this workplace variance. The results also showed that only one organizational effect remained significant when controlled for the individual confounder of age and gender. High customer adaptation is associated with higher sickness absence. This association is not mediated via differences in mental and physical job strain.

  2. Rumor diffusion in heterogeneous networks by considering the individuals' subjective judgment and diverse characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhu, He

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we propose a novel rumor spreading model in consideration of the individuals' subjective judgment and diverse characteristics. To reflect the diversity of the individuals' characteristics, we introduce two probability distribution functions, which could be chosen arbitrarily or given by empirical data, to characterize individuals' mastering degree of knowledge with respect to the domain of a specific rumor and individuals' rationality degree. Different from existing models, no two persons in our model are identical, and each individual can judge the authenticity of the information, e.g., rumors, with his distinctive characteristics. In addition, by means of the mean-field method, we establish the expression of the dynamics of the rumor propagation in the complex heterogeneous networks and derive the rumor spreading threshold. Through the theoretical analysis, we find that the threshold is independent of the forms of the two introduced functions. Furthermore, we prove the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium set E0. That is if and only if R0 series of numerical simulations to verify the theoretical results and comprehensively illustrate the evolution of the model. The simulation results show that because of the diversity of individuals' characteristics, it becomes more difficult for the rumor to disseminate in the networks and the higher the mean of knowledge and the mean of rationality are, the more time it will take for the model to evolve to the steady state.

  3. Distribution of Grasshoppers (Insecta: Orthoptera among different host plants and habitats in two districts of Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Paulraj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of grasshoppers in nine localities of northeastern Tamil Nadu, carried out from August 2004 to December 2006, 33 grasshopper species grouped under four families were recorded. Family Acrididae was found to be the predominant group of grasshoppers represented by 21 species, which was 63.6% of the total species collected. The acridids collected can be classified under seven subfamilies and 15 genera. Family Tettigoniidae was the second largest group represented by six species falling under five genera and three subfamilies, and this family contributed 18.2% to the total grasshopper species recorded in this study. Among the different habitats, grasses supported the highest number of 18 species (54.6% while 11 species were surface grasshoppers. The painted grasshopper Poekilocerus pictus (Fab. was collected from many plants viz., Calotropis, curry leaf, grass, groundnut, okra, and on ground. The maximum number of species was recorded from Manimangalam in Kancheepuram District during the entire study period.

  4. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  5. Mechanical Vectors Enhance Fungal Entomopathogen Reduction of the Grasshopper Pest Camnula pellucida (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica J; Saums, Marielle; Belovsky, Gary E

    2015-02-01

    Mounting scientific evidence indicates that pathogens can regulate insect populations. However, limited dispersal and sensitivity to abiotic conditions often restricts pathogen regulation of host populations. While it is well established that arthropod biological vectors increase pathogen incidence in host populations, few studies have examined whether arthropod mechanical vectors (an organism that transmits pathogens but is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen) influence host-pathogen dynamics. The importance of mechanical dispersal by ant scavengers, Formica fusca (L.), in a grasshopper-fungal entomopathogen system was investigated. We examined the ability of ants to mechanically disperse and transmit the pathogen, Entomophaga grylli (Fresenius) pathotype 1, to its host, the pest grasshopper Camnula pellucida (Scudder), in a series of laboratory experiments. Fungal spores were dispersed either externally on the ant's body surface or internally through fecal deposition. In addition, a third of all grasshoppers housed with fungal-inoculated ants became infected, indicating that ants can act as mechanical vectors of E. grylli. The effect of ant mechanical vectors on E. grylli incidence was also examined in a field experiment. Ant access to pathogen-exposed experimental grasshopper populations was restricted using organic ant repellent, thereby allowing us to directly compare mechanical and natural transmission. Ants increased grasshopper pathogen mortality by 58%, which led to greater pathogen reductions of grasshopper survival than natural transmission. Taken together, our results indicate that ants enhance E. grylli reduction of grasshopper pest numbers. Therefore, mechanical transmission of pathogens may be an important overlooking component of this grasshopper-fungal pathogen system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Different levels of shade on population of grasshoppers and its oviposition preference on heliconias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Bittar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Grasshoppers of the families Acrididae and Romaleidae (Orthoptera are among the insects that defoliate heliconias and have been gaining status as pests of commercial crops of these plants in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to identify the grasshopper defoliating heliconias in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Pádua, RJ (Brazil, to evaluate the effect of different levels of shade on the population of this grasshopper and the production parameters of heliconias, and to determine if this grasshopper has an oviposition preference among the heliconias evaluated. The experiment was in a completely randomized block design, in subdivided plots (four levels of shade in the plot, 0%, 30%, 50% and 80%, and four species of Heliconia: H. psittacorum, H. stricta, H. wagneriana and H. psittacorum x H. spathocircinata ‘Golden Torch’ in the subplot, with four replications. The grasshopper was identified as Cornops frenatum frenatum (Acrididae. An increase in shade resulted in a decrease in the number of oviposition holes from the grasshopper and the number of lateral buds. Shade did not influence the number of C. f. frenatum nymphs and adults and the number of flower stems. H. wagneriana was the most preferred species for oviposition by C. f. frenatum. Results suggested using screens to shade heliconia plants can help control C. f. frenatum populations, however, the light requirements of the heliconias should be considered to guarantee productivity.

  7. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  8. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  9. Prey change behaviour with predation threat, but demographic effects vary with prey density: experiments with grasshoppers and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belovsky, Gary E; Laws, Angela Nardoni; Slade, Jennifer B

    2011-04-01

    Increasingly, ecologists emphasize that prey frequently change behaviour in the presence of predators and these behavioural changes can reduce prey survival and reproduction as much or more than predation itself. However, the effects of behavioural changes on survival and reproduction may vary with prey density due to intraspecific competition. In field experiments, we varied grasshopper density and threat of avian predation and measured grasshopper behaviour, survival and reproduction. Grasshopper behaviour changed with the threat of predation and these behavioural changes were invariant with grasshopper density. Behavioural changes with the threat of predation decreased per capita reproduction over all grasshopper densities; whereas the behavioural changes increased survival at low grasshopper densities and then decreased survival at high densities. At low grasshopper densities, the total reproductive output of the grasshopper population remained unchanged with predation threat, but declined at higher densities. The effects of behavioural changes with predation threat varied with grasshopper density because of a trade-off between survival and reproduction as intraspecific competition increased with density. Therefore, resource availability may need to be considered when assessing how prey behavioural changes with predation threat affect population and food web dynamics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. γ-rays kill grasshopper primary spermatocytes in groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, A.A.; Shawkit, M.A.; Fox, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Primary spermatocyte killing by γ-rays was studied in the grasshopper Heteracris littoralis in which spermatogenic development occurs in cysts containing a maximum of 64 cells during the first meiotic division. Cell killing at this stage is not random and mainly involves the death of whole cysts. The dose-response curve for cell killing has complex kinetics with at least two components but lacks any shoulder at low doses, thus indicating no repair of the lethal damage. Cell loss is apparent from surviving cysts as early as 45 min post irradiation but loss of > 24 cells is incompatible with cyst survival. Loss of fewer than 24 cells also is not random since certain values for cell loss are frequently observed while other, interspersed values are not seen at all. (Auth.)

  11. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggio, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace. PMID:23422265

  12. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggio, Gianluca; Cortese, Claudio G

    2013-02-18

    Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248), any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158), and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222). The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.

  13. Well-being in the workplace through interaction between individual characteristics and organizational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Biggio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Well-being in the workplace is considered by many authors to be the outcome of the interaction between individual characteristics and those of the working and organizational environment. This study aims to understand the significance attributed to the concept of well-being in the workplace by employees, its influencing factors, and, among those, the role of individual psychological characteristics. The research was conducted on a sample of 72 employees using a qualitative approach based on focus groups and individual interviews. Data analysis was performed by a paper and pencil technique. The focus groups and interviews collected 628 statements, which were divided into three main areas: meaning of well-being in the workplace (248, any kind factors that affect well-being in the workplace (158, and individual characteristics that affect well-being in the workplace (222. The individual characteristics identified by the participants as capable of influencing well-being in the workplace include being positive, communication, management of difficulties and conflicts, socio-emotional skills, and values. The research was limited by the participants involved and by the sole use of the paper and pencil technique of data analysis. Results highlight that well-being in the workplace does not depend exclusively on external conditions in terms of the working and organizational environment within which the individual operates: so, it could be promoted not only from above, through actions by management, but also from below, influencing individual traits and behaviours. Results would be useful for developing training, workplace counselling, and organizational development activities aimed to support small groups, leaders, and other strategic players in the construction of the subsystems of well-being in the workplace.

  14. B Chromosome Variants of the Grasshopper Xyleus discoideus angulatus Are Potentially Derived from Pericentromeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Andrezza C S; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Machado, Carolina B; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Santos, Neide; Loreto, Vilma

    2017-01-01

    B chromosomes, extra elements present in the karyotypes of some eukaryote species, have been described in the grasshopper Xyleus discoideus angulatus. Although some studies have proposed an autosomal origin of the B chromosome in X. d. angulatus, little is known about its repetitive DNA composition and evolutionary dynamics. The aim of the present work was to shed light on the B chromosome evolution in X. d. angulatus by cytogenetic analysis of 27 populations from Pernambuco and Ceará states (Brazil). The frequency of B chromosomes in the different populations was determined, and chromosome measurements and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with C0t-DNA and telomeric and B chromosome sequences were performed in cells from B-carrying individuals. The results revealed variations in B chromosome prevalence among the populations and showed that some B chromosomes were smaller in certain populations. FISH produced similar patterns for the C0t-DNA probe in all hybridized individuals, whereas telomeric and B chromosome probes, obtained by microdissection, exhibited variations in their distribution. These results indicate the presence of 3 morphotypes of B chromosomes in X. d. angulatus, with variation in repetitive DNA composition during their evolution. In this species, B chromosomes have an intraspecific origin and probably arose from the pericentromeric region of A chromosomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The effect of individual characteristics of decision making and judgment on stock-flow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, S.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Extending the line of research on stock-flow performance we examined the impact of personality characteristics on task performance. It was assumed that the need for cognition, the need for closure and the preference for intuition and deliberation would relate to individual variations in

  16. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  17. Variation between individual cows in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J. W.; van Duinkerken, G.; Klop, A.; Blok, M. C.; Bruinenberg, M.; Khan, N. A.; Hendriks, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Different numbers of animals have been used in different studies to cover the variation between individual animals in in situ rumen degradation characteristics of maize and grass silages. The objective of this study was to determine whether three cows are sufficient or not to cover the variation

  18. Individual Motivations and Characteristics Associated with Bystander Intervention during Bullying Episodes among Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Pepler, Debra; Cummings, Joanne G.; Craig, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore bystander experiences during bullying episodes among children and youth attending a residential summer camp by investigating rates of witnessing and intervention, as well as individual motivations and characteristics associated with bystander intervention. The majority of children had witnessed bullying…

  19. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  20. In-situ nanomechanical study on bending characteristics of individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Ping-Chi, E-mail: pctjbenchen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Yeau-Ren, E-mail: imeyrj@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-21

    Bending characteristics of individual thin-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated through a novel in-situ nanoindentation in transmission electron microscopy. Unlike thick-walled CNTs, the graphitic layers of thin ones buckle into V-shaped kinks rather than Yoshimura ripples. These kinks are found to be entirely reversible without residual plastic deformation following unloading.

  1. Linguistic Characteristics of Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hye Kyeung

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic characteristics of high functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Each group consisted of 10 participants who were matched on sex, chronological age, and intelligence scores. Participants generated a narrative after watching a brief video segment of the Social Attribution Task video. Each…

  2. Teachers' Perceived Likelihood of Intervening in Bullying Situations: Individual Characteristics and Institutional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZoeren, Sarah; Weisz, Arlene N.

    2018-01-01

    Complex issues such as bullying have brought to light the importance of expanding school prevention efforts to include interventions focused on multiple levels of practice. Utilizing data gathered from middle-school teachers across the state of Michigan, this study examines how both individual and organizational characteristics influence teacher…

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  4. Regional characteristics of individual housing units in Serbia from the aspect of applied building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual housing units in Serbia have been studied from the aspect of applied technical solutions. Analyzed data have been collected during a field research in accordance with the current administrative regional division, and they represent a basis for definition of regional typology of individual housing units. Characteristic types of objects of each region’s typology have been further analyzed. Upon these analyses regional characteristics of individual housing units regarding applied construction types, building technologies and materials have been defined and presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36034: Investigation and Systematization of Serbian Housing in Context of Globalization and European Integration in the Framework of Quality and Living-Standard Improvement

  5. Molecular Ecological Basis of Grasshopper (Oedaleus asiaticus) Phenotypic Plasticity under Environmental Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xinghu; Hao, Kun; Ma, Jingchuan; Huang, Xunbing; Tu, Xiongbing; Ali, Md. Panna; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    While ecological adaptation in insects can be reflected by plasticity of phenotype, determining the causes and molecular mechanisms for phenotypic plasticity (PP) remains a crucial and still difficult question in ecology, especially where control of insect pests is involved. Oedaleus asiaticus is one of the most dominant pests in the Inner Mongolia steppe and represents an excellent system to study phenotypic plasticity. To better understand ecological factors affecting grasshopper phenotypic plasticity and its molecular control, we conducted a full transcriptional screening of O. asiaticus grasshoppers reared in four different grassland patches in Inner Mongolia. Grasshoppers showed different degrees of PP associated with unique gene expressions and different habitat plant community compositions. Grasshopper performance variables were susceptible to habitat environment conditions and closely associated with plant architectures. Intriguingly, eco-transcriptome analysis revealed five potential candidate genes playing important roles in grasshopper performance, with gene expression closely relating to PP and plant community factors. By linking the grasshopper performances to gene profiles and ecological factors using canonical regression, we first demonstrated the eco-transcriptomic architecture (ETA) of grasshopper phenotypic traits (ETAGPTs). ETAGPTs revealed plant food type, plant density, coverage, and height were the main ecological factors influencing PP, while insect cuticle protein (ICP), negative elongation factor A (NELFA), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT) were the key genes associated with PP. Our study gives a clear picture of gene-environment interaction in the formation and maintenance of PP and enriches our understanding of the transcriptional events underlying molecular control of rapid phenotypic plasticity associated with environmental variability. The findings of this study may also provide new targets for pest control and highlight the

  6. Molecular Ecological Basis of Grasshopper (Oedaleus asiaticus Phenotypic Plasticity under Environmental Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghu Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While ecological adaptation in insects can be reflected by plasticity of phenotype, determining the causes and molecular mechanisms for phenotypic plasticity (PP remains a crucial and still difficult question in ecology, especially where control of insect pests is involved. Oedaleus asiaticus is one of the most dominant pests in the Inner Mongolia steppe and represents an excellent system to study phenotypic plasticity. To better understand ecological factors affecting grasshopper phenotypic plasticity and its molecular control, we conducted a full transcriptional screening of O. asiaticus grasshoppers reared in four different grassland patches in Inner Mongolia. Grasshoppers showed different degrees of PP associated with unique gene expressions and different habitat plant community compositions. Grasshopper performance variables were susceptible to habitat environment conditions and closely associated with plant architectures. Intriguingly, eco-transcriptome analysis revealed five potential candidate genes playing important roles in grasshopper performance, with gene expression closely relating to PP and plant community factors. By linking the grasshopper performances to gene profiles and ecological factors using canonical regression, we first demonstrated the eco-transcriptomic architecture (ETA of grasshopper phenotypic traits (ETAGPTs. ETAGPTs revealed plant food type, plant density, coverage, and height were the main ecological factors influencing PP, while insect cuticle protein (ICP, negative elongation factor A (NELFA, and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT were the key genes associated with PP. Our study gives a clear picture of gene-environment interaction in the formation and maintenance of PP and enriches our understanding of the transcriptional events underlying molecular control of rapid phenotypic plasticity associated with environmental variability. The findings of this study may also provide new targets for pest control and

  7. What triggers colour change? Effects of background colour and temperature on the development of an alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J Pablo; Schielzeth, Holger

    2015-08-21

    Colour polymorphisms are a fascinating facet of many natural populations of plants and animals, and the selective processes that maintain such variation are as relevant as the processes which promote their development. Orthoptera, the insect group that encompasses grasshoppers and bush crickets, includes a particularly large number of species that are colour polymorphic with a marked green-brown polymorphism being particularly widespread. Colour polymorphism has been associated with the need for crypsis and background matching and background-dependent homochromy has been described in a few species. However, when and how different environmental conditions influence variation in colour remains poorly understood. Here we test for effects of background colour and ambient temperature on the occurrence of colour morph switches (green to brown or brown to green) and developmental darkening in the alpine dwelling club-legged grasshopper Gomphocerus sibiricus. We monitored individually housed nymphae across three of their four developmental stages and into the first week after final ecdysis. Our data show an absence of colour morph switches in G. sibiricus, without a single switch observed in our sample. Furthermore, we test for an effect of temperature on colouration by manipulating radiant heat, a limiting factor in alpine habitats. Radiant heat had a significant effect on developmental darkening: individuals under low radiant heat tended to darken, while individuals under high radiant heat tended to lighten within nymphal stages. Young imagoes darkened under either condition. Our results indicate a plastic response to a variable temperature and indicate that melanin, a multipurpose pigment responsible for dark colouration and presumed to be costly, seems to be strategically allocated according to the current environmental conditions. Unlike other orthopterans, the species is apparently unable to switch colour morphs (green/brown) during development, suggesting that

  8. Explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on individual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Sven; Vogt, Verena; Mielck, Andreas; Razum, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Material and social living conditions at the small-area level are assumed to have an effect on individual health. We review existing explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on health and describe the gaps future research should try to fill. Systematic literature search for, and analysis of, studies that propose an explanatory model of the relationship between small-area characteristics and health. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Using various theoretical approaches, almost all of the models are based on a three-tier structure linking social inequalities (posited at the macro-level), small-area characteristics (posited at the meso-level) and individual health (micro-level). No study explicitly defines the geographical borders of the small-area context. The health impact of the small-area characteristics is explained by specific pathways involving mediating factors (psychological, behavioural, biological). These pathways tend to be seen as uni-directional; often, causality is implied. They may be modified by individual factors. A number of issues need more attention in research on explanatory models concerning small-area effects on health. Among them are the (geographical) definition of the small-area context; the systematic description of pathways comprising small-area contextual as well as compositional factors; questions of direction of association and causality; and the integration of a time dimension.

  9. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  10. Rapid top-down regulation of plant C:N:P stoichiometry by grasshoppers in an Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo; Elser, James J

    2011-05-01

    Understanding how food web interactions alter the processing of limiting nutrient elements is an important goal of ecosystem ecology. An experiment manipulating densities of the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus was performed to assess top-down effects of grasshoppers on C:N:P stoichiometry of plants and soil in a grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China). With increased grasshopper feeding, plant biomass declined fourfold, litter abundance increased 30%, and the plant community became dominated by non-host plant taxa. Plant stoichiometric response depended on whether or not the plant was a grasshopper host food species: C:N and C:P ratios increased with increasing grasshopper density (GD) for host plants but decreased in non-host plants. These data suggest either a direct transfer of grasshopper-recycled nutrients from host to non-host plants or a release of non-host plants from nutrient competition with heavily grazed host plants. Litterfall C:N and C:P decreased across moderate levels of grasshopper density but no effects on C:N:P stoichiometry in the surface soil were observed, possibly due to the short experimental period. Our observations of divergent C:N:P stoichiometric response among plant species highlight the important role of grasshopper herbivory in regulating plant community structure and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystems.

  11. Infection of two non-target grasshoppers by the biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, E. N.; Eilenberg, J.; Langewald, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal isolates from grasshoppers of the family Acrididae are suspected to be less virulent to grasshoppers of the family Pyrgomorphidae. The biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum was isolated from an acridid and is thus hypothesized to be less virulent to pyrgomorphids. Th...

  12. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

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    E. M. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine intensity of motor and intellectual abilities and motivation for physical activity of students engaged in physical education in different sports groups.Methodology and research methods. Motor abilities of the students were assessed by measuring: hand, strength endurance, speed-power abilities, speed ability and general stamina. Assessment of general intelligence (GI was carried out by R. Amthauer’s test in the adaptation of L. A. Yasjukova. Formal-dynamic characteristics of the individuality (FDCI were studied using the technique of FDCI feedback form proposed by V. M. Rusalov. Assessment of motivation to implement motor activity was performed using the author's questionnaire. The method of statistical information processing has allowed the author to reveal correlation communications between motor abilities and GI of first-year students.Results. Significant differences in the manifestation of the individual students’ characteristics choosing practicing in different types of physical activity are experimentally established. In particular, students who chose table tennis, are inferior to the students who went in for wrestling in the manifestation of certain (power, motor skills, motivation for physical activity, but at the same time show relatively higher rates of certain intellectual abilities.Formal-dynamic traits of individuality are peculiar to students involved in table tennis, reflecting lower psychomotor activity (integrated indicator PDI - Psychomotor Development Index, in comparison with students who prefer fighting. The material presented provides a basis to argue that sports-oriented approach has some potential in the aspect of increase of efficiency of students’ physical education, distinguished by individual characteristics of age specific development.Scientific novelty. Scientific findings on distinct differences in motivation to physical activity, manifestation of motor and mental

  13. The Quantitative Analysis on the Individual Characteristics of Urban Residents and Their Sport Consumption Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianliang, Lei; Hongying, Yu

    Using the questionnaire, mathematical statistics and entropy measurement methods, the quantitative relationship between the individual characteristics urban residents and their sports consumption motivation are studied. The results show that the most main sports consumption motivation of urban residents is fitness motivation and social motivation. Urban residents of different gender, age, education and income levels are different in regulating psychological motivation, rational consumption motivation and seeking common motivation.

  14. Ambulance Work : Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Aasa, Ulrika

    2005-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel. A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a nat...

  15. Sex chromosome diversity in Armenian toad grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Pamphagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrov, Alexander G.; Jetybayev, Ilyas E.; Karagyan, Gayane H.; Rubtsov, Nicolay B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although previous cytogenetic analysis of Pamphagidae grasshoppers pointed to considerable karyotype uniformity among most of the species in the family, our study of species from Armenia has discovered other, previously unknown karyotypes, differing from the standard for Pamphagidae mainly in having unusual sets of sex chromosomes. Asiotmethis turritus (Fischer von Waldheim, 1833), Paranocaracris rubripes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846), and Nocaracris cyanipes (Fischer von Waldheim, 1846) were found to have the karyotype 2n♂=16+neo-XY and 2n♀=16+neo-XX, the neo-X chromosome being the result of centromeric fusion of an ancient acrocentric X chromosome and a large acrocentric autosome. The karyotype of Paranothrotes opacus (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1882) was found to be 2n♂=14+X1X2Y and 2n♀=14+X1X1X2X2., the result of an additional chromosome rearrangement involving translocation of the neo-Y and another large autosome. Furthermore, evolution of the sex chromosomes in these species has involved different variants of heterochromatinization and miniaturization of the neo-Y. The karyotype of Eremopeza festiva (Saussure, 1884), in turn, appeared to have the standard sex determination system described earlier for Pamphagidae grasshoppers, 2n♂=18+X0 and 2n♀=18+XX, but all the chromosomes of this species were found to have small second C-positive arms. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n DNA repeats to yield new data on the structural organization of chromosomes in the species studied, we found that for most of them, clusters of repeats homologous to 18S rDNA localize on two, three or four pairs of autosomes and on the X. In Eremopeza festiva, however, FISH with labelled 18S rDNA painted C-positive regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome; clusters of telomeric repeats localized primarily on the ends of the chromosome arms. Overall, we conclude that the different stages of neo-Y degradation revealed in

  16. Cross-national differences in women's repartnering behaviour in Europe: The role of individual demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Gałęzewska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rising union instability across Europe, more individuals now re-enter the partner market and eventually repartner. The increase in cohabitation may also be influencing repartnering behaviour. While several studies examine individual-level characteristics related to repartnering, few take a broader view and compare repartnering levels or explore how demographic characteristics associated with repartnering differ across Europe. Objective: We describe levels of repartnering and the characteristics of those exposed to repartnering in 11 European countries. We then examine whether the relationship between women's demographic characteristics at union dissolution and repartnering are similar or different across countries. Given the recent increase in cohabitation, we pay particular attention to prior cohabitation and marriage, but we also compare age at first union dissolution, first union duration, and presence of children. Methods: Using the Harmonized Histories database, we apply discrete-time hazard models separately by country and to pooled cross-national data. Results: Despite large differences in levels of repartnering, in most countries we find similar associations between demographic characteristics and repartnering. First union type did not matter after controlling for age and children, except in France, where those who previously cohabited had significantly lower risks of repartnering. Age at union dissolution and presence of children are negatively associated with repartnering in almost all countries. Conclusions: Although cohabitation has increased everywhere, prior experience of a coresidential partnership outside of formal marriage makes little difference to repartnering behaviour after controls (except in France. However, regardless of country, older women and/or mothers are less likely to form second unions. Contribution: This study contributes to previous research by examining whether the effects of women

  17. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with different profiles of individuation in relation to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuation in relation to parents represents an important developmental task during adolescence. The article focuses on the examination of different profiles of individuation in relation to parents and how these profiles manifest themselves in different periods of adolescence. We were also interested in the psychosocial characteristics that vary among adolescents with different profiles of individuation. The sample consisted of 593 adolescents in the age range of 13 to 18 years. The adolescents filled in the self-report questionnaires of individuation in relation to parents and friends, perceived parental behavior, and perceived self-efficacy in learning. They also reported about the frequency of psychological symptoms experienced in the last month. To identify the diverse groups of adolescents the scores on the scale of individuation in relation to parents were subjected to a cluster analysis. Finally, the four-cluster solution was chosen. The clusters were named: Good connectedness with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Highly harmonious relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Cold relationship with parents with threatened autonomy and Ambivalent relationship with parents. The results confirmed the hypothesis, that most adolescents will be classified in the profiles of good relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy. The results also showed that the combination of moderate emotional connectedness with parents, low parental idealization, ability to integrate autonomy and connectedness, low denial of dependency needs and low engulfment anxiety represent the most favorable individuation pattern for psychological adaptation of adolescents.

  18. Revisiting Broken Windows: The Role of Neighborhood and Individual Characteristics in Reaction to Disorder Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Volker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The influential "broken windows" theory proposes that disorder cues in neighborhoods trigger littering and other antisocial behavior. Until now, the theory has been empirically tested only on a small scale and restricted to just one specific area. In this study, I investigated the effect of disorder cues on individual behavior once more, replicating and extending the original field experiments by Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg (2008 and 2013. The data from 12,528 individuals were collected in 84 field experiments conducted in 33 neighborhoods. The results, based on multilevel techniques for binary data, show that the absolute effect of cues is smaller than originally thought and that neighborhood and individual characteristics moderate cue effects.

  19. The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae floating meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the Neotropics. The development, feeding and oviposition of C. aquaticum take place on Pontederiaceae, especially on species of Eichhornia. Several aspects of the feeding of C. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating Eichhornia crassipes in native areas. The aims of this paper were: (1 to quantify the amount of E. crassipes consumed by C. aquaticum, (2 to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3 to determine the possible effect of consumption on E. crassipes productivity. Thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs A, nymphs B, adult males and adult females. Insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of E. crassipes. We estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (CI, relative growth rate (GR and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI. The impact of C. aquaticum consumption on E. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. Food intake of C. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. Food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. Damage caused by C. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native E. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1407-1418. Epub 2011 September 01.Cornops aquaticum es una tucura semiacuática Neotropical que vive asociada a las Pontederiaceae y constituye uno de los más importantes herbívoros de

  20. Dental and maxillofacial characteristics of six Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Erika; Suda, Naoto; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Ahiko, Nozomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Tengan, Toshimoto; Shiga, Momotoshi; Tsuji, Michiko; Moriyama, Keiji

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip and palate, and lacrimal duct anomalies. Because this syndrome is frequently accompanied by a congenital lack of teeth, narrow palate, and malocclusion, comprehensive orthodontic intervention is required. Design : To highlight the specific dental and maxillofacial characteristics of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome, six Japanese individuals diagnosed with the syndrome are described here. Patients : The subjects consisted of two boys and four girls (age range, 6.0 to 13.9 years) diagnosed with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome by medical and dental specialists. Their conditions included ectodermal dysplasia (hypodontia, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia, and abnormalities in hair and nails), cleft lip and/or palate, and ectrodactyly. Cephalograms, panoramic x-rays, and dental casts were taken; systemic complications were recorded at the first visit to our dental hospital. Results : All individuals had severe oligodontia with 9 to 18 missing teeth. The missing teeth were mainly maxillary and mandibular incisors and second bicuspids, arranged in a symmetrical manner. Cephalometric analysis showed retruded and short maxilla due to cleft lip and/or palate. It is interesting that all individuals showed a characteristically shaped mandibular symphysis with a retruded point B. It is likely that this unusual symphyseal morphology is due to the lack of mandibular incisors. Conclusions : This study demonstrates the presence of severe oligodontia in the incisal and premolar regions and describes a characteristic maxillary and mandibular structure in Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.

  1. Pre-fracture individual characteristics associated with high total health care costs after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, J T; Paudel, M L; Taylor, B C; Kats, A M; Virnig, B A; Dowd, B E; Langsetmo, L; Ensrud, K E

    2017-03-01

    Older women with pre-fracture slow walk speed, high body mass index, and/or a high level of multimorbidity have significantly higher health care costs after hip fracture compared to those without those characteristics. Studies to investigate if targeted health care interventions for these individuals can reduce hip fracture costs are warranted. The aim of this study is to estimate the associations of individual pre-fracture characteristics with total health care costs after hip fracture, using Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) cohort data linked to Medicare claims. Our study population was 738 women age 70 and older enrolled in Medicare Fee for Service (FFS) who experienced an incident hip fracture between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2009. We assessed pre-fracture individual characteristics at SOF study visits and estimated costs of hospitalizations, skilled nursing facility and inpatient rehabilitation stays, home health care visits, and outpatient utilization from Medicare FFS claims. We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations of predictor variables with total health care costs (2010 US dollars) after hip fracture. Median total health care costs for 1 year after hip fracture were $35,536 (inter-quartile range $24,830 to $50,903). Multivariable-adjusted total health care costs for 1 year after hip fracture were 14 % higher ($5256, 95 % CI $156 to $10,356) in those with walk speed total health care costs after hip fracture in older women. Studies to investigate if targeted health care interventions for these individuals can reduce the costs of hip fractures are warranted.

  2. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological and colour morph clines along an altitudinal gradient in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Günter; Samietz, Jörg; Schielzeth, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Many animals show altitudinal clines in size, shape and body colour. Increases in body size and reduction in the length of body appendices in colder habitats are usually attributed to improved heat conservation at lower surface-to-volume ratios (known as Bergmann's and Allen's rule, respectively). However, the patterns are more variable and sometimes reversed in small ectotherms that are affected by shortened growing seasons. Altitude can also affect colouration. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts darker colours under cooler conditions because of a thermoregulatory advantage. Darker colours may also be favoured at high altitudes for reasons of UV protection or habitat-dependent crypsis. We studied altitudinal variation in morphology and colour in the colour-polymorphic meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus based on 563 individuals from 17 populations sampled between 450 and 2,500 m asl. Pronotum length did not change with altitude, while postfemur length decreased significantly in both sexes. Tegmen (forewing) length decreased in males, but not in females. The results indicate that while body size, as best quantified by pronotum length, was remarkably constant, extended appendices were reduced at high altitudes. The pattern thus follows Allen's rule, but neither Bergmann's nor converse Bergmann's rule. These results indicate that inference of converse Bergmann's rule based on measurements from appendices should be treated with some caution. Colour morph ratios showed significant changes in both sexes from lowland populations dominated by green individuals to high-altitude populations dominated by brown ones. The increase of brown morphs was particularly steep between 1,500 and 2,000 m asl. The results suggest shared control of colour in males and females and local adaptation along the altitudinal gradient following the predictions of the thermal melanism hypothesis. Interestingly, both patterns, the reduction of body appendices and the higher

  4. Morphological and colour morph clines along an altitudinal gradient in the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Köhler

    Full Text Available Many animals show altitudinal clines in size, shape and body colour. Increases in body size and reduction in the length of body appendices in colder habitats are usually attributed to improved heat conservation at lower surface-to-volume ratios (known as Bergmann's and Allen's rule, respectively. However, the patterns are more variable and sometimes reversed in small ectotherms that are affected by shortened growing seasons. Altitude can also affect colouration. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts darker colours under cooler conditions because of a thermoregulatory advantage. Darker colours may also be favoured at high altitudes for reasons of UV protection or habitat-dependent crypsis. We studied altitudinal variation in morphology and colour in the colour-polymorphic meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus based on 563 individuals from 17 populations sampled between 450 and 2,500 m asl. Pronotum length did not change with altitude, while postfemur length decreased significantly in both sexes. Tegmen (forewing length decreased in males, but not in females. The results indicate that while body size, as best quantified by pronotum length, was remarkably constant, extended appendices were reduced at high altitudes. The pattern thus follows Allen's rule, but neither Bergmann's nor converse Bergmann's rule. These results indicate that inference of converse Bergmann's rule based on measurements from appendices should be treated with some caution. Colour morph ratios showed significant changes in both sexes from lowland populations dominated by green individuals to high-altitude populations dominated by brown ones. The increase of brown morphs was particularly steep between 1,500 and 2,000 m asl. The results suggest shared control of colour in males and females and local adaptation along the altitudinal gradient following the predictions of the thermal melanism hypothesis. Interestingly, both patterns, the reduction of body appendices and

  5. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  6. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system: morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, K.J.; Henry, J.R.; Kirkton, S.D.; Westneat, M.W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O 2 ) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O 2 ), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  7. Grasshopper community response to climatic change: variation along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufio, César R; McGuire, Chris R; Bowers, M Deane; Guralnick, Robert P

    2010-09-23

    The impacts of climate change on phenological responses of species and communities are well-documented; however, many such studies are correlational and so less effective at assessing the causal links between changes in climate and changes in phenology. Using grasshopper communities found along an elevational gradient, we present an ideal system along the Front Range of Colorado USA that provides a mechanistic link between climate and phenology. This study utilizes past (1959-1960) and present (2006-2008) surveys of grasshopper communities and daily temperature records to quantify the relationship between amount and timing of warming across years and elevations, and grasshopper timing to adulthood. Grasshopper communities were surveyed at four sites, Chautauqua Mesa (1752 m), A1 (2195 m), B1 (2591 m), and C1 (3048 m), located in prairie, lower montane, upper montane, and subalpine life zones, respectively. Changes to earlier first appearance of adults depended on the degree to which a site warmed. The lowest site showed little warming and little phenological advancement. The next highest site (A1) warmed a small, but significant, amount and grasshopper species there showed inconsistent phenological advancements. The two highest sites warmed the most, and at these sites grasshoppers showed significant phenological advancements. At these sites, late-developing species showed the greatest advancements, a pattern that correlated with an increase in rate of late-season warming. The number of growing degree days (GDDs) associated with the time to adulthood for a species was unchanged across the past and present surveys, suggesting that phenological advancement depended on when a set number of GDDs is reached during a season. Our analyses provide clear evidence that variation in amount and timing of warming over the growing season explains the vast majority of phenological variation in this system. Our results move past simple correlation and provide a stronger process

  8. Grasshopper community response to climatic change: variation along an elevational gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César R Nufio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on phenological responses of species and communities are well-documented; however, many such studies are correlational and so less effective at assessing the causal links between changes in climate and changes in phenology. Using grasshopper communities found along an elevational gradient, we present an ideal system along the Front Range of Colorado USA that provides a mechanistic link between climate and phenology.This study utilizes past (1959-1960 and present (2006-2008 surveys of grasshopper communities and daily temperature records to quantify the relationship between amount and timing of warming across years and elevations, and grasshopper timing to adulthood. Grasshopper communities were surveyed at four sites, Chautauqua Mesa (1752 m, A1 (2195 m, B1 (2591 m, and C1 (3048 m, located in prairie, lower montane, upper montane, and subalpine life zones, respectively. Changes to earlier first appearance of adults depended on the degree to which a site warmed. The lowest site showed little warming and little phenological advancement. The next highest site (A1 warmed a small, but significant, amount and grasshopper species there showed inconsistent phenological advancements. The two highest sites warmed the most, and at these sites grasshoppers showed significant phenological advancements. At these sites, late-developing species showed the greatest advancements, a pattern that correlated with an increase in rate of late-season warming. The number of growing degree days (GDDs associated with the time to adulthood for a species was unchanged across the past and present surveys, suggesting that phenological advancement depended on when a set number of GDDs is reached during a season.Our analyses provide clear evidence that variation in amount and timing of warming over the growing season explains the vast majority of phenological variation in this system. Our results move past simple correlation and provide a stronger

  9. Influence of weather variables and plant communities on grasshopper density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996-2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and

  10. [Diversity and distribution of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariottini, Yanina; De Wysiecki, María Laura; Lange, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-03-01

    In Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province), as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10). Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S), eveness (E), dominance (J), and diversity index (H'). In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22 species of grasshoppers were collected, of which 21 belong to the family Acrididae. The subfamily Melanoplinae was the most diverse with eight species. The largest species richness was recorded in native grasslands (18). The different communities of grasshoppers had similar indices of evenness and dominance (p>0.05). Considering all plant communities, the average value of Shannon-Wiener index was 1.58+/-0.075. There was a positive correlation between evenness index and species richness (pgrasshoppers species richness, and diversity of grasshoppers. According to the qualitative indices applied, the similitude between different grasshopper communities was higher than 60%. In general, the species that had a higher frequency of occurrence showed greater

  11. Synchrotron imaging of the grasshopper tracheal system : morphological and physiological components of tracheal hypermetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenlee, K. J.; Henry, J. R.; Kirkton, S. D.; Westneat, M. W.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.; Harrison, J. F.; North Dakota State Univ.; Arizona State Univ.; Union Coll.; Field Museum of Natural History

    2009-11-01

    As grasshoppers increase in size during ontogeny, they have mass specifically greater whole body tracheal and tidal volumes and ventilation than predicted by an isometric relationship with body mass and body volume. However, the morphological and physiological bases to this respiratory hypermetry are unknown. In this study, we use synchrotron imaging to demonstrate that tracheal hypermetry in developing grasshoppers (Schistocerca americana) is due to increases in air sacs and tracheae and occurs in all three body segments, providing evidence against the hypothesis that hypermetry is due to gaining flight ability. We also assessed the scaling of air sac structure and function by assessing volume changes of focal abdominal air sacs. Ventilatory frequencies increased in larger animals during hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}) but did not scale in normoxia. For grasshoppers in normoxia, inflated and deflated air sac volumes and ventilation scaled hypermetrically. During hypoxia (5% O{sub 2}), many grasshoppers compressed air sacs nearly completely regardless of body size, and air sac volumes scaled isometrically. Together, these results demonstrate that whole body tracheal hypermetry and enhanced ventilation in larger/older grasshoppers are primarily due to proportionally larger air sacs and higher ventilation frequencies in larger animals during hypoxia. Prior studies showed reduced whole body tracheal volumes and tidal volume in late-stage grasshoppers, suggesting that tissue growth compresses air sacs. In contrast, we found that inflated volumes, percent volume changes, and ventilation were identical in abdominal air sacs of late-stage fifth instar and early-stage animals, suggesting that decreasing volume of the tracheal system later in the instar occurs in other body regions that have harder exoskeleton.

  12. Strategic Adaptation to Task Characteristics, Incentives, and Individual Differences in Dual-Tasking.

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    Christian P Janssen

    Full Text Available We investigate how good people are at multitasking by comparing behavior to a prediction of the optimal strategy for dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. In our experiment, 24 participants had to interleave entering digits on a keyboard with controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. The difficulty of the tracking task was systematically varied as a within-subjects factor. Participants were also exposed to different explicit reward functions that varied the relative importance of the tracking task relative to the typing task (between-subjects. Results demonstrate that these changes in task characteristics and monetary incentives, together with individual differences in typing ability, influenced how participants choose to interleave tasks. This change in strategy then affected their performance on each task. A computational cognitive model was used to predict performance for a wide set of alternative strategies for how participants might have possibly interleaved tasks. This allowed for predictions of optimal performance to be derived, given the constraints placed on performance by the task and cognition. A comparison of human behavior with the predicted optimal strategy shows that participants behaved near optimally. Our findings have implications for the design and evaluation of technology for multitasking situations, as consideration should be given to the characteristics of the task, but also to how different users might use technology depending on their individual characteristics and their priorities.

  13. Predicting Individual Characteristics from Digital Traces on Social Media: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Michele; Azucar, Danny; Marengo, Davide

    2018-04-01

    The increasing utilization of social media provides a vast and new source of user-generated ecological data (digital traces), which can be automatically collected for research purposes. The availability of these data sets, combined with the convergence between social and computer sciences, has led researchers to develop automated methods to extract digital traces from social media and use them to predict individual psychological characteristics and behaviors. In this article, we reviewed the literature on this topic and conducted a series of meta-analyses to determine the strength of associations between digital traces and specific individual characteristics; personality, psychological well-being, and intelligence. Potential moderator effects were analyzed with respect to type of social media platform, type of digital traces examined, and study quality. Our findings indicate that digital traces from social media can be studied to assess and predict theoretically distant psychosocial characteristics with remarkable accuracy. Analysis of moderators indicated that the collection of specific types of information (i.e., user demographics), and the inclusion of different types of digital traces, could help improve the accuracy of predictions.

  14. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

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    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  15. Ecotypic differentiation between urban and rural populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus relative to climate and habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization alters environmental conditions in multiple ways and offers an ecological or evolutionary challenge for organisms to cope with. Urban areas typically have a warmer climate and strongly fragmented herbaceous vegetation; the urban landscape matrix is often assumed to be hostile for many organisms. Here, we addressed the issue of evolutionary differentiation between urban and rural populations of an ectotherm insect, the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. We compared mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits measured on the first generation offspring of grasshoppers from urban and rural populations reared in a common garden laboratory experiment. We predicted (1) the urban phenotype to be more mobile (i.e., lower mass allocation to the abdomen, longer relative femur and wing lengths) than the rural phenotype; (2) the urban phenotype to be more warm adapted (e.g., higher female body mass); and (3) further evidence of local adaptation in the form of significant interaction effects between landscape of origin and breeding temperature. Both males and females of urban origin had significantly longer relative femur and wing lengths and lower mass allocation to the abdomen (i.e., higher investment in thorax and flight muscles) relative to individuals of rural origin. The results were overall significant but small (2-4%). Body mass and larval growth rate were much higher (+10%) in females of urban origin. For the life history traits, we did not find evidence for significant interaction effects between the landscape of origin and the two breeding temperatures. Our results point to ecotypic differentiation with urbanization for mobility-related morphology and climate-related life history traits. We argue that the warmer urban environment has an indirect effect through longer growth season rather than direct effects on the development.

  16. Environmental and individual characteristics associated with depressive disorders and mental health care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Weill, Alain; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2015-08-01

    Few studies examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and both depressive disorders and the corresponding mental health care use. The aim of our study was to investigate neighborhood effects on depressive symptomatology, antidepressant consumption, and the consultation of psychiatrists. Data from the French Residential Environment and Coronary heart Disease Study (n = 7290, 2007-2008, 30-79 years of age) were analyzed. Depressive symptomatology was cross-sectionally assessed. Health care reimbursement data allowed us to assess antidepressant consumption and psychiatric consultation prospectively more than 18 months. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated. The risk of depressive symptoms increased with decreasing personal educational level and unemployment and slightly with decreasing neighborhood income. In a sample comprising participants with and without depressive symptoms, high individual and parental educational levels were both associated with the consultation of psychiatrists. In this sample, a low personal educational level increased the odds of consumption of antidepressants. No heterogeneity between neighborhoods was found for antidepressant consumption. However, the odds of consulting psychiatrists increased with median neighborhood income and with the density of psychiatrists, after adjustment for individual characteristics. Among depressive participants only, a particularly strong gradient in the consultation of psychiatrists was documented according to individual socioeconomic status. Future research on the relationships between the environments and depression should take into account health care use related to depression and consider the spatial accessibility to mental health services among other environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual factors and perceived community characteristics in relation to mental health and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Helen; Tully, Mark A; Hunter, Ruth F; Kouvonen, Anne; Veal, Philip; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank

    2015-12-12

    It has been argued that though correlated with mental health, mental well-being is a distinct entity. Despite the wealth of literature on mental health, less is known about mental well-being. Mental health is something experienced by individuals, whereas mental well-being can be assessed at the population level. Accordingly it is important to differentiate the individual and population level factors (environmental and social) that could be associated with mental health and well-being, and as people living in deprived areas have a higher prevalence of poor mental health, these relationships should be compared across different levels of neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional representative random sample of 1,209 adults from 62 Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Feb 2010 - Jan 2011) were recruited in the PARC Study. Interview-administered questionnaires recorded data on socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, individual social capital, self-rated health, mental health (SF-8) and mental well-being (WEMWBS). Multi-variable linear regression analyses, with inclusion of clustering by SOAs, were used to explore the associations between individual and perceived community characteristics and mental health and mental well-being, and to investigate how these associations differed by the level of neighbourhood deprivation. Thirty-eight and 30 % of variability in the measures of mental well-being and mental health, respectively, could be explained by individual factors and the perceived community characteristics. In the total sample and stratified by neighbourhood deprivation, age, marital status and self-rated health were associated with both mental health and well-being, with the 'social connections' and local area satisfaction elements of social capital also emerging as explanatory variables. An increase of +1 in EQ-5D-3 L was associated with +1SD of the population mean in both mental health and well-being. Similarly, a

  18. Revision of the grasshopper genus Sedulia Stål, 1878 (Acrididae: Catantopinae) from Malay Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Kai; Robillard, Tony; Kamaruddin, Khairul Nizam

    2016-05-02

    Southeast Asia is a highly biodiverse region with many species of grasshoppers described since the 19th century. Historical species descriptions are however often not comprehensive and do not meet the modern criteria of taxonomy. Previously used characters for identification need to be re-examined. Here, we aim to revise the taxonomy of the grasshopper genus Sedulia Stål, 1878. Using morphology and simple morphometry, we compared and investigated interspecific and intraspecific variations among the two species of Sedulia. We also redescribed both species and constructed a key to species and closely related genera.

  19. Stable Isotope Systematics in Grasshopper Assemblages Along an Elevation Gradient, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Evans, S.; Dean, J.; Nufio, C.

    2012-12-01

    Insects comprise over three quarters of all animal species, yet studies of body water isotopic composition are limited to only the cockroach, the hoverfly, and chironomid flies. These studies suggest that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions in body water are primarily controlled by dietary water sources, with modification from respiratory and metabolic processes. In particular, outward diffusion of isotopically depleted water vapor through insect spiracles at low humidity enriches residual body water in 18O and 2H (D). Stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) also respond to gradients in elevation and humidity, but these influences remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured grasshopper body water and local vegetation isotopic compositions along an elevation gradient in Colorado to evaluate three hypotheses: 1) Insect body water isotopic composition is directly related to food source water composition 2) Water vapor transport alters body water isotopic compositions relative to original diet sources, and 3) Elevation gradients influence isotopic compositions in insect body water. Thirty-five species of grasshopper were collected from 14 locations in Colorado grasslands, ranging in elevation from 450 to 800 meters (n=131). Body water was distilled from previously frozen grasshopper specimens using a vacuum extraction line, furnaces (90 °C), and liquid nitrogen traps. Water samples were then analyzed for δ18O and δD on an LGR Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer, housed in the Department of Geosciences, Boise State University. Grasshopper body water isotopic compositions show wide variation, with values ranging between -76.64‰ to +42.82‰ in δD and -3.06‰ to +26.78‰ in δ18O. Precipitation δ18O values over the entire Earth excluding the poles vary by approximately 30‰, comparable to the total range measured in our single study area. Most grasshopper values deviate from the global meteoric water line relating δ18O and δD in precipitation

  20. DNA amount of X and B chromosomes in the grasshoppers Eyprepocnemis plorans and Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruano, F J; Ruiz-Estévez, M; Rodríguez-Pérez, J; López-Pino, J L; Cabrero, J; Camacho, J P M

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the DNA amount in X and B chromosomes of 2 XX/X0 grasshopper species (Eyprepocnemis plorans and Locusta migratoria), by means of Feulgen image analysis densitometry (FIAD), using previous estimates in L. migratoria as standard (5.89 pg). We first analyzed spermatids of 0B males and found a bimodal distribution of integrated optical densities (IODs), suggesting that one peak corresponded to +X and the other to -X spermatids. The difference between the 2 peaks corresponded to the X chromosome DNA amount, which was 1.28 pg in E. plorans and 0.80 pg in L. migratoria. In addition, the +X peak in E. plorans gave an estimate of the C-value in this species (10.39 pg). We next analyzed diplotene cells from 1B males in E. plorans and +B males in L. migratoria (a species where Bs are mitotically unstable and no integer B number can be defined for an individual) and measured B chromosome IOD relative to X chromosome IOD, within the same cell, taking advantage of the similar degree of condensation for both positively heteropycnotic chromosomes at this meiotic stage. From this proportion, we estimated the DNA amount for 3 different B chromosome variants found in individuals from 3 E. plorans Spanish populations (0.54 pg for B1 from Saladares, 0.51 pg for B2 from Salobreña and 0.64 for B24 from Torrox). Likewise, we estimated the DNA amount of the B chromosome in L. migratoria to be 0.15 pg. To automate measurements, we wrote a GPL3 licensed Python program (pyFIA). We discuss the utility of the present approach for estimating X and B chromosome DNA amount in a variety of situations, and the meaning of the DNA amount estimates for X and B chromosomes in these 2 species. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David H; Sword, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    The outcomes of grasshopper responses to both vertebrate grazing and fire vary across grassland ecosystems, and are strongly influenced by local climactic factors. Thus, the possible application of grazing and fire as components of an ecologically based grasshopper management strategy must be investigated in regional studies. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing and fire on grasshopper population density and community composition in a northern Great Plains mixed-grass prairie. We employed a large-scale, replicated, and fully-factorial manipulative experimental design across 4 yr to examine the separate and interactive effects of three grazing systems in burned and unburned habitats. Grasshopper densities were low throughout the 4-yr study and 1 yr of pretreatment sampling. There was a significant fire by grazing interaction effect on cumulative density and community composition, resulting from burned season long grazing pastures having higher densities than unburned pastures. Shannon diversity and grasshopper species richness were significantly higher with twice-over rotational livestock grazing. The ability to draw strong conclusions regarding the nature of species composition shifts and population changes in the presence of fire and grazing is complicated by the large site differences and low grasshopper densities. The results reinforce the importance of long-term research to examine the effects of habitat manipulation on grasshopper population dynamics.

  2. The effect of discontinuous gas exchange on respiratory water loss in grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) varies across an aridity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Ping; Talal, Stav; Ayali, Amir; Gefen, Eran

    2015-08-01

    The significance of discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC) in reducing respiratory water loss (RWL) in insects is contentious. Results from single-species studies are equivocal in their support of the classic 'hygric hypothesis' for the evolution of DGC, whereas comparative analyses generally support a link between DGC and water balance. In this study, we investigated DGC prevalence and characteristics and RWL in three grasshopper species (Acrididae, subfamily Pamphaginae) across an aridity gradient in Israel. In order to determine whether DGC contributes to a reduction in RWL, we compared the DGC characteristics and RWL associated with CO2 release (transpiration ratio, i.e. the molar ratio of RWL to CO2 emission rates) among these species. Transpiration ratios of DGC and continuous breathers were also compared intraspecifically. Our data show that DGC characteristics, DGC prevalence and the transpiration ratios correlate well with habitat aridity. The xeric-adapted Tmethis pulchripennis exhibited a significantly shorter burst period and lower transpiration ratio compared with the other two mesic species, Ocneropsis bethlemita and Ocneropsis lividipes. However, DGC resulted in significant water savings compared with continuous exchange in T. pulchripennis only. These unique DGC characteristics for T. pulchripennis were correlated with its significantly higher mass-specific tracheal volume. Our data suggest that the origin of DGC may not be adaptive, but rather that evolved modulation of cycle characteristics confers a fitness advantage under stressful conditions. This modulation may result from morphological and/or physiological modifications. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Individual characteristics of behavior, blood pressure, and adrenal hormones in colony rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, D S; Koolhaas, J M; van der Gugten, J

    1995-05-01

    Previous experiments suggested that rats with an active behavioral strategy and high endocrine and blood pressure responses to social interactions would be at risk to get a high blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, a long-term study of social behavior was performed in laboratory colonies of rats. The more aggressive rats, as indicated by individual precolony resident-intruder tests, are more aggressive in the colony also. After colony aggregation, the aggressive rats appeared to have higher resting blood pressures. The dominant rat (although aggressive, too) and the nonaggressive rats have lower blood pressures. Plasma levels of catecholamines and corticosterone after colony experience do not show a relation with blood pressure but reflect the rat's original precolony aggressive characteristic. We conclude that the individual characteristic of an active social strategy is a risk factor that indeed predicts the development of high blood pressure, possibly by way of the associated higher physiological reactivity we found earlier. Chronic environmental factors that are hard to control for the animal, like involvement in social processes or possibly other continuous challenges, may stimulate the prone physiology to develop an elevation of blood pressure.

  4. [Medical student perception of physician values in practice by individual characteristics and preferred medical specialty field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Yoo, Hyo Hyun; Yim, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Medical students' values figure prominently in their choice of medical specialty; yet, little research has been performed on this topic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in values according to medical students' individual characteristics (medical educational system, gender, and grade) and preferred medical specialty. A total of 905 medical students participated in the study; 426 were graduate-entry medical students (GEMS), and 479 were undergraduate medical students (UMS). Further, 561 were male and 316 were female; 356 were in year 1, 219 were in year 2, 230 were in year 3, and 100 were in year 4. Students completed the Physician Values in Practice Scale (PVIPS). The PVIPS comprises six dimensions: autonomy, management, prestige, service, lifestyle, and scholarly pursuits. The data were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. GEMS had higher scores for service, management, and scholarly pursuits than UMS. Males had higher scores for prestige, lifestyle, and management, whereas female scored higher on service and scholarly pursuits. Higher grade was associated with increased scores for prestige, lifestyle, and management. The differences in lifestyle and scholarly pursuits were significant between preferred specialties. Students in support specialties scored significantly higher on lifestyle. With regard to scholarly pursuits, basic science specialties scored significantly higher than other specialties. There were significant differences in PVIPS according to individual characteristics and preferred medical specialty. This result could be useful in developing a medical specialty choice program for medical students.

  5. Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Herrera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.

  6. The role of collective labor contracts and individual characteristics on job satisfaction in Tuscan nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainieri, Milena; Smaldone, Pierluigi; Rosa, Antonella; Carroll, Kathleen

    2017-08-23

    The role played by remuneration strategies in motivating health care professionals is one of the most studied factors. Some studies of nursing home (NH) services, while considering wages and labor market characteristics, do not explicitly account for the influence of the contract itself. This study investigates the relationship between the labor contracts applied in 62 Tuscan NHs and NH aides' job satisfaction with two aims: to investigate the impact of European contracts on employee satisfaction in health care services and to determine possible limitations of research not incorporating these contracts. We apply a multilevel model to data gathered from a staff survey administered in 2014 to all employees of 62 NHs to analyze two levels: individual and NH. Labor contracts were introduced into the model as a variable of NH. Findings show that the factors influencing nursing aides' satisfaction occur at both the individual and NH levels. Organizational characteristics explain 16% of the variation. For individual characteristics, foreign and temporary workers emerge as more satisfied than others. For NH variables, results indicate that the labor contract with the worst conditions is not associated with lower workers' satisfaction. Although working conditions play a relevant role in the job satisfaction of aides, labor contracts do not seem to affect it. Interestingly, aides of the NHs with the contract having the best conditions register a significantly lower level of satisfaction compared to the NHs with the worst contract conditions. This suggests that organizational factors such as culture, team work, and other characteristics, which were not explicitly considered in this study, may be more powerful sources of worker satisfaction than labor contracts. Our analysis has value as a management tool to consider alternative sources as well as the labor contract for employee incentives.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

  7. Individualizing characteristics of footprints in Malaysian Malays for person identification from a forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the valuable physical evidence that a suspect leaves unintentionally at a crime scene is likely to include footprints. Physical evidence needs to be utilized to express individual characteristics. Very keen analysis of footprints can provide useful information to establish personal identity and ease the crime investigation. The present study aims to analyze and describe the individual characteristics of footprints of Malaysian Malays from a forensic perspective in a sample of 400 adult Malay participants consisting of 200 males and 200 females. The footprints were collected using an inkless shoe print kit (Carolina, USA. Various features of the toes, humps in the toe line, phalange marks, flatfoot condition, pits, cracks, corns, etc., were investigated. The frequency of these characteristics was recorded. The frequency of the fibularis-type foot is the highest, followed by the tibialis-type, the intermediate-type and the midularis-type is found to have the least frequency in both the sexes. This sequence is found to be different from the sequence observed in the north Indian population. Two humps have been found most often in male footprints followed by three humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. While in female footprints, three humps have been found, most often followed by two humps and zero hump is found to be the least frequent. Other identifying features are also highlighted using illustrations. This trait shows bilateral variation. The morphological length of toes and some other features in this study are found to be different from footprints of Indian Tamils, North Indian Gujjars and the Thai population.

  8. Leadership and path characteristics during walks are linked to dominance order and individual traits in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Ákos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement interactions and the underlying social structure in groups have relevance across many social-living species. Collective motion of groups could be based on an "egalitarian" decision system, but in practice it is often influenced by underlying social network structures and by individual characteristics. We investigated whether dominance rank and personality traits are linked to leader and follower roles during joint motion of family dogs. We obtained high-resolution spatio-temporal GPS trajectory data (823,148 data points from six dogs belonging to the same household and their owner during 14 30-40 min unleashed walks. We identified several features of the dogs' paths (e.g., running speed or distance from the owner which are characteristic of a given dog. A directional correlation analysis quantifies interactions between pairs of dogs that run loops jointly. We found that dogs play the role of the leader about 50-85% of the time, i.e. the leader and follower roles in a given pair are dynamically interchangable. However, on a longer timescale tendencies to lead differ consistently. The network constructed from these loose leader-follower relations is hierarchical, and the dogs' positions in the network correlates with the age, dominance rank, trainability, controllability, and aggression measures derived from personality questionnaires. We demonstrated the possibility of determining dominance rank and personality traits of an individual based only on its logged movement data. The collective motion of dogs is influenced by underlying social network structures and by characteristics such as personality differences. Our findings could pave the way for automated animal personality and human social interaction measurements.

  9. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  10. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO 2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO 2 . This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO 2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO 2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO 2 emissions. CO 2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO 2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO 2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO 2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an

  11. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and

  12. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The effect of weather and its changes on emotional state - individual characteristics that make us vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychological and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio tone, working ability, and concentration; hence their significance in various domains of economic life such as health care, education, transportation, and tourism. The present pilot study was conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria over a period of eight months, using five psychological methods: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state, Test for evaluation of moods and Test ''Self-confidence-Activity-Mood''. The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions in order to include a maximal number of meteorological elements in the analysis. Sixteen weather types are defined depending on the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were also considered. The results obtained by t-test showed that the different categories of weather led to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effects on human emotions - but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as ''unfavorable'', has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension ''neuroticism'', has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more ''resistant'' to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence on the impacts of weather.

  14. Bothersome Tics in Patients with Chronic Tic Disorders: Characteristics and Individualized Treatment Response to Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W.; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. PMID:25988365

  15. Bothersome tics in patients with chronic tic disorders: Characteristics and individualized treatment response to behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-07-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00218777; NCT00231985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A new genus of Tetratermini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Lysiterminae) parasitic on grasshoppers (Gryllacrididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Steiner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The new genus Katytermus from Malaysia (type species: Katytermus palmicola spec. nov.) is described and illustrated. The new genus belongs to a new tribe, Tetratermini, of the subfamily Lysiterminae. The type species has been reared as a gregarious endoparasite of a "katydid" longhorn grasshopper

  17. A technique for studying digestion by grasshoppers using a 103Ruthenium-labelled marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandar, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    103 Ru-labelled tris (I,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) chloride has proved to be a convenient marker in investigating digestion in grasshoppers. Assimilation efficiencies and the retension time of the food in the gut were measured. It is surmised that the technique described in this paper will be applicable to studies of a variety of chewing herbivorous insects. (author)

  18. Mesoherbivores affect grasshopper communities in a megaherbivore-dominated South African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Fons; Olff, Han

    African savannahs are among the few places on earth where diverse communities of mega- and meso-sized ungulate grazers dominate ecosystem functioning. Less conspicuous, but even more diverse, are the communities of herbivorous insects such as grasshoppers, which share the same food. Various studies

  19. The Fifth Enemy of the Ottoman Empire During World War I: Grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali YILDIRIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ottoman States there had always been grasshopper infestation now and then; and this caused some socio-economic problems and famine as a result. However, in the last years of the state, especially during World War I, the grasshoppers vastly influenced West and South Anatolia along with Aleppo and Syria regions; and the residents in these locations were negatively influenced. Acting to prevent a more destructive disaster, the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce ensured that the law and regulations related to grasshopper problem - enacted in 1912 - were strictly implemented with the aim of a centralized control. Later, in 1916, an organization under the leadership of German experts arose. This way, despite the problems of war conditions, a more efficient, informed and institutional struggle started. Despite insufficient technological infrastructure and transportation and the lack of financial resources, a considerable amount of time and money were spent on the combat efforts against grasshoppers. During the war, the authorities pushed on fighting with limited sources available at hand. They strived for effective implementation of modern mass destroying methods together with traditional methods; raising awareness of the people for a full scale campaign; and ensuring their participation to the fight with every means at hand. The local civilian and military staffs were exploited to the maximum extent for the purpose. Finally, the efforts were not wasted and this campaign became successful. As a result of the efforts, important results were accomplished

  20. Embryonic development rates of northern grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae): implications for climate change and habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature-dependent rates of embryonic development are a primary determinant of the life cycle of many species of grasshoppers which, in cold climates, spend two winters in the egg stage. Knowledge of embryonic developmental rates is important for an assessment of the effects of climate change and...

  1. Grasshoppers regulate N:p stoichiometric homeostasis by changing phosphorus contents in their frass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijia; Elser, James J; Cease, Arianne J; Zhang, Ximei; Yu, Qiang; Han, Xingguo; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are important limiting nutrients for plant production and consumer performance in a variety of ecosystems. As a result, the N:P stoichiometry of herbivores has received increased attention in ecology. However, the mechanisms by which herbivores maintain N:P stoichiometric homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, using a field manipulation experiment we show that the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus maintains strong N:P stoichiometric homeostasis regardless of whether grasshoppers were reared at low or high density. Grasshoppers maintained homeostasis by increasing P excretion when eating plants with higher P contents. However, while grasshoppers also maintained constant body N contents, we found no changes in N excretion in response to changing plant N content over the range measured. These results suggest that O. asiaticus maintains P homeostasis primarily by changing P absorption and excretion rates, but that other mechanisms may be more important for regulating N homeostasis. Our findings improve our understanding of consumer-driven P recycling and may help in understanding the factors affecting plant-herbivore interactions and ecosystem processes in grasslands.

  2. Heat dosage and oviposition depth influence egg mortality of two common rangeland grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland fire is a common naturally occurring event and management tool, with the amount and structure of biomass controlling transfer of heat belowground. Temperatures grasshopper eggs are exposed to during rangeland fires are mediated by species specific oviposition traits. This experiment examin...

  3. Preferential occupancy of R2 retroelements on the B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia E Montiel

    Full Text Available R2 non-LTR retrotransposons exclusively insert into the 28S rRNA genes of their host, and are expressed by co-transcription with the rDNA unit. The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans contains transcribed rDNA clusters on most of its A chromosomes, as well as non-transcribed rDNA clusters on the parasitic B chromosomes found in many populations. Here the structure of the E. plorans R2 element, its abundance relative to the number of rDNA units and its retrotransposition activity were determined. Animals screened from five populations contained on average over 12,000 rDNA units on their A chromosomes, but surprisingly only about 100 R2 elements. Monitoring the patterns of R2 insertions in individuals from these populations revealed only low levels of retrotransposition. The low rates of R2 insertion observed in E. plorans differ from the high levels of R2 insertion previously observed in insect species that have many fewer rDNA units. It is proposed that high levels of R2 are strongly selected against in E. plorans, because the rDNA transcription machinery in this species is unable to differentiate between R2-inserted and uninserted units. The B chromosomes of E. plorans contain an additional 7,000 to 15,000 rDNA units, but in contrast to the A chromosomes, from 150 to over 1,500 R2 elements. The higher concentration of R2 in the inactive B chromosomes rDNA clusters suggests these chromosomes can act as a sink for R2 insertions thus further reducing the level of insertions on the A chromosomes. These studies suggest an interesting evolutionary relationship between the parasitic B chromosomes and R2 elements.

  4. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) breeds in grassland habitats throughout much of the U.S., southern and southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico. Additional subspecies are resident in Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. It winters primarily in the coastal states of the southeastern U.S., southern portions of the southwestern states, and in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The species prefers relatively open grassland with intermediate grass height and density and patchy bare ground; because it is widely distributed across different grassland types in North America, it selects different vegetation structure and species composition depending on what is available. In the winter, they use a broader range of grassland habitats including open grasslands, as well as weedy fields and grasslands with woody vegetation. Analyses show significant range-wide population declines from the late 1960s through the present, primarily caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Grasshopper Sparrow is still a relatively common and broadly distributed species, but because of significant population declines and stakeholder concerns, the species is considered of conservation concern nationally and at the state level for numerous states. Many factors, often related to different grassland management practices (e.g., grazing, burning, mowing, management of shrub encroachment, etc.) throughout the species’ range, have impacts on Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and reproduction and may represent limiting factors or threats given steep declines in this species’ population. Because of the concerns for this species, Grasshopper Sparrow has been identified as a focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and this Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for Grasshopper Sparrow has been developed. Through literature searches and input from stakeholders across its range, this plan presents information about

  5. POSSIBILITIES OF TEACHERS FOR MONITORING, DETECTING AND RECORDING OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Koteva-mojsovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and recording of the individual characteristics of children are very important for the development of quality education. Also the views of the teachers about the differences in the development, the potentials and the affinities of the children in the early school period are especially important. The quality education process in the modern school should be adapted to the individual potentials of the children. The children are individuals with their own integrity and characteristics. (Johnston and Halocha, 2010. They have individual pace and develop individual approaches in the learning process. This individual pace in the development of the children requires the teachers to regularly monitor and record the individual characteristics and differences of the children, monitoring the children’s interests, planning instruction which will adapt to the different learning approaches and the different pace of progress of the students.Setting out from this paradigm, this paper, which is based on a realized research, aims to offer findings about the treatment of the individual characteristics of the early school-age children in our country. According to this, we carried out a research in four primary schools in Skopje, which showed us that the teachers lack the appropriate conditions and possibilities to monitor and record the individual characteristics and the specific differences of the students in the early school period. 

  6. 'Sink or swim': an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of individuals with high bone mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gregson, C L

    2011-04-01

    ), p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Individuals with unexplained HBM have an excess of clinical characteristics associated with skeletal dysplasia and their relatives are commonly affected, suggesting many may harbour an underlying genetic disorder affecting bone mass.

  7. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata Reveal Possible Ancestry of the B Chromosome and H3 Histone Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Danilo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes) occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally, the first demonstration of the U2 snRNA gene in B chromosomes in A. flavolineata may shed light on its possible origin. These results provide new information regarding chromosomal variability for repetitive DNAs in grasshoppers and the specific molecular composition of B chromosomes. PMID:23826099

  8. Palaeodemographic and palaeopathological characteristics of individuals buried in three Bronze Age sites from southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reconstruct paleodemographic and paleopathological characteristics of sixteen individuals (three subadults, seven males and six females buried in three Bronze Age sites (Crip, Matkovići, and Veliki Vanik located in southern Croatia. The analysed sample is characterised by the presence of pathological changes which are often associated with stressful episodes such as anaemia, inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases and the occurrence of parasites. Cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis and periostitis were observed in seven out of sixteen analysed skeletons. One ulnar “parry” fracture and three fractures of the frontal bone strongly suggest the presence of deliberate interpersonal violence within the studied communities. The average life span of the adults, as well as the number and character of the observed pathologies, suggest a relatively poor life quality and harsh living conditions in the studied region during the Bronze Age.

  9. "Live Chat" Clients at Kids Help Phone: Individual Characteristics and Problem Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haner, Dilys; Pepler, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Young people in Canada prefer to use the Internet over face-to-face contact when seeking help for problems of daily living and mental health problems. Kids Help Phone (KHP) provides on-demand, anonymous help to young people via telephone and Live Chat technologies. Two hundred thirty-two phone clients and 230 Live Chat clients responded to a questionnaire at this otherwise anonymous service, providing previously inaccessible data about their individual characteristics and characterizations of the problems for which they sought help. There was a larger proportion of weighty problems (mental health and suicide) among chatters than callers. There were also more non-heterosexual youth, and those who identified as Asian and Black African or Caribbean, using Live Chat than phone. Implications for training Live Chat counsellors to respond effectively to chatters are discussed.

  10. [An evaluation of potential occurrence of grasshopper plague in Xianghuangqi grasslands of Inner Mongolia, North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Na; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the key climatic factors in spawning, overwintering, and hatching periods of grasshopper were taken as the main factors to establish the climatic suitability index of potential occurrence of grasshopper (POG) in Inner Mongolia, and an evaluation was conducted on the climatic suitability of POG in Xianghuangqi County of Inner Mongolia in 2010. Based on the field investigation data collected in early and mid July 2010, seven relatively stable habitat factors including elevation, aspect, soil type, soil sand content, vegetation type, vegetation coverage, and land cover type were selected, and the habitat suitability for POG throughout the County was estimated by using fuzzy evaluation combining with 3S (GIS, RS, and GPS) technology. The POG ranks in 2010 were estimated by integrating the climatic and habitat suitability for POG. The simulated locations where grasshopper occurred were verified by the field investigation data in 2010, and the simulated areas infected by grasshopper were verified by historical data from 2001 to 2010. The results confirmed that the estimated POG ranks were reliable. The climatic suitability for POG was very homogeneous over the study area, and the vast majority of the study area was in the rank of "suitable". The spatial heterogeneity of the potential locations where the grasshopper might occur was mainly related to habitat factors. The highest POG rank was found at the locations with elevation 1300-1400 m, flat or aspect of east or south, typical chestnut soil, soil sand content 60%-80%, and vegetation coverage 30%-50% in temperate bunchgrass steppe.

  11. Parental cancer: Characteristics of users of child-centred counselling versus individual psycho-oncological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhestern, Laura; Geertz, Wiebke; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank; Bergelt, Corinna

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics of users of a specific child-centred counselling service (COSIP) and to compare those to parents using an individual psycho-oncological treatment (PO). We conducted a retrospective analysis on data of users of COSIP and users of PO. Database was the routine assessment (demographic and disease-related characteristics, GAD-7, PHQ-9, EORTC QLQ-C30, and current concerns) of an outpatient psycho-oncological clinic with additional child-centred counselling. A total of 151 patients and 49 partners with children ≤21 years were included. We conducted descriptive analyses and group comparisons. Fifty-nine patients and partners used COSIP only or additionally to individual psycho-oncological service. PO users were more depressed and were more anxious than COSIP users. Patients using PO reported worse emotional functioning than patients using COSIP. Partners using PO reported worse global quality of life and more symptoms of fatigue than partners using COSIP. With regard to current concerns, patients using COSIP reported child-related issues more frequently than PO users. PO users reported symptoms of anxiety, depressive symptoms, or exhaustion more frequently than COSIP users. The findings demonstrate that patients and partners self-referring to PO or COSIP are highly burdened. COSIP users experience different psychosocial burden than PO users. As poor mental state of parents is a risk factor for the development of mental problems in children, parents using only PO may benefit from additional child-centred support. Accordingly, the need for COSIP should be assessed continuously during PO of patients with children ≤21 years. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A dynamic phase microscopic study of optical characteristics of individual chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, V P; Kretushev, A V; Vyshenskaya, T V; Tikhonov, A N

    2004-10-11

    Dynamic phase microscopy (DPM) allows the monitoring of optical path difference (or phase height), h(x,y,t) approximately integraln(x,y,z,t)dz, an integral refractive index projection of the medium, n(x,y,z,t), in optically transparent biological specimens at high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this study, DPM was used for the analysis of fluctuations in the optical characteristics of individual bean chloroplasts in various metabolic states. A "phase image" of an individual chloroplast, which represents a three-dimensional plot of the "phase height", was obtained for the first time, and the frequency spectra of the fluctuations of h(x,y,t) were investigated. The fluctuation patterns, i.e., the intensity and the frequency spectra of phase height fluctuations in bean chloroplasts (Class B) were found to depend on their metabolic state. Under conditions of noncyclic (or pseudocyclic) electron transport, the fluctuations displayed characteristic frequencies in the range of 0.25-0.6 Hz and were space-time-correlated in the chloroplast domains with the cross sizes of approximately 2 microm. The fluctuation intensity decreased in the presence of uncouplers (nigericin and valinomycin, 20 microM). A stronger (in comparison with 20 microM valinomycin) effect of 20 microM nigericin suggests that the light-induced generation of the transmembrane pH difference (DeltapH) makes the main contribution to the increment of space-correlated fluctuations of h(x,y,t). Studies of chloroplasts incubated in media of various osmolarity (50-500 mM sucrose) have shown that structural changes in thylakoids are among other factors responsible for phase height fluctuations.

  13. Specific features of team kinds of sports sportsmen’s individual characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Liashenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study individual characteristics of personalities of team kinds of sports sportsmen, specializing in football. Material: in the research football players (n=28, age 18 - 20 years participated. Psycho-diagnostic testing by methodic 16PF of Kattel was used. Results: we found high correlation between factors, which were conditioned by caution in choosing partners for communication and active contacts. Such sportsmen express their emotions expressively. It facilitates improvement of relations in conditions of co-operation in little group. It was also found that one of personality’s leading characteristics in sportsmen is their activity in social contacts. The higher is courage the more active is communication. It promotes discussion of common interests and targets for the given group of people. Conclusions: Sportsmen, who have many emotional interests and are ready to risk (or having bent to adventures have to face non understanding of other players. In such case conflict can be inevitable. Especially it manifests, if opposite side has the same indicators in this factor. Just courage, risk and adventurism push them to conflict solution of problem situations.

  14. Current-voltage characteristics of individual conducting polymer nanotubes and nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Yun-ze; Yin Zhi-Hua; Li Meng-Meng; Gu Chang-Zhi; Duvail Jean-Luc; Jin Ai-zi; Wan Mei-xiang

    2009-01-01

    We report the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristics of individual polypyrrole nanotubes and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanowires in a temperature range from 300 K to 2 K. Considering the complex structures of such quasi-one-dimensional systems with an array of ordered conductive regions separated by disordered barriers, we use the extended fluctuation-induced tunneling (FIT) and thermal excitation model (Kaiser expression) to fit the temperature and electric-field dependent Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves. It is found that the Ⅰ-Ⅴ data measured at higher temperatures or higher voltages can be well fitted by the Kaiser expression. However, the low-temperature data around the zero bias clearly deviate from those obtained from this model. The deviation (or zero-bias conductance suppression)could be possibly ascribed to the occurrence of the Coulomb-gap in the density of states near the Femi level and/or the enhancement of electron-electron interaction resulting from nanosize effects, which have been revealed in the previous studies on low-temperature electronic transport in conducting polymer films, pellets and nanostructures. In addition,similar Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics and deviation are also observed in an isolated K0.27MnO2 nanowire.

  15. Associations between frailty syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics in long-lived individuals of a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grden, Clóris Regina Blanski; Lenardt, Maria Helena; Sousa, Jacy Aurelia Vieira de; Kusomota, Luciana; Dellaroza, Mara Solange Gomes; Betiolli, Susanne Elero

    2017-06-05

    investigating the association between frailty syndrome and sociodemographic characteristics in long-lived individuals of a community. a cross-sectional study with a proportional stratified sample consisting of 243 long-lived individuals. A structured instrument, scales and tests that comprise evaluating frailty were applied for data collection. Univariate and multivariate analyzes were performed by logistic regression (pConfianza de 95%). de los 243 longevos evaluados, 36 (14,8%) eran frágiles, 155 (63,8%) pre-frágiles y 52 (21,4%) no frágiles. Hubo predominio del sexo femenino (n=161; 66,3%), viudos (n=158; 65%), residían con familiares (n=144; 59,3%) y con situación financiera autorrelatada satisfactoria (n=108; 44,5%). Se identificó asociación significativa entre la variable demográfica edad (p=0,043) y el síndrome de la fragilidad física. El mejor modelo predictor del síndrome contuvo las variables: sexo, edad y con quien reside. la variable edad fue la que más contribuyó para el proceso de fragilización de los longevos que residen en la comunidad. Es esencial que el cuidado de enfermería gerontológico contemple el rastreo precoz del síndrome y considere la edad como un indicativo de necesidades de cuidados.

  16. Cyberbullying Perpetration by Arab Youth: The Direct and Interactive Role of Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Mishna, Faye; Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    This study adopts a social-ecological/contextual perspective to explore Arab youth involvement in cyberbullying perpetration. We explored the association between individual (age, gender, and impulsivity), family (socioeconomic status and parental monitoring), and community (experiencing neighborhood violence) characteristics and cyberbullying perpetration. A moderation model exploring individual, family, and context interactions was tested. A sample of 3,178 Arab students in Grades 7 to 11 completed a structured, anonymous self-report questionnaire. The findings suggest that almost 14% of the participants have cyberbullied others during the last month. Adolescent boys with high impulsivity, low parental monitoring, and who experience a high level of violence in their neighborhood are at especially high risk of cyberbullying perpetration. Parental monitoring moderated the effects of impulsivity and experiencing neighborhood violence on adolescents' involvement in perpetrating cyberbullying. Furthermore, the results show that impulsive adolescents who experience high levels of neighborhood violence are at higher risk of cyberbullying perpetration than low impulsive children who experience the same levels of neighborhood violence. The results highlight the central role parenting plays in protecting their children from involvement in cyberbullying perpetration by buffering the effects of personal and situational risk factors.

  17. Characteristics of individual particles in Beijing before, during and after the 2014 APEC meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongjun; Shan, Wei; Qi, Tao; Gao, Jian

    2018-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of individual aerosol particles as well as the effects of emission control measures on the air quality in Beijing before, during and after the 2014 APEC meeting, aerosol samples collected in Beijing from Oct. 8 to Nov. 24 were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Individual particles were classified into fly ash, ammonium sulfate, carbonaceous particle, tar ball, soot aggregates, Fe/Ti oxide, Ca/Mg carbonate, calcium sulfate and aluminosilicates/quartz. The results showed that PM0.5-1.0 was predominant in aerosol particles while PM2.5-10 was the fewest in aerosol particles. Soot aggregates and carbonaceous particles mainly located in the size range of 0.5-2.5 μm and mineral particles were dominant in the size range of 2.5-10 μm. The tough emission control measures taken by the local government greatly improved the air quality. Reducing vehicles on the roads substantially decreased the amount of soot aggregates, and restricting coal combustion decreased the amount of tar ball during the APEC meeting. The concentrations of carbonaceous and mineral particles abated probably owing to the control on VOCs emission, and water spray and demolition layoff, respectively, during the APEC meeting.

  18. Exploring the Correlates to Depression in Elder Abuse Victims: Abusive Experience or Individual Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana João; Nunes, Baltazar; Kislaya, Irina; Gil, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms have been studied both as risk factors and consequences of elder abuse, even though the most common cross-sectional design of the studies does not allow inferring cause or consequence relationships. This study estimates the proportion of older adults who screened positive for depressive symptoms among those self-reporting elder abuse and examines whether individual characteristics and/or abusive experience aspects are associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. Participants were 510 older adults self-reporting experiences of abuse in family setting enrolled in the cross-sectional victims' survey of the Aging and Violence Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the abbreviated version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5). Poisson regression was used to determine the prevalence ratio (PR) of screening depressive symptoms according to individual and abusive experience covariates: sex, age group, cohabitation, perceived social support, chronic diseases, functional status, violence type, perpetrator, and number of conducts. Women (PR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 1.35]) individuals perceiving low social support level (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.16, 1.60]) and with long-term illness (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.33]) were found to be associated with increased risk for screening depressive symptoms. In regard to abusive experience, only the number of abusive conducts increased the PR (PR = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.05, 1.09]). Routine screening for elder abuse should include psychological well-being assessment. Interventions toward risk alleviation for both mental health problems and elder abuse should target women perceiving low social support level and with long-term illness.

  19. Investigation of the Link Between Macroscopic Traffic Flow Characteristics and Individual Vehicle Fuel Consumption : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the impacts of several factors, including vehicle characteristics, ambient temperature, season, speed, driving behavior, and traffic flow, on individual vehicle energy consumption.

  20. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background. The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics

  1. Angels and Demons: How Individual Characteristics, Behavioral Types and Choices Influence Behavior in a Real-Effort Moral Dilemma Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Daniel Bejarano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects´ cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS, which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these differences are not systematic and difficult to interpret. These results indicate a need for more comprehensive theory explaining how combinations of different individual characteristics impact behavior is needed.

  2. Predator-Prey Interactions are Context Dependent in a Grassland Plant-Grasshopper-Wolf Spider Food Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Angela N; Joern, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Species interactions are often context dependent, where outcomes vary in response to one or more environmental factors. It remains unclear how abiotic conditions like temperature combine with biotic factors such as consumer density or food quality to affect resource availability or influence species interactions. Using the large grasshopper Melanoplus bivittatus (Say) and a common wolf spider [Rabidosa rabida (Walkenaer)], we conducted manipulative field experiments in tallgrass prairie to examine how spider-grasshopper interactions respond to manipulations of temperature, grasshopper density, and food quality. Grasshopper survival was density dependent, as were the effects of spider presence and food quality in context-dependent ways. In high grasshopper density treatments, predation resulted in increased grasshopper survival, likely as a result of reduced intraspecific competition in the presence of spiders. Spiders had no effect on grasshopper survival when grasshoppers were stocked at low densities. Effects of the experimental treatments were often interdependent so that effects were only observed when examined together with other treatments. The occurrence of trophic cascades was context dependent, where the effects of food quality and spider presence varied with temperature under high-density treatments. Temperature weakly affected the impact of spider presence on M. bivittatus survivorship when all treatments were considered simultaneously, but different context-dependent responses to spider presence and food quality were observed among the three temperature treatments under high-density conditions. Our results indicate that context-dependent species interactions are common and highlight the importance of understanding how key biotic and abiotic factors combine to influence species interactions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Safety climate in the federal fire management community: Influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Baldauf McBride; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organizational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate in the US federal fire management community (HRO Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity). Multiple analyses of variance revealed that all types of characteristics had a significant effect on...

  4. Effects of Altered Seasonality of Precipitation on Grass Production and Grasshopper Performance in a Northern Mixed Prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David H

    2017-06-01

    Climatic changes are leading to differing patterns and timing of precipitation in grassland ecosystems, with the seasonal timing of precipitation affecting plant biomass and plant composition. No previous studies have examined how drought seasonality affects grasshopper performance and the impact of herbivory on vegetation. We modified seasonal patterns of precipitation and grasshopper density in a manipulative experiment to examine if seasonality of drought combined with herbivory affected plant biomass, nitrogen content, and grasshopper performance. Grass biomass was affected by both precipitation and grasshopper density treatments, while nitrogen content of grass was higher with early-season drought. Proportional survival was negatively affected by initial density, while survival was higher with early drought than with full-season drought. Drought timing affected the outcome, with early summer drought increasing grass nitrogen content and grasshopper survival, while season-long and late-season drought did not. The results support arguments that our knowledge of plant responses to seasonal short-term variation in climate is limited and illustrate the importance of experiments manipulating precipitation phenology. The results confirm that understanding the season of drought is critical for predicting grasshopper population dynamics, as extreme early summer drought may be required to strongly affect Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.) performance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI, relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3 is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. "BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x = P1 × x 2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056, P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164, P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412, R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  6. Relationship between Individual Characteristics and High Risk Behavior in Intravenous Drug Addicts in Ardabil, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fouladi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Addiction is one of the problems in world threating the social, economic and culture factors. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge about the characteristics of drug users in order to diminish the high-risk behaviors of intravenous drug addicts. This research has been done to assess relationship between individual characteristics and high risk behavior in intravenous drug addicts.   Method: In this descriptive-analytic research, 360 drug users were selected from different places in Ardabil city and interviewed by a prepared questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including t-test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA with SPSS statistical software.   Results: The results showed that the age, gender, material status, job position, age of addiction start, age of injection start, injection frequency, injection frequency per day, syringe supply place and the partner’s gender during recent few months had no significant difference compared to drug users with needle sharing and without needle sharing. The educational level of drug users with needle sharing was lower (P=0.037 and the number of new syringe usage per month was also lesser (P=0.001. They predicted to be more likely infected with AIDS (P=0.001 and had a less argument with their partner about using condom, also mostly have not used condom at their last sexual relationship (P=0.001. The average number of their partners during last three months was high (P=0.003 and there was a meaningful relationship between true sense of peril and using condom in drug users with needle sharing group (p=0.001.   Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the true sense of danger and the using condom. It is necessary to have an appropriate advertising to increase using condoms among injecting drug users.

  7. Investigating the Possibility to Individualize Asthma Attack Therapy Based on Attack Severity and Patient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárkány Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate with the help of a computerized simulation model whether the treatment of an acute asthma attack can be individualized based on the severity of the attack and the characteristics of the patient. Material and Method: A stochastic lung model was used to simulate the deposition of 1 nm - 10 μm particles during a mild and a moderate asthma attack. Breathing parameters were varied to maximize deposition, and simulation results were compared with those obtained in the case of a severe asthma attack. In order to investigate the effect of height on the deposition of inhaled particles, another series of simulations was carried out with identical breathing parameters, comparing patient heights of 155 cm, 175 cm and 195 cm. Results: The optimization process yielded an increase in the maximum deposition values of around 6-7% for each type of investigated asthma attack, and the difference between attacks of different degree of severity was around 5% for both the initial and the optimized values, a higher degree of obstruction increasing the amount of deposited particles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the individualization of asthma attack treatment cannot be based on particles of different size, as the highest deposited fraction in all three types of attacks can be obtained using 0.01 μm particles. The use of a specific set of breathing parameters yields a difference between a mild and a moderate, as well as a moderate and a severe asthma attack of around 5%.

  8. Prediction of diabetes based on baseline metabolic characteristics in individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defronzo, Ralph A; Tripathy, Devjit; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Maryann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2013-11-01

    Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined which characteristics at baseline predicted the development of T2DM versus maintenance of IGT or conversion to normal glucose tolerance. We studied 228 subjects at high risk with IGT who received treatment with placebo in ACT NOW and who underwent baseline anthropometric measures and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. In a univariate analysis, 45 of 228 (19.7%) IGT individuals developed diabetes. After adjusting for age, sex, and center, increased fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, G0-120 during OGTT, HbA1c, adipocyte insulin resistance index, ln fasting plasma insulin, and ln I0-120, as well as family history of diabetes and presence of metabolic syndrome, were associated with increased risk of diabetes. At baseline, higher insulin secretion (ln [I0-120/G0-120]) during the OGTT was associated with decreased risk of diabetes. Higher β-cell function (insulin secretion/insulin resistance or disposition index; ln [I0-120/G0-120 × Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity]; odds ratio 0.11; P < 0.0001) was the variable most closely associated with reduced risk of diabetes. In a stepwise multiple-variable analysis, only HbA1c and β-cell function (ln insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) predicted the development of diabetes (r = 0.49; P < 0.0001).

  9. Individual behavioural characteristics in pigs and their consequences for pig husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction
    The main aspect of this thesis is individual behavioural variation. Behavioural variability among individuals within a population may provide information on strategies or roles in social behaviour, on personality traits and individual recognition.

  10. Characteristics and New Measurement Method of NCSFs of Individual Color Mechanisms of Human Vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Jing, Ge; Zhao-Qi, Wang; Yan, Wang; Kan-Xing, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for determining neural contrast sensitivity functions (NCSFs) of isolated color mechanisms based on the measurements of wave-front aberrations and isoluminant color contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs). Compared with the traditional method, this technique avoids the coherent noise and speckle noise, which are brought by the interference of laser beams, and has great flexibility for the measurements of NCSF of different color mechanisms. Our experiments indicate that the mean NCSF and CSF of the red mechanism are higher than those of the green mechanism, respectively, while those of the blue mechanism are the lowest. However the relative heights of the peak of NCSF and CSF between red and green mechanisms vary in subjects. There are some individuals whose peak values of NCSF and/or CSF of green mechanism are higher than that of the red mechanism. The NCSFs and CSFs of isolated color mechanisms all exhibit the similar characteristics and variation tendency. With the statistical average, the NCSFs of the red, green and blue mechanisms are higher than the corresponding CSFs in the whole spatial frequency. Compared with the corresponding CSFs curves, the peaks of the NCSFs of isolated color mechanisms shift toward higher spatial frequencies, especially for that of blue mechanism which has a largest shift of 3.9c/deg

  11. Characteristics of weak base-induced vacuoles formed around individual acidic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Hiromi; Kawakami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that the weak base 4-aminopyridine induces Brownian motion of acidic organelles around which vacuoles are formed, causing organelle traffic disorder in neurons. Our present study investigated the characteristics of vacuoles induced by weak bases (NH(4)Cl, aminopyridines, and chloroquine) using mouse cells. Individual vacuoles included acidic organelles identified by fluorescent protein expression. Mitochondria and actin filaments were extruded outside the vacuoles, composing the vacuole rim. Staining with amine-reactive fluorescence showed no protein/amino acid content in vacuoles. Thus, serous vacuolar contents are probably partitioned by viscous cytosol, other organelles, and cytoskeletons, but not membrane. The weak base (chloroquine) was immunochemically detected in intravacuolar organelles, but not in vacuoles. Early vacuolization was reversible, but long-term vacuolization caused cell death. The vacuolization and cell death were blocked by the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor and Cl--free medium. Staining with LysoTracker or LysoSensor indicated that intravacuolar organelles were strongly acidic and vacuoles were slightly acidic. This suggests that vacuolization is caused by accumulation of weak base and H(+) in acidic organelles, driven by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase associated with Cl(-) entering, and probably by subsequent extrusion of H(+) and water from organelles to the surrounding cytoplasm.

  12. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  13. Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gia Elise; Schiamberg, Lawrence B; Oehmke, James; Korzeniewski, Steven J; Post, Lori A; Heraux, Cedrick G

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an ecological perspective to explore the risk factors associated with bullying behaviors among a representative sample of adolescents aged 11-14 (n = 9816; X = 12.88; s = .9814). Data derived from the Health Behavior in School Children: WHO Cross-National Survey were used to model the relationship between bullying and media effects, peer and family support systems, self-efficacy, and school environment. Overall, the results of this study suggest that bullying increases among children who watch television frequently, lack teacher support, have themselves been bullied, attend schools with unfavorable environments, have emotional support from their peers, and have teachers and parents who do not place high expectations on their school performance. In addition, we found an inverse relationship between being Asian or African American, feeling left out of school activities and bullying. Our results lend support to the contention that bullying arises out of deficits in social climate, but that social support systems mediate bullying behavior irrespective of the student's racial/ethnic characteristics, parental income levels or media influences. Because the number of friends and the ability to talk to these friends increases the likelihood of bullying, we suggest that bullying is not simply an individual response to a particular environment but is a peer-group behavior. We conclude that limiting television viewing hours, improving student's abilities to access family support systems and improving school atmospheres are potentially useful interventions to limit bullying behavior.

  14. The association of food characteristics and individual differences with ratings of craving and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Rizk, Marianne T; Treat, Teresa A

    2014-08-01

    Craving and liking are related to eating-related problems, but less is known about the association of specific food characteristics (e.g., sugar, fat) with craving/liking. The relation of individual differences in eating behavior with these craving and liking patterns is also relatively unknown. We examine the nomothetic impact of sugar, fat and processing on food craving and liking and the moderation of these effects by idiographic factors (e.g., Body Mass Index [BMI], hunger). One hundred and five overweight and obese women completed craving and liking ratings on 180 foods that differed in levels of sugar, fat and processing. Food craving was linked positively to fat content, but negatively to sugar. Food liking was associated negatively with sugar content and processing level. Addictive-like eating predicted elevated overall food craving and liking, and increased craving and liking for processed foods. Attempted restriction efforts were unrelated to craving and liking. BMI was associated with less craving for fattier foods and lower liking for the average food. Hunger was associated with increased craving for the average food. These findings highlight the role of fat in cravings and differences in craving and liking based on BMI, loss of control over eating, and hunger. These findings are relevant to theories of problematic eating and the development of eating-related interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Working atmosphere, job satisfaction and individual characteristics of community mental health professionals in integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Kleine-Budde, Katja; Bramesfeld, Anke; Stegbauer, Constance

    2018-03-01

    Working requirements of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care are complex. There is a lack of research concerning the relation of job satisfaction, working atmosphere and individual characteristics. For the current study, a survey evaluating job satisfaction and working atmosphere of mental healthcare professionals in integrated care was performed. About 321 community mental healthcare professionals were included in the survey; the response rate was 59.5%. The professional background of community mental healthcare professionals included nursing, social work and psychology. Community mental healthcare professionals reported the highest satisfaction with colleagues and the lowest satisfaction with income. Moreover, it could be shown that more responsibility, more recognition and more variety in job tasks lead to an increase of overall job satisfaction. Healthcare for mentally ill patients in the community setting is complex and requires well-structured care with appropriate responsibilities within the team. A co-operative relationship among colleagues as well as clearly defined responsibilities seem to be the key for the job satisfaction of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A qualitative assessment of program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a major public health problem that affects 2 to 5 percent of the population. Individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. Evidence-based intervention programs are needed to prevent and treat secondary conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify intervention program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions in individuals with FASD from the perspectives of parents and service providers. This qualitative study utilized a phenomenological approach to identify program characteristics for preventing secondary conditions. Twenty-five parents of children (ages 3 to 33) with FASD and 18 service providers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Data was systematically analyzed using a framework approach. Themes did not differ by participant type. Participants emphasized five primary characteristics of intervention programs for individuals with FASD. Programs need to 1) be available to individuals across the lifespan, 2) have a prevention focus, 3) be individualized, 4) be comprehensive, and 5) be coordinated across systems and developmental stages. Participants discussed a variety of specific intervention strategies for each developmental stage and setting. Program characteristics identified in this study are consistent with a positive behavior support framework. This framework is discussed in the context of research on existing interventions for individuals with FASD, and recommendations for future intervention development and evaluation are highlighted.

  17. Identifying individual- and population-level characteristics that influence rates of risky alcohol consumption in regional communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P; Gilmour, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    To examine the extent to which individual- and community- level characteristics account for differences in risky alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2,977 randomly selected individuals from 20 regional communities in NSW, Australia. Individuals drinking at harmful levels on the AUDIT and for risk of harm in the short term and long-term were identified. Multi-level modelling of the correlates of risky alcohol consumption at the individual and community level was conducted. There were differences between communities in alcohol consumption patterns. Being male, unmarried and reporting worse health were significant individual-level correlates for drinking at levels for risk of harm in the long term. The number of GPs (+) and police (-) were significant community characteristics. Being younger (≤25), unmarried, Australian born and with a larger income was associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term and harmful drinking on the AUDIT. The number of hotels and clubs was positively associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term. Rates of risky drinking vary significantly between communities and both individual and community characteristics are significantly associated with risky alcohol consumption. A combination of individual- and population-level interventions, tailored to the risk profile of individual communities, is most likely to be optimally effective. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Comparison of elliptical and spherical mirrors for the grasshopper monochromators at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldhauer, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of a spherical and elliptical mirror in the grasshopper monochromator is presented. The problem was studied by ray tracing and then tested using visible (λ=633 nm) laser light. Calculations using ideal optics yield an improvement in flux by a factor of up to 2.7, while tests with visible light show an increase by a factor of 5 because the old spherical mirror is compared to a new, perfect elliptical one. The FWHM of the measured focus is 90 μm with a spherical mirror, and 25 μm with an elliptical one. Elliptical mirrors have been acquired and are now being installed in the two grasshoppers at SSRL

  19. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the montane grasshopper, Qinlingacris elaeodes (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Liang, Ai-Ping; Zhong, Xin-Tong; Liu, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Qinlingacris elaeodes is the dominant grasshopper at an altitude of 3000 meters and above, and is a representative species of the genus Qinlingacris endemic to China. The sequenced mitochondrial genome of this grasshopper is 14,818 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (ND1-6, COI-III, ATP6, ATP8, ND4L, CTYB), 21 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S). The orientation and gene order of these genes are identical to those found in the putative ancestral insect mitogenome. The 13 PCGs start with a typical ATN codon as their start codons. The usual TAA and TAG termination codons are found for 12 PCGs. However, the ND5 gene has an incomplete termination codon (T).

  20. The neuroblast of the grasshopper embryo as a new mutagen test system. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.C.; Gaulden, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The neuroblasts of the grasshopper embryo (Chortophaga viridifasciata De Geer) are being studied to determine their suitability for detecting environmental clastogens (chromosome-breaking agents). They are very sensitive to the induction of chromosome breakage by radiation in viro. Their sensitvity, 0.011 break/cell/R, is 4-5 times higher than pollen mother cells of Tradescantia (micronuclei), 10 times higher than either human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster cells (metaphase chromosome aberrations), and 15 times higher than mouse erythroblasts (micronuclei). Furthermore, they have no spontaneous chromosome breakage, which facilitates the detection of agents that break chromosomes. The present study shows that Chortophaga embryos maintain normal mitotic activity in vitro for 5 cell cycles at 38 0 C (20 h), and that neuroblasts of embryos grown in vitro have the same radiosensitivity as those of embryos in vivo. Thus in vitro exposure of grasshopper embryos is a promising method for obtaining data on the response of neuroblasts to chemical clastogens. (orig.)

  1. Physical mapping of the Period gene on meiotic chromosomes of South American grasshoppers (Acridomorpha, Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T E; Oliveira, D L; Santos, J F; Rieger, T T

    2014-12-19

    The single-copy gene Period was located in five grasshopper species belonging to the Acridomorpha group through permanent in situ hybridization (PISH). The mapping revealed one copy of this gene in the L1 chromosome pair in Ommexecha virens, Xyleus discoideus angulatus, Tropidacris collaris, Schistocerca pallens, and Stiphra robusta. A possible second copy was mapped on the L2 chromosome pair in S. robusta, which should be confirmed by further studies. Except for the latter case, the chromosomal position of the Period gene was highly conserved among the four families studied. The S. robusta karyotype also differs from the others both in chromosome number and morphology. The position conservation of the single-copy gene Period contrasts with the location diversification of multigene families in these species. The localization of single-copy genes by PISH can provide new insights about the genomic content and chromosomal evolution of grasshoppers and others insects.

  2. Neuroblast of the grasshopper embryo as a new mutagen test system. Pt. 1. In vitro radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J C; Gaulden, M E [Texas Univ., Dallas (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1982-04-01

    The neuroblasts of the grasshopper embryo (Chortophaga viridifasciata De Geer) are being studied to determine their suitability for detecting environmental clastogens (chromosome-breaking agents). They are very sensitive to the induction of chromosome breakage by radiation in vitro. Their sensitvity, 0.011 break/cell/R, is 4-5 times higher than pollen mother cells of Tradescantia (micronuclei), 10 times higher than either human lymphocytes or Chinese hamster cells (metaphase chromosome aberrations), and 15 times higher than mouse erythroblasts (micronuclei). Furthermore, they have no spontaneous chromosome breakage, which facilitates the detection of agents that break chromosomes. The present study shows that Chortophaga embryos maintain normal mitotic activity in vitro for 5 cell cycles at 38/sup 0/C (20 h), and that neuroblasts of embryos grown in vitro have the same radiosensitivity as those of embryos in vivo. Thus in vitro exposure of grasshopper embryos is a promising method for obtaining data on the response of neuroblasts to chemical clastogens.

  3. Intercomparison of performance characteristics of OSLDs and TLDs used for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meye, Phillipe Ondo

    2016-07-01

    This research work performed an intercomparison on some important performance characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry systems used by dosimetry services in Gabon and Ghana, respectively. The study verified the status of the selected performance indicators and propose ways to improve the performances of individual monitoring services of Ghana and Gabon if found necessary. The performance indicators assessed included the zero - dose, the minimum detectability and some important reader performance characteristics. These tests were performed using statistical and experimental methods. The overall uncertainty in measurement of the dosimetry systems of Ghana and Gabon for Hp(10) was determined using the IEC technical report TR 62461, and comparisons were carried out with IAEA 99, PTB 99, IEC 1066 and IEC1283 series performance standards. The IEC 62387 standard was used to assess the linearity dependence of the response and the coefficient of variation of the two dosimetry systems. For the Harshaw TLD 6600 system of the dosimetry service of Ghana, the Reference light QC test meets the requirement given in the user manual. For the OSL system microStar of the dosimetry system of Gabon, the three QC tests, DRK count, CAL count and LED count, meet the user manual requirements. However all these tests failed the statistical test that is part of counting statistics. This led to the conclusion that there may be some abnormalities in the counting system, and that the statistical abnormalities suspected have apparently no impact on the results of the reading. It was also concluded that since the DRK count and the CAL count failed the Chi - squared test by very small margin, a Gaussian distribution could still be considered as an approximation of the experimental data distributions of these two QC measurements. The zero dose for the Harshaw 6600 and the microStar system were found to be 0.026 mSv and 0.08 mSv respectively

  4. Reproduction-related sound production of grasshoppers regulated by internal state and actual sensory environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eHeinrich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and exteroreceptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behaviour of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviours. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behaviour in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations.This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors.

  5. On the origin of grasshopper oviposition behavior: structural homology in pregenital and genital motor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen J; Jones, Alaine D; Miller, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    In female grasshoppers, oviposition is a highly specialized behavior involving a rhythm-generating neural circuit, the oviposition central pattern generator, unusual abdominal appendages, and dedicated muscles. This study of Schistocerca americana (Drury) grasshoppers was undertaken to determine whether the simpler pregenital abdominal segments, which do not contain ovipositor appendages, share common features with the genital segment, suggesting a roadmap for the genesis of oviposition behavior. Our study revealed that although 5 of the standard pregenital body wall muscles were missing in the female genital segment, homologous lateral nerves were, indeed, present and served 4 ovipositor muscles. Retrograde labeling of the corresponding pregenital nerve branches in male and female grasshoppers revealed motor neurons, dorsal unpaired median neurons, and common inhibitor neurons which appear to be structural homologues of those filled from ovipositor muscles. Some pregenital motor neurons displayed pronounced contralateral neurites; in contrast, some ovipositor motor neurons were exclusively ipsilateral. Strong evidence of structural homology was also obtained for pregenital and ovipositor skeletal muscles supplied by the identified neurons and of the pregenital and ovipositor skeletons. For example, transient embryonic segmental appendages were maintained in the female genital segments, giving rise to ovipositor valves, but were lost in pregenital abdominal segments. Significant proportional differences in sternal apodemes and plates were observed, which partially obscure the similarities between the pregenital and genital skeletons. Other changes in reorganization included genital muscles that displayed adult hypertrophy, 1 genital muscle that appeared to represent 2 fused pregenital muscles, and the insertion points of 2 ovipositor muscles that appeared to have been relocated. Together, the comparisons support the idea that the oviposition behavior of genital

  6. Reproduction-Related Sound Production of Grasshoppers Regulated by Internal State and Actual Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ralf; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and extero-receptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behavior of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviors. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness, or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity, and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience, and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction-related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behavior in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations. This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors. PMID:22737107

  7. High plant species diversity indirectly mitigates CO 2- and N-induced effects on grasshopper growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengbom, Joachim; Reich, Peter B.; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2008-09-01

    We examined how elevated atmospheric [CO 2] and higher rate of nitrogen (N) input may influence grasshopper growth by changing food plant quality and how such effects may be modified by species diversity of the plant community. We reared grasshopper nymphs ( Melanoplus femurrubrum) on Poa pratensis from field-grown monocultures or polycultures (16 species) that were subjected to either ambient or elevated levels of CO 2 and N. Grasshopper growth rate was higher on P. pratensis leaves grown in monocultures than in polycultures, higher on P. pratensis grown under elevated than under ambient [CO 2], and higher on P. pratensis grown under elevated than under ambient [N]. The higher growth rate observed on P. pratensis exposed to elevated [CO 2] was, however, less pronounced for polyculture- than monoculture-grown P. pratensis. Growth rate of the grasshoppers was positively correlated with leaf [N], [C], and concentration of soluble carbohydrates + lipids. Concentration of non-structural carbohydrates + lipids was higher in leaves grown under elevated than under ambient [CO 2], and the difference between P. pratensis grown under ambient and elevated [CO 2] was greater for monoculture- than polyculture-grown P. pratensis. In addition, leaf N concentration was higher in P. pratensis grown in monocultures than in polycultures, suggesting that plant species richness, indirectly, may influence insect performance by changed nutritional value of the plants. Because we found interactive effects between all factors included ([CO 2], [N], and plant species diversity), our results suggest that these parameters may influence plant-insect interactions in a complex way that is not predictable from the sum of single factor manipulations.

  8. Nitrogen limitation and life history adaptation in the grasshopper "Omocestus viridulus"

    OpenAIRE

    Berner, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The role of plant-mediated constraints to herbivore populations in terrestrial ecosystems remains relatively poorly understood. One aim of this study was therefore to explore the effects of low host plant nitrogen (N) content on herbivore performance and feeding behaviour, and thereby to evaluate the utility of the N limitation and nutrient balance concepts. The grass-feeding grasshopper Omocestus viridulus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) provided a well-suited model system as the species exhibits hi...

  9. Relationship between individual and family characteristics and psychosocial factors in persons with familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan; Hong, Fangxin; Lawrence, Janette; Blonquist, Traci; Syngal, Sapna

    2018-03-23

    Describe relationships between self-reported personal demographics or familial characteristics and psychosocial outcomes (Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health, Impact of Event Scale-Revised [pancreatic cancer risk-related distress], cancer risk perception, and cancer worry) in participants with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk. A multisite cross sectional survey of adults with elevated pancreatic cancer risk based on family history. All variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. To assess univariate associations, t test and chi-square/Fisher's exact test were used, and backward model selection was used in multivariable analysis. Respondents (N = 132) reported moderate to high frequency of cancer worry and 59.3% perceived a 50% or more perceived lifetime risk for pancreatic cancer, which far exceeds objective risk estimates. Cancer worry was associated with female gender (P = .03) and pancreatic cancer risk specific distress (P = .05). Higher-risk perception was associated with having a high school education or less (P = .001), higher distress (P = .02), and cancer worry (P = .008) and family cancer death experience (P = .02). Higher distress was associated with experience as a caregiver to a seriously ill family member in the past 5 years (P = .006). Individuals with inherited or familial pancreatic cancer risk experience cancer worry, distress, and have increased risk perception, particularly in the period following caring for a loved one with cancer. Routine evaluation of distress in this setting, as well as the development of supportive care resources, will help support patients living with risk for pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Short-Term Dynamics of Behavioral Thermoregulation by Adults of the Grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M.; Rolston, Marni G.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term behavioral responses of adult grasshoppers, Melanoplus sanguinipes (F.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), were examined after they experienced changes in microclimate when beingforced to change positions in their habitat. It was also determined if and when behavioral tactics allowed adults to achieve body temperatures within their preferred range. The preferred or set-point range, here taken as the interquartile range of temperatures selected on a laboratory thermal gradient, was estimated to be 37.4–40.5°C. In the field, adults progressed through a relatively consistent daily sequence of behaviors, basking on the soil early in the day, but moving onto vegetation as temperatures increased. Although basking allowed grasshoppers to maximize body temperature within the available range, as much as 7°C in excess of air temperature, they could not attain preferred body temperatures until soil surface temperatures reach about 35°C. Basking was more effective in grazed than ungrazed pastures due to a lower degree of shading of the soil surface. As soil surface temperatures exceeded 35°C, grasshoppers could achieve body temperatures within the preferred range by moving to the appropriate height on vegetation. These results illustrate the advantage of assessing behavior in the field in relation to preferred body temperatures determined in the laboratory. PMID:20302531

  11. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  12. Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human “predators” with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers. PMID:23139879

  13. The effectiveness of common thermo-regulatory behaviours in a cool temperate grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca M B; McQuillan, Peter; Hughes, Lesley

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural thermoregulation has the potential to alleviate the short-term impacts of climate change on some small ectotherms, without the need for changes to species distributions or genetic adaptation. We illustrate this by measuring the effect of behaviour in a cool temperate species of grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum) over a range of spatial and temporal scales in laboratory and natural field experiments. Microhabitat selection at the site scale was tested in free-ranging grasshoppers and related to changing thermal quality over a daily period. Artificial warming experiments were then used to measure the temperature at which common thermoregulatory behaviours are initiated and the subsequent reductions in body temperature. Behavioural means such as timing of activity, choice of substrates with optimum surface temperatures, shade seeking and postural adjustments (e.g. stilting, vertical orientation) were found to be highly effective at maintaining preferred body temperature. The maximum voluntarily tolerated temperature (MVT) was determined to be 44°C±0.4°C, indicating the upper bounds of thermal flexibility in this species. Behavioural thermoregulation effectively enables small ectotherms to regulate exposure to changing environmental temperatures and utilize the spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments they occupy. Species such as the wingless grasshopper, although adapted to cool temperate conditions, are likely to be well equipped to respond successfully to coarse scale climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of zinc and female aging on nymphal life history in a grasshopper from polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Maria; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Kozłowski, Michał; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Michał

    2008-01-01

    Insect reproduction is influenced by various factors, including food quality and quantity, temperature, population density and female age. Contamination, including heavy metals, may disturb reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to assess interactions between effects of aging in female Chorthippus brunneus and environmental pollution on their reproduction measured in number of laid eggs. We also compared basic developmental parameters (number of hatchlings, body mass, embryonic developmental rate) in grasshopper nymphs additionally exposed to zinc during diapause. Aging grasshoppers from heavily polluted areas (Olkusz and Szopienice) lay significantly fewer eggs than insects from the reference site (Pilica). Zinc application caused the decrease in hatching success and duration of embryogenesis in insects from each site. This suggests a cumulative effect of female age, pollutants and additional stressing factors. The intensity of this process differed between populations. In insects from the reference site, it was shown in a moderate degree. In insects from Szopienice, an additional stressor exerted a weaker effect than in insects from Pilica. In grasshoppers from Olkusz, we found the strongest decrease of hatching percentage and increase in duration of embryogenesis after zinc intoxication. This may indicate that the population from Olkusz exists at the limit of its energetic abilities.

  15. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  16. Population genetic structure of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans in the south and east of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inmaculada Manrique-Poyato

    Full Text Available The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans subsp. plorans harbors a very widespread polymorphism for supernumerary (B chromosomes which appear to have arisen recently. These chromosomes behave as genomic parasites because they are harmful for the individuals carrying them and show meiotic drive in the initial stages of population invasion. The rapid increase in B chromosome frequency at intrapopulation level is thus granted by meiotic drive, but its spread among populations most likely depends on interpopulation gene flow. We analyze here the population genetic structure in 10 natural populations from two regions (in the south and east of the Iberian Peninsula. The southern populations were coastal whereas the eastern ones were inland populations located at 260-655 m altitude. The analysis of 97 ISSR markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (average G(ST = 0.129, and the Structure software and AMOVA indicated a significant genetic differentiation between southern and eastern populations. There was also significant isolation by distance (IBD between populations. Remarkably, these results were roughly similar to those found when only the markers showing low or no dropout were included, suggesting that allelic dropout had negligible effects on population genetic analysis. We conclude that high gene flow helped this parasitic B chromosome to spread through most of the geographical range of the subspecies E. plorans plorans.

  17. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  18. Safety climate in the US federal wildland fire management community: influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf McBride

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate (High Reliability Organising Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity) in the US federal wildland fire management community. Of particular interest were differences between perceptions based on...

  19. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, Rene; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply on the long-term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related

  20. Which characteristics of planning matter? Individual and dyadic physical activity plans and their effects on plan enactment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jan; Fleig, Lena; Hohl, Diana Hilda; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Burkert, Silke; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Knoll, Nina

    2017-09-01

    Past research supports individual planning as an effective intervention strategy to increase physical activity in individuals. A similar strategy, dyadic planning, adds a planning partner who supports an individual's planning processes. Whether the two planning formats differ in terms of participants' entered plan content and whether and how different content characteristics are linked to plan enactment remains unknown. By investigating the content of generated plans, this study aimed at distinguishing plan characteristics of the two planning formats and examining their role as predictors of later plan enactment. Secondary analyses of a three-arm RCT with German couples (data collection between 2013 and 2015). Couples were assigned to an individual (IPC, n = 114) or dyadic planning condition (DPC, n = 111) and formulated up to 5 physical activity plans for a target person. Couples assigned to a control condition were not included as they did not generate plans. The following characteristics were distinguished and coded for each plan: number of planned opportunities, presence of a planned routine, planned cue- or activity-related specificity, activity-related intensity, and chronological plan rank. One week before (T0) and two weeks following (T2) the intervention (T1), increase vs. no increase of the planned activity was coded as a dichotomous plan enactment variable. Multilevel logistic regressions were fit. Plan enactment was higher in dyadic than in individual planners. Findings indicated that routines (e.g., after work) were positively related to plan enactment, whereas a high specificity of when-cues (e.g., Friday at 6.30 p.m.) showed a negative relationship. None of the examined plan characteristics could explain differences in enactment between IPC and DPC. Linking health behaviours to other behavioural routines seems beneficial for subsequent plan enactment. Dyadic planning was linked with higher enactment rates than individual planning. However, as

  1. Individual variation in life history characteristics can influence extinction risk (vol 144, pg 61, 2001) Correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) shows great individual variation in the age at maturation. This study examines the consequences of model assumptions about individual variation in the age at maturation on predicted population viability. I considered: (1) the effects of variation in age at maturation alone; (2) the effects of heritability; and (3) the influence of a stable and an altered selective regime. Two selective regimes represented conditions before and after the impoundment of a river, blocking access of anadromous white sturgeon populations to the ocean. In contrast to previous simulation studies, I found that increased individual variation in the age at maturity did not necessarily lead to a higher likelihood of persistence. Individual variation increased the simulated likelihood of persistence when the variation was heritable and the selective regime had changed such that the mean age at maturity was no longer optimal.

  2. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Grasshopper Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Jill A.; Sondreal, Marriah L.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1998-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates

  3. Object-Based Classification as an Alternative Approach to the Traditional Pixel-Based Classification to Identify Potential Habitat of the Grasshopper Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobin, Benoît; Labrecque, Sandra; Grenier, Marcelle; Falardeau, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    The traditional method of identifying wildlife habitat distribution over large regions consists of pixel-based classification of satellite images into a suite of habitat classes used to select suitable habitat patches. Object-based classification is a new method that can achieve the same objective based on the segmentation of spectral bands of the image creating homogeneous polygons with regard to spatial or spectral characteristics. The segmentation algorithm does not solely rely on the single pixel value, but also on shape, texture, and pixel spatial continuity. The object-based classification is a knowledge base process where an interpretation key is developed using ground control points and objects are assigned to specific classes according to threshold values of determined spectral and/or spatial attributes. We developed a model using the eCognition software to identify suitable habitats for the Grasshopper Sparrow, a rare and declining species found in southwestern Québec. The model was developed in a region with known breeding sites and applied on other images covering adjacent regions where potential breeding habitats may be present. We were successful in locating potential habitats in areas where dairy farming prevailed but failed in an adjacent region covered by a distinct Landsat scene and dominated by annual crops. We discuss the added value of this method, such as the possibility to use the contextual information associated to objects and the ability to eliminate unsuitable areas in the segmentation and land cover classification processes, as well as technical and logistical constraints. A series of recommendations on the use of this method and on conservation issues of Grasshopper Sparrow habitat is also provided.

  4. Uncovering the evolutionary history of neo-XY sex chromosomes in the grasshopper Ronderosia bergii (Orthoptera, Melanoplinae) through satellite DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Milani, Diogo; Lemos, Bernardo; Castillo, Elio R; Martí, Dardo A; Ramos, Erica; Martins, Cesar; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2018-01-08

    Neo-sex chromosome systems arose independently multiple times in evolution, presenting the remarkable characteristic of repetitive DNAs accumulation. Among grasshoppers, occurrence of neo-XY was repeatedly noticed in Melanoplinae. Here we analyzed the most abundant tandem repeats of R. bergii (2n = 22, neo-XY♂) using deep Illumina sequencing and graph-based clustering in order to address the neo-sex chromosomes evolution. The analyses revealed ten families of satDNAs comprising about ~1% of the male genome, which occupied mainly C-positive regions of autosomes. Regarding the sex chromosomes, satDNAs were recorded within centromeric or interstitial regions of the neo-X chromosome and four satDNAs occurred in the neo-Y, two of them being exclusive (Rber248 and Rber299). Using a combination of probes we uncovered five well-defined cytological variants for neo-Y, originated by multiple paracentric inversions and satDNA amplification, besides fragmented neo-Y. These neo-Y variants were distinct in frequency between embryos and adult males. The genomic data together with cytogenetic mapping enabled us to better understand the neo-sex chromosome dynamics in grasshoppers, reinforcing differentiation of neo-X and neo-Y and revealing the occurrence of multiple additional rearrangements involved in the neo-Y evolution of R. bergii. We discussed the possible causes that led to differences in frequency for the neo-Y variants between embryos and adults. Finally we hypothesize about the role of DNA satellites in R. bergii as well as putative historical events involved in the evolution of the R. bergii neo-XY.

  5. Control of grasshoppers by combined application of Paranosema locustae and an insect growth regulator (IGR) (cascade) in rangelands in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; An, Zhao; Shi, Wangpeng

    2012-12-01

    The relatively low direct mortality caused by Paranosema locustae (Canning) has limited its application for controlling grasshopper when densities are high, and this study sought to determine if the simultaneous use of this pathogen and the IGR, Flufenoxuron (Cascade) could provide effective control. Nine treatments were tested: 45% Malathion EC at 1500 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 150 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 75 ml/ha, 5% Cascade at 37.5 ml/ha, P. locustae at 7.5 x 10(9) spores/ha, combinations of 5% Cascade at 75 ml/ha and P. locustae at 7.5 x 10(9) spores/ha, applied in different rations (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) in the same plot, the untreated control. P. locustae was applied on nonoverlapping plots with the IGR. The different in-plot combinations of P. locustae and Cascade in different ratios provided significantly better overall control of grasshoppers (all species) than the treatment of 5% Cascade of 150 ml/ha after 5d, but combinations were not significantly different from the other concentrations of Cascade after 12 and 31 d. When results were examined separately for specific species of grasshoppers, reduction of Dasyhippus harbipes (Fischer-Waldheim), was higher than that of Myrmeleotettix palpalis (Zubovsky). While combinations showed significant differences in the infection of different grasshopper species at 5 and 12 d posttreatment, no significant differences in rate of infection among the primary species (M. palpalis, D. harbipes, and Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko) were detected 31 d posttreatment. Our study found that P. locustae by itself could control grasshopper populations at medium densities but the combined application of P. locustae and Cascade at a ratio of 1:2 was more effective against high-density grasshopper populations.

  6. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition in the rangeland of the northern slopes of The Qilian Mountains in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Liu, Z Y; Qin, L P; Long, R J

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) species composition, diversity, abundance, and density of four rangelands types, we compared the grasshopper community composition and dynamics in the rangeland of the northern slopes of the Qilian Mountains. In total, 55 grasshopper species were collected from 2007 to 2009, representing three families and six subfamilies. The subfamily Oedipodinae was dominant, followed by Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae. Species abundance varied among rangeland types (RTs). The greatest abundance of grasshoppers was found in mountain rangeland, while the lowest abundance of grasshoppers was caught in alpine shrublands. Three species (Chorthippus cf. brunneus (Thunberg) (Acrididae), Chorthippus Dubius (Zubovski), and Gomphocerus licenti (Chang) were broadly distributed in the four RTs and constituted 7.5% of all grasshoppers collected. Ch. dubius was very abundant in desert rangeland and alpine shrubland. Bryodema dolichoptera Yin et Feng Eremippus qilianshanensis Lian and Zheng, and Filchnerella qilianshanensis Xi and Zheng (Pamphagidae) were endemic to the region of the Qilian Mountains. Species similarity between RTs ranged from 17.8 to 51.6 based on the Renkonen index. Similarly, the Sörensen index indicated a wide separation in species composition among RTs. The abundance of the eight most common species showed obvious differences among RTs and years. On average, mountain rangeland had the highest density values in 2007 and 2008, and alpine shrubland supported the smallest density. The densities in desert and mountain rangeland in 2007 were significantly higher than in 2008, while alpine rangeland and shrublands did not present obvious differences among years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  8. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F; De Kort, Wim L A M; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood supply.

  9. Microsatellite Markers for the Chameleon Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis (Orthoptera: Acrididae, an Australian Alpine Specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange-Marie Risterucci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of polymorphic loci was characterised using an enrichment library for the Australian alpine specialist, the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis, an atypical grasshopper known for its remarkable temperature-controlled colour change. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 20 and observed heterozygosity from 0.16 to 0.76. These are the first microsatellite markers for a non-endangered Australian alpine animal and will inform questions of gene flow across the sky islands of this unique and threatened region.

  10. Change in the Chemical Profile of Mangifera indica Leaves after their Metabolism in the Tropidacris collaris Grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodolfo R; Moraes, Marcilio M; Camara, Claudio A G; Ramos, Clécio S

    2015-11-01

    This present work addresses research on the discovery of new compounds from natural sources. It is based on a study of Mangifera indica leaf metabolism by the Tropidacris collaris grasshopper. We found that the grasshopper hydrolyzed the flavonoid isoquercitrin to quercetin when the O-glycosidic bond was broken and sugar released as a probable energy source for the insect. There was not, however, hydrolysis of the major compound in the leaves, mangiferin, which contains the C-glycosidic bond. All compounds were isolated and their chemical structure determined by UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR.

  11. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  12. Increasing Success Rates in Developmental Math: The Complementary Role of Individual and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kristen E.; Melguizo, Tatiana; Prather, George

    2015-01-01

    This study tracks students' progression through developmental math sequences and defines progression as both attempting and passing each level of the sequence. A model of successful progression in developmental education was built utilizing individual-, institutional-, and developmental math-level factors. Employing step-wise logistic regression…

  13. Prediction for driving behaviour in connection with socio – demographic characteristics and individual value system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazdins K.J.

    2018-01-01

    The results can serve as the basis to create new driving behavior interventions and also applicable to psychologist's professional work, when counseling individuals of this group, as well as can be used in the future development of the field, science and research.

  14. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  15. Emotional Expression at Work and at Home: Domain, Status, or Individual Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Powell, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Using the emotions module of the 1996 General Social Survey, we examine strategies that individuals use to express emotion. We focus on anger, one of the emotions most problematic or potentially disruptive to human interaction. Relying on insights from three theoretical approaches to emotion--the cultural perspective, the structural perspective,…

  16. Workplace assaults in Britain: Understanding the influence of individual and workplace characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, T.; Robinson, A.; Fevre, R.; Lewis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies based on British Crime Survey (BCS) data suggest that the overall incidence of workplace assault is relatively low. However, these data have a number of limitations. They include only assaults carried out by clients or the public, provide limited information about the individuals involved

  17. Associations between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…

  18. The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background. In general, poor health and lifestyles occur more frequently among individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) and in deprived areas. An explanation for the latter may simply be the on average lower SES of residents of these areas. It is possible, however, that living in a deprived

  19. Deep phylogeographic divergence and cytonuclear discordance in the grasshopper Oedaleus decorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Eveline; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Heckel, Gerald

    2012-11-01

    The grasshopper Oedaleus decorus is a thermophilic insect with a large, mostly south-Palaearctic distribution range, stretching from the Mediterranean regions in Europe to Central-Asia and China. In this study, we analyzed the extent of phylogenetic divergence and the recent evolutionary history of the species based on 274 specimens from 26 localities across the distribution range in Europe. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using sequences of two mitochondrial loci (ctr, ND2) with neighbour-joining and Bayesian methods. Additionally, genetic differentiation was analyzed based on mitochondrial DNA and 11 microsatellite markers using F-statistics, model-free multivariate and model-based Bayesian clustering approaches. Phylogenetic analyses detected consistently two highly divergent, allopatrically distributed lineages within O. decorus. The divergence among these Western and Eastern lineages meeting in the region of the Alps was similar to the divergence of each lineage to the sister species O. asiaticus. Genetic differentiation for ctr was extremely high between Western and Eastern grasshopper populations (F(ct)=0.95). Microsatellite markers detected much lower but nevertheless very significant genetic structure among population samples. The nuclear data also demonstrated a case of cytonuclear discordance because the affiliation with mitochondrial lineages was incongruent in Northern Italy. Taken together these results provide evidence of an ancient separation within Oedaleus and either historical introgression of mtDNA among lineages and/or ongoing sex-specific gene flow in this grasshopper. Our study stresses the importance of multilocus approaches for unravelling the history and status of taxa of uncertain evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Donald P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  1. A hierarchy of factors influence discontinuous gas exchange in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Chown, Steven L; Terblanche, John S

    2014-10-01

    The evolutionary origin and maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in tracheate arthropods are poorly understood and highly controversial. We investigated prioritization of abiotic factors in the gas exchange control cascade by examining oxygen, water and haemolymph pH regulation in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor. Using a full-factorial design, grasshoppers were acclimated to hypoxic or hyperoxic (5% O2, 40% O2) gas conditions, or dehydrated or hydrated, whereafter their CO2 release was measured under a range of O2 and relative humidity (RH) conditions (5%, 21%, 40% O2 and 5%, 60%, 90% RH). DGE was significantly less common in grasshoppers acclimated to dehydrating conditions compared with the other acclimations (hypoxia, 98%; hyperoxia, 100%; hydrated, 100%; dehydrated, 67%). Acclimation to dehydrating conditions resulted in a significant decrease in haemolymph pH from 7.0±0.3 to 6.6±0.1 (mean ± s.d., P=0.018) and also significantly increased the open (O)-phase duration under 5% O2 treatment conditions (5% O2, 44.1±29.3 min; 40% O2, 15.8±8.0 min; 5% RH, 17.8±1.3 min; 60% RH, 24.0±9.7 min; 90% RH, 20.6±8.9 min). The observed acidosis could potentially explain the extension of the O-phase under low RH conditions, when it would perhaps seem more useful to reduce the O-phase to lower respiratory water loss. The results confirm that DGE occurrence and modulation are affected by multiple abiotic factors. A hierarchical framework for abiotic factors influencing DGE is proposed in which the following stressors are prioritized in decreasing order of importance: oxygen supply, CO2 excretion and pH modulation, oxidative damage protection and water savings. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Specificity Responses of Grasshoppers in Temperate Grasslands to Diel Asymmetric Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingjuan; Hao, Shuguang; Sun, Osbert Jianxin; Kang, Le

    2012-01-01

    Background Global warming is characterized by not only an increase in the daily mean temperature, but also a diel asymmetric pattern. However, most of the current studies on climate change have only concerned with the mean values of the warming trend. Although many studies have been conducted concerning the responses of insects to climate change, studies that address the issue of diel asymmetric warming under field conditions are not found in the literature. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a field climate manipulative experiment and investigated developmental and demographic responses to diel asymmetric warming in three grasshopper species (an early-season species Dasyhippus barbipes, a mid-season species Oedaleus asiaticus, and a late-season species Chorthippus fallax). It was found that warming generally advanced the development of eggs and nymphs, but had no apparent impacts on the hatching rate of eggs, the emergence rate of nymphs and the survival and fecundity of adults in all the three species. Nighttime warming was more effective in advancing egg development than the daytime warming. The emergence time of adults was differentially advanced by warming in the three species; it was advanced by 5.64 days in C. fallax, 3.55 days in O. asiaticus, and 1.96 days in D. barbipes. This phenological advancement was associated with increases in the effective GDDs accumulation. Conclusions/Significance Results in this study indicate that the responses of the three grasshopper species to warming are influenced by several factors, including species traits, developmental stage, and the thermal sensitivity of the species. Moreover, species with diapausing eggs are less responsive to changes in temperature regimes, suggesting that development of diapausing eggs is a protective mechanism in early-season grasshopper for avoiding the risk of pre-winter hatching. Our results highlight the need to consider the complex relationships between climate change and

  3. Individual and Store Characteristics Associated with Brand Choices in Select Food Category Redemptions among WIC Participants in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Tang, Chuanyi; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Diggs, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) often allows participants to redeem food benefits for various brands at different costs. To aid the program’s food cost containment efforts, it is important to understand the individual and store characteristics associated with brand choices. This study used the WIC Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) data for 239,062 Virginia WIC participants’ brand choices in infant fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) and whole gra...

  4. Performance tests of a 2-meter grasshopper monochromator at photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Mihiro; Maezawa, Hideki; Sasaki, Taizo; Suzuki, Yoshio; Iguchi, Yasuo.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-meter grasshopper monochromator was installed and adjusted at BL-11A in Photon Factory, and performance tests were carried out. The usable photon energy range for the monochromator is 90 to 1000 eV for a 2400 grooves/mm grating, and the flux is 10 8 - 10 9 photons/sec for entrance and exit slit widths of 15 μm. A resolving power of about 2000 is realized at 250 eV for this slit width. (author)

  5. Psychosocial and individual characteristics and musculoskeletal complaints among clinical laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Farideh; Kasaeian, Amir; Noroozi, Pirasteh; Vatani, Javad; Taiebi, Seiyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important health problem among healthcare workers, including clinical laboratory ones. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of MSDs and individual and psychosocial risk factors among clinical laboratory workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 156 workers of 30 clinical laboratories in 3 towns of Iran. The Nordic questionnaire with individual and psychosocial risk factors was used to collect data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of reported MSDs among the study population was 72.4% in the past 12 months. The most prevalent MSDs were pain in the lower back and neck; 42.7% and 33.3%, respectively. Significant relations were found between MSDs and age, gender, heavy work at home and job control (p workers were high and associated with age, gender, heavy work at home and job control. More research into measuring these factors and workplace physical demands is suggested.

  6. The Effects of Employees’ Individual Characteristics on Job Satisfaction: A Public Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Merve Özaydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The raising importance of rivalry between the employees in the relations of producti on nowadays, makes the adaptation between worker and work more substantial. The job satisfaction which expresses the employee’s contentment about his/her job becomes a target for the employee and also for the firm based on the provided material/ moral satiety. In the services sector which consists of human resources as itsmost leading and determinant input, building a relationship between the specialties of work and intelligence, skills and abilities of workers depending on job satisfaction is decisive for individual and organizational success also. In the banking sector which is a crucial member of services sector because of the dimensions of the usage of high technology, the need of quality services production and the competition, satisfaction of employees becomes significant. This study aims to investigate the effects of individual factors (age, gender, marital status, education level, operating status of branch/operating status of head office, title, service time, the existence or nonexistence of other bankers in the family, expectations for the future on job satisfaction. In the consequence of a field work about a public bank, it’s found out that the level of bank personnel’s job satisfaction is changed by the effect of individual factors.

  7. Gait characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis before and after a 6-month aerobic training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M M; Mulcare, J A; King, D L; Mathews, T; Gupta, S C; Glaser, R M

    1999-07-01

    Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic conditioning might also affect gait abnormalities in individuals with MS. Subjects included 18 individuals with MS who presented a range of disability. Passive range of motion (PROM) in the lower limbs was measured and gait analyzed before and after exercise conditioning. Three-dimensional kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic information were acquired as subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Hip PROM increased following conditioning. Mean walking velocity, cadence, and posterior shear GRF (push-off force) decreased. During walking, maximum ankle dorsiflexion decreased and ankle plantarflexion increased. Total knee flexion/extension range during the walking cycle decreased slightly as did maximum hip extension. Results suggest this 6-mo training program had minimal effect on gait abnormalities.

  8. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Demographic and Mental Health Characteristics of Individuals Who Present to Community Health Clinics With Substance Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praise O. Iyiewuare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community health clinics (CHCs are an opportune setting to identify and treat substance misuse. This study assessed the characteristics of patients who presented to a CHC with substance misuse. Methods: Personnel at a large CHC administered a 5-question screener to patients between June 3, 2014, and January 15, 2016, to assess past 3-month alcohol use, prescription opioid misuse, or illicit drug use. We stratified screen-positive patients into 4 diagnostic groups: (1 probable alcohol use disorder (AUD and no comorbid opioid use disorder (OUD; (2 probable heroin use disorder; (3 probable prescription OUD, with or without comorbid AUD; and (4 no probable substance use disorder. We describe substance use and mental health characteristics of screen-positive patients and compare the characteristics of patients in the diagnostic groups. Results: Compared to the clinic population, screen-positive patients (N = 733 included more males ( P < .0001 and had a higher prevalence of probable bipolar disorder ( P < .0001 and schizophrenia ( P < .0001. Eighty-seven percent of screen-positive patients had probable AUD or OUD; only 7% were currently receiving substance use treatment. The prescription opioid and heroin groups had higher rates of past bipolar disorder and consequences of mental health conditions than the alcohol only or no diagnosis groups ( P < .0001. Conclusions: Patients presenting to CHCs who screen positive for alcohol or opioid misuse have a high likelihood of having an AUD or OUD, with or without a comorbid serious mental illness. Community health clinics offering substance use treatment may be an important resource for addressing unmet need for substance use treatment and comorbid mental illness.

  10. Demographic Characteristics, Phenomenology, Comorbidity, and Family History in 200 Individuals With Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Weisberg, Risa

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in the largest sample for which a wide range of clinical features has been reported. The authors also compared psychiatrically treated and untreated subjects. Body dysmorphic disorder usually began during adolescence, involved numerous body areas and behaviors, and was characterized by poor insight, high comorbidity rates, and high rates of functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. There were far more similarities than differences between the currently treated and untreated subjects, although the treated subjects displayed better insight and had more comorbidity. PMID:16000674

  11. Personality characteristics in surgery seeking and non-surgery seeking obese individuals compared to non-obese controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Hjordt, Liv V; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown what makes some obese individuals opt for bariatric surgery whereas others choose not to. The aim of this study was to examine whether personality characteristics differed between obese individuals signed up for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (N=30) and obese individuals...... groups did not differ in terms of personality. The Neuroticism domain and possibly the Extraversion domain may therefore be worthwhile to consider in future studies investigating the outcome of bariatric surgery....... not seeking RYGB (N=30) compared to non-obese controls (N=30). All participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The obese RYGB group displayed higher levels of Neuroticism and borderline lower levels of Extraversion compared to the obese non-RYGB and the non-obese group, while the two latter...

  12. [Psychological distress and personality characteristics among individuals with primary exercise dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenni; Clementi, Cecilia; Grandi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both psychological distress and personality characteristics associat with primary exercise dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), Muscle Dysmorphia Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found in the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as in the EDI-2 total score and 5 of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (n=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (n=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, as well as lower self-directness. Furthermore, primary exercise dependents scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the MDQ total score and the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to controls. These findings highlight the importance of performing a clinical assessment of psychological symptoms and personality characteristics that might be associated with primary exercise dependence.

  13. Increased psychological distress among individuals with spinal cord injury is associated with central neuropathic pain rather than the injury characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, Hila; Zeilig, Gabi; Laufer, Yocheved; Blumen, Nava; Defrin, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Cross-sectional study. Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is common after spinal cord injury (SCI). The psychological impact of CNP is not clear. Previous studies reported depression and pain catastrophizing among patients with SCI and CNP; however, the lack of control groups prevented discerning whether these were attributed to CNP or to the SCI itself. The aim was to examine the psychological distress among individuals with SCI with and without CNP and controls to evaluate its impact and possible source. Outpatient clinic of a large rehabilitation center. Individuals with SCI and CNP (n = 27) and without CNP (n = 23), and able-bodied controls (n = 20) participated. Data collection included sociodemographics, SCI characteristics, and level of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, stress, depression, and pain catastrophizing. The sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions of CNP were analyzed. Individuals with SCI and CNP exhibited elevated levels of PTSD, anxiety, stress, depression, and pain catastrophizing compared to the two control groups, which presented similar levels. The psychological variables among the CNP group correlated positively only with the affective dimension of CNP. Neither CNP nor the psychological variables correlated with SCI characteristics. Irrespective of CNP intensity, the affective dimension (suffering) is associated with increased psychological distress. Perhaps individual differences in the response to SCI and/or individual traits rather than the mere exposure to SCI may have a role in the emergence of CNP and psychological distress/mood dysfunction. Rehabilitation programs should prioritize stress management and prevention among individuals with SCI and CNP.

  14. Unique Neural Characteristics of Atypical Lateralization of Language in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon P. Biduła

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language—i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation—differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN, including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task. Importantly, activity in these regions could not be explained in terms of mirroring the typical language pattern because left-hemisphere dominant individuals did not exhibit similar significant signal modulations. Moreover, when spatial extent of language-related activity across whole brain was considered, the bilateral language organization entailed more diffuse functional processing. Finally, we detected significant differences between the typical and atypical group in the resting-state connectivity at the global and local level. These findings suggest that the atypical lateralization of language has unique features, and is not a simple mirror image of the typical left hemispheric language representation.

  15. Entrepreneurial alertness: Study of the Influence of Individual Characteristics and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilka Pelizza Vier Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research tried to understand which statistical variables associated to the individual and the company influence the entrepreneurial alertness. The sample was constituted by 180 entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurial alertness was measured in agreement with the model of Tang, Kacmar and Busenitz (2012. Descriptive statistical tests and normality exam were developed; as well as checked the validity and reliability of the scale through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. In order to identify the factors that influenced the alertness we developed multiple linear regression and the ANOVA test to determine possible differences among groups (gender, education. The results showed the negative influence of the educational level and the size of enterprises on alertness level; as well as the negative relationship between age and entrepreneurial experience, furthermore, shows that alert level is not determined by gender difference. One of the main implications of this research is to present factors that can potentiate the effects of the entrepreneurial alertness, enlarging the possibilities of identification of opportunities for individuals.

  16. Frequency and characteristics of individuals with seasonal pattern among depressive patients attending primary care in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Adida, Marc; Belzeaux, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    High rates of bipolar disorder (BD) have been found among major depressives with seasonal pattern (SP) consulting in psychiatric departments, as well as among patients seeking primary care. As SP was reported to be common in the latter, the current study was designed to assess (a) the frequency and characteristics of SP among major depressives attending primary care and (b) the prevalence and aspects of BD in this population. Among 400 patients who consulted French general practitioners (GPs) for major depression between February and December 2010, 390 could be included in the study: 167 (42.8%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for seasonal pattern [SP(+)], whereas 223 (57.2%) did not meet these criteria [SP(-)]. The two groups were compared on demographic, clinical, family history and temperamental characteristics. Compared to SP(-), SP(+) patients were more frequently female, married and with a later age at first depressive episode, and showed more atypical vegetative symptoms, comorbid bulimia and stimulant abuse. They also exhibited more lifetime depressive episodes, were more often diagnosed as having BD II and met more often bipolarity specifier criteria, with higher rates of bipolar temperaments and a higher BD family loading. Among SP(+) patients, 68.9% met the bipolarity specifier criteria, whereas 31.1% did not. Seasonality was not influenced by climatic conditions. The following independent variables were associated with SP: BD according to bipolarity specifier, female gender, comorbid bulimia nervosa, hypersomnia, number of depressive episodes and family history of substance abuse. Seasonal pattern is frequent among depressive patients attending primary care in France and may be indicative of hidden bipolarity. Given the risks associated with both SP and bipolarity, GPs are likely to have a major role in regard to prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

  18. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  19. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kathryn A; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B

    Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT) by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04). As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on treatment.

  20. Characteristics of high- and low-risk individuals in the PRIORITY study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, N; Lindhardt, M; Adamova, K

    2018-01-01

    variable. In a logistic regression model including clinical variables known to be associated with diabetic kidney disease, estimated GFR, gender, log urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and use of renin-angiotensin system-blocking agents remained significant determinants of the CKD273 high-risk group: area......AIM: To compare clinical baseline data in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, who are at high or low risk of diabetic kidney disease based on the urinary proteomics classifier CKD273. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled international...... multicentre clinical trial and observational study in participants with Type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, stratified into high- or low-risk groups based on CKD273 score. Clinical baseline data for the whole cohort and stratified by risk groups are reported. The associations between CKD273 and traditional...

  1. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: III. The Orthoptera (Grasshoppers and Crickets).

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Lightfoot

    1986-01-01

    An inventory of Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets) at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, near Blue River, Oregon, was conducted to determine the species present and ecological relationships. A key for identification and an annotated list are presented. From qualitative assessments of successional habitat relationships, generalized species associations of forest...

  2. Plant DNA Detection from Grasshopper Guts: A Step-by-Step Protocol, from Tissue Preparation to Obtaining Plant DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Avanesyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions.

  3. A novel adipokinetic peptide from the corpus cardiacum of the primitive caeliferan pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Caelifera, Tetrigidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, JUN 01 (2015), s. 43-49 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : insects * pygmy grasshoppers * Tetrigidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196978115000339

  4. Differentiations of chitin content and surface morphologies of chitins extracted from male and female grasshopper species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kaya

    Full Text Available In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, elemental analysis (EA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to investigate chitin structure isolated from both sexes of four grasshopper species. FT-IR, EA, XRD, and TGA showed that the chitin was in the alpha form. With respect to gender, two main differences were observed. First, we observed that the quantity of chitin was greater in males than in females and the dry weight of chitin between species ranged from 4.71% to 11.84%. Second, using SEM, we observed that the male chitin surface structure contained 25-90 nm wide nanofibers and 90-250 nm nanopores, while no pores or nanofibers were observed in the chitin surface structure of the majority of females (nanofibers were observed only in M. desertus females. In contrast, the elemental analysis, thermal properties, and crystalline index values for chitin were similar in males and females. Also, we carried out enzymatic digestion of the isolated chitins using commercial chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. We observed that there were no big differences in digestion rate of the chitins from both sexes and commercial chitin. The digestion rates were for grasshoppers' chitins; 88.45-95.48% and for commercial chitin; 94.95%.

  5. Differentiations of chitin content and surface morphologies of chitins extracted from male and female grasshopper species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Lelešius, Evaldas; Nagrockaitė, Radvilė; Sargin, Idris; Arslan, Gulsin; Mol, Abbas; Baran, Talat; Can, Esra; Bitim, Betul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate chitin structure isolated from both sexes of four grasshopper species. FT-IR, EA, XRD, and TGA showed that the chitin was in the alpha form. With respect to gender, two main differences were observed. First, we observed that the quantity of chitin was greater in males than in females and the dry weight of chitin between species ranged from 4.71% to 11.84%. Second, using SEM, we observed that the male chitin surface structure contained 25-90 nm wide nanofibers and 90-250 nm nanopores, while no pores or nanofibers were observed in the chitin surface structure of the majority of females (nanofibers were observed only in M. desertus females). In contrast, the elemental analysis, thermal properties, and crystalline index values for chitin were similar in males and females. Also, we carried out enzymatic digestion of the isolated chitins using commercial chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. We observed that there were no big differences in digestion rate of the chitins from both sexes and commercial chitin. The digestion rates were for grasshoppers' chitins; 88.45-95.48% and for commercial chitin; 94.95%.

  6. Postfledging survival of Grasshopper Sparrows in grasslands managed with fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Torre J.; Miller, James R.; Koford, Rolf R.; Engle, David M.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate estimates of survival after nestlings fledge are needed for population models to be parameterized and population dynamics to be understood during this vulnerable life stage. The period after fledging is the time when chicks learn to fly, forage, and hide from predators. We monitored postfledging survival, causespecific mortality, and movements of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) in grassland managed with fire and grazing. In 2009, we attached radio transmitters to 50 nestlings from 50 different broods and modeled their survival in response to climatic, biological, and ecological variables. There was no effect of treatment on survival. The factor most influencing postfledging survival was age; no other variable was significant. The majority of chicks (74%) died within 3 days of radio-transmitter attachment. We attributed most mortality to mesopredators (48%) and exposure (28%). Fledglings' movements increased rapidly for the first 4 days after they left the nest and were relatively stable for the remaining 10 days we tracked them. On average, fledglings took flight for the first time 4 days after fledging and flew ≥10 m 9 days after fledging. Our data show that the Grasshopper Sparrow's survival rates may be less than most models relying on nest-success estimates predict, and we emphasize the importance of incorporating estimates of survival during the postfledging period in demographic models.

  7. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2015-11-01

    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain.

  8. Within-season variability of fighting behaviour in an Australian alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschett, Giselle; Umbers, Kate D L; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the breeding season, changing environmental and biological conditions can lead to variation in the reproductive landscape of many species. In alpine environments temperature is a key driver of behaviour for small ectotherms such as insects, but variable biotic factors such as mate quality and availability can also influence behaviour. Kosicuscola tristis is a small semelparous grasshopper of the Australian alpine region. In a rare behaviour among grasshoppers, K. tristis males engage in vigorous fights over access to females, involving mandible displays, kicking, biting and grappling. In this study we describe the variation in fighting behaviour of K. tristis throughout the breeding season and test several hypotheses related to temperature, body size, mating behaviour, and female quality. We show that K. tristis males are more aggressive toward each other at the end of the breeding season than at the beginning. This increased aggression is associated with decreased daily average temperatures (from ~20°C to ~9°C), decreased mating activity, increased female fecundity, and an unexpected trend toward an increase in female-to-male aggression. These results suggest that K. tristis is likely under increased selective pressure to time key life cycle events with favourable biological and climatic conditions. The stochastic nature of alpine environments combined with a relatively short life span and breeding season, as well as limited mating opportunities toward the end of the season may have contributed to the evolution of this extraordinary mating system.

  9. Suppression of grasshopper sound production by nitric oxide-releasing neurons of the central complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Anja; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea; Holstein, Gay R.

    2008-01-01

    The central complex of acridid grasshoppers integrates sensory information pertinent to reproduction-related acoustic communication. Activation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP-signaling by injection of NO donors into the central complex of restrained Chorthippus biguttulus females suppresses muscarine-stimulated sound production. In contrast, sound production is released by aminoguanidine (AG)-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central body, suggesting a basal release of NO that suppresses singing in this situation. Using anti-citrulline immunocytochemistry to detect recent NO production, subtypes of columnar neurons with somata located in the pars intercerebralis and tangential neurons with somata in the ventro-median protocerebrum were distinctly labeled. Their arborizations in the central body upper division overlap with expression patterns for NOS and with the site of injection where NO donors suppress sound production. Systemic application of AG increases the responsiveness of unrestrained females to male calling songs. Identical treatment with the NOS inhibitor that increased male song-stimulated sound production in females induced a marked reduction of citrulline accumulation in central complex columnar and tangential neurons. We conclude that behavioral situations that are unfavorable for sound production (like being restrained) activate NOS-expressing central body neurons to release NO and elevate the behavioral threshold for sound production in female grasshoppers. PMID:18574586

  10. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Considine

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics.A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457 across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements. Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+ and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics.Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems.This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The

  11. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  12. The B chromosome polymorphism of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans in North Africa. IV. Transmission of rare B chromosome variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, M; Camacho, J P M

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the principal B chromosome (B(1)) in Moroccan populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans, nine B chromosome variants appeared at low frequency. The transmission of five of these rare B chromosome variants through females was analysed in three natural populations. Sixteen controlled crosses provided useful information on the transmission of B(M2), B(M6) and B(M7) in Smir, B(M3) and B(M6) in SO.DE.A. (Société de Développement Agricole lands near Ksar-el-Kebir city), and B(M2) and B(M10) in Mechra, all located in Morocco. Since six female parents carried two different B variants, a total of 22 progeny analyses could be studied. Intraindividual variation in B transmission rate (k(B)) was observed among the successive egg pods in 26.7 % of the females, but this variation did not show a consistent temporal pattern. Only the B(M2) and B(M6) variants in Smir showed net drive, although variation was high among crosses, especially for B(M2). These two variants are thus good candidates for future regenerations (the replacement of a neutralized B, B(1) in this case, by a new driving variant, B(M2) or B(M6)) in Smir, the northern population where the B polymorphism is presumably older. The analysis of all crosses performed in the three populations, including those reported previously for the analysis of B(1) transmission, showed that the largest variance in k(B) among crosses stands at the individual level, and not at population or type of B levels. The implications of these findings for the occurrence of possible regeneration processes in Moroccan populations are discussed. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Chaix

    Full Text Available Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics.Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008 were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC.Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education, and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC.A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  14. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with physical and clinical characteristics and with ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Diouf, Boucar; Zimanyi, Monika; Samuel, Terence; McNamara, Bridgette J; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Holden, Libby; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated considerable variability in the volumes of different glomeruli in given individuals (individual glomerular volume: IGV) in a stereologic study of kidneys at forensic autopsy performed to investigate sudden or unexpected death in people without manifest kidney disease. We review some important associations of IGV by subject characteristics and by ethnic groups. IGVs were measured by the Cavalieri method in 30 glomeruli in each of 111 adult males who belonged to 4 ethnic groups, i.e. US Whites, African-Americans, Africans from Senegal, and Australian Aborigines. Correlations of pooled IGV values with certain subject characteristics were evaluated in the US Whites. Pooled IGV data were compared in subjects across the 4 ethnic groups. In US Whites, mean IGV and its variance were greater with higher age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight, and with gross obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular death. In comparisons by ethnic group, mean IGV and IGV ranges were higher in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines than in US Whites and African Senegalese subjects. We conclude that glomerular enlargement with volume heterogeneity marks more advanced age, relative nephron deficiency, lower birth weight, obesity, hypertension, and advanced cardiovascular disease. The findings in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines suggest that larger IGVs and volume heterogeneity might mark populations with accentuated susceptibility to hypertension and kidney disease, but the data need to be further examined in the context of the determining characteristics defined in the US Whites. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Associations of supermarket characteristics with weight status and body fat: a multilevel analysis of individuals within supermarkets (RECORD study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Daniel, Mark; Zenk, Shannon N; Kestens, Yan; Charreire, Hélène; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Weber, Christiane; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Simon, Chantal; Merlo, Juan; Pannier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of the food environment on weight status has often used impersonal measures of the food environment defined for residential neighborhoods, which ignore whether people actually use the food outlets near their residence. To assess whether supermarkets are relevant contexts for interventions, the present study explored between-residential neighborhood and between-supermarket variations in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and investigated associations between brands and characteristics of supermarkets and BMI or WC, after adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics. Participants in the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris Region, France, 2007-2008) were surveyed on the supermarket (brand and exact location) where they conducted their food shopping. Overall, 7 131 participants shopped in 1 097 different supermarkets. Cross-classified multilevel linear models were estimated for BMI and WC. Just 11.4% of participants shopped for food primarily within their residential neighborhood. After accounting for participants' residential neighborhood, people shopping in the same supermarket had a more comparable BMI and WC than participants shopping in different supermarkets. After adjustment for individual and residential neighborhood characteristics, participants shopping in specific supermarket brands, in hard discount supermarkets (especially if they had a low education), and in supermarkets whose catchment area comprised low educated residents had a higher BMI/WC. A public health strategy to reduce excess weight may be to intervene on specific supermarkets to change food purchasing behavior, as supermarkets are where dietary preferences are materialized into definite purchased foods.

  16. Is atmospheric pollution exposure during pregnancy associated with individual and contextual characteristics? A nationwide study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 (particulate matter atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF CIVIC IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Grabovska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The civic identity of an individual is seen as a dynamic system of citizen's perceptions of himself / herself and related emotions and value-semantic elements derived from the awareness of the fact that he / she is a citizen of a state and at the same time a member of the community of citizens. The results of the study support the notion that awareness of being a citizen of the state does not already mean having civic identity. Only 34% of interviewed students have a well-formed positive civic identity; 37% are showing some uncertainty, vagueness, ambiguity in their perception of themselves as citizens; 15% reject their Ukrainian civic identity, have a well-formed negative civic identity, and, more than other types, exhibit passive-indifferent civil position; 14% make a group of "potential emigrants" who are ready to change the Ukrainian civic identity for another. The differences in worldview and value-motivational sphere of students with the formed positive ("reached", undefined ("indistinct" / "diffuse", formed negative ("negative-passive" and "protest" ("potential immigrants" civic identity have been discovered.

  18. Patient characteristics and perceived health status of individuals with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujia; Wu, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Chen, Huanhuan; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Li; Luo, Liuhong; Rui, Chao

    2017-04-01

    To explore demographics, clinical and medication profiles, patients' social support, and perceived health status in HIV/TB coinfected patients in Guangxi, China.We performed a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic of the Guigang City People's Hospital (N = 150). Health professionals conducted face-to-face interviews and collected data from patients' electronic medical records regarding patients' demographic, clinical, and medication information, as well as their social support and perceived health status. We classified all HIV/AIDS patients into HIV monoinfected and TB coinfected, at a ratio of 2:1.Compared with the HIV monoinfected, patients with HIV/TB coinfection were more likely to be older, male, less educated, unemployed, carrying health insurance, having advanced stage of HIV infection, longer history with HIV, and other opportunistic infections. Patients coinfected with TB were also more likely to hold a negative belief that their HIV treatment could prevent exacerbations, and reported significantly worse emotional/informational support, social interaction, and perceived health status. Better social support and better self-efficacy to the HIV treatment adherence was significantly associated with better perceived health status among patients with HIV and TB coinfection.Having HIV/TB coinfection was associated with poorer perceived general well-being and mental health, particularly in those undergoing TB therapy. Our findings suggest the need for mental health referrals and medication management for coinfected individuals, as well as further efforts and policies to improve coordinated care.

  19. Who's adopting the smarter lunchroom approach? Individual characteristics of innovative food service directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielyan, Gnel; Hanks, Drew S; Hoy, Kathryn; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-01

    School cafeterias and, subsequently, food service directors (FSDs) play a vital role in feeding children in the U.S. This study investigates which FSDs with different characteristics and organizational affiliations are most willing to embrace and implement new programs in their cafeterias. In 2014 we surveyed a representative sample of 8143 school FSDs across the U.S. regarding their knowledge and use of innovative methods that encourage children to select healthy food options. Nearly all of the surveyed FSDs (93%) are aware of behavioral strategies to promote healthier eating in school lunchrooms, and nearly 93% report having made at least one change in their lunchroom. Male FSDs are more likely to be aware of new programs, though they are less likely to adopt them relative to female FSDs. In addition, membership in a professional organization increases awareness as well as the number of changes made by 0.14 (p<0.01). Finally, 22% of all respondents say they know about the Smarter Lunchrooms approach, a set of research-based lunchroom behavioral strategies that positively influence children to select healthy foods. The findings highlight the importance of participation in professional associations which provide career-building activities for school FSDs increasing awareness and adoption of innovative approaches to motivate children to eat the nutritious foods. Given these findings, there is reason for policy makers and school districts to consider allocating funds to encourage FSDs to engage more fully in professional association meetings and activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE INDIVIDUAL AND TYPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC AND FEATURES OF THE LATERAL PHENOTYPE AT YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Степанович Пуликов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the state of the physical development of the autonomic regulation of the functions and adaptive capacity in relation to the characteristics of the distribution of the lateral phenotype in boys.Methodology: The study on a voluntary basis with the informed consent of 124 apparently healthy young student branch of State Educational Institution of Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University V.P. Astafieva in Zheleznogorsk.Anthropometric measurements were carried out by a well-known and accepted techniques that meet modern requirements.Definition of motor and sensory asymmetries person evaluated by the method proposed by N.N. Bragin (1988.Results: In boys, living in the influence of the MCC to the impact of «small and ultra-low doses» of radiation in more than half of the cases, pravolateralny phenotype, regardless of their physical constitution with the highest rate in andromorfnogo type on SDI and voltage adaptation mechanisms, prevalence figures sympathetic tone autonomic regulation. Poor adaptation was observed only in young men with levolateralnym and mixed phenotype. Youth with levolateralnym phenotype were the smallest in size cohort (7,5-12,5%. However, among them there is a tendency to predominance boys and ginekomorfnogo endomorph body types, with poor adaptation, stress adaptation mechanisms and parasympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation. The young men of mixed lateral phenotype was weak distinction constitutional type body, with a predominance of one to ginekomorfnogo and mesomorphic body types on SDI. In the same group, a fairly wide variation between satisfactory and unsatisfactory adaptation and stress coping mechanisms with the same measure of the number of young men from the parasympathetic and sympathetic tone of the autonomic regulation.Practical implications: medicine, psychology, developmental physiology, anthropology, neuroscience.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-14

  1. Resilience to bullying victimization: the role of individual, family and peer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Little research attention has been paid to bullied students who function better than expected and are therefore defined as "resilient". The present longitudinal study aimed to identify individual, family and peer factors that predict fewer than expected levels of depression and delinquency following experiences of bullying victimization. The sample consisted 3,136 adolescents. Self-report data were used to measure bullying victimization at age 13 and 14 and depression and delinquency at age 14. We examined the effects of gender, self-esteem, social alienation, parental conflict, sibling victimization and number of close friends on levels of emotional and behavioral resilience following bullying victimization. The resilience measures were derived by regressing depression and delinquency scores at age 14 on levels of bullying victimization at age 13 and 14, respectively. The adolescents who reported low depression despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be male, had higher self-esteem, were feeling less socially alienated, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents and were not victimized by siblings. On the other hand, the adolescents who reported low delinquency despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be female, had higher self-esteem, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents, were not victimized by siblings and had less close friends. Relationships with parents and siblings continue to play some role in promoting emotional and behavioral adjustment among victims of bullying and, therefore, interventions are more likely to be successful if they target both the psychosocial skills of adolescents and their relationships with their family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of individual characteristics in self-esteem and locus of control of young adults with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    In this study the impact of personal/individual characteristics (gender, vision status, age, age at loss of sight, recency of vision loss, education level, employment status, and ability of independent movement) in locus of control (LOC) and self-esteem were examined. Eighty-four young adults with visual impairments (42 with blindness and 42 with low vision) took part in this study. The significant predictors of self-esteem were vision status, age at loss of sight, recency of vision loss and educational level. Moreover, significant predictors of LOC were vision status and independent movement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The U2 snDNA Is a Useful Marker for B Chromosome Detection and Frequency Estimation in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Diogo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe a strategy to determine the presence of B chromosomes in the living grasshopper Abracris flavolineata by FISH using U2 snDNA as a probe in interphase hemolymph nuclei. In individuals without B chromosomes, (0B) 2 dot signals were noticed, corresponding to A complement U2 snDNA clusters. In +1B and +2B individuals, 4 or 8 additional signals were noticed, respectively. In all cases, the absence or presence of 1 or 2 B chromosomes correlated in hemolymph and in somatic or germline tissues, validating the efficiency of the marker. Our data suggest that the B chromosome of A. flavolineata is present in all somatic tissues. B-carrying individuals showed the same number of B chromosomes in germ and somatic cells, suggesting that the B is mitotically stable. The marker was used to compare B chromosome frequency in the analyzed population with a sample collected previously, in order to test for B frequency changes and differences of B chromosome prevalence among sexes, but no statistically significant differences were noticed. The identification of living animals harboring B chromosomes will be very useful in future studies of B chromosome transmission, as well as in functional studies involving RNA analysis, thus contributing to the understanding of evolutionary history and the possible role of the B chromosome in A. flavolineata. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  5. Individual TL detector characteristics in automated processing of personnel dosemeters: correction factors as extension to identity codes of dosemeter cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, Matti.

    1979-07-01

    One, two and three-component dosemeter cards and their associated processing equipment were developed for personnel monitoring. A novel feature of the TLD system is that the individual sensitivity correction factors of TL detectors for β/γ radiation dosimetry and special timing factors for the readout of neutron detectors are stored on dosemeter cards as an extension of the identity codes. These data are utilized in the automatic TL reading process with the aim of cancelling out the influence of the individual detector characteristics on the measuring results. Stimulation of TL is done with hot nitrogen without removing the detectors from their cards and without any metal contact. Changes in detector characteristics are thus improbable. The reading process can be adjusted in a variety of ways. For example, each detector in the same card can be processed with optimal heating and the specific 250 deg C glow peak of neutron radiation can be roughly separated from the main LiF glow peaks. (author)

  6. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ann Kaiser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46. Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively. There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02 and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04. Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on

  7. Supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of band-winged grasshopper eggs (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bao-Ping; Li, Na; Zhou, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The band-winged grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko, is one of the most dominant and economically important grasshopper species in the steppe grasslands and farming-pastoral ecotone in northern China. It is a univoltine species and overwinters as eggs in soil. The cold hardiness of its eggs was examined in the laboratory. Water content in soil significantly affected the supercooling points (SCPs), water content and fat content of prediapause eggs. With the increase of water content in soil, the SCP, and water content of prediapause eggs rose whereas the fat content declined. There was a significant relationship between the SCP and water content or fat content of prediapause eggs. The SCPs of prediapause and diapause eggs varied from -7.6 to -28.4°C and the SCPs of eggs 30 d after oviposition could be divided into two groups. The means of high SCP group (-11.0 to -11.9°C) were much higher than those of low SCP group (-21.8 to -21.9°C), and the majority belonged to the latter (90.48-93.33%). The SCPs of prediapause eggs and early-diapause eggs 30 d after oviposition were significantly higher than those of deep-diapause eggs 60 d after oviposition. The survival rates of diapause eggs were significantly different among different temperature treatments. The survival rate was higher than 88% at greater than -20°C and declined significantly to 57% at -25°C, and suddenly dropped to zero at -30°C. The lower lethal temperature (Ltemp50) for 12 h exposure was -25.3°C and the lower lethal time (Ltime50) at -20°C was 32.8 d. As the mean SCPs of diapause eggs were similar to their Ltemp50, the SCP of eggs can be considered as a good indicator of cold hardiness for O. asiaticus and that this grasshopper is a freeze-intolerant insect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Modulation of resistive switching characteristics for individual BaTiO3 microfiber by surface oxygen vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Different from traditional thin-film BaTiO3 (BTO) RRAM device with planar structure, individual microfiber-shaped RRAM device, showing promising application potentials in the micro-sized non-volatile memory system, has not been investigated so far to demonstrate resistive switching behavior. In this work, individual sol-gel BTO microfiber has been formed using the draw-bench method, followed by annealing in different atmospheres of air and argon, respectively. The resistive switching characteristics of the individual BTO microfiber have been investigated by employing double-probe SEM measurement system, which shows great convenience to test local electrical properties by modulating the contact sites between the W probes and the BTO microfiber. For the sample annealed in air, the average resistive ON/OFF ratio is as high as 108, enhanced about four orders in comparison with the counterpart that annealed in Argon. For the sample annealed in argon ambience, the weakened resistive ON/OFF ratio can be attributed to the increased presence of oxygen vacancies in the surface of BTO fibers, and the underlying electrical conduction mechanisms are also discussed.

  9. Characteristics of the Motor Units during Sternocleidomastoid Isometric Flexion among Patients with Mechanical Neck Disorder and Asymptomatic Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Yang

    Full Text Available Mechanical neck disorder is a widespread and non-neurological musculoskeletal condition resulting from modern lifestyles. Presently, the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the characteristics of the short-term synchronization of the motor unit in patients with neck pain are ambiguous. This study therefore aims to clarify the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in patients with mechanical neck disorder and in asymptomatic individuals. We further investigated whether alterations in the degree of motor unit short-term synchronization occur. The surface electrophysiological signals of the bilateral sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscles of twelve patients with mechanical neck disorder and asymptomatic individuals were detected at 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction during cervical isometric flexion and then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. We found that the patients with mechanical neck disorder showed significantly higher initial and mean firing rates of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and displayed substantially lower motor unit short-term synchronization values compared with the asymptomatic subjects. Consequently, these convincing findings support the assertion that patients with mechanical neck disorder display altered neuromuscular control strategies, such as the reinforcement of motor unit recruitment firing rates in the sternocleidomastoid muscles. The motor units of these patients also revealed neural recruitment strategies with relatively poor efficiency when executing the required motor tasks.

  10. Characteristics of the Motor Units during Sternocleidomastoid Isometric Flexion among Patients with Mechanical Neck Disorder and Asymptomatic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chi; Su, Fong-Chin; Yang, Po-Ching; Lin, Hwai-Ting; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical neck disorder is a widespread and non-neurological musculoskeletal condition resulting from modern lifestyles. Presently, the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the characteristics of the short-term synchronization of the motor unit in patients with neck pain are ambiguous. This study therefore aims to clarify the fundamental electrophysiological properties of the motor units of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in patients with mechanical neck disorder and in asymptomatic individuals. We further investigated whether alterations in the degree of motor unit short-term synchronization occur. The surface electrophysiological signals of the bilateral sternal heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscles of twelve patients with mechanical neck disorder and asymptomatic individuals were detected at 25% of the maximum voluntary contraction during cervical isometric flexion and then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. We found that the patients with mechanical neck disorder showed significantly higher initial and mean firing rates of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and displayed substantially lower motor unit short-term synchronization values compared with the asymptomatic subjects. Consequently, these convincing findings support the assertion that patients with mechanical neck disorder display altered neuromuscular control strategies, such as the reinforcement of motor unit recruitment firing rates in the sternocleidomastoid muscles. The motor units of these patients also revealed neural recruitment strategies with relatively poor efficiency when executing the required motor tasks.

  11. Effects of Individual and School-Level Characteristics on a Child’s Gross Motor Coordination Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chaves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify child and school-level characteristics that explained inter-individual differences in gross motor coordination (GMC. Participants (n = 390, recruited from 18 Portuguese primary schools, were aged 6 to 10 years of age. Birth weight, body fat (BF, physical activity (PA, physical fitness (PF and GMC were assessed. School size, setting, infrastructure and physical education classes were considered as school context markers. A multilevel modeling approach was used to identify hierarchical effects (child and school levels. It was found that children-level variables (sex, PF, and BF significantly explained 63% of the 90% variance fraction at the individual level; boys outperformed girls (p < 0.05, individuals with higher BF were less coordinated (p < 0.05, and those with higher PF were more coordinated (p < 0.05. School-variables (e.g. school size and playing surface explained 84% of the 10% variation fraction. These findings confirm the roles of sex, PFS and BF. Interestingly they also suggest that the school environment plays a minor but significant role in GMC development. However, it is important to stress that the school context and conditions can also play an important role in a child’s motor development, providing adequate and enriching motor opportunities.

  12. Detection experiments with humans implicate visual predation as a driver of colour polymorphism dynamics in pygmy grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal colour patterns offer good model systems for studies of biodiversity and evolution of local adaptations. An increasingly popular approach to study the role of selection for camouflage for evolutionary trajectories of animal colour patterns is to present images of prey on paper or computer screens to human ‘predators’. Yet, few attempts have been made to confirm that rates of detection by humans can predict patterns of selection and evolutionary modifications of prey colour patterns in nature. In this study, we first analyzed encounters between human ‘predators’ and images of natural black, grey and striped colour morphs of the polymorphic Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers presented on background images of unburnt, intermediate or completely burnt natural habitats. Next, we compared detection rates with estimates of capture probabilities and survival of free-ranging grasshoppers, and with estimates of relative morph frequencies in natural populations. Results The proportion of grasshoppers that were detected and time to detection depended on both the colour pattern of the prey and on the type of visual background. Grasshoppers were detected more often and faster on unburnt backgrounds than on 50% and 100% burnt backgrounds. Striped prey were detected less often than grey or black prey on unburnt backgrounds; grey prey were detected more often than black or striped prey on 50% burnt backgrounds; and black prey were detected less often than grey prey on 100% burnt backgrounds. Rates of detection mirrored previously reported rates of capture by humans of free-ranging grasshoppers, as well as morph specific survival in the wild. Rates of detection were also correlated with frequencies of striped, black and grey morphs in samples of T. subulata from natural populations that occupied the three habitat types used for the detection experiment. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that crypsis is background-dependent, and implicate visual predation

  13. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Ontology of Biological Groups: Do Grasshoppers Form Assemblages, Communities, Guilds, Populations, or Something Else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Lockwood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acridologists have used a variety of terms to describe groups of grasshoppers, including assemblage, community, guild, and population. This terminological diversity has raised the question of whether one of these descriptors is the correct one. I take the position that these terms pick out different features of the natural world such that there is no unconditionally or uniquely correct term. By adopting the framework of constrained perspectivism—a form of philosophical pragmatism—it is argued that a term is correct if it accurately reflects the conceptual framework of the investigator and effectively communicates this perspective to others. Such an approach gives rise to terminological pluralism that avoids the problems of relativism (the subjectivist's view that any term can be used and absolutism (the objectivist's view that there is a single correct term. I describe the contexts in which the most common terms are appropriate.

  15. Exposure to exogenous enkephalins disrupts reproductive development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Insecta: Orthoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk, methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk, and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the geophilous grasshopper Trilophidia annulata (Acrididae: Oedipodinae: Trilophidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, De-Long; Xu, Sheng-Quan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of the geophilous grasshopper Trilophidia annulata was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. After annotation, the circular genome was obtained with 16,501 bp in length, and typically consisted of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. All PCGs were initiated with ATN codons, except ND2 with the start codon GTG. Most of the PCGs used TAA as their stop codons, while the others used TAG as stop codons (COX1, COX3&ND1). The nucleotide composition was asymmetric (42.3% A, 15.0% C, 11.0% G, 31.8% T) with an overall GC content of 25.9%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary research of T. annulata.

  17. Liver cancer induction by 241Am and thorotrast in deer mice and grasshopper mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Jones, C.W.; Rojas, J.; Wrenn, M.E.; Ayoroa, G.; Kaul, A.; Riedel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of 241 Am, relative to thorotrast, has been determined in two species of mice: the grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). These species were used since both have high uptakes of Pu and Am and, unlike conventional mice and rats, both retain relatively high concentrations of plutonium and americium in their livers. The study indicated that the liver carcinogenicity of comparable rad doses of 241 Am or thorotrast is approximately equal. The toxicity ratio ( 241 Am/thorotrast) for liver cancer induction approximated 1.2 with a range of about 0.6 to 1.6. This suggested that nonradiation factors of thorotrast were not significant in liver tumor induction. (orig.)

  18. The closed spiracle phase of discontinuous gas exchange predicts diving duration in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-08-15

    The discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern of respiration shown by many arthropods includes periods of spiracle closure (C-phase) and is largely thought to serve as a physiological adaptation to restrict water loss in terrestrial environments. One major challenge to this hypothesis is to explain the presence of DGE in insects in moist environments. Here, we show a novel ecological correlate of the C-phase, namely, diving behaviour in mesic Paracinema tricolor grasshoppers. Notably, maximal dive duration is positively correlated with C-phase length, even after accounting for mass scaling and absolute metabolic rate. Here, we propose that an additional advantage of DGE may be conferred by allowing the tracheal system to act as a sealed underwater oxygen reservoir. Spiracle closure may facilitate underwater submersion, which, in turn, may contribute to predator avoidance, the survival of accidental immersion or periodic flooding and the exploitation of underwater resources. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Phenotypic disparity in Iberian short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae): the role of ecology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J; Ortego, Joaquín

    2017-05-04

    The combination of model-based comparative techniques, disparity analyses and ecomorphological correlations constitutes a powerful method to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that shape morphological variation and speciation processes. In this study, we used a time-calibrated phylogeny of 70 Iberian species of short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae) to test for patterns of morphological disparity in relation to their ecology and phylogenetic history. Specifically, we examined the role of substrate type and level of ecological specialization in driving different aspects of morphological evolution (locomotory traits, chemosensitive organs and cranial morphology) in this recent radiation. We found a bimodal distribution of locomotory attributes corresponding to the two main substrate type guilds (plant vs. ground); plant-perching species tend to exhibit larger wings and thicker femora than those that remain on the ground. This suggests that life form (i.e., substrate type) is an important driving force in the evolution of morphological traits in short-horned grasshoppers, irrespective of ancestry. Substrate type and ecological specialization had no significant influence on head shape, a trait that showed a strong phylogenetic conservatism. Finally, we also found a marginal significant association between the length of antennae and the level of ecological specialization, suggesting that the development of sensory organs may be favored in specialist species. Our results provide evidence that even in taxonomic groups showing limited morphological and ecological disparity, natural selection seems to play a more important role than genetic drift in driving the speciation process. Overall, this study suggests that morphostatic radiations should not necessarily be considered as "non-adaptive" and that the speciation process can bind both adaptive divergence mechanisms and neutral speciation processes related with allopatric and/or reproductive isolation.

  20. U1 snDNA clusters in grasshoppers: chromosomal dynamics and genomic organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, A; Ruiz-Ruano, F J; Camacho, J P M; Loreto, V; Cabrero, J; de Souza, M J; Cabral-de-Mello, D C

    2015-01-01

    The spliceosome, constituted by a protein set associated with small nuclear RNA (snRNA), is responsible for mRNA maturation through intron removal. Among snRNA genes, U1 is generally a conserved repetitive sequence. To unveil the chromosomal/genomic dynamics of this multigene family in grasshoppers, we mapped U1 genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 70 species belonging to the families Proscopiidae, Pyrgomorphidae, Ommexechidae, Romaleidae and Acrididae. Evident clusters were observed in all species, indicating that, at least, some U1 repeats are tandemly arrayed. High conservation was observed in the first four families, with most species carrying a single U1 cluster, frequently located in the third or fourth longest autosome. By contrast, extensive variation was observed among Acrididae, from a single chromosome pair carrying U1 to all chromosome pairs carrying it, with occasional occurrence of two or more clusters in the same chromosome. DNA sequence analysis in Eyprepocnemis plorans (species carrying U1 clusters on seven different chromosome pairs) and Locusta migratoria (carrying U1 in a single chromosome pair) supported the coexistence of functional and pseudogenic lineages. One of these pseudogenic lineages was truncated in the same nucleotide position in both species, suggesting that it was present in a common ancestor to both species. At least in E. plorans, this U1 snDNA pseudogenic lineage was associated with 5S rDNA and short interspersed elements (SINE)-like mobile elements. Given that we conclude in grasshoppers that the U1 snDNA had evolved under the birth-and-death model and that its intragenomic spread might be related with mobile elements. PMID:25248465

  1. Local climate determines intra- and interspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in mountain grasshopper communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, P; Illera, J C; Obeso, J R

    2013-10-01

    The climate is often evoked to explain broad-scale clines of body size, yet its involvement in the processes that generate size inequality in the two sexes (sexual size dimorphism) remains elusive. Here, we analyse climatic clines of sexual size dimorphism along a wide elevation gradient (i) among grasshopper species in a phylogenetically controlled scenario and (ii) within species differing in distribution and cold tolerance, to highlight patterns generated at different time scales, mainly evolutionary (among species or higher taxa) and ontogenetic or microevolutionary (within species). At the interspecific level, grasshoppers were slightly smaller and less dimorphic at high elevations. These clines were associated with gradients of precipitation and sun exposure, which are likely indicators of other factors that directly exert selective pressures, such as resource availability and conditions for effective thermoregulation. Within species, we found a positive effect of temperature and a negative effect of elevation on body size, especially on condition-dependent measures of body size (total body length rather than hind femur length) and in species inhabiting the highest elevations. In spite of a certain degree of species-specific variation, females tended to adjust their body size more often than males, suggesting that body size in females can evolve faster among species and can be more plastic or dependent on nutritional conditions within species living in adverse climates. Natural selection on female body size may therefore prevail over sexual selection on male body size in alpine environments, and abiotic factors may trigger consistent phenotypic patterns across taxonomic scales. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Spatial genetic structure and mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Argentinean populations of the grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rosetti

    Full Text Available Many grasshopper species are considered of agronomical importance because they cause damage to pastures and crops. Comprehension of pest population dynamics requires a clear understanding of the genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations. In this study we report on patterns of genetic variation in the South American grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus which is an agricultural pest of crops and forage grasses of great economic significance in Argentina. We use Direct Amplification of Minisatellite Regions (DAMD and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxydase 1 (COI mitochondrial gene to investigate intraspecific structure, demographic history and gene flow patterns in twenty Argentinean populations of this species belonging to different geographic and biogeographic regions. DAMD data suggest that, although genetic drift and migration occur within and between populations, measurable relatedness among neighbouring populations declines with distance and dispersal over distances greater than 200 km is not typical, whereas effective gene flow may occur for populations separated by less than 100 km. Landscape analysis was useful to detect genetic discontinuities associated with environmental heterogeneity reflecting the changing agroecosystem. The COI results indicate the existence of strong genetic differentiation between two groups of populations located at both margins of the Paraná River which became separated during climate oscillations of the Middle Pleistocene, suggesting a significant restriction in effective dispersion mediated by females and large scale geographic differentiation. The number of migrants between populations estimated through mitochondrial and DAMD markers suggest that gene flow is low prompting a non-homogeneous spatial structure and justifying the variation through space. Moreover, the genetic analysis of both markers allows us to conclude that males appear to disperse more than females, reducing the chance of the

  3. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  4. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Individuals with History of Crack Cocaine Use in the US General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yur'yev, Andriy; Akerele, Evaristo

    2016-11-01

    This study explores socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with history of crack cocaine use. Data from the 29th Round of General Social Survey was used. Respondents with history of crack cocaine use were compared to respondents without such history. T test was applied to identify differences between groups. Approximately 6 % of respondents reported lifetime history of crack cocaine use. Groups with and without history of crack cocaine use differed significantly in gender, marital status, education, income distribution, employment, health perception, family and financial satisfaction, criminal history, happiness, sexual history, history of injection drug use, and HIV testing. There were no significant differences for race. The study provides insights that could improve identification and prevention of substance use disorders.

  5. Barriers to HIV testing in Cote d'Ivoire: the role of individual characteristics and testing modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Jean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanding HIV testing requires a better understanding of barriers to its uptake. We investigated barriers to HIV testing in Côte d'Ivoire, taking into account test circumstances (client vs. provider-initiated. METHODS: We used data from the 2005 nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS associated with recent (<2 years HIV testing were identified using gender-specific univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Among women, differential effects of barriers to testing according to test circumstance (whether they have been offered for a prenatal test or not were assessed through interaction tests. RESULTS: Recent HIV testing was reported by 6.1% of men and 9.5% of women (including 4.6% as part of antenatal care. Among men, having a low socioeconomic status, having a low HIV-related knowledge level and being employed [compared to those inactive: adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.25-0.87] were associated with lower proportions of recent HIV testing. Among women without a prenatal HIV testing offer, living outside the capital (aOR 0.38; CI 0.19-0.77 and reporting a unique lifetime sexual partner constituted additional barriers to HIV testing. By contrast, among women recently offered to be tested in prenatal care, none of these variables was found to be associated with recent HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: Various dimensions of individuals' characteristics constituted significant barriers to HIV testing in Côte d'Ivoire in 2005, with gender specificities. Such barriers are substantially reduced when testing was proposed in the framework of antenatal care. This suggests that provider-initiated testing strategies may help overcome individual barriers to HIV testing.

  6. Not just quantity: gluteus maximus muscle characteristics in able-bodied and SCI individuals--implications for tissue viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary A; Bogie, Kath M

    2013-08-01

    Some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain pressure ulcer (PU) free whilst others experience a recurring cycle of tissue breakdown. Detailed analysis of gluteal muscle characteristics may provide insights to local tissue viability variability. The study hypothesis was that SCI individuals have altered muscle composition compared to able-bodied (AB). Ten AB and ten SCI received a supine pelvic CT scan, with contrast. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and overall muscle volume were derived using image analysis. Gluteal muscle tissue type was classified at the S2/S3 sacral vertebrae midpoint, the superior greater trochanters margin (GT) and the inferior ischial tuberosities margin (IT) using the linear transformation Hounsfield Unit scale. SCI gluteal CSA was less than for AB throughout the muscle, with the greatest relative atrophy at the IT (48%). Average AB gluteal volume was nearly double SCI. Eight SCI had over 20% infiltrative adipose tissue, three with over 50%. SCI gluteal CSA and intramuscular fat infiltration were significantly negatively correlated (p SCI IT axial slices showed less lean muscle and higher intramuscular fat infiltration than more proximally (p SCI gluteal muscle characteristics were indicative of impaired tissue viability. SCI disuse muscle atrophy was anticipated; the analytic approach further indicated that intramuscular atrophy was not uniform. SCI muscle composition showed increased proportions of both low density muscle and adipose tissue. CT scan with contrast is effective for gluteal muscle characterization. This assessment technique may contribute to determination of personalized risk for PU development and other secondary complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Relationships between coping strategies, individual characteristics and job satisfaction in a sample of hospital nurses: cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kelleci, Meral; Dogan, Selma

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to describe and compare the job satisfaction, coping strategies, personal and organizational characteristics among nurses working in a hospital in Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey design study, 186 nurses from Cumhuriyet University Hospital completed Personal Data Form, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Ways of Coping Inventory. Response rate was 74.4%. In this study, it was found that job satisfaction score of nurses showed moderate (mean: 3.46+/-0.56) was found. While nurses mostly used to employ self-confident and optimistic approaches that had already being considered as positive coping strategies with stress, yielding and helpless approaches were employed less than that. While a statistically significant positive relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of Ways of Coping Inventory "self-confident approach" and "optimistic approach", negative relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of the "helpless approach". Organizational and individual nurse characteristics were not found to be associated with job satisfaction. But, job satisfaction of the nurses who is bounded by a contract was found higher than that of permanent staff nurses (pjob satisfaction of Turkish hospital nurses was at a moderate and that of the nurses who succeeded to coping with the stress was heightened. Higher levels of job satisfaction were associated with positive coping strategies. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of coping strategies to nurses' job satisfaction.

  8. Individual and Store Characteristics Associated with Brand Choices in Select Food Category Redemptions among WIC Participants in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC often allows participants to redeem food benefits for various brands at different costs. To aid the program’s food cost containment efforts, it is important to understand the individual and store characteristics associated with brand choices. This study used the WIC Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT data for 239,062 Virginia WIC participants’ brand choices in infant fruits and vegetables (F&Vs and whole grain bread in May 2014–February 2015, one of the first such data sets available in the U.S. for research purposes. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the choice of higher-priced brands over lower-priced brands. Minority participants were significantly more likely to redeem higher-priced brands of infant F&Vs, but more likely to choose lower-priced brands of bread. Participants shopping in urban stores or midsized stores (with 5–9 registers were less likely to choose higher-priced brands compared to rural stores or large stores (with 9+ registers. Race/ethnicity and store characteristics may be significant factors in participants’ brand choices. The results can help develop interventions that encourage targeted participants to redeem lower-priced but equivalently healthy brands. This may not only help contain WIC program costs, but help participants manage their own non-WIC food expenses as well.

  9. Individual and Store Characteristics Associated with Brand Choices in Select Food Category Redemptions among WIC Participants in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Tang, Chuanyi; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Diggs, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) often allows participants to redeem food benefits for various brands at different costs. To aid the program’s food cost containment efforts, it is important to understand the individual and store characteristics associated with brand choices. This study used the WIC Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) data for 239,062 Virginia WIC participants’ brand choices in infant fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) and whole grain bread in May 2014–February 2015, one of the first such data sets available in the U.S. for research purposes. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the choice of higher-priced brands over lower-priced brands. Minority participants were significantly more likely to redeem higher-priced brands of infant F&Vs, but more likely to choose lower-priced brands of bread. Participants shopping in urban stores or midsized stores (with 5–9 registers) were less likely to choose higher-priced brands compared to rural stores or large stores (with 9+ registers). Race/ethnicity and store characteristics may be significant factors in participants’ brand choices. The results can help develop interventions that encourage targeted participants to redeem lower-priced but equivalently healthy brands. This may not only help contain WIC program costs, but help participants manage their own non-WIC food expenses as well. PMID:28362350

  10. Individual and Store Characteristics Associated with Brand Choices in Select Food Category Redemptions among WIC Participants in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Tang, Chuanyi; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Diggs, Leigh

    2017-03-31

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) often allows participants to redeem food benefits for various brands at different costs. To aid the program's food cost containment efforts, it is important to understand the individual and store characteristics associated with brand choices. This study used the WIC Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) data for 239,062 Virginia WIC participants' brand choices in infant fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) and whole grain bread in May 2014-February 2015, one of the first such data sets available in the U.S. for research purposes. Mixed effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the choice of higher-priced brands over lower-priced brands. Minority participants were significantly more likely to redeem higher-priced brands of infant F&Vs, but more likely to choose lower-priced brands of bread. Participants shopping in urban stores or midsized stores (with 5-9 registers) were less likely to choose higher-priced brands compared to rural stores or large stores (with 9+ registers). Race/ethnicity and store characteristics may be significant factors in participants' brand choices. The results can help develop interventions that encourage targeted participants to redeem lower-priced but equivalently healthy brands. This may not only help contain WIC program costs, but help participants manage their own non-WIC food expenses as well.

  11. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  12. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  13. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Fatigue, insomnia and nervousness: gender disparities and roles of individual characteristics and lifestyle factors among economically active people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Legleye, Stéphane; Baumann, Michèle; Choquet, Marie; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen

    2009-09-01

    Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category in fatigue/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in gender disparities are not well known. We studied gender differences in FI, N, DFI, DN, and in their correlated, and whether the gender differences were mediated by individual and lifestyle factors among 3,450 active subjects aged 18-64, randomly selected from North-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire. Data were analyzed via adjusted odds ratio (ORa) computed with the logistic regression model. Women were more affected than men for FI (21.3 vs. 13.1%, OR adjusted for age ORa 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16), DFI (11.6 vs. 7.1%, ORa 1.74, 1.38-2.21), N (14.7 vs. 9.9%, ORa 1.58, 1.28-1.94), and for DN (12.1 vs. 5.7%, ORa 2.29, 1.79-2.94). These differences were not mediated by the individual characteristics studied. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk patterns varied between the two sexes. Smoking was related to N in men as well as in women; alcohol abuse to DFI in men only; lack of family support to all outcome variables in men and women; low educational level to DFI in men only; low income to FI, N and DN in men and to FI and DN in women; being unmarried to DN in men; being divorced/separated to N and DN in women; being a manual worker to FI and being a farmer to DFI in men; and being a manual worker to DN and being an employee to FI in women (1.50 roles among men and women but they did not explain the gender disparities.

  15. Independent Recruitment of a Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase for Safe Accumulation of Sequestered Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Grasshoppers and Moths

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide,...

  16. Gafanhotos (Orthoptera, Acridoidea em áreas de cerrados e lavouras na Chapada dos Parecis, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in native savanna and crop areas in Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Dias Guerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gafanhotos (Orthoptera, Acridoidea em áreas de cerrados e lavouras na Chapada dos Parecis, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foi determinada a composição e abundância de espécies de gafanhotos usando amostragem com rede entomológica durante 3 anos de estudo na Chapada dos Parecis, estado de Mato Grosso. O levantamento foi feito em áreas de lavouras e com vegetação ainda nativa (cerrados com, respectivamente, 56 e 59 locais inventariados em cada ambiente. Foram coletados 3.031 indivíduos de gafanhotos de 64 espécies distribuídas entre as famílias e subfamílias: Acrididae (49: Gomphocerinae (21, Ommatolampinae (10, Melanoplinae (6, Acridinae (4 Leptysminae (3, Copiocerinae (3, Proctolabinae (1 e Cyrtacanthacridinae (1; Romaleidae (1: Romaleinae (13 e Ommexechidae (1: Ommexechinae (2, além de 1550 ninfas. A diversidade de espécies foi maior no cerrado (61 do que nas lavouras (16, ocorrendo o inverso com relação à abundância onde as espécies Baeacris punctulatus (Thunberg, 1824 e Orphulella punctata (De Geer, 1773 predominaram representando 49,5% do total de indivíduos coletados em toda a Chapada dos Parecis e, juntas, somam 78,8% da abundância registrada nas áreas de lavouras e tem potencial de se tornarem pragas.Grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acridoidea in native savanna and crop areas in Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We determined the composition and abundance of grasshoppers using sweep net sampling during three years at the Parecis Plateau, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The survey was done in areas with crops and native vegetation (savanna with, respectively, 56 and 59 sites available in each environment. 3.031 individuals of grasshoppers were collected from 64 species distributed among the following families and subfamilies: Acrididae (49: Gomphocerinae (21, Ommatolampinae (10, Melanoplinae (6, Acridinae (4 Leptysminae (3, Copiocerinae (3, Proctolabinae (1 and Cyrtacanthacridinae (1; Romaleidae (1: Romaleinae

  17. Natural Plant Essential Oils for Controlling the Grasshopper (Heteracris littoralis and their Pathological Effects on the Alimentary Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the toxic effect of three different natural essential oils of medicinal plants, namely Garlic (Allium sativum, Mint (Mintha pipereta and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus were tested on 1st nymphal instar of the grasshopper (Heteracris littoralis. The LC50 values of the tested oils were estimated after 14 days from feeding on treated diet mixed with different concentrations of the oil. The LC50 of the tested oils were arranged as follows: 0.067, 0.075 and 0.084ml. /100ml. diet for Garlic, Eucalyptus and Mint respectively. The effect of LC50 concentration of the oils on the biological aspects and histological changes that observed on the alimentary canal and fat bodies were recorded. The normal development of the grasshopper was exhibited. Results cleared that there was statistical variable numbers of increased the nymphal periods, life cycle, adults longevity and life span comparing with the control test. Garlic oil inhibited egg lying by the resulting females offspring of the treated1st instar nymphs. High reduction in the deposited eggs and egg fertility caused by Eucalyptus or Mint oil and marked malformation were observed. Histological changes on the alimentary canal and fat bodies of the remaining nymphs after treatment with Garlic oil (the most effective oil were detected by the light microscope have been recorded. The results suggest that the natural plant essential oils of Garlic, Eucalyptus and Mint may be used in IPM control program against H. littoralis grasshopper.

  18. The grasshopper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Olga; Hansen, Steen Honore; Hellman, Karin

    2013-01-01

    drug discovery phase, does not yet exist. A new refined ex vivo insect based BBB screening model that uses an intact, viable whole brain under controlled 'in vitro' like exposure conditions is presented. This model uses intact brains from dessert locusts, which are placed in a well containing...

  19. Context and Individual Characteristics Modulate the Association between Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Social Behavior in Border Collies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbála Turcsán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the relationship between endogenous oxytocin and social affiliative behavior can be critically moderated by contextual and individual factors in humans. While oxytocin has been shown to influence human-directed affiliative behaviors in dogs, no study investigated yet how such factors moderate these effects. Our study aimed to investigate whether the context and the dogs’ individual characteristics moderate the associations between the social affiliative (greeting behavior and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene. We recorded the greeting behavior in three contexts: (1 when the dog first met an unfamiliar experimenter, (2 during a separation from the owner, and (3 after the experimenter approached the dog in a threatening manner. In the latter two contexts (during separation and after threatening, we categorized the dogs into stressed and non-stressed groups based on their behavior in the preceding situations. In line with previous studies, we found that polymorphisms in the OXTR gene are related to the greeting behavior of dogs. However, we also showed that the analyzed SNPs were associated with greeting in different contexts and in different individuals, suggesting that the four SNPs might be related to different functions of the oxytocin system. The -213A/G was associated with greeting only when the dog had no prior negative experience with the experimenter. The rs8679682 was found in association with greeting in all three contexts but these associations were significant only in non-stressed dogs. The -94T/C was associated with greeting only when the dog was stressed and had an interaction with the sex of the dog. The -74C/G SNP was associated with greeting only when the dog was stressed during separation and also had a sex interaction. Taken together, our results suggest that, similarly to humans, the effects of oxytocin on the dogs’ social behavior are not universal

  20. Association between body mass index and individual characteristics and the school context: a multilevel study with Portuguese children

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    Rafael S. Henrique

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual and school context characteristics with the body mass index of Portuguese children. Methods: The sample comprised 1641 children (847 boys aged 6–10 years from the North and Central regions of Portugal. Regarding the individual characteristics, age, gender, city of residence, levels of physical activity, and physical fitness were assessed. Concerning the school context characteristics, the surrounding environment, school size, presence of recreational characteristics and space, and presence of a sports court and of physical education classes were considered. Children's body mass index was the dependent variable. The multilevel analysis was carried out in HLM 7.0 software. Results: The predictors of the child and the school context explained, respectively, 97.3% and 2.7% of the total body mass index variance. Regarding the individual characteristics, older children, boys, and those who had lower performance at the 1‐mile run/walk, curl‐up, push‐up, and higher performance in trunk lift tests showed higher BMI. Further, urban schools with higher recreational spaces were positively associated with children's body mass index. Conclusion: School context variables have a reduced effect on body mass index variation compared to the children's biological and behavioral characteristics. The authors therefore encourage strategies that aim to increasing children's physical fitness levels to help prevent excess weight. Resumo: Objetivo: Examinar a associação de características individuais e do contexto escolar no índice de massa corporal de crianças portuguesas. Método: A amostra compreendeu 1.641 crianças (847 meninos de 6 a 10 anos. Em relação às características individuais foram utilizadas informações relativas ao sexo, à idade, à residência, à atividade física e à aptidão física. Em termos de contexto escolar, foram considerados o meio ambiente

  1. HIV-1 genetic diversity and its distribution characteristics among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Zhao, Cuiying; Wang, Wei; Nie, Chenxi; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru; Chen, Suliang; Cui, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling. Partial gag and env genes were amplified and sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were identified by phylogenetic tree analyses. Among the 139 subjects genotyped, six HIV-1 subtypes were identified successfully, including subtype B (41.0 %), CRF01_AE (40.3 %), CRF07_BC (11.5 %), CRF08_BC (4.3 %), unique recombinant forms (URFs) (1.4 %) and subtype C (1.4 %). Subtype B was identified as the most frequent subtype. Two URF recombination patterns were the same as CRF01_AE/B. HIV-1 genotype distribution showed a significant statistical difference in different demographic characteristics, such as source (P  0.05). The differences in HIV-1 genotype distribution were closely associated with transmission routes. Particularly, all six subtype strains were found in heterosexuals, showing that HIV-1 has spread from the high-risk populations to the general populations in Hebei, China. In addition, CRF01_AE instead of subtype B has become the major strain of HIV-1 infection among homosexuals. Our study revealed HIV-1 evolution and genotype distribution by investigating newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, China. This study provides important information to enhance the strategic plan for HIV prevention and control in China.

  2. Are color or high rearing density related to migratory polyphenism in the band-winged grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease, Arianne J; Hao, Shuguang; Kang, Le; Elser, James J; Harrison, Jon F

    2010-08-01

    Locusts represent an impressive example of migratory polyphenism, with high densities triggering a switch from a solitarious, shorter dispersal range, and sometimes greenish phenotype to a gregarious and sometimes darker form exhibiting behavioral, morphological and physiological traits associated with long-distance migratory swarms. While such polyphenism has been well documented in Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria, the extent to which other grasshoppers exhibit this type of migratory polyphenism is unclear. Anecdotally, the Chinese grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus, forms migratory swarms comprised mostly of a darker, brown-colored morph, but also exhibits a non-migratory green-colored morph that predominates at low densities. In a population in Inner Mongolia not currently exhibiting migratory swarms, we found that while green and brown O. asiaticus are found concurrently across our sampled range, only brown grasshoppers were found in high densities. Differences between field-collected brown and green forms matched some but not key predictions associated with the hypothesis that the brown form is morphologically and physiologically specialized for gregarious migration. Controlling for body mass, brown forms had more massive thoraxes, abdomens and legs, and higher metabolic rates, but not more flight muscle or lipid stores. Further, the brown and green grasshoppers did not differ in gregarious behavior, and neither would fly in multiple lab and field trials. Lab or field-rearing at high densities for one-to-multiple juvenile instars caused grasshoppers to exhibit some morphological traits predicted to benefit migration (larger wings and a shift in relative mass from abdomen to thorax), but did not change color or induce flight behavior. One hypothesis to explain these data is that a migratory form of O. asiaticus is partially triggered by high field densities, but that existing ecological conditions blocked full expression of such traits (and outbreak

  3. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection.

  4. Influence of municipal policy and individual characteristics on the use of informal and formal domestic help in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, Anna Maria; Waverijn, Geeke; de Klerk, Mirjam; Iedema, Jurjen; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2018-05-24

    The responsibility for care and social support in the Netherlands has been decentralized to the municipalities, on the assumption that they are able to organise care and social support more effectively and efficiently. Municipalities are responsible for offering citizens the social support they need. They have policy discretion to decide how and to what extent they encourage and support the use of informal help. This article explored whether the local policy focus on informal or formal help influences the actual take-up of domestic help. Data on 567 physically disabled people who use informal or formal help in the household were linked to local policy data in 167 municipalities. We performed multilevel multinomial regression analyses. Since we expected that local policy will have more influence on people with slight or moderate disabilities, cohabitees and people aged under 75, cross-level interaction terms were included between characteristics of local policy and of individuals. The findings reveal differences between municipalities in their policy on support and differences in the use of formal or informal support between municipalities. We found no relationship between local emphasis on informal help and the use of informal help. Possible explanations: some people have a small social network, people using informal help did not apply for municipality support or even do not know the possibility exists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Threat Level, Task Instruction, and Individual Characteristics on Cold Pressor Pain and Fear among Children and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Noel, Melanie; Birnie, Kathryn A; Caes, Line; Petter, Mark; Chambers, Christine T

    2016-07-01

    The cold pressor task (CPT) is increasingly used to induce experimental pain in children, but the specific methodology of the CPT is quite variable across pediatric studies. This study examined how subtle variations in CPT methodology (eg. provision of low- or high-threat information regarding the task; provision or omission of maximum immersion time) may influence children's and parents' perceptions of the pain experience. Forty-eight children (8 to 14 years) and their parents were randomly assigned to receive information about the CPT that varied on 2 dimensions, prior to completing the task: (i) threat level: high-threat (task described as very painful, high pain expressions depicted) or low-threat (standard CPT instructions provided, low pain expressions depicted); (ii) ceiling: informed (provided maximum immersion time) or uninformed (information about maximum immersion time omitted). Parents and children in the high-threat condition expected greater child pain, and these children reported higher perceived threat of pain and state pain catastrophizing. For children in the low-threat condition, an informed ceiling was associated with less state pain catastrophizing during the CPT. Pain intensity, tolerance, and fear during the CPT did not differ by experimental group, but were predicted by child characteristics. Findings suggest that provision of threatening information may impact anticipatory outcomes, but experienced pain was better explained by individual child variables. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Meat fatty acid and cholesterol level of free-range broilers fed on grasshoppers on alpine rangeland in the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Zhiyun; Qin, Liping; Long, Ruijun

    2012-08-30

    Meat safety and nutrition are major concerns of consumers. The development of distinctive poultry production methods based on locally available natural resources is important. Grasshoppers are rich in important nutrients and occur in dense concentrations in most rangelands of northern China. Foraging chickens could be used to suppress grasshopper infestations. However, knowledge of the fatty acid content of meat from free-range broilers reared on alpine rangeland is required. Rearing conditions and diet did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or the ratio of total n-6 to total n-3 fatty acids. Breast muscle of chickens that had consumed grasshoppers contained significantly (P 0.05) higher than intensively reared birds. Compared with meat from intensively reared birds, meat from free-range broilers had less cholesterol and higher concentrations of total lipid and phospholipids. Chickens eating grasshoppers in rangeland produce superior quality meat and reduce the grasshopper populations that damage the pastures. This provides an economic system of enhanced poultry-meat production, which derives benefits from natural resources rather than artificial additives. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Sequential loading of cohesin subunits during the first meiotic prophase of grasshoppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Valdeolmillos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The cohesin complexes play a key role in chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. They establish sister chromatid cohesion between duplicating DNA molecules during S-phase, but they also have an important role during postreplicative double-strand break repair in mitosis, as well as during recombination between homologous chromosomes in meiosis. An additional function in meiosis is related to the sister kinetochore cohesion, so they can be pulled by microtubules to the same pole at anaphase I. Data about the dynamics of cohesin subunits during meiosis are scarce; therefore, it is of great interest to characterize how the formation of the cohesin complexes is achieved in order to understand the roles of the different subunits within them. We have investigated the spatio-temporal distribution of three different cohesin subunits in prophase I grasshopper spermatocytes. We found that structural maintenance of chromosome protein 3 (SMC3 appears as early as preleptotene, and its localization resembles the location of the unsynapsed axial elements, whereas radiation-sensitive mutant 21 (RAD21 (sister chromatid cohesion protein 1, SCC1 and stromal antigen protein 1 (SA1 (sister chromatid cohesion protein 3, SCC3 are not visualized until zygotene, since they are located in the synapsed regions of the bivalents. During pachytene, the distribution of the three cohesin subunits is very similar and all appear along the trajectories of the lateral elements of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes. However, whereas SMC3 also appears over the single and unsynapsed X chromosome, RAD21 and SA1 do not. We conclude that the loading of SMC3 and the non-SMC subunits, RAD21 and SA1, occurs in different steps throughout prophase I grasshopper meiosis. These results strongly suggest the participation of SMC3 in the initial cohesin axis formation as early as preleptotene, thus contributing to sister chromatid cohesion, with a later association of both RAD21

  8. Generation of complex motor patterns in american grasshopper via current-controlled thoracic electrical interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, Susan L; Absher, Benjamin F; Bourne, W Tucker; Steves, Lida E; Vodenski, Vassil V; O'Donnell, Peter M; Erickson, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs) have attracted attention for their potential application to military applications, environmental sensing, and search and rescue missions. While progress is being made toward fabrication of a completely human-engineered MAV, another promising approach seeks to interface to, and take control of, an insect's nervous system. Cyborg insects take advantage of their innate exquisite loco-motor, navigation, and sensing abilities. Recently, several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of radio-controlled flight in the hawkmoth and beetle via electrical neural interfaces. Here, we report a method for eliciting the "jump" response in the American grasshopper (S. Americana). We found that stimulating the metathoracic T3 ganglion with constant-current square wave pulses with amplitude 186 ± 40 μA and frequency 190 ± 13 Hz reproducibly evoked (≥95% success rate) the desired motor activity in N=3 test subjects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an insect cyborg with a synchronous neuromuscular system.

  9. Transition-transversion bias is not universal: a counter example from grasshopper pseudogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Keller

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the DNA sequences of metazoa show an excess of transitional over transversional substitutions. Part of this bias is due to the relatively high rate of mutation of methylated cytosines to thymine. Postmutation processes also introduce a bias, particularly selection for codon-usage bias in coding regions. It is generally assumed, however, that there is a universal bias in favour of transitions over transversions, possibly as a result of the underlying chemistry of mutation. Surprisingly, this underlying trend has been evaluated only in two types of metazoan, namely Drosophila and the Mammalia. Here, we investigate a third group, and find no such bias. We characterize the point substitution spectrum in Podisma pedestris, a grasshopper species with a very large genome. The accumulation of mutations was surveyed in two pseudogene families, nuclear mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA sequences. The cytosine-guanine (CpG dinucleotides exhibit the high transition frequencies expected of methylated sites. The transition rate at other cytosine residues is significantly lower. After accounting for this methylation effect, there is no significant difference between transition and transversion rates. These results contrast with reports from other taxa and lead us to reject the hypothesis of a universal transition/transversion bias. Instead we suggest fundamental interspecific differences in point substitution processes.

  10. Transcriptome Profiling and In Silico Analysis of the Antimicrobial Peptides of the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Woo; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yoo, Seungil; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-11-28

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are present in all types of organisms, from microbes and plants to vertebrates and invertebrates such as insects. The grasshopper Oxya chinensis sinuosa is an insect species that is widely consumed around the world for its broad medicinal value. However, the lack of available genetic information for this species is an obstacle to understanding the full potential of its AMPs. Analysis of the O. chinensis sinuosa transcriptome and expression profile is essential for extending the available genetic information resources. In this study, we determined the whole-body transcriptome of O. chinensis sinuosa and analyzed the potential AMPs induced by bacterial immunization. A high-throughput RNA-Seq approach generated 94,348 contigs and 66,555 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 36,032 (54.14%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database in a BLAST search. Functional analysis demonstrated that 38,219 unigenes were clustered into 5,499 gene ontology terms. In addition, 26 cDNAs encoding novel AMPs were identified by an in silico approach using public databases. Our transcriptome dataset and AMP profile greatly improve our understanding of O. chinensis sinuosa genetics and provide a huge number of gene sequences for further study, including genes of known importance and genes of unknown function.

  11. Brain regions for sound processing and song release in a small grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvantray Bhavsar, Mit; Stumpner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    We investigated brain regions - mostly neuropils - that process auditory information relevant for the initiation of response songs of female grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus during bidirectional intraspecific acoustic communication. Male-female acoustic duets in the species Ch. biguttulus require the perception of sounds, their recognition as a species- and gender-specific signal and the initiation of commands that activate thoracic pattern generating circuits to drive the sound-producing stridulatory movements of the hind legs. To study sensory-to-motor processing during acoustic communication we used multielectrodes that allowed simultaneous recordings of acoustically stimulated electrical activity from several ascending auditory interneurons or local brain neurons and subsequent electrical stimulation of the recording site. Auditory activity was detected in the lateral protocerebrum (where most of the described ascending auditory interneurons terminate), in the superior medial protocerebrum and in the central complex, that has previously been implicated in the control of sound production. Neural responses to behaviorally attractive sound stimuli showed no or only poor correlation with behavioral responses. Current injections into the lateral protocerebrum, the central complex and the deuto-/tritocerebrum (close to the cerebro-cervical fascicles), but not into the superior medial protocerebrum, elicited species-typical stridulation with high success rate. Latencies and numbers of phrases produced by electrical stimulation were different between these brain regions. Our results indicate three brain regions (likely neuropils) where auditory activity can be detected with two of these regions being potentially involved in song initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Nematode and Dipteran Parasites in an Australian Alpine Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Byatt, Lachlan J.; Hill, Nichola J.; Bartolini, Remo J.; Hose, Grant C.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Power, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    In alpine Australia, Orthoptera are abundant, dominant herbivores, important prey species, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Despite the central role of orthopterans in alpine ecosystems, the impact of parasites on orthopteran populations is under-explored. In this study we describe the relationship between parasite prevalence and host sex, body size and year of collection. We accessed an existing, preserved collection of 640 Kosciuscola tristis collected from across its range between 2007 and 2011. Upon dissection we collected juvenile parasites and used molecular tools to identify them to three families (Nematoda; Mermithidae, and Arthropoda: Diptera: Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The prevalence of nematodes ranged from 3.5% to 25.0% and dipterans from 2.4% to 20.0%. Contrary to predictions, we found no associations between parasite prevalence and grasshopper sex or size. Although there was an association between prevalence of both nematodes and dipterans with year of collection, this is likely driven by a small sample size in the first year. Our results provide a foundation for future studies into parasite prevalence within the alpine environment and the abiotic factors that might influence these associations. PMID:25919745

  13. Discordant patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation in five grasshopper species codistributed across a microreserve network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Joaquín; García-Navas, Vicente; Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J

    2015-12-01

    Conservation plans can be greatly improved when information on the evolutionary and demographic consequences of habitat fragmentation is available for several codistributed species. Here, we study spatial patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation among five grasshopper species that are codistributed across a network of microreserves but show remarkable differences in dispersal-related morphology (body size and wing length), degree of habitat specialization and extent of fragmentation of their respective habitats in the study region. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that species with preferences for highly fragmented microhabitats show stronger genetic and phenotypic structure than codistributed generalist taxa inhabiting a continuous matrix of suitable habitat. We also hypothesized a higher resemblance of spatial patterns of genetic and phenotypic variability among species that have experienced a higher degree of habitat fragmentation due to their more similar responses to the parallel large-scale destruction of their natural habitats. In partial agreement with our first hypothesis, we found that genetic structure, but not phenotypic differentiation, was higher in species linked to highly fragmented habitats. We did not find support for congruent patterns of phenotypic and genetic variability among any studied species, indicating that they show idiosyncratic evolutionary trajectories and distinctive demographic responses to habitat fragmentation across a common landscape. This suggests that conservation practices in networks of protected areas require detailed ecological and evolutionary information on target species to focus management efforts on those taxa that are more sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fates of identified pioneer cells in the developing antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Graf, Philip; Kleele, Tatjana; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George

    2016-01-01

    In the early embryonic grasshopper, two pairs of sibling cells near the apex of the antenna pioneer its dorsal and ventral nerve tracts to the brain. En route, the growth cones of these pioneers contact a so-called base pioneer associated with each tract and which acts as a guidepost cell. Both apical and basal pioneers express stereotypic molecular labels allowing them to be uniquely identified. Although their developmental origins are largely understood, the fates of the respective pioneers remain unclear. We therefore employed the established cell death markers acridine orange and TUNEL to determine whether the apical and basal pioneers undergo apoptosis during embryogenesis. Our data reveal that the apical pioneers maintain a consistent molecular profile from their birth up to mid-embryogenesis, at which point the initial antennal nerve tracts to the brain have been established. Shortly after this the apical pioneers undergo apoptosis. Death occurs at a developmental stage similar to that reported elsewhere for pioneers in a leg - an homologous appendage. Base pioneers, by contrast, progressively change their molecular profile and can no longer be unequivocally identified after mid-embryogenesis. At no stage up to then do they exhibit death labels. If they persist, the base pioneers must be assumed to adopt a new role in the developing antennal nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese endemic grasshopper Fruhstorferiola kulinga (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Podismini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Guan, De-Long; Xu, Sheng-Quan

    2016-09-01

    The whole-genome Illumina sequence of the Chinese endemic grasshopper Fruhstorferiola kulinga mitogenome was constructed and reported in this study. In all, the circular genome was obtained with 15,655 bp in length and contains 75.4% A + T. It typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons. Most of the PCGs use TAA as their stop codons, while the others use TAG as stop codons (COX1 and ND1). The size of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes are 1314 bp and 851 bp. The A + T-rich region (777 bp) showed strong resemblance to the other known Orthoptera insects. Our data would contribute to confirm the close relationship and other evolutionary researches of the F. kulinga.

  16. Novel odorant-binding proteins and their expression patterns in grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Pang, Baoping; Zhang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Insects use olfaction to detect exogenous odors and adapt to environments. In their olfaction systems, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are believed to be a key component. The unique OBP system of each species reflects the evolution of chemosensation of insects with habits. Here, we for the first time identified 15 OBPs, OasiOBP1-15, of a grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus, that lives in the grasslands of Northern China and is closely related to the locust, Locusta migratoria. OasiOBP9 and OasiOBP10 are specifically expressed in the antennae. Other OBPs are expressed in the antennae as well as other chemosensory organs, such as the mouthparts and wings. Significantly more OasiOBP7 was detected in male than female antennae, but there are 9 OBPs that were more expressed in female than male antennae by quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the O. asiaticus OBPs are similar to those of L. migratoria, but some are substantially different. This indicates that the OBPs originally evolved in a common ancestor, but their unique chemosensory systems are adapted to different ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Axogenesis in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria revisited: the base pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George

    2015-01-01

    The antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria comprises two parallel pathways projecting to the brain, each pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of sibling cells located at the antennal tip. En route, the growth cones of pioneers from one pathway have been shown to contact a guidepost-like cell called the base pioneer. Its role in axon guidance remains unclear as do the cellular guidance cues regulating axogenesis in the other pathway supposedly without a base pioneer. Further, while the tip pioneers are known to delaminate from the antennal epithelium into the lumen, the origin of this base pioneer is unknown. Here, we use immunolabeling and immunoblocking methods to clarify these issues. Co-labeling against the neuron-specific marker horseradish peroxidase and the pioneer-specific cell surface glycoprotein Lazarillo identifies not only the tip pioneers but also a base pioneer associated with each of the developing antennal pathways. Both base pioneers co-express the mesodermal label Mes3, consistent with a lumenal origin, whereas the tip pioneers proved Mes3-negative confirming their affiliation with the ectodermal epithelium. Lazarillo antigen expression in the antennal pioneers followed a different temporal dynamic: continuous in the tip pioneers, but in the base pioneers, only at the time their filopodia and those of the tip pioneers first recognize one another. Immunoblocking of Lazarillo expression in cultured embryos disrupts this recognition resulting in misguided axogenesis in both antennal pathways.

  18. Montane and coastal species diversification in the economically important Mexican grasshopper genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    The genus Sphenarium (Pyrgomorphidae) is a small group of grasshoppers endemic to México and Guatemala that are economically and culturally important both as a food source and as agricultural pests. However, its taxonomy has been largely neglected mainly due to its conserved interspecific external morphology and the considerable intraspecific variation in colour pattern of some taxa. Here we examined morphological as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to assess the species boundaries and evolutionary history in Sphenarium. Our morphological identification and DNA sequence-based species delimitation, carried out with three different approaches (DNA barcoding, general mixed Yule-coalescent model, Bayesian species delimitation), all recovered a higher number of putative species of Sphenarium than previously recognised. We unambiguously delimit seven species, and between five and ten additional species depending on the data/method analysed. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus strongly support two main clades, one exclusively montane, the other coastal. Divergence time estimates suggest late Miocene to Pliocene ages for the origin and most of the early diversification events in the genus, which were probably influenced by the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A series of Pleistocene events could have led to the current species diversification in both montane and coastal regions. This study not only reveals an overlooked species richness for the most popular edible insect in Mexico, but also highlights the influence of the dynamic geological and climatic history of the region in shaping its current diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The 5S rDNA in two Abracris grasshoppers (Ommatolampidinae: Acrididae): molecular and chromosomal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Danilo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2016-08-01

    The 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences are subject of dynamic evolution at chromosomal and molecular levels, evolving through concerted and/or birth-and-death fashion. Among grasshoppers, the chromosomal location for this sequence was established for some species, but little molecular information was obtained to infer evolutionary patterns. Here, we integrated data from chromosomal and nucleotide sequence analysis for 5S rDNA in two Abracris species aiming to identify evolutionary dynamics. For both species, two arrays were identified, a larger sequence (named type-I) that consisted of the entire 5S rDNA gene plus NTS (non-transcribed spacer) and a smaller (named type-II) with truncated 5S rDNA gene plus short NTS that was considered a pseudogene. For type-I sequences, the gene corresponding region contained the internal control region and poly-T motif and the NTS presented partial transposable elements. Between the species, nucleotide differences for type-I were noticed, while type-II was identical, suggesting pseudogenization in a common ancestor. At chromosomal point to view, the type-II was placed in one bivalent, while type-I occurred in multiple copies in distinct chromosomes. In Abracris, the evolution of 5S rDNA was apparently influenced by the chromosomal distribution of clusters (single or multiple location), resulting in a mixed mechanism integrating concerted and birth-and-death evolution depending on the unit.

  20. Secondary Metabolites of the Cuticular Abdominal Glands of Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L.

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    O. U. Igwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical compounds were extracted with petroleum ether from the cuticular abdominal glands of grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L. and eleven compounds were characterised using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS technique in combination with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. The compounds analysed were 2,7-dimethyloctane (3.21%, decane (5.33%, undecane (3.81%, tridecanoic acid methyl ester (4.76%, hexadecanoic acid (9.37%, 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (23.18%, pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-methyl ester (4.43%, (Z-13-docosenoic acid (10.71%, dodecyl pentafluoropropionate (9.52%, 2-dodecyl-1,3-propanediol (6.38%, and 1,12-tridecadiene (19.30%. FT-IR analysis of the extract showed peaks at 1270.17 (C–O and C–F, 1641.48 (C=C, 2937.68 (C–H, and 3430.51 (O–H cm−1 indicating the presence of ether, alkene, alkane, alcohol, carboxylic acid, and fluoric compounds. These compounds consisted of 32.37% ester, 31.65% hydrocarbons, 20.08% fatty acid, 9.52% halogenated ester, and 6.38% alcohol. The highest component was 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester followed by 1,12-tridecadiene. Since behavioural bioassays were not carried out, the consideration of these compounds to be pheromone semiochemicals remains a hypothesis.

  1. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of two grasshopper species of the tribe Abracrini (Ommatolampinae, Acrididae

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    Marília de França Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasshopper species Orthoscapheus rufipes and Eujivarus fusiformis were analyzed using several cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of O. rufipes, described here for the first time, had a diploid number of 2n = 23, whereas E. fusiformis had a karyotype with 2n = 21. The two species showed the same mechanism of sex determination (XO type but differed in chromosome morphology. Pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH were detected in the chromosome complement of both species. CMA3/DA/DAPI staining revealed CMA3-positive blocks in CH regions in four autosomal bivalents of O. rufipes and in two of E. fusiformis. The location of active NORs differed between the two species, occurring in bivalents M6 and S9 of O. rufipes and M6 and M7 of E. fusiformsi. The rDNA sites revealed by FISH coincided with the number and position of the active NORs detected by AgNO3 staining. The variability in chromosomal markers accounted for the karyotype differentiation observed in the tribe Abracrini.

  2. Nematodes (Mermithidae parasitizing grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae in the Pampean region, Argentina

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    J. M. Rusconi

    Full Text Available Abstract This work provides the results of a survey of entomonematodes parasites of grasshoppers in grasslands of the Pampean Region, Argentina. Nymphs of Staurorhectus longicornis Giglio-Tos, Laplatacris dispar Rhen, 1939, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, 1894 and Metaleptea brevicornis (L. (Orthoptera: Acrididae were collected. Mermithidae was the only family registered with seven species: Agamermis decaudata Cobb, Steiner and Christie, 1923, Amphimermis bonaerensis Miralles and Camino, 1983, Amphimermis dichroplusi Camino and Lange, 1997, Amphimermis ronderosi Camino and Lange, 1997, Hexamermis coclhearius Stock and Camino, 1992, Hexamermis ovistriata Stock and Camino, 1992, and Longimermis acridophila Camino and Stock, 1989. The values of parasitism ranged between 1-12%, and intensity not overcome the number of 5.0 nematodes per larva. The nematodes observed showed specificity, not registering the same species of parasite in more than one host species. The Pampean region constituted an area with high diversity of mermithids where new species could be consider as bioregulator agents of this troublesome insect pests in agricultural areas of Argentina.

  3. Chromosomal Speciation Revisited: Modes of Diversification in Australian Morabine Grasshoppers (Vandiemenella, viatica Species Group

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    Steven J. B. Cooper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that many species have structural variation in chromosomes, has led to the theory that the rearrangements may play a direct role in promoting speciation. Australian morabine grasshoppers (genus Vandiemenella, viatica species group are an excellent model for studying the role of chromosomal rearrangement in speciation because they show extensive chromosomal variation, parapatric distribution patterns, and narrow hybrid zones at their boundaries. This species group stimulated development of one of the classic chromosomal speciation models, the stasipatric speciation model proposed by White in 1968. Our population genetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive non-monophyly of chromosomal races along with historical and on-going gene introgression between them. These findings suggest that geographical isolation leading to the fixation of chromosomal variants in different geographic regions, followed by secondary contact, resulted in the present day parapatric distributions of chromosomal races. The significance of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of the viatica species group can be explored by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between rearranged and co-linear parts of the genome.

  4. Multiple independent colonization of the Canary Islands by the winged grasshopper genus Sphingonotus Fieber, 1852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, Martin; Deppermann, Jana; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic archipelagos represent ideal systems to study processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation. The Canary Islands are one of the best studied archipelagos, being composed of seven main islands with a well-known geological history. Most taxa have colonized these islands stepwise from the African or Iberian mainland from east to west, following their geological origin as well as the predominating wind direction and ocean currents. Furthermore, within-island radiations have been reported for several taxa. The grasshopper genus Sphingonotus is species-rich and occurs with nine fully winged species on the Canary Islands, seven of which are endemic to single or few islands. We inferred a phylogeny of these species and their North African and Iberian relatives based upon sequences of three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene of 136 specimens. Surprisingly, our results suggest that almost all Sphingonotus species colonized the archipelago independently from the mainland and nearly no inter-island colonization occurred. Despite their strong flight capabilities, only one pair of endemic species are closely related (S. sublaevis from Gran Canary and S. pachecoi from Lanzarote). Moreover, no within-island speciation events were detected. We hypothesize that passive wind dispersal from the African mainland was the main driver of the colonization process and that most Sphingonotus species are not able to cover inter-island distances by active flight. This, together with strong intrageneric niche overlap might explain the lack of within-island speciation in this taxon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

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    Linzhu Wang

    Full Text Available Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  6. Grasshopper Lazarillo, a GPI-anchored Lipocalin, increases Drosophila longevity and stress resistance, and functionally replaces its secreted homolog NLaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mario; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Sanchez, Diego; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2012-10-01

    Lazarillo (Laz) is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein first characterized in the developing nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana. It belongs to the Lipocalins, a functionally diverse family of mostly secreted proteins. In this work we test whether the protective capacity known for Laz homologs in flies and vertebrates (NLaz, GLaz and ApoD) is evolutionarily conserved in grasshopper Laz, and can be exerted from the plasma membrane in a cell-autonomous manner. First we demonstrate that extracellular forms of Laz have autocrine and paracrine protecting effects for oxidative stress-challenged Drosophila S2 cells. Then we assay the effects of overexpressing GPI-linked Laz in adult Drosophila and whether it rescues both known and novel phenotypes of NLaz null mutants. Local effects of GPI-linked Laz inside and outside the nervous system promote survival upon different stress forms, and extend lifespan and healthspan of the flies in a cell-type dependent manner. Outside the nervous system, expression in fat body cells but not in hemocytes results in protection. Within the nervous system, glial cell expression is more effective than neuronal expression. Laz actions are sexually dimorphic in some expression domains. Fat storage promotion and not modifications in hydrocarbon profiles or quantities explain the starvation-desiccation resistance caused by Laz overexpression. This effect is exerted when Laz is expressed ubiquitously or in dopaminergic cells, but not in hemocytes. Grasshopper Laz functionally restores the loss of NLaz, rescuing stress-sensitivity as well as premature accumulation of aging-related damage, monitored by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). However Laz does not rescue NLaz courtship behavioral defects. Finally, the presence of two new Lipocalins with predicted GPI-anchors in mosquitoes shows that the functional advantages of GPI-linkage have been commonly exploited by Lipocalins in the arthropodan lineage

  7. Growth and reproduction of the alpine grasshopper Miramella alpina feeding on CO2-enriched dwarf shrubs at treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshoff, Roman; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The consequences for plant-insect interactions of atmospheric changes in alpine ecosystems are not well understood. Here, we tested the effects of elevated CO(2) on leaf quality in two dwarf shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus and V. uliginosum) and the response of the alpine grasshopper (Miramella alpina) feeding on these plants in a field experiment at the alpine treeline (2,180 m a.s.l.) in Davos, Switzerland. Relative growth rates (RGR) of M. alpina nymphs were lower when they were feeding on V. myrtillus compared to V. uliginosum, and were affected by elevated CO(2) depending on plant species and nymph developmental stage. Changes in RGR correlated with CO(2)-induced changes in leaf water, nitrogen, and starch concentrations. Elevated CO(2) resulted in reduced female adult weight irrespective of plant species, and prolonged development time on V. uliginosum only, but there were no significant differences in nymphal mortality. Newly molted adults of M. alpina produced lighter eggs and less secretion (serving as egg protection) under elevated CO(2). When grasshoppers had a choice among four different plant species grown either under ambient or elevated CO(2), V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum consumption increased under elevated CO(2) in females while it decreased in males compared to ambient CO(2)-grown leaves. Our findings suggest that rising atmospheric CO(2) distinctly affects leaf chemistry in two important dwarf shrub species at the alpine treeline, leading to changes in feeding behavior, growth, and reproduction of the most important insect herbivore in this system. Changes in plant-grasshopper interactions might have significant long-term impacts on herbivore pressure, community dynamics and ecosystem stability in the alpine treeline ecotone.

  8. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  9. Does where you shop or who you are predict what you eat?: The role of stores and individual characteristics in dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Christine A; Collins, Rebecca; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Beckman, Robin; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Interventions to address diet, a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, have increasingly emphasized the influence of the physical environment on diet, while more traditional approaches have focused on individual characteristics. We examined environmental and individual influences on diet to understand the role of both. Household interviews were conducted in 2011 with 1372 individuals randomly selected from two low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants reported their sociodemographic characteristics, food shopping behavior, and dietary intake. Both food shopping frequency at different types of food stores and sociodemographic characteristics showed significant associations with diet in adjusted regression models. More frequent shopping at convenience and neighborhood stores and being younger, male, without a college degree, and receiving SNAP benefits were associated with greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), added sugars, and discretionary fats. Being older, male, and having a college degree were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables. However, while food shopping behavior and sociodemographic characteristics accounted for similar amounts of nonoverlapping variance in fruit and vegetable intake, food shopping behavior accounted for much less variance, and little unique variance, in SSBs, added sugars, and discretionary fats in models with sociodemographic characteristics. The current study reinforces the need for policies and interventions at both the environmental and individual levels to improve diet in food desert residents. Individual interventions to address food choices associated with certain sociodemographic characteristics might be particularly important for curbing intake of SSBs, added sugars, and discretionary fats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of the Behavioural and Emotional Characteristics of Alzheimer's Dementia in Individuals with and without Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Valerie; Konstantareas, M. Mary

    2005-01-01

    The behavioural and emotional changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are compared for individuals with Down syndrome and AD and individuals with AD from the general population (AD-only). The primary caregivers of 30 people with Down syndrome and AD and 30 people with AD-only completed the BEHAVE-AD and the Apathy subscale of the CERAD.…

  11. Are individuals' nighttime sleep characteristics prior to shift-work exposure predictive for parameters of daytime sleep after commencing shift work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers-van der Holst, H.M.; van Dongen, H.P.A.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to examine prospectively whether individual nighttime sleep characteristics at baseline (prior to shift‐work exposure) are related to parameters of daytime sleep after commencing shift work. A longitudinal field study was carried out with novice police officers of the Dutch Police

  12. Do individual characteristics matter? The quality of work during the implementation of a workflow management system in a Dutch social insurance company.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, B.M.E. de; Breman, P.; Batenburg, R.

    2012-01-01

    Do individual characteristics influence how the quality of work is related to the use of a workflow management system (WFM) in a Dutch social insurance organisation? This key question is addressed in this paper. Building upon DeLone and McLean’s model, we investigated the effects of gender, age,

  13. Do individual characteristics matter? The quality of work during the implementation of a workflow management system in a Dutch social insurance company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Paul Breman; Benny de Waal; Ronald Batenburg

    2012-01-01

    Do individual characteristics influence how the quality of work is related to the use of a workflow management system (WFM) in a Dutch social insurance organisation? This key question is addressed in this paper. Building upon DeLone and McLean’s model, we investigated the effects of gender, age,

  14. Added value of ovarian reserve testing on patient characteristics in the prediction of ovarian response and ongoing pregnancy: an individual patient data approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, S.L.; Disseldorp, J. van; Broeze, K.A.; Dolleman, M.; Opmeer, B.C.; Bossuyt, P.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Mol, B.W.; Broekmans, F.J.; Anderson, R.A.; Ashrafi, M.; Bancsi, L.F.; Caroppo, E.; Copperman, A.; Ebner, T.; Eldar Geva, M.; Erdem, M.; Greenblatt, E.M.; Jayaprakasan, K.; Fenning, R.; Klinkert, E.R.; Kwee, J.; Lambalk, C.B.; La Marca, A.; McIlveen, M.; Merce, L.T.; Muttukrishna, S.; Nelson, S.M.; Ng, H.Y.; Popovic-Todorovic, B.; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Tomas, C.; Linden, P.J. van der; Rooij, I.A. van; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) are frequently used prior to IVF treatment for outcome prediction, their added predictive value is unclear. We assessed the added value of ORTs to patient characteristics in the prediction of IVF outcome. METHODS An individual patient data (IPD)

  15. The Effects of Individual Characteristics, Socioeconomic Status, and Political Engagement on the Attainment of Student Leadership Roles in Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of individual characteristics, socioeconomic status, and political engagement among Chinese university students with respect to their attainment of student leadership roles. The study investigated 10,930 students from elite Chinese universities. The results showed that female and only-child students were more likely…

  16. [Determinants of task preferences when performance is indicative of individual characteristics: self-assessment motivation and self-verification motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazaki, M; Kudo, E

    1995-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine determinants of information-gathering behavior with regard to one's own characteristics. Four tasks with different self-congruent and incongruent diagnosticity were presented to subjects. As self-assessment theory predicted, high diagnostic tasks were preferred to low tasks. And as self-verification theory predicted, self-congruent diagnosticity had a stronger effect on task preference than self-incongruent diagnosticity. In addition, subjects who perceived the relevant characteristics important inclined to choose self-assessment behavior more than who did not. Also, subjects who were certain of their self-concept inclined to choose self-verification behavior more than who were not. These results suggest that both self-assessment and self-verification motivations play important roles in information-gathering behavior regarding one's characteristics, and strength of the motivations is determined by the importance of relevant characteristics or the certainty of self-concept.

  17. Neighborhood Characteristics and Individual Homicide Risks : Effects of Social Cohesion, Confidence in the Police, and Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; McCall, Patricia L.; Elffers, Henk; Wittebrood, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This study tests hypotheses on the relationship between characteristics of neighborhoods in the Netherlands—their socioeconomic disadvantage, social cohesion, and residents’ confidence in the police—and the likelihood of homicide victimization. These hypotheses are derived from social

  18. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

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    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  19. Phylogeography of the endemic grasshopper genus Betiscoides (Lentulidae) in the South African Cape Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenaar, Daniela; Fingerle, Marcus; Heym, Eva; Wirtz, Sarah; Hochkirch, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Vicariance and dispersal are two important processes shaping biodiversity patterns. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is known for its high biotic diversity and endemism. However, studies on the phylogeography of endemic invertebrates in this biodiversity hotspot are still scarce. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of the flightless grasshopper genus Betiscoides, which is endemic to the CFR and strongly associated with restio plants (Restionaceae). We hypothesized that the genus originated in the southwestern part of the CFR, that differentiation within the genus is mainly an effect of vicariance and that the three known species only represent a minor fraction of the real genetic diversity of the genus. We inferred the phylogeny based on sequences of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from 99 Betiscoides specimens collected across the CFR. Furthermore, we conducted a SDIVA analysis to detect distributions of ancestral nodes and the possible spatial origin of these lineages. Strong differentiation among genetic lineages was shown. The ancestor of this genus was most likely distributed in the southwestern CFR. Five major lineages were detected, three of which were ancestrally distributed in the southwestern CFR. The ancestors of the two other lineages were distributed in the northern and eastern margins of the CFR. A total of 24 divergent evolutionary lineages were found, reflecting the geographical isolation of restio-dominated fynbos habitats. Dispersal played a more prominent role than expected in differentiation of Betiscoides. While the five main lineages were separated during a first phase via dispersal, differentiation occurred later and on smaller spatial scale, predominantly driven by isolation in montane refugia (i.e. vicariance). Our study also suggests that flightless insect taxa likely show high levels of differentiation in biodiversity hotspots with their taxonomy often being incomplete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

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    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  1. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Grasshopper Shirakiacris shirakii

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    Zhongying Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The grasshopper Shirakiacris shirakii is an important agricultural pest and feeds mainly on gramineous plants, thereby causing economic damage to a wide range of crops. However, genomic information on this species is extremely limited thus far, and transcriptome data relevant to insecticide resistance and pest control are also not available. Methods: The transcriptome of S. shirakii was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform, and we de novo assembled the transcriptome. Results: Its sequencing produced a total of 105,408,878 clean reads, and the de novo assembly revealed 74,657 unigenes with an average length of 680 bp and N50 of 1057 bp. A total of 28,173 unigenes were annotated for the NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (Nr, NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences (Nt, a manually-annotated and reviewed protein sequence database (Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. Based on the Nr annotation results, we manually identified 79 unigenes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s, 36 unigenes encoding carboxylesterases (CarEs and 36 unigenes encoding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs in S. shirakii. Core RNAi components relevant to miroRNA, siRNA and piRNA pathways, including Pasha, Loquacious, Argonaute-1, Argonaute-2, Argonaute-3, Zucchini, Aubergine, enhanced RNAi-1 and Piwi, were expressed in S. shirakii. We also identified five unigenes that were homologous to the Sid-1 gene. In addition, the analysis of differential gene expressions revealed that a total of 19,764 unigenes were up-regulated and 4185 unigenes were down-regulated in larvae. In total, we predicted 7504 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 74,657 unigenes. Conclusions: The comprehensive de novo transcriptomic data of S. shirakii will offer a series of valuable molecular resources for better studying insecticide resistance, RNAi and molecular marker discovery in the transcriptome.

  2. Wide prevalence of hybridization in two sympatric grasshopper species may be shaped by their relative abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Hau, Yvonne; Weyer, Jessica; Hochkirch, Axel

    2015-09-16

    Hybridization between species is of conservation concern as it might threaten the genetic integrity of species. Anthropogenic factors can alter hybridization dynamics by introducing new potentially hybridizing species or by diminishing barriers to hybridization. This may even affect sympatric species pairs through environmental change, which so far has received little attention. We studied hybridization prevalence and the underlying behavioral mechanisms in two sympatric grasshopper species, a rare specialist (Chorthippus montanus) and a common generalist (Chorthippus parallelus). We conducted a mate choice experiment with constant intraspecific density and varying heterospecific density, i.e. varying relative frequency of both species. Mate choice was frequency-dependent in both species with a higher risk of cross-mating with increasing heterospecific frequency, while conspecific mating increased linearly with increasing conspecific density. This illustrates that reproductive barriers could be altered by environmental change, if the relative frequency of species pairs is affected. Moreover, we performed a microsatellite analysis to detect hybridization in twelve syntopic populations (and four allotopic populations). Hybrids were detected in nearly all syntopic populations with hybridization rates reaching up to 8.9 %. Genetic diversity increased for both species when hybrids were included in the data set, but only in the common species a positive correlation between hybridization rate and genetic diversity was detected. Our study illustrates that the relative frequency of the two species strongly determines the effectiveness of reproductive barriers and that even the more choosy species (Ch. montanus) may face a higher risk of hybridization if population size decreases and its relative frequency becomes low compared to its sister species. The asymmetric mate preferences of both species may lead to quasi-unidirectional gene flow caused by unidirectional

  3. Ontogeny of pioneer neurons in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The nervous system of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria consists of two nerve tracts in which sensory cells project their axons to the brain. Each tract is pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of identified cells located apically in the antennal lumen. The pioneers are thought to originate in the epithelium of the antenna and then delaminate into the lumen where they commence axogenesis. However, unambiguous molecular identification of these cells in the epithelium, of an identifiable precursor, and of their mode of generation has been lacking. In this study, we have used immunolabeling against neuron-specific horseradish peroxidase and against Lachesin, a marker for differentiating epithelial cells, in combination with the nuclear stain DAPI, to identify the pioneers within the epithelium of the early embryonic antenna. We then track their delamination into the lumen as differentiated neurons. The pioneers are not labeled by the mesodermal/mesectodermal marker Mes3, consistent with an epithelial (ectodermal) origin. Intracellular dye injection, as well as labeling against the mitosis marker phospho-histone 3, identifies precursor cells in the epithelium, each associated with a column of cells. Culturing with the S-phase label 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) shows that both a precursor and its column have incorporated the label, confirming a lineage relationship. Each set of pioneers can be shown to belong to a separate lineage of such epithelial cells, and the precursors remain and are proliferative after generating the pioneers. Analyses of mitotic spindle orientation then enable us to propose a model in which a precursor generates its pioneers asymmetrically via self-renewal.

  4. Body Size Adaptations to Altitudinal Climatic Variation in Neotropical Grasshoppers of the Genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Altitudinal clines in body size can result from the effects of natural and sexual selection on growth rates and developing times in seasonal environments. Short growing and reproductive seasons constrain the body size that adults can attain and their reproductive success. Little is known about the effects of altitudinal climatic variation on the diversification of Neotropical insects. In central Mexico, in addition to altitude, highly heterogeneous topography generates diverse climates that can occur even at the same latitude. Altitudinal variation and heterogeneous topography open an opportunity to test the relative impact of climatic variation on body size adaptations. In this study, we investigated the relationship between altitudinal climatic variation and body size, and the divergence rates of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Neotropical grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium using a phylogenetic comparative approach. In order to distinguish the relative impact of natural and sexual selection on the diversification of the group, we also tracked the altitudinal distribution of the species and trends of both body size and SSD on the phylogeny of Sphenarium. The correlative evidence suggests no relationship between altitude and body size. However, larger species were associated with places having a warmer winter season in which the temporal window for development and reproduction can be longer. Nonetheless, the largest species were also associated with highly seasonal environments. Moreover, large body size and high levels of SSD have evolved independently several times throughout the history of the group and male body size has experienced a greater evolutionary divergence than females. These lines of evidence suggest that natural selection, associated with seasonality and sexual selection, on maturation time and body size could have enhanced the diversification of this insect group. PMID:26684616

  5. The methodological basis for determining individual characteristics of volleyball players at the stage of basic training specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to form and methodologically ground conception of individualization of training process in the playing types of sport. The algorithm of determination of individual features is presented in the structure of preparedness of skilled volley-ballers. In research 20 volley-ballers took part on the stage of the specialized base preparation. The stages of determination of command and individual factor structure of preparedness of sportswomen are presented. It is exposed that individual descriptions of volley-ballers and their line of business not always are related exceptionally to anthropometric information. Descriptions also depend and from the row of other physiological and психофизиологических indexes. These indexes for certain differentiate for the players of different line of role.

  6. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK INDIVIDU TERHADAP SIKAP GOOD FORESTRY GOVERNANCE DI TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO (The influence of individual characteristic toward attitude to Good Forestry Governance in Alas Purwo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Organisasi taman nasional di Indonesia mengalami berbagai permasalahan di berbagai simpul dan membutuhkan upaya perbaikan kelembagaan. Salah satu upaya pembenahan adalah perbaikan aspek perilaku organisasi yang mengarah kepada pembentukan good forestry governance. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan data dan penjelasan mengenai pengaruh karakteristik individu orang-orang yang bekerja di Taman Nasional (TN Alas Purwo terhadap sikap good forestry governance (GFG. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di TN Alas Purwo pada bulan November-Desember 2011 dengan menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Responden diambil secara purposive sampling terhadap personel TN Alas Purwo. Analisis data menggunakan uji regresi sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik individu berpengaruh terhadap sikap good forestry governance. Persamaan regresi yang dihasilkan adalah GFG = 27,449 + 0,463 KI dengan nilai adjusted R2 0,287. Manajemen TN Alas Purwo perlu menaikan kualitas karakteristik individu personel taman nasional dengan melakukan berbagai tindakan manajemen. Implikasi disain organisasi yang tepat untuk tindakan manajemen ini adalah struktur organisasi organik. ABSTRACT In Indonesia, most of national parks have encountered several problems, which need efforts to improve their management. good forestry governance (GFG is one conceptualisation that can be used to improve aspects of organizational behavior in the management of conservation areas. In this research, we obtain data and explanation about influence of the individual characteristic (KI of Alas Purwo National Park with GFG attitude. Using quantitative methods, this study was conducted between November-December  2011. The respondents were staff of Alas Purwo National Park who taken by purposively. We perform data analysis with a simple regression test. The results indicate that the GFG attitude affected individual characteristic. The model is GFG attitude = 27.449 + 0.463 KI with adjusted R2 0,287. We

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum isolates as microbial agents for locust and grasshopper control. Genbank Accession numbers FJ787311 to FJ787325

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing interest in the biological control of locusts and grasshoppers (Acrididae) has led to the development of biopesticides based on naturally occurring pathogens which offers an environmentally safe alternative to chemical pesticides. However, the fungal strains which are being sought for biop...

  8. The Grasshopper and the Taxonomer. Use of Song and Structure in Orthoptera Saltatoria for Teaching the Principles of Taxonomy. Part 1. Field and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the coordinated study of European grasshoppers as living specimens in the field and as permanent laboratory preparations for introducing taxonomic principles. Provides details for the preparation of specimens and sample instructions provided to students. Part I of a three-part series. (AL)

  9. Grasshopper populations inhabiting the B-C Cribs and REDOX Pond Sites, 200 Area Plateau, United States Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, J.K.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition, abundance, and food habits of grasshopper populations inhabiting the 200 Area plateau. Two sites were selected for detailed study, one near the B-C Cribs control zone and the other near the former REDOX Pond. A total of 14 grasshopper species were collected from the B-C Cribs study area and 16 species from the REDOX Pond area. Thirteen of these species occurred at both locations. Population density was low throughout most of the spring, increased in late May, and reached a peak of about 4 grasshoppers per square meter in early July. A dietary analysis showed that 7 of the 28 species of vascular plants recorded from the area were major components in grasshopper diets. These included needle-and-thread grass (Stipa comata), turpentine cymopterus (Cymopterus terebinthinus), Carey's balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana), western tansymustard (Descurainia pinnata), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissimum), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and green rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus). The plant most heavily utilized was big sagebrush, followed by turpentine cymopterus, green rabbitbrush, and Carey's balsamroot. Other species were less frequently eaten. Several plants were present in the diet at a much higher frequency than they occurred in the environment, indicating that they were preferred food items.

  10. Plant DNA detection from grasshopper guts: A step-by-step protocol, from tissue preparation to obtaining plant DNA sequences1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. • Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA) gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. • Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions. PMID:25202604

  11. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating the functional morphology of genitalia during copulation in the grasshopper Melanoplus rotundipennis (Scudder, 1878) via correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Derek A; Song, Hojun

    2017-03-01

    We investigated probable functions of the interacting genitalic components of a male and a female of the flightless grasshopper species Melanoplus rotundipennis (Scudder, 1878) (frozen rapidly during copulation) via correlative microscopy; in this case, by synergizing micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with digital single lens reflex camera photography with focal stacking, and scanning electron microscopy. To assign probable functions, we combined imaging results with observations of live and museum specimens, and function hypotheses from previous studies, the majority of which focused on museum specimens with few investigating hypotheses in a physical framework of copulation. For both sexes, detailed descriptions are given for each of the observed genitalic and other reproductive system components, the majority of which are involved in copulation, and we assigned probable functions to these latter components. The correlative microscopy approach is effective for examining functional morphology in grasshoppers, so we suggest its use for other animals as well, especially when investigating body regions or events that are difficult to access and understand otherwise, as shown here with genitalia and copulation. J. Morphol. 278:334-359, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Neurochemical Architecture of the Central Complex Related to Its Function in the Control of Grasshopper Acoustic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Michael; Pförtner, Ramona; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Heinrich, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The central complex selects and coordinates the species- and situation-specific song production in acoustically communicating grasshoppers. Control of sound production is mediated by several neurotransmitters and modulators, their receptors and intracellular signaling pathways. It has previously been shown that muscarinic cholinergic excitation in the central complex promotes sound production whereas both GABA and nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling suppress its performance. The present immunocytochemical and pharmacological study investigates the question whether GABA and nitric oxide mediate inhibition of sound production independently. Muscarinic ACh receptors are expressed by columnar output neurons of the central complex that innervate the lower division of the central body and terminate in the lateral accessory lobes. GABAergic tangential neurons that innervate the lower division of the central body arborize in close proximity of columnar neurons and thus may directly inhibit these central complex output neurons. A subset of these GABAergic tangential neurons accumulates cyclic GMP following the release of nitric oxide from neurites in the upper division of the central body. While sound production stimulated by muscarine injection into the central complex is suppressed by co-application of sodium nitroprusside, picrotoxin-stimulated singing was not affected by co-application of this nitric oxide donor, indicating that nitric oxide mediated inhibition requires functional GABA signaling. Hence, grasshopper sound production is controlled by processing of information in the lower division of the central body which is subject to modulation by nitric oxide released from neurons in the upper division. PMID:21980504

  14. Completion in Vocational and Academic Upper Secondary School: The Importance of School Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehlen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    A vast amount of research is devoted to identifying factors that predict early school leaving. However, there is no simple explanation because the results show that young people leave education prematurely for various reasons, such as their level of school involvement, their background characteristics and different school systems. This article…

  15. Graduate Students' Poster Session Experiences: Do Levels of Academic Self-Efficacy and Individual Characteristics Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the effectiveness of poster session presentations as an alternative to traditional presentations in the public administration classroom. It also determined if graduate students' college academic self-efficacy and background characteristics impacted poster performance outcomes. Data were collected over four…

  16. Comparison of in vitro cell binding characteristics of four monoclonal antibodies and their individual tumor localization properties in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.M.; Johnstone, R.W.; Russell, S.M.; McKenzie, I.F.; Pietersz, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Although many antibodies are being used for imaging studies, it is not clear which in vitro properties of antibodies will best reflect their in vivo characteristics. The ability to correlate in vitro binding characteristics of monoclonal antibodies to tumor antigens with their in vivo localization characteristics, particularly with respect to tumor localization properties, is desirable for rapid selection of monoclonal antibodies with potential for clinical use. The in vitro binding characteristics of three monoclonal antibodies to the murine Ly-2.1 antigen and one to the Ly-3.1 antigen have been studied on cultured tumor cells bearing these antigens. The association and dissociation rate constants, apparent affinity, and immunoreactivity of each antibody in vitro were compared with their ability to localize the s.c. tumors from the same cell line growing in Ly-2.1-/Ly-3.1-mice. The antibody with the highest affinity and fastest association rate localized to tumor at the earliest time (16-20 h after injection) and had the highest percentage of the injected dose/g in the tumor (greater than 25%). The antibody with the lowest affinity showed significantly less localization to tumor cells, compared with the other three antibodies. The ranking of the antibodies by affinity agreed with the ranking in terms of their ability to localize to tumors, but the in vitro immunoreactivity of the antibodies, as measured by a cell binding assay, did not correlate with their tumor localization properties. Immunoscintigraphic studies did not precisely correlate with biodistribution data or in vitro binding characteristics, because tumors could be satisfactorily imaged with each antibody, although it was noted that the antibody with the highest affinity gave the best image

  17. Incorporating Learning Characteristics into Automatic Essay Scoring Models: What Individual Differences and Linguistic Features Tell Us about Writing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, Laura K.; Snow, Erica L.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a novel approach to automatically assessing essay quality that combines natural language processing approaches that assess text features with approaches that assess individual differences in writers such as demographic information, standardized test scores, and survey results. The results demonstrate that combining text…

  18. Individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning in a forensic addiction treatment centre: Prevalence and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, I.; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding substance-related problems and offending behavior in individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MBID; IQ 50-85) has increased over the last years, but is still limited. The present study examined differences in prevalence and clinical

  19. Predictors of Resilience in Abused and Neglected Children Grown-Up: The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMont, Kimberly A.; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines individual, family, and neighborhood level predictors of resilience in adolescence and young adulthood and describes changes in resilience over time from adolescence to young adulthood in abused and neglected children grown up. Method: We use documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (n = 676)…

  20. Analyzing Learner Characteristics, Undergraduate Experience and Individual Teamwork Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Toward Identifying Themes to Promote Higher Workforce Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Consuelo V.

    2009-01-01

    With the world amidst globalization and economic flux affecting business, industry, and communities the need to work together becomes increasingly important. Higher education serves an important role in developing the individual teaming capabilities of the workforce. This environment is the time and place--opportunity for student personnel to…

  1. DIFFERENCES OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTITUDES OF EMPLOYED INDIVIDUALS TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS BY THEIR DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BENLİ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reckless consumption of nature to respond to any need has led to the disruption of natural balance and nearly extinction of environmental resources. Environmental problems created by the damage to the structure of nature not only affect the ecological system, but also pose an immense challenge for human health. Hence, the consumers who have become aware that resources and living spaces to maintain their living conditions have been increasingly declining are inclined to adopt a more sensitive attitude in consumption process. Businesses have also turned to green advertising for the promotion of their products and services to strengthen their presence and elude competition with other businesses under these circumstances. This study aims to identify the factors that affect the consumer attitudes of the employed individuals on green advertisements for the businesses, and examine their differences according to demographic features. The reason for the selection of employed individuals is assumption that they will be effective of consumers having purchasing income especially in qualified green product purchasing decisions. The questionnaire form designed for this purpose was conducted on 400 individuals selected through convenience sampling method among people living in central district of Kastamonu. It was found that the factors affecting these employed individuals attitudes towards green product advertisements significantly differ according to gender, marital status, age, education and occupation

  2. Analysis of the Effect of Individual Characteristics, Employees’ Competency and Organizational Climate on Job Satisfaction and Employees’ Performance at a State-Owned Trading Company in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAIFUDDIN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction and employees’ performance are important for the organization to improve the company's competitive value. This research aims to know the influence of individual characteristic, employees’ competency and organizational climate toward job satisfaction and its implication on employees’ performance. The research method used in this research is cross sectional survey. The population of this research was from 4 cities with a total sample of 51 employees. Moreover, this research applied structural equation modeling with Partial Least Square approach for analyzing the data. The results showed that individual characteristics do not effect on job satisfaction, while employees’ competency and organizational climate have a significant effect on job satisfaction. Then, job satisfaction has a significant effect on employees’ performance. It is necessary to conduct training and education programs along with flexible structural support and adequate rewards for the employees to improve the job satisfaction. Those aspects are expected to improve the employees’ performance.

  3. Towards a better understanding of unethical consumer behavior : the influence of individual characteristics, situational circumstances and emotional experiences in consumers' ethical decision-making processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steenhaut, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    In sum, we may conclude that – although many questions are still to be resolved – the present dissertation contributes to a better understanding of unethical consumer behavior by further enhancing the theory development of consumers’ ethical decision-making processes by conceiving and testing (1) additional individual characteristics, (2) situational circumstances, and (3) emotional experiences (along with other issue-related influences), and considering the potential mediating and moderating...

  4. Post- and peritraumatic stress in disaster survivors: an explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Examination of existing research on posttraumatic adjustment after disasters suggests that survivors’ posttraumatic stress levels might be better understood by investigating the influence of the characteristics of the event experienced on how people thought and felt, during the event as well as afterwards. Objective : To compare survivors’ perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions across different types of disasters. Additionally, to investigate individual and event characteristics. Design : In a European multi-centre study, 102 survivors of different disasters terror attack, flood, fire and collapse of a building were interviewed about their responses during the event. Survivors’ perceived posttraumatic stress levels were assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Peritraumatic emotional stress and risk perception were rated retrospectively. Influences of individual characteristics, such as socio-demographic data, and event characteristics, such as time and exposure factors, on post- and peritraumatic outcomes were analyzed. Results : Levels of reported post- and peritraumatic outcomes differed significantly between types of disasters. Type of disaster was a significant predictor of all three outcome variables but the factors gender, education, time since event, injuries and fatalities were only significant for certain outcomes. Conclusion : Results support the hypothesis that there are differences in perceived post- and peritraumatic emotional and cognitive reactions after experiencing different types of disasters. However, it should be noted that these findings were not only explained by the type of disaster itself but also by individual and event characteristics. As the study followed an explorative approach, further research paths are discussed to better understand the relationships between variables.

  5. Effects of Intensive Crew Training on Individual and Collective Characteristics of Oar Movement in Rowing as a Coxless Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Feigean

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined how two rowers adapted their rowing patterns following crew training as a newly formed coxless pair. The two participants were expert (double-oar single scull-boat rowers. Performing as a crew in the coxless-pair’s sweep-boat, where each rower operates a single oar, on-the-water data were collected before and after a 6-week intensive team-training program. Rowing patterns were characterized by the horizontal oar angle, oar angular velocity and linear oar-water velocity profiles during the catch (minimal oar angle to finish (maximal oar angle half-cycles of the propulsive water phase. After crew training, rowers demonstrated a tighter synchronization and a closer correspondence in oar angle at the moment of catch, together with a closer matching of the evolution over time of their subsequent oar movements. Most likely due to the inherent asymmetries involved in sweep-boat rowing, the stroke rower also developed a somewhat longer-duration larger-amplitude oar movement than the bow rower. Remarkably, both rowers revealed changes in the inter-cycle variability of their individual patterns of rowing. While the initially more variable stroke rower improved the consistency of his rowing pattern over practice, the initially highly consistent bow rower on the contrary relaxed his tendency to always perform in the same way. We discuss how the crew performance changed over training and to what extent it was associated with changes in individual behaviors. Along the way we demonstrate that the often-used measure of average continuous relative phase does not adequately capture the particularities of the coordination pattern observed. Overall, the results obtained at the individual level of analysis suggest that team benefits were obtained through distinct adaptations of the rowers’ individual rowing patterns.

  6. Individual Neurons Confined to Distinct Antennal-Lobe Tracts in the Heliothine Moth: Morphological Characteristics and Global Projection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Zhao, Xin C.; Lande, Andreas; Berg, Bente G.

    2016-01-01

    To explore fundamental principles characterizing chemosensory information processing, we have identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the heliothine moth, including several neuron types not previously described. Generally, odor information is conveyed from the primary olfactory center of the moth brain, the antennal lobe, to higher brain centers via projection neuron axons passing along several parallel pathways, of which the medial, mediolateral, and lateral antennal-lobe tract are considered the classical ones. Recent data have revealed the projections of the individual tracts more in detail demonstrating three main target regions in the protocerebrum; the calyces are innervated mainly by the medial tract, the superior intermediate protocerebrum by the lateral tract exclusively, and the lateral horn by all tracts. In the present study, we have identified, via iontophoretic intracellular staining combined with confocal microscopy, individual projection neurons confined to the tracts mentioned above, plus two additional ones. Further, using the visualization software AMIRA, we reconstructed the stained neurons and registered the models into a standard brain atlas, which allowed us to compare the termination areas of individual projection neurons both across and within distinct tracts. The data demonstrate a morphological diversity of the projection neurons within distinct tracts. Comparison of the output areas of the neurons confined to the three main tracts in the lateral horn showed overlapping terminal regions for the medial and mediolateral tracts; the lateral tract neurons, on the contrary, targeted mostly other output areas in the protocerebrum. PMID:27822181

  7. The effects of dust–haze on mortality are modified by seasons and individual characteristics in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong Hui; Xu, Yan Jun; Lin, Hua Liang; Xu, Xiao Jun; Luo, Yuan; Xiao, JianPeng; Zeng, Wei Lin; Zhang, Wan Fang; Chu, Cordia; Keogh, Kandice; Rutherford, Shannon; Qian, Zhengmin; Du, Yao Dong

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dust–haze on mortality and to estimate the seasonal and individual-specific modification effects in Guangzhou, China. Mortality, air pollution and meteorological data were collected for 2006–2011. A dust–haze day was defined as daily visibility 10 . We concluded that dust–haze significantly increased mortality risk in Guangzhou, China, and this effect appears to be dominated by particulate mass and modified by season and individual-specific factors. - Highlights: • We assessed the health impact of dust–haze in a megacity of southern China. • A dust–haze was defined according to visibility and relative humidity. • Dust–haze increased mortality risk, which may be dominated by particulate mass. • The dust–haze effects were modified by season and individual-specific factors. - This study extends our understanding of the health impact of dust–haze in southern China, and provides local evidence for health to advocate for improved air emissions control and strategies to reduce population exposure

  8. An individual differences approach to multiple-target visual search errors: How search errors relate to different characteristics of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Stephen H; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    A persistent problem in visual search is that searchers are more likely to miss a target if they have already found another in the same display. This phenomenon, the Subsequent Search Miss (SSM) effect, has remained despite being a known issue for decades. Increasingly, evidence supports a resource depletion account of SSM errors-a previously detected target consumes attentional resources leaving fewer resources available for the processing of a second target. However, "attention" is broadly defined and is composed of many different characteristics, leaving considerable uncertainty about how attention affects second-target detection. The goal of the current study was to identify which attentional characteristics (i.e., selection, limited capacity, modulation, and vigilance) related to second-target misses. The current study compared second-target misses to an attentional blink task and a vigilance task, which both have established measures that were used to operationally define each of four attentional characteristics. Second-target misses in the multiple-target search were correlated with (1) a measure of the time it took for the second target to recovery from the blink in the attentional blink task (i.e., modulation), and (2) target sensitivity (d') in the vigilance task (i.e., vigilance). Participants with longer recovery and poorer vigilance had more second-target misses in the multiple-target visual search task. The results add further support to a resource depletion account of SSM errors and highlight that worse modulation and poor vigilance reflect a deficit in attentional resources that can account for SSM errors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of dust–haze on mortality are modified by seasons and individual characteristics in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Zhang, Yong Hui [Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Xu, Yan Jun [Institute of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Control, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Lin, Hua Liang [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Xu, Xiao Jun [Institute of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Control, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Luo, Yuan; Xiao, JianPeng; Zeng, Wei Lin [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430 (China); Zhang, Wan Fang [Liwan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 510176 (China); Chu, Cordia; Keogh, Kandice; Rutherford, Shannon [Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Du, Yao Dong [Climate Center of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510080 (China); others, and

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dust–haze on mortality and to estimate the seasonal and individual-specific modification effects in Guangzhou, China. Mortality, air pollution and meteorological data were collected for 2006–2011. A dust–haze day was defined as daily visibility <10 km with relative humidity <90%. This definition was further divided into light (8–10 km), medium (5–8 km) and heavy dust–haze (<5 km). A distributed lag linear model (DLM) was employed. Light, medium and heavy dust–haze days were associated with increased mortality of 3.4%, 6.8% and 10.4% respectively, at a lag of 0–6 days. This effect was more pronounced during the cold season, for cardiovascular mortality (CVD), respiratory mortality (RESP), in males and people ≥60years. These effects became insignificant after adjustment for PM{sub 10}. We concluded that dust–haze significantly increased mortality risk in Guangzhou, China, and this effect appears to be dominated by particulate mass and modified by season and individual-specific factors. - Highlights: • We assessed the health impact of dust–haze in a megacity of southern China. • A dust–haze was defined according to visibility and relative humidity. • Dust–haze increased mortality risk, which may be dominated by particulate mass. • The dust–haze effects were modified by season and individual-specific factors. - This study extends our understanding of the health impact of dust–haze in southern China, and provides local evidence for health to advocate for improved air emissions control and strategies to reduce population exposure.

  10. Electrophysiological analysis of the cognitive component of social creativity in young males and females with different individual characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakyan, O. S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the problem of studying social creativity from the psychophysiological perspective. Presented here are the first experimental records of studying the cognitive component of social activity. This article describes the peculiar hemispheric activity during the resolution of interpersonal problems by students of different individual peculiarities and professional achievement levels. The author shows that when the solution to a verbal divergent task by young males and females of high creativity and professional achievement is reached, the frequency-spatial EEG indexes are higher in the parietal and frontal brain regions. In the solution of a convergent task, these indexes are higher in the frontal, central and cervical brain zones. In case of young males and females of low creativity and average and low levels of professional achievement, the solution of a convergent task is accompanied by increased EEG power in the central, frontal, parietal zones of both hemispheres. Thus, the assessment of the psychophysiological mechanisms of the cognitive component in social activity has shown that a definite picture of hemispheric activation stipulates the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various levels of creativity and professional success. This difference, revealed at the initial stage of investigation, demands a deeper study of the phenomenon of social creativity in the professional training of a personality that is inclusive of this personality’s individual peculiarities.

  11. Characteristics of individuals receiving disability benefits in the Netherlands and predictors of leaving the disability benefit scheme: a retrospective cohort study with five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Ilse; Huysmans, Maaike A; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R

    2018-01-18

    Today, work disability is one of the greatest social and labour market challenges for policy makers in most OECD countries, where on average, about 6% of the working-age population relies on disability benefits. Understanding of factors associated with long-term work disability may be helpful to identify groups of individuals at risk for disability benefit entitlement or continuing eligibility, and to develop effective interventions for these groups. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the main diagnoses of workers who qualify for disability benefits and how these diagnoses differ in age, gender and education. Using a five-year follow-up, we examined the duration of disability benefits and how durations differ among individuals with various characteristics. We performed a cohort study of 31,733 individuals receiving disability benefits from the Dutch Social Security Institute (SSI) with a five-year follow-up. Data were collected from SSI databases. Information about disorders was assessed by an insurance physician upon benefit application. These data were used to test for significant relationships among socio-demographics, main diagnoses and comorbidity, and disability benefit entitlement and continuing eligibility. Mental disorders were the most frequent diagnosis for individuals claiming work disability. Diagnoses differed among age groups and education categories. Mental disorders were the main diagnosis for work disability for younger and more highly educated individuals, and physical disorders (generally musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and cancer) were the main diagnosis for older and less educated individuals. In 82% of the claims, the duration of disability benefit was five years or more after approval. Outflow was lowest for individuals with (multiple) mental disorders and those with comorbidity of mental and physical disorders, and highest for individuals with (multiple) physical disorders. The main diagnosis for persons entitled to

  12. How Preferences for Public Participation are Linked to Perceptions of the Context, Preferences for Outcomes, and Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuler, Seth; Webler, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Practitioners and stakeholders involved in environmental and risk assessment and decision-making efforts have access to a growing list of policies and guidance for implementing good process. The advice is often general. There is little understanding of how situation specific features are relevant in new circumstances. In a series of ten case studies we investigated how people’s (a) perceptions of the context, (b) preferences for outcomes, and (c) affiliations, experiences and motivations are related to their preferences for process features in a particular situation. The cases are in three policy areas: watershed management, forestry management, and clean-up and public health management of radioactively contaminated sites. We conclude this paper with a discussion of how the results can inform process design. Process design should be based on a diagnostic approach that specifically assesses relevant situational characteristics.

  13. Barriers to the use of research-based instructional strategies: The influence of both individual and situational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Many proven research-based instructional strategies have been developed for introductory college-level physics. Significant efforts to disseminate these strategies have focused on convincing individual instructors to give up their traditional practices in favor of particular research-based practices. Yet evidence suggests that the findings of educational research are, at best, only marginally incorporated into typical introductory physics courses. In this paper we present partial results of an interview study designed to generate new ideas about why proven strategies are slow to integrate in mainstream instruction. Specifically we describe the results of open-ended interviews with five physics instructors who represent likely users of educational research. We found that these instructors have conceptions about teaching and learning that are more compatible with educational research than with their self-described instructional practices. Instructors often blamed this discrepancy on situational factors that favor traditional instruction. A theoretical model is introduced to explain these findings.

  14. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  15. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km 2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  16. A novel adipokinetic peptide from the corpus cardiacum of the primitive caeliferan pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Caelifera, Tetrigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, Gerd; Šimek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2015-06-01

    The basal caeliferan family Tetrigidae is investigated to identify neuropeptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family. The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata contains in its corpus cardiacum two octapeptides as revealed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The less abundant peptide is the well-known Schgr-AKH-II (pELNFSTGW amide) which is suggested to be the ancestral AKH of Caelifera and Ensifera. The second peptide, Tetsu-AKH (pEFNFTPGW amide), is novel and quite unusual with its third aromatic residue at position 2. It is thought to be autapomorphic for Caelifera. Tetsu-AKH has hyperlipemic activity in T. subulata and in Schistocerca gregaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual differences in destructive capability and midgut enzyme activities in adult variegated grasshoppers Zonocerus variegatus (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademolu Kehinde O.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The variegated grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus is a polyphagous insect, feeding on numerous food and cash crops. The present study aimed to investigate the sexual variations in the destructive capability of the adult insects and the composition of leaves damaged by them, as well as in the levels of midgut microbial flora and digestive enzymes (cellulase, amylase and α-glucosidase. The results showed that females consumed and caused more damage to cassava leaves than their male congeners. The leaves damaged by males contained more nutrients than those damaged by females. The gut microbial flora and enzyme assay showed that females had significantly larger colony forming units and a non-significant difference in enzyme activities. It can thus be concluded that adult females are more destructive than males.

  18. Comparative analysis of chromosomal localization of ribosomal and telomeric DNA markers in three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya G. Buleu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers were studied: Zonocerus elegans (Thunberg, 1815, Pyrgomorpha guentheri (Burr, 1899 and Atractomorpha lata (Mochulsky, 1866. Data on karyotypes of P. guentheri and Z. elegans are reported here for the first time. All species have karyotypes consisting of 19 acrocentric chromosomes in males and 20 acrocentric chromosomes in females (2n♂=19, NF=19; 2n♀=20, NF=20 and X0/XX sex determination system. A comparative analysis of the localization of C-heterochromatin, clusters of ribosomal DNA, and telomere repeats revealed inter-species diversity in these cytogenetic markers. These differences indicate that the karyotype divergence in the species studied is not associated with structural chromosome rearrangements, but with the evolution of repeated DNA sequences.

  19. Correlates of adolescent sleep time and variability in sleep time: the role of individual and health related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melisa; Kirchner, H Lester; Drotar, Dennis; Johnson, Nathan; Rosen, Carol; Redline, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Adolescents are predisposed to short sleep duration and irregular sleep patterns due to certain host characteristics (e.g., age, pubertal status, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and neighborhood distress) and health-related variables (e.g., ADHD, asthma, birth weight, and BMI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between such variables and actigraphic measures of sleep duration and variability. Cross-sectional study of 247 adolescents (48.5% female, 54.3% ethnic minority, mean age of 13.7years) involved in a larger community-based cohort study. Significant univariate predictors of sleep duration included gender, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent income, and BMI. In multivariate models, gender, minority status, and BMI were significantly associated with sleep duration (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more sleep. Univariate models demonstrated that age, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent education, parent income, pubertal status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time. In the multivariate model, age, minority status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more regular sleep. These data show differences in sleep patterns in population sub-groups of adolescents which may be important in understanding pediatric health risk profiles. Sub-groups that may particularly benefit from interventions aimed at improving sleep patterns include boys, overweight, and minority adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Marked heterogeneity in growth characteristics of myoblast clonal cultures and myoblast mixed cultures obtained from the same individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrea B; Cohen, Ron; Blom, Joke; van Heemst, Diana; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as an age-related decrease in skeletal muscle mass and function while adjacent satellite cells are unable to compensate for this loss. However, myoblast cultures can be established even in the presence of sarcopenia. It is yet unknown whether satellite cells from failing muscle in older age are equally affected, as human satellite cells have been assessed using myoblast mixed cultures and not by using myoblast clonal cultures. We questioned to what extent myoblast mixed cultures reflect the in vivo characteristics of single satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle. We established a myoblast mixed culture and three myoblast clonal cultures out of the same muscle biopsy and cultured these cells for 100 days. Replicative capacity and oxidative stress resistance were compared. We found marked heterogeneity between the myoblast clonal cultures that all had a significantly lower replicative capacity when compared to the mixed culture. Replicative capacity of the clonal cultures was inversely related to the β-galactosidase activity after exposure to oxidative stress. Addition of L-carnosine enhanced the remaining replicative capacity in all cultures with a concomitant marginal decrease in β-galactosidase activity. It is concluded that myoblast mixed cultures in vitro do not reflect the marked heterogeneity between single isolated satellite cells. The consequences of the heterogeneity on muscle performance remain to be established. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and behaviours of individuals with newly diagnosed HIV infection: a multicentre study in north Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, S; Suligoi, B; Camoni, L; Pavan, A; Macchi, L; Capelli, M; Paraninfo, G; Compostella, S; Castelli, F; Carosi, G; Donato, F

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to investigate socio-demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics and behaviours of subjects with new HIV diagnosis. We carried out a multi-centre cross-sectional study comprising 17 infectious diseases units in the Lombardy Region, North Italy. All subjects with a first positive test for HIV infection examined in 2008-09 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. 472 patients were enrolled (mean age 39.8 years, standard deviation [SD] 11.5), mostly males (78%), and born in Italy (77%). The most common routes of HIV transmission were heterosexual intercourse (49%) and sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) (40%). Never/sometimes use of a condom with occasional partners was associated with male gender, heterosexual transmission route, and with >10 sexual partners in their lifetime. 47% had previous HIV negative tests. Having had more than 2 previous HIV negative tests was associated with younger age, MSM transmission route, CD4+ lymphocyte count >350/microl and self-perception of risk. This study shows that there is a large portion of the adult population, especially heterosexual men aged 45 years and over, who are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection and undergoing the HIV diagnostic test late, due to risk behaviours combined with a low perception of being at risk. Compared to people infected by heterosexual contacts, MSM show a greater awareness of being at risk of infection, but this knowledge has a low impact in reducing at-risk behaviours.

  2. Psychosocial Work Environment, Stress Factors and Individual Characteristics among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric In-Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvesson Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics—Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience—are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff’s perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.

  3. Molecular evidence for an old world origin of Galapagos and Caribbean band-winged grasshoppers (Acrididae: Oedipodinae: Sphingonotus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Husemann

    Full Text Available Patterns of colonization and diversification on islands provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes. Due to their unique geographic position and well known history, the Galapagos Islands are an important model system for evolutionary studies. Here we investigate the evolutionary history of a winged grasshopper genus to infer its origin and pattern of colonization in the Galapagos archipelago. The grasshopper genus Sphingonotus has radiated extensively in the Palaearctic and many species are endemic to islands. In the New World, the genus is largely replaced by the genus Trimerotropis. Oddly, in the Caribbean and on the Galapagos archipelago, two species of Sphingonotus are found, which has led to the suggestion that these might be the result of anthropogenic translocations from Europe. Here, we test this hypothesis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from a broad sample of Sphingonotini and Trimerotropini species from the Old World and New World. The genetic data show two distinct genetic clusters representing the New World Trimerotropini and the Old World Sphingonotini. However, the Sphingonotus species from Galapagos and the Caribbean split basally within the Old World Sphingonotini lineage. The Galapagos and Caribbean species appear to be related to Old World taxa, but are not the result of recent anthropogenic translocations as revealed by divergence time estimates. Distinct genetic lineages occur on the four investigated Galapagos Islands, with deep splits among them compared to their relatives from the Palaearctic. A scenario of a past wider distribution of Sphingonotus in the New World with subsequent extinction on the mainland and replacement by Trimerotropis might explain the disjunct distribution.

  4. Molecular evidence for an old world origin of Galapagos and Caribbean band-winged grasshoppers (Acrididae: Oedipodinae: Sphingonotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, Martin; Habel, Jan Christian; Namkung, Suk; Hochkirch, Axel; Otte, Daniel; Danley, Patrick D

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of colonization and diversification on islands provide valuable insights into evolutionary processes. Due to their unique geographic position and well known history, the Galapagos Islands are an important model system for evolutionary studies. Here we investigate the evolutionary history of a winged grasshopper genus to infer its origin and pattern of colonization in the Galapagos archipelago. The grasshopper genus Sphingonotus has radiated extensively in the Palaearctic and many species are endemic to islands. In the New World, the genus is largely replaced by the genus Trimerotropis. Oddly, in the Caribbean and on the Galapagos archipelago, two species of Sphingonotus are found, which has led to the suggestion that these might be the result of anthropogenic translocations from Europe. Here, we test this hypothesis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from a broad sample of Sphingonotini and Trimerotropini species from the Old World and New World. The genetic data show two distinct genetic clusters representing the New World Trimerotropini and the Old World Sphingonotini. However, the Sphingonotus species from Galapagos and the Caribbean split basally within the Old World Sphingonotini lineage. The Galapagos and Caribbean species appear to be related to Old World taxa, but are not the result of recent anthropogenic translocations as revealed by divergence time estimates. Distinct genetic lineages occur on the four investigated Galapagos Islands, with deep splits among them compared to their relatives from the Palaearctic. A scenario of a past wider distribution of Sphingonotus in the New World with subsequent extinction on the mainland and replacement by Trimerotropis might explain the disjunct distribution.

  5. Inferring the demographic history of an oligophagous grasshopper: Effects of climatic niche stability and host-plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J; Ortego, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of past environmental changes on the abiotic and biotic components of the landscape and deciphering their impacts on the demographic trajectories of species is a major issue in evolutionary biogeography. In this study, we combine nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to study the phylogeographical structure and lineage-specific demographic histories of the scrub-legume grasshopper (Chorthippus binotatus binotatus), a montane taxon distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and France that exclusively feeds on certain scrub-legume species. Genetic data and paleo-distribution modelling indicate the presence of four main lineages that seem to have diverged in allopatry and long-term persisted in Iberian and French refugia since the Mid Pleistocene. Comparisons of different demographic hypotheses in an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework supported a population bottleneck in the northwestern French clade and paleo-distribution modelling indicate that the populations of this lineage have experienced more severe environmental fluctuations during the last 21 000 years than those from the Iberian Peninsula. Accordingly, we found that nuclear genetic diversity of the populations of scrub-legume grasshopper is positively associated with local stability of suitable habitats defined by both Pleistocene climate changes and historical distributional shifts of host-plant species. Overall, our study highlights the importance of integrating the potential effects of abiotic (i.e. climate and geography) and biotic components (i.e. inter-specific interactions) into the study of the evolutionary and demographic history of specialist taxa with narrow ecological requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Camouflage Effects of Various Colour-Marking Morphs against Different Microhabitat Backgrounds in a Polymorphic Pygmy Grasshopper Tetrix japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurui, Kaori; Honma, Atsushi; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Background Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). Methodology/Principal Findings Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1) do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2) are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3) does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? Conclusions/Significance The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass), although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of body colouration

  7. Influence of different envelope maskers on signal recognition and neuronal representation in the auditory system of a grasshopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Neuhofer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals that communicate by sound face the problem that the signals arriving at the receiver often are degraded and masked by noise. Frequency filters in the receiver's auditory system may improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by excluding parts of the spectrum which are not occupied by the species-specific signals. This solution, however, is hardly amenable to species that produce broad band signals or have ears with broad frequency tuning. In mammals auditory filters exist that work in the temporal domain of amplitude modulations (AM. Do insects also use this type of filtering? PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combining behavioural and neurophysiological experiments we investigated whether AM filters may improve the recognition of masked communication signals in grasshoppers. The AM pattern of the sound, its envelope, is crucial for signal recognition in these animals. We degraded the species-specific song by adding random fluctuations to its envelope. Six noise bands were used that differed in their overlap with the spectral content of the song envelope. If AM filters contribute to reduced masking, signal recognition should depend on the degree of overlap between the song envelope spectrum and the noise spectra. Contrary to this prediction, the resistance against signal degradation was the same for five of six masker bands. Most remarkably, the band with the strongest frequency overlap to the natural song envelope (0-100 Hz impaired acceptance of degraded signals the least. To assess the noise filter capacities of single auditory neurons, the changes of spike trains as a function of the masking level were assessed. Increasing levels of signal degradation in different frequency bands led to similar changes in the spike trains in most neurones. CONCLUSIONS: There is no indication that auditory neurones of grasshoppers are specialized to improve the SNR with respect to the pattern of amplitude modulations.

  8. Camouflage effects of various colour-marking morphs against different microhabitat backgrounds in a polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurui, Kaori; Honma, Atsushi; Nishida, Takayoshi

    2010-07-06

    Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1) do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2) are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3) does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass), although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of body colouration and other fitness components, providing a better understanding of

  9. Camouflage effects of various colour-marking morphs against different microhabitat backgrounds in a polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Tsurui

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds, as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey.Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1 do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2 are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3 does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis?The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass, although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of body colouration and other fitness components, providing a better

  10. Role of Parent and Peer Relationships and Individual Characteristics in Middle School Children's Behavioral Outcomes in the Face of Community Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines processes linking inner-city community violence exposure to subsequent internalizing and externalizing problems. Hypothesized risk and protective factors from three ecological domains -- children's parent and peer relationships and individual characteristics -- were examined for mediating, moderating or independent roles in predicting problem behavior among 667 children over three years of middle school. Mediation was not found. However, parent and peer variables moderated the association between exposure and internalizing problems. Under high exposure, normally protective factors (e.g., attachment to parents) were less effective in mitigating exposure's effects than under low exposure; attachment to friends was more effective. Individual competence was independently associated with decreased internalizing problems. Variables from all domains, and exposure, were independently associated with externalizing problems. Protective factors (e.g., parent attachment) predicted decreased problems; risk factors (e.g., friends' delinquency) predicted increased problems. Results indicate community violence reduction as essential in averting inner-city adolescents' poor behavioral outcomes. PMID:21643493

  11. Linear dose-response of acentric chromosome fragments down to 1 R of x-rays in grasshopper neuroblasts, a potential mutagen-test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaulden, M.E.; Read, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    Grasshopper-embryo neuroblasts have no spontaneous chromosome breakage; therefore they permit easy detection of agents that break chromosomes. An X-ray exposure of 1 R induces in them a detectable number of chromosome fragments. The dose-response of acentric fragment frequency fits a linear model between 0 and 128 R. Thus another cell type is added to those previously demonstrated to have no threshold dose for the induction of chromosome or gene mutations

  12. Postural Control Characteristics during Single Leg Standing of Individuals with a History of Ankle Sprain: Measurements Obtained Using a Gravicorder and Head and Foot Accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yota; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to validate the postural control characteristics of individuals with a history of ankle sprain during single leg standing by using a gravicorder and head and foot accelerometry. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and total path lengths, as well as root mean square (RMS) of each length, were calculated using the gravicorder. The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant acceleration of the head and foot were measured using accelerometers and were evaluated as the ratio of the acceleration of the head to the foot. [Results] There was no significant difference between the two groups in path length or RMS acceleration of the head and foot. However, the ratios of the mediolateral and resultant components were significantly higher in the sprain group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of ankle sprain have a higher head-to-foot acceleration ratio and different postural control characteristics than those of control subjects.

  13. Individual and household characteristics of persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sites with varying endemicities in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Levitz, Lauren; Thwai, Kyaw L; Parr, Jonathan B; Goel, Varun; Janko, Mark; Tshefu, Antoinette; Emch, Michael; Meshnick, Steven R; Carrel, Margaret

    2017-11-09

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) bears a large share of global malaria burden despite efforts to control and eliminate the disease. More detailed understanding of individual and household level characteristics associated with malaria are needed, as is an understanding of how these characteristics vary spatiotemporally and across different community-level malaria endemicities. An ongoing study in Kinshasa Province is designed to address gaps in prior malaria surveillance in the DRC by monitoring malaria across seasons, age groups and in high and low malaria sites. Across seven sites, 242 households and 1591 individuals are participating in the study. Results of the enrollment questionnaire, rapid diagnostic tests and PCR testing of dried blood spots are presented. Overall malaria prevalence in the study cohort is high, 27% by rapid diagnostic test and 31% by polymerase chain reaction, and malaria prevalence is highly varied across very small geographic distances. Malaria prevalence is highest in children aged 6-15. While the majority of households own bed nets, bed net usage is less than 50%. The study cohort will provide an understanding of how malaria persists in populations that have varying environmental exposures, varying community-level malaria, and varying access to malaria control efforts.

  14. Biological and ecological evidences suggest Stipa krylovii (Pooideae), contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X B; McNeill, M R; Ma, J C; Qin, X H; Tu, X B; Cao, G C; Wang, G J; Nong, X Q; Zhang, Z H

    2017-06-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus Bey. Bienko is a significant grasshopper pest species occurring in north Asian grasslands. Outbreaks often result in significant loss in grasses and economic losses. Interestingly, we found this grasshopper was mainly restricted to Stipa-dominated grassland. We suspected this may be related to the dominant grasses species, Stipa krylovii Roshev, and hypothesized that S. krylovii contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of O. asiaticus. A 4 year investigation showed that O. asiaticus density was positively correlated to the above-ground biomass of S. krylovii and O. asiaticus growth performance variables (survival rate, size, growth rate) were significantly higher in Stipa-dominated grassland. A feeding trial also showed that O. asiaticus had a higher growth performance when feeding exclusively on S. krylovii. In addition, the choice, consumption and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) by O. asiaticus was highest for S. krylovii compared with other plant species found in the Asian grasslands. These ecological and biological traits revealed why O. asiaticus is strongly associated with Stipa-dominated grasslands. We concluded that the existence of S. krylovii benefited the growth performance and explained the distribution of O. asiaticus. These results are useful for improved pest management strategies and developing guidelines for the monitoring of grasshopper population dynamics against the background of vegetation succession and changing plant communities in response to activities such as grazing, fire and climate change.

  15. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular disease (Part III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, L; Rauch, B; Piepoli, M; van Buuren, F; Takken, T; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Doherty, P; Dugmore, D; Halle, M

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise training and exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on symptom-free exercise capacity,cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, quality of life, general healthy lifestyle, and reduction of depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress is nowadays well recognized. However, it remains largely obscure, which characteristics of physical activity (PA) and exercise training--frequency, intensity, time (duration), type (mode), and volume (dose: intensity x duration) of exercise--are the most effective. The present paper, therefore, will deal with these exercise characteristics in the management of individuals with cardiovascular disease, i.e. coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure patients, but also in patients with congenital or valvular heart disease. Based on the current literature, and if sufficient evidence is available, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise inpatients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance of the exercise characteristics in the management of cardiovascular health. Part I is directed to the general population and Part II to individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. In general, PA recommendations and exercise training programmes for patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure need to be tailored to the individual's exercise capacity and risk profile, with the aim to reach and maintain the individually highest fitness level possible and to perform endurance exercise training 30–60 min daily (3–5 days per week) in combination with resistance training 2–3 times a week. Because of the frequently reported dose–response relationship between training effect and exercise intensity, one should seek sufficiently high training intensities

  16. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, L; Geladas, N; Hansen, D; Kouidi, E; Niebauer, J; Reiner, Z; Cornelissen, V; Adamopoulos, S; Prescott, E; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Björnstad, H H; Cohen-Solal, A; Conraads, V; Corrado, D; De Sutter, J; Doherty, P; Doyle, F; Dugmore, D; Ellingsen, Ø; Fagard, R; Giada, F; Gielen, S; Hager, A; Halle, M; Heidbüchel, H; Jegier, A; Mazic, S; McGee, H; Mellwig, K P; Mendes, M; Mezzani, A; Pattyn, N; Pelliccia, A; Piepoli, M; Rauch, B; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Takken, T; van Buuren, F; Vanuzzo, D

    2012-10-01

    In a previous paper, as the first of a series of three on the importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity (PA) and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health within the general population, we concluded that, in the population at large, PA and aerobic exercise capacity clearly are inversely associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and that a dose–response curve on cardiovascular outcome has been demonstrated in most studies. More and more evidence is accumulated that engaging in regular PA and exercise interventions are essential components for reducing the severity of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and abdominal fat, high BP, metabolic risk factors, and systemic inflammation. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit for each separate risk factor. The present paper, therefore, will review and make recommendations for PA and exercise training in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and individual members of the public. Based on previous and the current literature overviews, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and regarding appropriate risk evaluation during exercise in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Who Should We Target? The Impact of Individual and Family Characteristics on the Expressed Need for Community-Based Treatment Support in HIV Patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Wouters

    Full Text Available Reviews of impact evaluations of community-based health workers and peer support groups highlight the considerable variability in the effectiveness of such support in improving antiretroviral treatment (ART outcomes. Evidence indicates that community-based support interventions targeting patients known to be at risk will probably display better results than generic interventions aimed at the entire population of people living with HIV. It is however difficult to identify these at-risk populations, rendering knowledge on the characteristics of patients groups who are in need of community-based support a clear research priority. The current study aims to address the knowledge gap by exploring the predictors of the willingness to (1 receive the support from a community-based health worker or (2 to participate in a support group in public sector ART programme of the Free State Province of South Africa. Based on the Individual-Family-Community framework for HIV research, the study employs a comprehensive approach by not only testing classical individual-level but also family-level predictors of the willingness to receive community-based support. In addition to individual-level predictors-such as age, health status and coping styles-our analysis demonstrated the importance of family characteristics. The results indicated that discrepancies in the family's changeability level were an important predictor of the demand for community-based support services. Conversely, the findings indicated that patients living in a family more flexible than deemed ideal are more likely to require the support of a community health worker. The current study expands theory by indicating the need to acknowledge all social ecological levels in the study of chronic HIV care. The detection of both individual level and family level determinants of the expressed need for community-based support can inform health policy to devise strategies to target scarce resources to those