The Partial Mapping of the Web Graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristina Machova
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to partial mapping of a web sub-graph. This sub-graph contains the nearest surroundings of an actual web page. Our work deals with acquiring relevant Hyperlinks of a base web site, generation of adjacency matrix, the nearest distance matrix and matrix of converted distances of Hyperlinks, detection of compactness of web representation, and visualization of its graphical representation. The paper introduces an LWP algorithm – a technique for Hyperlink filtration. This work attempts to help users with the orientation within the web graph.
iBGP: A Bipartite Graph Propagation Approach for Mobile Advertising Fraud Detection
Hu, Jinlong; Liang, Junjie; Dong, Shoubin
2017-01-01
Online mobile advertising plays a vital financial role in supporting free mobile apps, but detecting malicious apps publishers who generate fraudulent actions on the advertisements hosted on their apps is difficult, since fraudulent traffic often mimics behaviors of legitimate users and evolves rapidly. In this paper, we propose a novel bipartite graph-based propagation approach, iBGP, for mobile apps advertising fraud detection in large advertising system. We exploit the characteristics of m...
iBGP: A Bipartite Graph Propagation Approach for Mobile Advertising Fraud Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinlong Hu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Online mobile advertising plays a vital financial role in supporting free mobile apps, but detecting malicious apps publishers who generate fraudulent actions on the advertisements hosted on their apps is difficult, since fraudulent traffic often mimics behaviors of legitimate users and evolves rapidly. In this paper, we propose a novel bipartite graph-based propagation approach, iBGP, for mobile apps advertising fraud detection in large advertising system. We exploit the characteristics of mobile advertising user’s behavior and identify two persistent patterns: power law distribution and pertinence and propose an automatic initial score learning algorithm to formulate both concepts to learn the initial scores of non-seed nodes. We propose a weighted graph propagation algorithm to propagate the scores of all nodes in the user-app bipartite graphs until convergence. To extend our approach for large-scale settings, we decompose the objective function of the initial score learning model into separate one-dimensional problems and parallelize the whole approach on an Apache Spark cluster. iBGP was applied on a large synthetic dataset and a large real-world mobile advertising dataset; experiment results demonstrate that iBGP significantly outperforms other popular graph-based propagation methods.
Mapping Between Semantic Graphs and Sentences in Grammar Induction System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laszlo Kovacs
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The proposed transformation module performs mapping be-
tween two di®erent knowledge representation forms used in grammar induction systems. The kernel knowledge representation form is a special predicate centered conceptual graph called ECG. The ECG provides a semantic-based, language independent description of the environment. The other base representation form is some kind of language. The sentences of the language should meet the corresponding grammatical rules. The pilot project demonstrates the functionality of a translator module using this transformation engine between the ECG graph and the Hungarian language.
Vertex maps on graphs -- Perron-Frobenius Theory
Bernhardt, Chris
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to describe the connections between Perron-Frobenius theory and vertex maps on graphs. In particular, it is shown how Perron-Frobenius theory gives results about the sets of integers that can arise as periods of periodic orbits, about the concepts of transitivity and topological mixing, and about horseshoes and topological entropy. This is a preprint. The final version will appear in the Journal of Difference Equations and Applications.
Symmetries In Graphs, Maps, And Polytopes Workshop 2014
Jajcay, Robert
2016-01-01
This volume contains seventeen of the best papers delivered at the SIGMAP Workshop 2014, representing the most recent advances in the field of symmetries of discrete objects and structures, with a particular emphasis on connections between maps, Riemann surfaces and dessins d’enfant. Providing the global community of researchers in the field with the opportunity to gather, converse and present their newest findings and advances, the Symmetries In Graphs, Maps, and Polytopes Workshop 2014 was the fifth in a series of workshops. The initial workshop, organized by Steve Wilson in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1998, was followed in 2002 and 2006 by two meetings held in Aveiro, Portugal, organized by Antonio Breda d’Azevedo, and a fourth workshop held in Oaxaca, Mexico, organized by Isabel Hubard in 2010. This book should appeal to both specialists and those seeking a broad overview of what is happening in the area of symmetries of discrete objects and structures.
Bisimulation reduction of big graphs on MapReduce
Luo, Y.; Lange, de Y.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; De Bra, P.M.E.; Hidders, A.J.H.; Gottlob, G.; Grasso, G.; Olteanu, D.; Schallhart, C.
2013-01-01
Computing the bisimulation partition of a graph is a fundamental problem which plays a key role in a wide range of basic applications. Intuitively, two nodes in a graph are bisimilar if they share basic structural properties such as labeling and neighborhood topology. In data management, reducing a
Crawford, Robert
2008-01-01
Sydney is Australia’s advertising capital and the relationship between the city and the advertising industry stretches back to the earliest years of European settlement. Advertising helped propel commercial activity in Sydney and the advertising industry has been no less active in shaping Sydney, illuminating the city’s skyline and streetscape, and influencing the lives of all Sydneysiders – from suburban consumers to esteemed artists. Moreover, advertising has promoted the city itself as a ...
PDB2Graph: A toolbox for identifying critical amino acids map in proteins based on graph theory.
Niknam, Niloofar; Khakzad, Hamed; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein
2016-05-01
The integrative and cooperative nature of protein structure involves the assessment of topological and global features of constituent parts. Network concept takes complete advantage of both of these properties in the analysis concomitantly. High compatibility to structural concepts or physicochemical properties in addition to exploiting a remarkable simplification in the system has made network an ideal tool to explore biological systems. There are numerous examples in which different protein structural and functional characteristics have been clarified by the network approach. Here, we present an interactive and user-friendly Matlab-based toolbox, PDB2Graph, devoted to protein structure network construction, visualization, and analysis. Moreover, PDB2Graph is an appropriate tool for identifying critical nodes involved in protein structural robustness and function based on centrality indices. It maps critical amino acids in protein networks and can greatly aid structural biologists in selecting proper amino acid candidates for manipulating protein structures in a more reasonable and rational manner. To introduce the capability and efficiency of PDB2Graph in detail, the structural modification of Calmodulin through allosteric binding of Ca(2+) is considered. In addition, a mutational analysis for three well-identified model proteins including Phage T4 lysozyme, Barnase and Ribonuclease HI, was performed to inspect the influence of mutating important central residues on protein activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A technology mapping based on graph of excitations and outputs for finite state machines
Kania, Dariusz; Kulisz, Józef
2017-11-01
A new, efficient technology mapping method of FSMs, dedicated for PAL-based PLDs is proposed. The essence of the method consists in searching for the minimal set of PAL-based logic blocks that cover a set of multiple-output implicants describing the transition and output functions of an FSM. The method is based on a new concept of graph: the Graph of Excitations and Outputs. The proposed algorithm was tested using the FSM benchmarks. The obtained results were compared with the classical technology mapping of FSM.
Climate Prediction Center - Forecasts & Outlook Maps, Graphs and Tables
Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News list below The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) is responsible for issuing seasonal climate outlook maps , and National Centers for Environmental Prediction). These weather and climate products comprise the
Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.
Lockwood, Arthur
Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…
Xie, Wen-Jie; Han, Rui-Qi; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Lijian; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2017-08-01
Complex network is not only a powerful tool for the analysis of complex system, but also a promising way to analyze time series. The algorithm of horizontal visibility graph (HVG) maps time series into graphs, whose degree distributions are numerically and analytically investigated for certain time series. We derive the degree distributions of HVGs through an iterative construction process of HVGs. The degree distributions of the HVG and the directed HVG for random series are derived to be exponential, which confirms the analytical results from other methods. We also obtained the analytical expressions of degree distributions of HVGs and in-degree and out-degree distributions of directed HVGs transformed from multifractal binomial measures, which agree excellently with numerical simulations.
THE APPLICATION OF DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS AND MAP IN THE NETWORK ENVIRONMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Guo
2012-07-01
Full Text Available WebGIS is an important research field in GIS. W3C organization established SVG standard, which laid a foundation for WebGIS based on vector data. In China, Digital Line Graphs(DLG is a significant GIS product and it has been used in many medium and large WebGIS system. Geographic information-portrayal is the common method of DLG visualization. However, the inherent characteristics of Geographic information-portrayal may lead to a relatively higher data production input, still, the visualization effect is not ideal. We put forward a new product named Digital Line Graphs and Map(DLGM, which consists of DLG and DLG's cartographic presentation data. It provides visualization data based on the cartographic standards. Due to the manufacture and management of DLGM data that are independent from software and platform, its data can be used in many fields. Network application is one of them. This paper is to use DLGM in the network applications. First it reveals the connotation and characteristics of DLGM then analyses the model that DLGM organizes, manages DLG and map symbol data. After that, combined with SVG standards, we put forward DLGM’s SVG encoding method without any information loss. Finally we provide a web map system based on local area network by using 1：10000 DLGM data of a certain area. Based on this study, we conclude that DLGM can be used in the network environment providing high quality DLG and cartographic data for WebGIS.
He, Xianjin; Zhang, Xinchang; Xin, Qinchuan
2018-02-01
Recognition of building group patterns (i.e., the arrangement and form exhibited by a collection of buildings at a given mapping scale) is important to the understanding and modeling of geographic space and is hence essential to a wide range of downstream applications such as map generalization. Most of the existing methods develop rigid rules based on the topographic relationships between building pairs to identify building group patterns and thus their applications are often limited. This study proposes a method to identify a variety of building group patterns that allow for map generalization. The method first identifies building group patterns from potential building clusters based on a machine-learning algorithm and further partitions the building clusters with no recognized patterns based on the graph partitioning method. The proposed method is applied to the datasets of three cities that are representative of the complex urban environment in Southern China. Assessment of the results based on the reference data suggests that the proposed method is able to recognize both regular (e.g., the collinear, curvilinear, and rectangular patterns) and irregular (e.g., the L-shaped, H-shaped, and high-density patterns) building group patterns well, given that the correctness values are consistently nearly 90% and the completeness values are all above 91% for three study areas. The proposed method shows promises in automated recognition of building group patterns that allows for map generalization.
Janssen, P.; Stouffs, R.M.F.; Chaszar, A.T.; Boeykens, S.; Toth, B.
2012-01-01
This paper describes the use of property graphs for mapping data between AEC software tools, which are not linked by common data formats and/or other interoperability measures. The intention of introducing this in practice, education and research is to facilitate the use of diverse, non-integrated
Content-based image retrieval using a signature graph and a self-organizing map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Van Thanh The
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In order to effectively retrieve a large database of images, a method of creating an image retrieval system CBIR (contentbased image retrieval is applied based on a binary index which aims to describe features of an image object of interest. This index is called the binary signature and builds input data for the problem of matching similar images. To extract the object of interest, we propose an image segmentation method on the basis of low-level visual features including the color and texture of the image. These features are extracted at each block of the image by the discrete wavelet frame transform and the appropriate color space. On the basis of a segmented image, we create a binary signature to describe the location, color and shape of the objects of interest. In order to match similar images, we provide a similarity measure between the images based on binary signatures. Then, we present a CBIR model which combines a signature graph and a self-organizing map to cluster and store similar images. To illustrate the proposed method, experiments on image databases are reported, including COREL,Wang and MSRDI.
Invariant graphs of a family of non-uniformly expanding skew products over Markov maps
Walkden, C. P.; Withers, T.
2018-06-01
We consider a family of skew-products of the form where T is a continuous, expanding, locally eventually onto Markov map and is a family of homeomorphisms of . A function is said to be an invariant graph if is an invariant set for the skew-product; equivalently, u(T(x)) = g x (u(x)). A well-studied problem is to consider the existence, regularity and dimension-theoretic properties of such functions, usually under strong contraction or expansion conditions (in terms of Lyapunov exponents or partial hyperbolicity) in the fibre direction. Here we consider such problems in a setting where the Lyapunov exponent in the fibre direction is zero on a set of periodic orbits but expands except on a neighbourhood of these periodic orbits. We prove that u either has the structure of a ‘quasi-graph’ (or ‘bony graph’) or is as smooth as the dynamics, and we give a criteria for this to happen.
A cut locus for finite graphs and the farthest point mapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maddaloni, Alessandro; Zamfirescu, Carol T.
2016-01-01
We reflect upon an analogue of the cut locus, a notion classically studied in Differential Geometry, for finite graphs. The cut locus C(x) of a vertex x shall be the graph induced by the set of all vertices y with the property that no shortest path between x and z, z≠y, contains y. The cut locus ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni Xiaohui; Jiang Zhiqiang; Zhou Weixing
2009-01-01
The dynamics of a complex system is usually recorded in the form of time series, which can be studied through its visibility graph from a complex network perspective. We investigate the visibility graphs extracted from fractional Brownian motions and multifractal random walks, and find that the degree distributions exhibit power-law behaviors, in which the power-law exponent α is a linear function of the Hurst index H of the time series. We also find that the degree distribution of the visibility graph is mainly determined by the temporal correlation of the original time series with minor influence from the possible multifractal nature. As an example, we study the visibility graphs constructed from three Chinese stock market indexes and unveil that the degree distributions have power-law tails, where the tail exponents of the visibility graphs and the Hurst indexes of the indexes are close to the α∼H linear relationship.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Dolezalova
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents’ task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc. or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map.
Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.
2016-06-01
The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bouillé F.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available La saisie des informations d'une carte géologique par les méthodes classiques (grilles ou relevés aléatoires de courbes ne constitue pas une base de données opérationnelle. Par contre, l'assimilation des limites géologiques à un graphe orienté répond aux critères d'optimalité (encombrement très réduit, temps minimal, fiabilité, et permet une digitalisation rationnelle de la carte, une bonne structuration du fichier, et la réalisation d'applications intéressantes : restitutions graphiques sélectives à toutes échelles, calculs de pendages, surfaces, volumes, études de corrélation. Nous avons donc établi une chaîne de traitement de la carte géologique dont chaque maillon (saisie des informations; contrôle, mise à jour, consultation, application opère sur un ou plusieurs graphes. Obtaining data from geological maps by conventional methods (grids or random curve plotting is not an operational data base. However, the comparison of geological boundaries with a directional graph meets criteria of optimalness (very small bulk, minimum time, reliability and makes it possible to digitize the map rationally, to structure the file properly and to achieve significant applications such as selective graph plotting on all scales, calculating dips, areas and volumes, and making correlotion analyses. Therefore, we worked out a geological map processing sequence in which each element (data acquisition, checking, updating, consulting, applications operates on one or several graphs.
Hart, Michael G; Ypma, Rolf J F; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Price, Stephen J; Suckling, John
2016-06-01
Neuroanatomy has entered a new era, culminating in the search for the connectome, otherwise known as the brain's wiring diagram. While this approach has led to landmark discoveries in neuroscience, potential neurosurgical applications and collaborations have been lagging. In this article, the authors describe the ideas and concepts behind the connectome and its analysis with graph theory. Following this they then describe how to form a connectome using resting state functional MRI data as an example. Next they highlight selected insights into healthy brain function that have been derived from connectome analysis and illustrate how studies into normal development, cognitive function, and the effects of synthetic lesioning can be relevant to neurosurgery. Finally, they provide a précis of early applications of the connectome and related techniques to traumatic brain injury, functional neurosurgery, and neurooncology.
Mapping of synchronous dataflow graphs on MPSoCs based on parallelism enhancement
Tang, Q.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Stuijk, S.; Wei, J.B.
2017-01-01
Multi-processor systems-on-chips are widely adopted in implementing modern streaming applications to satisfy the ever increasing computation requirements. To take advantage of this kind of platform, it is necessary to map tasks of the application properly to different processors, so as to fully
Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.
Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference
Graphing trillions of triangles.
Burkhardt, Paul
2017-07-01
The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.
Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.
2017-01-01
We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.
Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.; Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.
2012-01-01
This chapter presents some simple results on graph spectra.We assume the reader is familiar with elementary linear algebra and graph theory. Throughout, J will denote the all-1 matrix, and 1 is the all-1 vector.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaswal, Balhans
1987-01-01
PLOT3D series of graphic codes (version 1 to 5) have been developed for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps, histograms and simple layout diagrams on monochrome or colour raster graphic terminal and plotter. Of these, PLOT3D Version-5 is an advanced code, equipped with several features that make it specially suitable for drawing 3D maps, multicolour 3D and contour graphs, and 3D layout diagrams, in axonometric or perspective projection. Prior to drawing, graphic parameters that define orientation, magnification, smoothening, shading, colour-map, etc. of the figure can be selected interactively by means of simple commands on the user terminal, or by reading those commands from an input data file. This code requires linking with any one of three supporting libraries: PLOT 10 TCS, PLOT 10 IGL, and CALCOMP, and the figure can be plotted in single colour, or displayed in single or multiple colours depending upon the type of library support and output device. Furthermore, this code can also be used to plot left and right eye view projections of 3D figure for composing a stereoscopic image from them with the aid of a viewer. 14 figures. (author)
Graph Quasicontinuous Functions and Densely Continuous Forms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lubica Hola
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \\to Y$ is said to be graph quasicontinuous if there is a quasicontinuous function $g: X \\to Y$ with the graph of $g$ contained in the closure of the graph of $f$. There is a close relation between the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and minimal usco maps as well as the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and densely continuous forms. Every function with values in a compact Hausdorff space is graph quasicontinuous; more generally every locally compact function is graph quasicontinuous.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Preben Dahl; Hartnell, Bert L.
2006-01-01
There are many results dealing with the problem of decomposing a fixed graph into isomorphic subgraphs. There has also been work on characterizing graphs with the property that one can delete the edges of a number of edge disjoint copies of the subgraph and, regardless of how that is done, the gr...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taekjun Oh
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moeran, Brian
2015-01-01
Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....
White, AT
1985-01-01
The field of topological graph theory has expanded greatly in the ten years since the first edition of this book appeared. The original nine chapters of this classic work have therefore been revised and updated. Six new chapters have been added, dealing with: voltage graphs, non-orientable imbeddings, block designs associated with graph imbeddings, hypergraph imbeddings, map automorphism groups and change ringing.Thirty-two new problems have been added to this new edition, so that there are now 181 in all; 22 of these have been designated as ``difficult'''' and 9 as ``unsolved''''. Three of the four unsolved problems from the first edition have been solved in the ten years between editions; they are now marked as ``difficult''''.
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...
Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 100K
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seiller, Thomas
2016-01-01
Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...
Majoroš, Miroslav
2008-01-01
History of internet advertising, types of internet advertising. Banner advertising, methods of payment for banner advertising, formats and technologies. Internet media market in Czech Republic, portals, servers, media agents, media agencies, SPIR association. Banner campaign, its planning, execution and evaluation. Videobanner campaign Nivea For Men, searching for the most effective format for videoadvertising on the internet.
Trudeau, Richard J
1994-01-01
Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or
Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth
2011-01-01
This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an individual level, and it is relatively easy to show di...
Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John
2013-01-01
We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such as context matchi...
Bláhová, Vladimíra
2006-01-01
Misleading advertising The topic of this rigorous thesis is "Misleading advertising". The theme of the thesis is current and attractive, because everybody comes across the advertising all the time and thus the advertisement influents each of our lives. One of the motives for writing this rigorous thesis was to mediate understanding of problems concerning with the misleading advertising and the unfair competition. The rigorous thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with t...
Diestel, Reinhard
2017-01-01
This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...
Gould, Ronald
2012-01-01
This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S
Chartrand, Gary; Zhang, Ping
2010-01-01
Gary Chartrand has influenced the world of Graph Theory for almost half a century. He has supervised more than a score of Ph.D. dissertations and written several books on the subject. The most widely known of these texts, Graphs and Digraphs, … has much to recommend it, with clear exposition, and numerous challenging examples [that] make it an ideal textbook for the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course. The authors have updated their notation to reflect the current practice in this still-growing area of study. By the authors' estimation, the 5th edition is approximately 50% longer than the 4th edition. … the legendary Frank Harary, author of the second graph theory text ever produced, is one of the figures profiled. His book was the standard in the discipline for several decades. Chartrand, Lesniak and Zhang have produced a worthy successor.-John T. Saccoman, MAA Reviews, June 2012 (This book is in the MAA's basic library list.)As with the earlier editions, the current text emphasizes clear...
Sergei Kovbasyuk; Marco Pagano
2014-01-01
Speculators often advertise arbitrage opportunities in order to persuade other investors and thus accelerate the correction of mispricing. We show that in order to minimize the risk and the cost of arbitrage an investor who identifies several mispriced assets optimally advertises only one of them, and overweights it in his portfolio; a risk-neutral arbitrageur invests only in this asset. The choice of the asset to be advertised depends not only on mispricing but also on its "advertisability" ...
Alamuri, Lavanya
2009-01-01
The aim of this project was to get an understanding of how companies adopt mobile as an advertising medium. The literature review aided in framing a draft of the factors that affect mobile advertising adoption and possible forms of mobile advertising. Considering the scope of the thesis work, branding strategy, service costs, personalization and privacy and platform were considered to be the factors that could affect the mobile advertising adoption. A few possible forms on mobile device we...
Semantic graphs and associative memories
Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo
2004-12-01
Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.
Graphs of groups on surfaces interactions and models
White, AT
2001-01-01
The book, suitable as both an introductory reference and as a text book in the rapidly growing field of topological graph theory, models both maps (as in map-coloring problems) and groups by means of graph imbeddings on sufaces. Automorphism groups of both graphs and maps are studied. In addition connections are made to other areas of mathematics, such as hypergraphs, block designs, finite geometries, and finite fields. There are chapters on the emerging subfields of enumerative topological graph theory and random topological graph theory, as well as a chapter on the composition of English
Some remarks on definability of process graphs
Grabmayer, C.A.; Klop, J.W.; Luttik, B.; Baier, C.; Hermanns, H.
2006-01-01
We propose the notions of "density" and "connectivity" of infinite process graphs and investigate them in the context of the wellknown process algebras BPA and BPP. For a process graph G, the density function in a state s maps a natural number n to the number of states of G with distance less or
Quick Mining of Isomorphic Exact Large Patterns from Large Graphs
Almasri, Islam
2014-12-01
The applications of the sub graph isomorphism search are growing with the growing number of areas that model their systems using graphs or networks. Specifically, many biological systems, such as protein interaction networks, molecular structures and protein contact maps, are modeled as graphs. The sub graph isomorphism search is concerned with finding all sub graphs that are isomorphic to a relevant query graph, the existence of such sub graphs can reflect on the characteristics of the modeled system. The most computationally expensive step in the search for isomorphic sub graphs is the backtracking algorithm that traverses the nodes of the target graph. In this paper, we propose a pruning approach that is inspired by the minimum remaining value heuristic that achieves greater scalability over large query and target graphs. Our testing on various biological networks shows that performance enhancement of our approach over existing state-of-the-art approaches varies between 6x and 53x. © 2014 IEEE.
Quick Mining of Isomorphic Exact Large Patterns from Large Graphs
Almasri, Islam; Gao, Xin; Fedoroff, Nina V.
2014-01-01
The applications of the sub graph isomorphism search are growing with the growing number of areas that model their systems using graphs or networks. Specifically, many biological systems, such as protein interaction networks, molecular structures and protein contact maps, are modeled as graphs. The sub graph isomorphism search is concerned with finding all sub graphs that are isomorphic to a relevant query graph, the existence of such sub graphs can reflect on the characteristics of the modeled system. The most computationally expensive step in the search for isomorphic sub graphs is the backtracking algorithm that traverses the nodes of the target graph. In this paper, we propose a pruning approach that is inspired by the minimum remaining value heuristic that achieves greater scalability over large query and target graphs. Our testing on various biological networks shows that performance enhancement of our approach over existing state-of-the-art approaches varies between 6x and 53x. © 2014 IEEE.
Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs
Gerofsky, Susan
2011-01-01
Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…
Advertising Systems in Japan Marketing Behavior, Advertising Industry, Advertising Literacy
KISHIYA, Kazuhiro
2005-01-01
This paper clarifies advertising systems unique to Japan. As typical of Japanese advertising systems, advertising expression tend to adopt soft sell and transformational type. The advertising expression is explained not only by the cultural value but also marketing behavior of advertisers and the characteristics of Advertising transactions. As to marketing behavior channel-oriented marketing behavior has an impact on advertising expressions. As to characteristics of Advertising transactions, ...
Chartrand, Gary; Rosen, Kenneth H
2008-01-01
Beginning with the origin of the four color problem in 1852, the field of graph colorings has developed into one of the most popular areas of graph theory. Introducing graph theory with a coloring theme, Chromatic Graph Theory explores connections between major topics in graph theory and graph colorings as well as emerging topics. This self-contained book first presents various fundamentals of graph theory that lie outside of graph colorings, including basic terminology and results, trees and connectivity, Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs, matchings and factorizations, and graph embeddings. The remainder of the text deals exclusively with graph colorings. It covers vertex colorings and bounds for the chromatic number, vertex colorings of graphs embedded on surfaces, and a variety of restricted vertex colorings. The authors also describe edge colorings, monochromatic and rainbow edge colorings, complete vertex colorings, several distinguishing vertex and edge colorings, and many distance-related vertex coloring...
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Andreas P. Braun
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.
Simon P. Anderson; Régis Renault
2002-01-01
Empirical evidence suggests that most advertisements contain little direct informa- tion. Many do not mention prices. We analyze a firm'ss choice of advertising content and the information disclosed to consumers. A firm advertises only product informa- tion, price information, or both; and prefers to convey only limited product information if possible. Extending the "persuasion" game, we show that quality information takes precedence over price information and horizontal product information.T...
Rhodes, Andrew; Wilson, Chris M
2016-01-01
There is widespread evidence that some firms use false advertising to overstate the value of their products. We consider a model in which a policymaker is able to punish such false claims. We characterize an equilibrium where false advertising actively influences rational buyers, and analyze the effects of policy under different welfare objectives. We establish precise conditions where policy optimally permits a positive level of false advertising, and show how these conditions vary intuitive...
Engineering Object-Oriented Semantics Using Graph Transformations
Kastenberg, H.; Kleppe, A.G.; Rensink, Arend
In this paper we describe the application of the theory of graph transformations to the practise of language design. We have defined the semantics of a small but realistic object-oriented language (called TAAL) by mapping the language constructs to graphs and their operational semantics to graph
Miller, Sandra K.
The individualized learning package for secondary consumer education deals with consumer buying as influenced by advertising. The teacher's section of the package contains a statement of purpose and instructional objectives. Equipment and materials (specific textbooks, audiovisual aids, and sources for sample post-test advertisements) needed for…
Riso, Ovid
1977-01-01
Advertising should be viewed as a sales-building investment and not simply an element of business outlay that actually is a completely controllable expense. Suggestions deal with the sales budget, profiling the store and its customers, advertising media, promotional ideas, and consumer protection. (LBH)
Goffman, Erving
A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…
Graph visualization (Invited talk)
Wijk, van J.J.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.
2012-01-01
Black and white node link diagrams are the classic method to depict graphs, but these often fall short to give insight in large graphs or when attributes of nodes and edges play an important role. Graph visualization aims obtaining insight in such graphs using interactive graphical representations.
Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications
Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia
1999-01-01
We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neha MUNJAL
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to study the ethical issues that arise in print and television advertising and also analyzing the various types of unethical advertisement in India with reference to ASCI principles. Today the India’s advertising industry is expanding its business at a rapid rate. India’s advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on a global map. But over the years advertising and marketing communication messages have created debatable ethical issues like surrogate advertising, puffery, unverified claims, women stereotype, comparative advertising, use of children in advertising etc. In today’s competitive market, advertisers are sometimes following the unethical practices to fight the competition. We have analyzed with the help of examples the different unethical practices used by advertisers in advertisements in India and also discussed some real life cases solved by CCC (Consumer complaint council following the necessary ASCI Codes for it.
Díaz Pinedo, Edilfredo Eliot
2012-01-01
Intelligent Advertisement diseña e implementa un sistema de publicidad para dispositivos móviles en un centro comercial, donde los clientes reciben publicidad de forma pasiva en sus dispositivos mientras están dentro.
Bapat, Ravindra B
2014-01-01
This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...
Cornière (de), Alexandre
2016-01-01
Search engines enable advertisers to target consumers based on the query they have entered. In a framework with horizontal product differentiation, imperfect product information and in which consumers incur search costs, I study a game in which advertisers have to choose a price and a set of relevant keywords. The targeting mechanism brings about three kinds of efficiency gains, namely lower search costs, better matching, and more intense product market price-competition. A monopolistic searc...
Trkovská, Jana
2017-01-01
The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...
Adaptive Graph Convolutional Neural Networks
Li, Ruoyu; Wang, Sheng; Zhu, Feiyun; Huang, Junzhou
2018-01-01
Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (Graph CNNs) are generalizations of classical CNNs to handle graph data such as molecular data, point could and social networks. Current filters in graph CNNs are built for fixed and shared graph structure. However, for most real data, the graph structures varies in both size and connectivity. The paper proposes a generalized and flexible graph CNN taking data of arbitrary graph structure as input. In that way a task-driven adaptive graph is learned for eac...
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C. Dalfo
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.
Advertising and an advertising budget
Крищанович, А.
2011-01-01
According to Kotler’s definition, advertising is “any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor”.
Graph Processing on GPUs: A Survey
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shi, Xuanhua; Zheng, Zhigao; Zhou, Yongluan
2018-01-01
hundreds of billions, has attracted much attention in both industry and academia. It still remains a great challenge to process such large-scale graphs. Researchers have been seeking for new possible solutions. Because of the massive degree of parallelism and the high memory access bandwidth in GPU......, utilizing GPU to accelerate graph processing proves to be a promising solution. This article surveys the key issues of graph processing on GPUs, including data layout, memory access pattern, workload mapping, and specific GPU programming. In this article, we summarize the state-of-the-art research on GPU...
Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations. ... As a means of telling the market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience of their continuous support of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Soetevent, A.R.
2010-01-01
This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial
Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning
Switzer, J. Matt
2014-01-01
Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amine Labriji
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.
van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime
2016-01-01
This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,
Fuzzy Graph Language Recognizability
Kalampakas , Antonios; Spartalis , Stefanos; Iliadis , Lazaros
2012-01-01
Part 5: Fuzzy Logic; International audience; Fuzzy graph language recognizability is introduced along the lines of the established theory of syntactic graph language recognizability by virtue of the algebraic structure of magmoids. The main closure properties of the corresponding class are investigated and several interesting examples of fuzzy graph languages are examined.
Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.
2012-01-01
This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association
GoFFish: A Sub-Graph Centric Framework for Large-Scale Graph Analytics1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Wickramaarachchi, Charith; Nagarkar, Soonil; Ravi, Santosh; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Prasanna, Viktor
2014-08-25
Large scale graph processing is a major research area for Big Data exploration. Vertex centric programming models like Pregel are gaining traction due to their simple abstraction that allows for scalable execution on distributed systems naturally. However, there are limitations to this approach which cause vertex centric algorithms to under-perform due to poor compute to communication overhead ratio and slow convergence of iterative superstep. In this paper we introduce GoFFish a scalable sub-graph centric framework co-designed with a distributed persistent graph storage for large scale graph analytics on commodity clusters. We introduce a sub-graph centric programming abstraction that combines the scalability of a vertex centric approach with the flexibility of shared memory sub-graph computation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation.
Hell, Pavol
2004-01-01
This is a book about graph homomorphisms. Graph theory is now an established discipline but the study of graph homomorphisms has only recently begun to gain wide acceptance and interest. The subject gives a useful perspective in areas such as graph reconstruction, products, fractional and circular colourings, and has applications in complexity theory, artificial intelligence, telecommunication, and, most recently, statistical physics.Based on the authors' lecture notes for graduate courses, this book can be used as a textbook for a second course in graph theory at 4th year or master's level an
Simplicial complexes of graphs
Jonsson, Jakob
2008-01-01
A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.
Introduction to quantum graphs
Berkolaiko, Gregory
2012-01-01
A "quantum graph" is a graph considered as a one-dimensional complex and equipped with a differential operator ("Hamiltonian"). Quantum graphs arise naturally as simplified models in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and engineering when one considers propagation of waves of various nature through a quasi-one-dimensional (e.g., "meso-" or "nano-scale") system that looks like a thin neighborhood of a graph. Works that currently would be classified as discussing quantum graphs have been appearing since at least the 1930s, and since then, quantum graphs techniques have been applied successfully in various areas of mathematical physics, mathematics in general and its applications. One can mention, for instance, dynamical systems theory, control theory, quantum chaos, Anderson localization, microelectronics, photonic crystals, physical chemistry, nano-sciences, superconductivity theory, etc. Quantum graphs present many non-trivial mathematical challenges, which makes them dear to a mathematician's heart. Work on qu...
3-biplacement of bipartite graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lech Adamus
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Let \\(G=(L,R;E\\ be a bipartite graph with color classes \\(L\\ and \\(R\\ and edge set \\(E\\. A set of two bijections \\(\\{\\varphi_1 , \\varphi_2\\}\\, \\(\\varphi_1 , \\varphi_2 :L \\cup R \\to L \\cup R\\, is said to be a \\(3\\-biplacement of \\(G\\ if \\(\\varphi_1(L= \\varphi_2(L = L\\ and \\(E \\cap \\varphi_1^*(E=\\emptyset\\, \\(E \\cap \\varphi_2^*(E=\\emptyset\\, \\(\\varphi_1^*(E \\cap \\varphi_2^*(E=\\emptyset\\, where \\(\\varphi_1^*\\, \\(\\varphi_2^*\\ are the maps defined on \\(E\\, induced by \\(\\varphi_1\\, \\(\\varphi_2\\, respectively. We prove that if \\(|L| = p\\, \\(|R| = q\\, \\(3 \\leq p \\leq q\\, then every graph \\(G=(L,R;E\\ of size at most \\(p\\ has a \\(3\\-biplacement.
Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family
Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene
2018-05-01
The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.
EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE ADVERTISING
G. Anusha
2017-01-01
Advertising has come a long way today. More and more new medium is being explored each day to make a successful advertising campaign. Internet that has in recent times picked up as advertising medium has become the favorite of the advertiser in no time. Online advertisement, also called internet advertising uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising (i...
Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success
S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
2015-01-01
In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...
Chartrand, Gary
1984-01-01
Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap
Advertising Theory and Practice.
Sandage, C. H.; Fryburger, Vernon
The social and economic functions of advertising, its role in business, how it works, and how it is planned and created are the subject of this textbook. Sections include basic values and functions, background for planning advertising strategy, the advertising message, advertising media, testing advertising effectiveness, and the advertising…
Adriaan R. Soetevent
2010-01-01
This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...
Pim Heijnen; Adriaan Soetevent
2014-01-01
This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...
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Aleks Kissinger
2014-03-01
Full Text Available String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. Dixon, Duncan and Kissinger introduced string graphs, which are a combinatoric representations of string diagrams, amenable to automated reasoning about diagrammatic theories via graph rewrite systems. In this extended abstract, we show how the power of such rewrite systems can be greatly extended by introducing pattern graphs, which provide a means of expressing infinite families of rewrite rules where certain marked subgraphs, called !-boxes ("bang boxes", on both sides of a rule can be copied any number of times or removed. After reviewing the string graph formalism, we show how string graphs can be extended to pattern graphs and how pattern graphs and pattern rewrite rules can be instantiated to concrete string graphs and rewrite rules. We then provide examples demonstrating the expressive power of pattern graphs and how they can be applied to study interacting algebraic structures that are central to categorical quantum mechanics.
Gelfand, I M; Shnol, E E
1969-01-01
The second in a series of systematic studies by a celebrated mathematician I. M. Gelfand and colleagues, this volume presents students with a well-illustrated sequence of problems and exercises designed to illuminate the properties of functions and graphs. Since readers do not have the benefit of a blackboard on which a teacher constructs a graph, the authors abandoned the customary use of diagrams in which only the final form of the graph appears; instead, the book's margins feature step-by-step diagrams for the complete construction of each graph. The first part of the book employs simple fu
Creating more effective graphs
Robbins, Naomi B
2012-01-01
A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, Blair D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baker, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schrock, Jonathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poole, Stephen W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2013-10-01
The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of different application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mansutti, Alessio; Miculan, Marino; Peressotti, Marco
2017-01-01
We introduce loose graph simulations (LGS), a new notion about labelled graphs which subsumes in an intuitive and natural way subgraph isomorphism (SGI), regular language pattern matching (RLPM) and graph simulation (GS). Being a unification of all these notions, LGS allows us to express directly...... also problems which are “mixed” instances of previous ones, and hence which would not fit easily in any of them. After the definition and some examples, we show that the problem of finding loose graph simulations is NP-complete, we provide formal translation of SGI, RLPM, and GS into LGSs, and we give...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Apostolico
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.
A contribution to queens graphs: A substitution method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambrus, G.; Barat, Janos
2006-01-01
A graph G is a queens graph if the vertices of G can be mapped to queens on the chessboard such that two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding queens attack each other, i.e. they are in horizontal, vertical or diagonal position. We prove a conjecture of Beineke, Broere and Hennin...
Graph Theory. 1. Fragmentation of Structural Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorentz JÄNTSCHI
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The investigation of structural graphs has many fields of applications in engineering, especially in applied sciences like as applied chemistry and physics, computer sciences and automation, electronics and telecommunication. The main subject of the paper is to express fragmentation criteria in graph using a new method of investigation: terminal paths. Using terminal paths are defined most of the fragmentation criteria that are in use in molecular topology, but the fields of applications are more generally than that, as I mentioned before. Graphical examples of fragmentation are given for every fragmentation criteria. Note that all fragmentation is made with a computer program that implements a routine for every criterion.[1] A web routine for tracing all terminal paths in graph can be found at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.ro/molecular_topology/tpaths/ [1] M. V. Diudea, I. Gutman, L. Jäntschi, Molecular Topology, Nova Science, Commack, New York, 2001, 2002.
Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue
2016-01-01
We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis.
Modeling Newspaper Advertising
Harper, Joseph; And Others
1978-01-01
Presents a mathematical model for simulating a newspaper financial system. Includes the effects of advertising and circulation for predicting advertising linage as a function of population, income, and advertising rate. (RL)
A graph rewriting programming language for graph drawing
Rodgers, Peter
1998-01-01
This paper describes Grrr, a prototype visual graph drawing tool. Previously there were no visual languages for programming graph drawing algorithms despite the inherently visual nature of the process. The languages which gave a diagrammatic view of graphs were not computationally complete and so could not be used to implement complex graph drawing algorithms. Hence current graph drawing tools are all text based. Recent developments in graph rewriting systems have produced computationally com...
de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Hunt, James J.
This paper introduces an approach for adding graph transformation-based functionality to existing JAVA programs. The approach relies on a set of annotations to identify the intended graph structure, as well as on user methods to manipulate that structure, within the user’s own JAVA class
Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.
2004-01-01
In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite
Joyner, W David
2017-01-01
This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...
Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM
1999-01-01
Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Husfeldt, Thore
2015-01-01
This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...
Packing Degenerate Graphs Greedily
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana
2017-01-01
Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics
Melounová, Lenka
2016-01-01
The Bachelor Thesis Humour in advertisement is focused on creating humorous advertisements. The Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is about advertisement, psychology of advertisement, emotions and emotional appeals that are used in advertising, primarily appeal humour. The practical part includes analysis of the survey focused on the effectiveness of humour in advertisements, analysis of selected campaign and the results of own survey.
Applicability of the Directed Graph Methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huszti, Jozsef [Institute of Isotope of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, Andras [ESRI Hungary, Budapest (Hungary); Vincze, Arpad [Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, Budapest (Hungary)
2012-06-15
Possible methods to construct, visualize and analyse the 'map' of the State's nuclear infrastructure based on different directed graph approaches are proposed. The transportation and the flow network models are described in detail. The use of the possible evaluation methodologies and the use of available software tools to construct and maintain the nuclear 'map' using pre-defined standard building blocks (nuclear facilities) are introduced and discussed.
Generalized connectivity of graphs
Li, Xueliang
2016-01-01
Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.
Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.
Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel
2017-01-01
We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.
Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering
Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert
2016-01-01
One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...
Subgraph detection using graph signals
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar
2017-03-06
In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.
Subgraph detection using graph signals
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert
2017-01-01
In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.
Declarative Event-Based Workflow as Distributed Dynamic Condition Response Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao
2010-01-01
We present Dynamic Condition Response Graphs (DCR Graphs) as a declarative, event-based process model inspired by the workflow language employed by our industrial partner and conservatively generalizing prime event structures. A dynamic condition response graph is a directed graph with nodes repr...... exemplify the use of distributed DCR Graphs on a simple workflow taken from a field study at a Danish hospital, pointing out their flexibility compared to imperative workflow models. Finally we provide a mapping from DCR Graphs to Buchi-automata....
Bollobas, Bela
2004-01-01
The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A
Crippa, Alessandro; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
A method is proposed for quantifying differences between multichannel EEG coherence networks represented by functional unit (FU) maps. The approach is based on inexact graph matching for attributed relational graphs and graph averaging, adapted to FU-maps. The mean of a set of input FU-maps is
Jugenheimer, Donald W.
1996-01-01
States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…
Pun in Beverage Advertisements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng; Yan
2015-01-01
Accompanied with the widespread commerce,the advertisement translation unavoidably will be a hot spot again.This paper will discuss usage and translation of pun in the advertisement translation.It will explain the definition of advertisement as well as pun and then give examples about the usage of pun in advertisement.
Pun in Beverage Advertisements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Technology Sichuan
2015-01-01
Accompanied with the widespread commerce,the advertisement translation unavoidably will be a hot spot again. This paper will discuss usage and translation of pun in the advertisement translation.It will explain the definition of advertisement as well as pun and then give examples about the usage of pun in advertisement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haynes Teresa W.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A path π = (v1, v2, . . . , vk+1 in a graph G = (V,E is a downhill path if for every i, 1 ≤ i ≤ k, deg(vi ≥ deg(vi+1, where deg(vi denotes the degree of vertex vi ∈ V. The downhill domination number equals the minimum cardinality of a set S ⊆ V having the property that every vertex v ∈ V lies on a downhill path originating from some vertex in S. We investigate downhill domination numbers of graphs and give upper bounds. In particular, we show that the downhill domination number of a graph is at most half its order, and that the downhill domination number of a tree is at most one third its order. We characterize the graphs obtaining each of these bounds
Tailored Random Graph Ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C
2013-01-01
Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.
Alspach, BR
1985-01-01
This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.
Wilson, Robin J
1985-01-01
Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.
Hyperbolicity in median graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
mic problems in hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic graphs have been .... that in general the main obstacle is that we do not know the location of ...... [25] Jonckheere E and Lohsoonthorn P, A hyperbolic geometry approach to multipath routing,.
Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Broumi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.
Collective Rationality in Graph Aggregation
Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.; Schaub, T.; Friedrich, G.; O'Sullivan, B.
2014-01-01
Suppose a number of agents each provide us with a directed graph over a common set of vertices. Graph aggregation is the problem of computing a single “collective” graph that best represents the information inherent in this profile of individual graphs. We consider this aggregation problem from the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.
2001-01-01
We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes
Bollobás, Béla
1998-01-01
The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...
Misleading Advertising in Duopoly
Keisuke Hattori; Keisaku Higashida
2011-01-01
This paper builds a model of strategic misleading advertising in duopolistic markets with horizontal product differentiation and advertising externality between firms. We investigate the effects of regulating misinformation on market competition, behaviour of firms, and social welfare. We show that the degree of advertising externality and the magnitude of advertising costs are crucial for determining the welfare effects of several regulations, including prohibiting misleading advertising, ed...
Advertisement without Ethical Principles?
Wojciech Słomski
2007-01-01
The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...
INTERNET ADVERTISING: A PRIMER
Matthew N. O. Sadiku*, Shumon Alam, Sarhan M. Musa
2017-01-01
Internet advertising (IA) is using the Internet to market products and services to a large audience. In the current era of Internet commerce, companies have chosen to use Internet advertising and the trend is irreversible. The goal of Internet advertising is to drive customers to your website. Understanding some key concepts of Internet advertising is crucial to creating a strategy that will suit one’s business. This paper provides a brief introduction to Internet or online advertising.
Advertisement without Ethical Principles?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wojciech Słomski
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.
Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices.
Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng
2014-10-01
Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach.
Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices
Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng
2015-01-01
Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach. PMID:25859564
Multigraph: Interactive Data Graphs on the Web
Phillips, M. B.
2010-12-01
Many aspects of geophysical science involve time dependent data that is often presented in the form of a graph. Considering that the web has become a primary means of communication, there are surprisingly few good tools and techniques available for presenting time-series data on the web. The most common solution is to use a desktop tool such as Excel or Matlab to create a graph which is saved as an image and then included in a web page like any other image. This technique is straightforward, but it limits the user to one particular view of the data, and disconnects the graph from the data in a way that makes updating a graph with new data an often cumbersome manual process. This situation is somewhat analogous to the state of mapping before the advent of GIS. Maps existed only in printed form, and creating a map was a laborious process. In the last several years, however, the world of mapping has experienced a revolution in the form of web-based and other interactive computer technologies, so that it is now commonplace for anyone to easily browse through gigabytes of geographic data. Multigraph seeks to bring a similar ease of access to time series data. Multigraph is a program for displaying interactive time-series data graphs in web pages that includes a simple way of configuring the appearance of the graph and the data to be included. It allows multiple data sources to be combined into a single graph, and allows the user to explore the data interactively. Multigraph lets users explore and visualize "data space" in the same way that interactive mapping applications such as Google Maps facilitate exploring and visualizing geography. Viewing a Multigraph graph is extremely simple and intuitive, and requires no instructions. Creating a new graph for inclusion in a web page involves writing a simple XML configuration file and requires no programming. Multigraph can read data in a variety of formats, and can display data from a web service, allowing users to "surf
Proxy Graph: Visual Quality Metrics of Big Graph Sampling.
Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Hong, Seok-Hee; Eades, Peter; Meidiana, Amyra
2017-06-01
Data sampling has been extensively studied for large scale graph mining. Many analyses and tasks become more efficient when performed on graph samples of much smaller size. The use of proxy objects is common in software engineering for analysis and interaction with heavy objects or systems. In this paper, we coin the term 'proxy graph' and empirically investigate how well a proxy graph visualization can represent a big graph. Our investigation focuses on proxy graphs obtained by sampling; this is one of the most common proxy approaches. Despite the plethora of data sampling studies, this is the first evaluation of sampling in the context of graph visualization. For an objective evaluation, we propose a new family of quality metrics for visual quality of proxy graphs. Our experiments cover popular sampling techniques. Our experimental results lead to guidelines for using sampling-based proxy graphs in visualization.
When advertising turns "cheeky"!
Burkitt, Jennifer A; Saucier, Deborah M; Thomas, Nicole A; Ehresman, Crystal
2006-05-01
Portraits typically exhibit leftward posing biases, with people showing more of their left cheek than their right. The current study investigated posing biases in print advertising to determine whether the product advertised affects the posing bias. As the posing bias may be decreasing over time, we also investigated changes in posing biases over a span of more than 100 years. The current investigation coded 2664 advertisements from two time periods; advertisements were coded for target group of advertisement (men, women, both) and posing bias (rightward, leftward, or central). Unlike other studies that typically observe a leftward posing bias, print advertisements exhibit a rightward posing bias, regardless of time-frame. Thus, print advertisements differ greatly from portraits, which may relate to the purpose of advertisements and the role of attractiveness in advertising.
On some covering graphs of a graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shariefuddin Pirzada
2016-10-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$ with vertex set $V(G=\\{v_1, v_2, \\dots, v_n\\}$, let $S$ be the covering set of $G$ having the maximum degree over all the minimum covering sets of $G$. Let $N_S[v]=\\{u\\in S : uv \\in E(G \\}\\cup \\{v\\}$ be the closed neighbourhood of the vertex $v$ with respect to $S.$ We define a square matrix $A_S(G= (a_{ij},$ by $a_{ij}=1,$ if $\\left |N_S[v_i]\\cap N_S[v_j] \\right| \\geq 1, i\
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAKOUBI Mohamed Lamine
2013-01-01
We will try to demonstrate, through the display of the various advertising creation strategies and their evolution, how the advertising communication passed from of a vision or a strategy focused on the product, to a vision focused on the brand. The first advertising strategy that was applied by advertising agencies is the＂Unique Selling Proposition＂;it focused only on the product advantages and its philosophy dominated the advertising world, throughout its various evolutions, till the nineties but this is without counting the introduction of the new advertising strategies that brought a more brand oriented philosophy to the ground.
Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation
Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele
2006-01-01
Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir...
The STAPL Parallel Graph Library
Harshvardhan,
2013-01-01
This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable distributed graph container and a collection of commonly used parallel graph algorithms. The library introduces pGraph pViews that separate algorithm design from the container implementation. It supports three graph processing algorithmic paradigms, level-synchronous, asynchronous and coarse-grained, and provides common graph algorithms based on them. Experimental results demonstrate improved scalability in performance and data size over existing graph libraries on more than 16,000 cores and on internet-scale graphs containing over 16 billion vertices and 250 billion edges. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.
Proposal and realization advertising campaign
RYCHLÁ, Marie
2008-01-01
The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.
Ribes, Luis
2017-01-01
This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...
Subdominant pseudoultrametric on graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dovgoshei, A A; Petrov, E A [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)
2013-08-31
Let (G,w) be a weighted graph. We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which the weight w:E(G)→R{sup +} can be extended to a pseudoultrametric on V(G), and establish a criterion for the uniqueness of such an extension. We demonstrate that (G,w) is a complete k-partite graph, for k≥2, if and only if for any weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric, among all such extensions one can find the least pseudoultrametric consistent with w. We give a structural characterization of graphs for which the subdominant pseudoultrametric is an ultrametric for any strictly positive weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric. Bibliography: 14 titles.
Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications
Dehmer, Matthias
2014-01-01
The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grossman, Max [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Pritchard Jr., Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Budimlic, Zoran [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Sarkar, Vivek [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
2016-12-22
Graph500 [14] is an effort to offer a standardized benchmark across large-scale distributed platforms which captures the behavior of common communicationbound graph algorithms. Graph500 differs from other large-scale benchmarking efforts (such as HPL [6] or HPGMG [7]) primarily in the irregularity of its computation and data access patterns. The core computational kernel of Graph500 is a breadth-first search (BFS) implemented on an undirected graph. The output of Graph500 is a spanning tree of the input graph, usually represented by a predecessor mapping for every node in the graph. The Graph500 benchmark defines several pre-defined input sizes for implementers to test against. This report summarizes investigation into implementing the Graph500 benchmark on OpenSHMEM, and focuses on first building a strong and practical understanding of the strengths and limitations of past work before proposing and developing novel extensions.
Alcohol advertising and youth.
Saffer, Henry
2002-03-01
The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with
Cheung, King Sing
2014-01-01
Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume
Dayal, Amit; Brock, David
2018-01-01
Prashant Chandrasekar, a lead developer for the Social Interactome project, has tasked the team with creating a graph representation of the data collected from the social networks involved in that project. The data is currently stored in a MySQL database. The client requested that the graph database be Cayley, but after a literature review, Neo4j was chosen. The reasons for this shift will be explained in the design section. Secondarily, the team was tasked with coming up with three scena...
Stevanovic, Dragan
2015-01-01
Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the
Graph embedding with rich information through heterogeneous graph
Sun, Guolei
2017-01-01
Graph embedding, aiming to learn low-dimensional representations for nodes in graphs, has attracted increasing attention due to its critical application including node classification, link prediction and clustering in social network analysis. Most
Using Graph and Vertex Entropy to Compare Empirical Graphs with Theoretical Graph Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Kajdanowicz
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Over the years, several theoretical graph generation models have been proposed. Among the most prominent are: the Erdős–Renyi random graph model, Watts–Strogatz small world model, Albert–Barabási preferential attachment model, Price citation model, and many more. Often, researchers working with real-world data are interested in understanding the generative phenomena underlying their empirical graphs. They want to know which of the theoretical graph generation models would most probably generate a particular empirical graph. In other words, they expect some similarity assessment between the empirical graph and graphs artificially created from theoretical graph generation models. Usually, in order to assess the similarity of two graphs, centrality measure distributions are compared. For a theoretical graph model this means comparing the empirical graph to a single realization of a theoretical graph model, where the realization is generated from the given model using an arbitrary set of parameters. The similarity between centrality measure distributions can be measured using standard statistical tests, e.g., the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of distances between cumulative distributions. However, this approach is both error-prone and leads to incorrect conclusions, as we show in our experiments. Therefore, we propose a new method for graph comparison and type classification by comparing the entropies of centrality measure distributions (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. We demonstrate that our approach can help assign the empirical graph to the most similar theoretical model using a simple unsupervised learning method.
Newspaper Ideabook: Creative Advertising
Brasler, Wayne
1977-01-01
Offers suggestions to high school newspaper staffs for designing effective advertisements for local businesses and then selling them to the businesses. Notes that carefully planned advertisements can increase the appeal and value of a publication. (GW)
Handbook of graph grammars and computing by graph transformation
Engels, G; Kreowski, H J; Rozenberg, G
1999-01-01
Graph grammars originated in the late 60s, motivated by considerations about pattern recognition and compiler construction. Since then, the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph grammars has grown quite impressively. Besides the aforementioned areas, it includes software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, database design, modeling of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, logic programming, computer animation, developmental biology, music composition, visual languages, and many others.The area of graph grammars and graph tran
Topics in graph theory graphs and their Cartesian product
Imrich, Wilfried; Rall, Douglas F
2008-01-01
From specialists in the field, you will learn about interesting connections and recent developments in the field of graph theory by looking in particular at Cartesian products-arguably the most important of the four standard graph products. Many new results in this area appear for the first time in print in this book. Written in an accessible way, this book can be used for personal study in advanced applications of graph theory or for an advanced graph theory course.
Alina Irina GHIRVU
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a model of advertising competition based on the Cournot oligopoly model using a dynamic system, the equilibrium points of which can be determined analytically. We consider several cases for explaining the way in which firms will adapt their own advertising volume, depending on the number and the advertising volume of their competitors, in the context of an online video game used for advertising purposes. The dynamic setup is given by online Internet connection ...
Michael P. Stone
2010-01-01
Attorney advertising routinely targets tort victims. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed which incorporates advertising intensity, litigation costs, and an endogenous number of lawsuits. Since advertising induces victims to bring suit, it increases the level of injurer care. However, litigation costs are also incurred. At the optimum, the marginal benefit of deterrence equals the sum of the marginal costs of litigation and advertising. It is shown that even though blanket prohibit...
Targeting and Persuasive Advertising
Egli, Alain (Autor/in)
2015-01-01
Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...
Пурчельянова, Н. Ю.
2011-01-01
The essence of successful advertising is to convince people that a product is meant for them. By purchasing it, they will receive some benefit (lifestyle, status, convenience, etc.). However, when an advertising campaign is taken abroad different values as to what enhances status or gives convenience exist. These differences make the original advertising campaign defunct. It is therefore critical to any cross cultural advertising campaign that an understanding of a particular culture is acqui...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SERGIY KOZERENKO
2016-04-01
Full Text Available One feature of the famous Sharkovsky’s theorem is that it can be proved using digraphs of a special type (the so–called Markov graphs. The most general definition assigns a Markov graph to every continuous map from the topological graph to itself. We show that this definition is too broad, i.e. every finite digraph can be viewed as a Markov graph of some one–dimensional dynamical system on a tree. We therefore consider discrete analogues of Markov graphs for vertex maps on combinatorial trees and characterize all maps on trees whose discrete Markov graphs are of the following types: complete, complete bipartite, the disjoint union of cycles, with every arc being a loop.
Bisseling, R.H.; Byrka, J.; Cerav-Erbas, S.; Gvozdenovic, N.; Lorenz, M.; Pendavingh, R.A.; Reeves, C.; Röger, M.; Verhoeven, A.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.
2006-01-01
Splitting a large software system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem for many organizations. The basic structure of a software system is given by a directed graph with vertices representing the programs of the system and arcs representing calls from one program to
Coloring geographical threshold graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH
2008-01-01
We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.
Budhiraja, A.S.; Mukherjee, D.; Wu, R.
2017-01-01
We consider a variation of the supermarket model in which the servers can communicate with their neighbors and where the neighborhood relationships are described in terms of a suitable graph. Tasks with unit-exponential service time distributions arrive at each vertex as independent Poisson
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter
2014-01-01
of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...
Advertising on mobile applications
Sobolevsky, Alexandr
2015-01-01
The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).
Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.
Burson, George
1992-01-01
Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)
View of Advertising Practitioners
O'Keeffe, Peter
2016-01-01
I am concerned to make the case for the rights and liberties to communicate commercial advertising messages to children. Consequenlly, I am amused by the identification of advertising with witchcraft; witches ceased to be burned a long time ago. However, this comparison, illustrates the excessive concern shown about how strangely influential advertising is.
The Bilingual Advertising Decision.
Grin, Francois
1994-01-01
Examines the relationship between linguistic plurality and the rationale of advertising decisions. The article presents a simple model of sales to different language groups as a function of the level of advertising in each language, language attitudes, incomes, and an advertising response function. The model is intended as a benchmark, and several…
Business advertisements management system
Rekel, Ernest
2017-01-01
Business Advertisements Management System The main goal of the project was to create a business advertisements management system, where users could easily create and find business advertisements. To accomplish this goal exist- ing systems were analyzed as well as their limitations. The end result is a working system which is able to store and proccess huge amount of data.
The STAPL Parallel Graph Library
Harshvardhan,; Fidel, Adam; Amato, Nancy M.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence
2013-01-01
This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable
Exclusivity structures and graph representatives of local complementation orbits
Cabello, Adán; Parker, Matthew G.; Scarpa, Giannicola; Severini, Simone
2013-07-01
We describe a construction that maps any connected graph G on three or more vertices into a larger graph, H(G), whose independence number is strictly smaller than its Lovász number which is equal to its fractional packing number. The vertices of H(G) represent all possible events consistent with the stabilizer group of the graph state associated with G, and exclusive events are adjacent. Mathematically, the graph H(G) corresponds to the orbit of G under local complementation. Physically, the construction translates into graph-theoretic terms the connection between a graph state and a Bell inequality maximally violated by quantum mechanics. In the context of zero-error information theory, the construction suggests a protocol achieving the maximum rate of entanglement-assisted capacity, a quantum mechanical analogue of the Shannon capacity, for each H(G). The violation of the Bell inequality is expressed by the one-shot version of this capacity being strictly larger than the independence number. Finally, given the correspondence between graphs and exclusivity structures, we are able to compute the independence number for certain infinite families of graphs with the use of quantum non-locality, therefore highlighting an application of quantum theory in the proof of a purely combinatorial statement.
Vasiliauskaitė, Kristina
2007-01-01
On the grounds of theoretical and empirical studies, the article analyses some interaction between the advertisement agencies and advertisement provider during the development of creative advertisement strategy. The following assumptions justifying the importance of interaction have been developed: namely, the need to integrate the knowledge and competence of advertisement agencies and advertisement provider, creativity of advertisement agencies and possible objective approach to the business...
75 FR 60352 - Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Mortgage Acts and Practices - Advertising Rule
2010-09-30
... Acts and Practices - Advertising Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission). ACTION...) relating to unfair or deceptive acts and practices that may occur with regard to mortgage advertising, the Mortgage Acts and Practices (MAP) - Advertising Rule (proposed rule). The proposed rule published for...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winlaw, Manda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Sterck, Hans [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-10-26
In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms.
Groupies in multitype random graphs
Shang, Yilun
2016-01-01
A groupie in a graph is a vertex whose degree is not less than the average degree of its neighbors. Under some mild conditions, we show that the proportion of groupies is very close to 1/2 in multitype random graphs (such as stochastic block models), which include Erd?s-R?nyi random graphs, random bipartite, and multipartite graphs as special examples. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
Groupies in multitype random graphs.
Shang, Yilun
2016-01-01
A groupie in a graph is a vertex whose degree is not less than the average degree of its neighbors. Under some mild conditions, we show that the proportion of groupies is very close to 1/2 in multitype random graphs (such as stochastic block models), which include Erdős-Rényi random graphs, random bipartite, and multipartite graphs as special examples. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.
Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M
2007-08-07
A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.
Quantum walks on quotient graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.
2007-01-01
A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph Γ is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup
A generalization of total graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Afkhami
2018-04-12
Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43–50.
Graph transformation tool contest 2008
Rensink, Arend; van Gorp, Pieter
This special section is the outcome of the graph transformation tool contest organised during the Graph-Based Tools (GraBaTs) 2008 workshop, which took place as a satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT) 2008. The contest involved two parts: three “off-line case
On dominator colorings in graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator .... Theorem 1.3 shows that the complete graph Kn is the only connected graph of order n ... Conversely, if a graph G satisfies condition (i) or (ii), it is easy to see that χd(G) =.
Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng
2015-12-01
Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.
Ethical advertising in dentistry.
Graskemper, Joseph P
2009-01-01
Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alina Irina GHIRVU
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of advertising competition based on the Cournot oligopoly model using a dynamic system, the equilibrium points of which can be determined analytically. We consider several cases for explaining the way in which firms will adapt their own advertising volume, depending on the number and the advertising volume of their competitors, in the context of an online video game used for advertising purposes. The dynamic setup is given by online Internet connection that allows interaction and communication and the high level of technology that permits nowadays real-time advertising insertions.
Algorithms for Planar Graphs and Graphs in Metric Spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
structural properties that can be exploited. For instance, a road network or a wire layout on a microchip is typically (near-)planar and distances in the network are often defined w.r.t. the Euclidean or the rectilinear metric. Specialized algorithms that take advantage of such properties are often orders...... of magnitude faster than the corresponding algorithms for general graphs. The first and main part of this thesis focuses on the development of efficient planar graph algorithms. The most important contributions include a faster single-source shortest path algorithm, a distance oracle with subquadratic...... for geometric graphs and graphs embedded in metric spaces. Roughly speaking, the stretch factor is a real value expressing how well a (geo-)metric graph approximates the underlying complete graph w.r.t. distances. We give improved algorithms for computing the stretch factor of a given graph and for augmenting...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anamarija Gjuran-Coha
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Advertising has reached new dimensions in incorporating and exploiting patterns of message transmission on certain products and services offered to the market. Therefore, advertising has become the subject of an important multidisciplinary approach, scientific analysis and research. Multiplying the cognition from different domains of human activity along with technical and scientific innovations, the advertisment has become one of the most intense communication codes which are realized in a constant interaction between an individual and the world. In order to be present in consumer's consciousness and subconsciousness, advertising simoulaneously uses our ethical, moral, mental, social communication and other cognition. The word and the language, as important media used in advertising, play an important role. The aim of this study is to analyze the linguistic code of an advertisment and language strategies of advertisers. The objective of linguistic analysis of advertisments is to confirm that the advertisment is a part of multimedial discourse which is not realized its linguistic code, but all other paralinguistic elements are present. The analysis will be carried out on a corpus consisting of advertisments published in daily newspapers from 2000-2002. The linguistic features will be analyzed as well as the relation of linguistic code with other paralinguistic codes used in advertising.
Research advertising exposure in colleges
Išoraitė, Margarita
2013-01-01
This article analyses the concept of advertising and the theoretical aspect of advertising strategy. Advertising can be defined as various means of dissemination of information on goods and services, promoting their use to potential users impersonally. Advertising strategies for selecting the location of a typical advertising plan diagram can be defined as decisions related to the target audience coverage, creative advertising message strategy selection and dissemination of the advertising st...
Harary, Frank
2015-01-01
Presented in 1962-63 by experts at University College, London, these lectures offer a variety of perspectives on graph theory. Although the opening chapters form a coherent body of graph theoretic concepts, this volume is not a text on the subject but rather an introduction to the extensive literature of graph theory. The seminar's topics are geared toward advanced undergraduate students of mathematics.Lectures by this volume's editor, Frank Harary, include ""Some Theorems and Concepts of Graph Theory,"" ""Topological Concepts in Graph Theory,"" ""Graphical Reconstruction,"" and other introduc
Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.
2014-01-01
We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry
Dynamic Representations of Sparse Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
1999-01-01
We present a linear space data structure for maintaining graphs with bounded arboricity—a large class of sparse graphs containing e.g. planar graphs and graphs of bounded treewidth—under edge insertions, edge deletions, and adjacency queries. The data structure supports adjacency queries in worst...... case O(c) time, and edge insertions and edge deletions in amortized O(1) and O(c+log n) time, respectively, where n is the number of nodes in the graph, and c is the bound on the arboricity....
Domination criticality in product graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.R. Chithra
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A connected dominating set is an important notion and has many applications in routing and management of networks. Graph products have turned out to be a good model of interconnection networks. This motivated us to study the Cartesian product of graphs G with connected domination number, γc(G=2,3 and characterize such graphs. Also, we characterize the k−γ-vertex (edge critical graphs and k−γc-vertex (edge critical graphs for k=2,3 where γ denotes the domination number of G. We also discuss the vertex criticality in grids.
Graph Creation, Visualisation and Transformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maribel Fernández
2010-03-01
Full Text Available We describe a tool to create, edit, visualise and compute with interaction nets - a form of graph rewriting systems. The editor, called GraphPaper, allows users to create and edit graphs and their transformation rules using an intuitive user interface. The editor uses the functionalities of the TULIP system, which gives us access to a wealth of visualisation algorithms. Interaction nets are not only a formalism for the specification of graphs, but also a rewrite-based computation model. We discuss graph rewriting strategies and a language to express them in order to perform strategic interaction net rewriting.
Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph
Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N.
2018-04-01
Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat
Mizan: Optimizing Graph Mining in Large Parallel Systems
Kalnis, Panos
2012-03-01
Extracting information from graphs, from nding shortest paths to complex graph mining, is essential for many ap- plications. Due to the shear size of modern graphs (e.g., social networks), processing must be done on large paral- lel computing infrastructures (e.g., the cloud). Earlier ap- proaches relied on the MapReduce framework, which was proved inadequate for graph algorithms. More recently, the message passing model (e.g., Pregel) has emerged. Although the Pregel model has many advantages, it is agnostic to the graph properties and the architecture of the underlying com- puting infrastructure, leading to suboptimal performance. In this paper, we propose Mizan, a layer between the users\\' code and the computing infrastructure. Mizan considers the structure of the input graph and the architecture of the in- frastructure in order to: (i) decide whether it is bene cial to generate a near-optimal partitioning of the graph in a pre- processing step, and (ii) choose between typical point-to- point message passing and a novel approach that puts com- puting nodes in a virtual overlay ring. We deployed Mizan on a small local Linux cluster, on the cloud (256 virtual machines in Amazon EC2), and on an IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer (1024 CPUs). We show that Mizan executes common algorithms on very large graphs 1-2 orders of mag- nitude faster than MapReduce-based implementations and up to one order of magnitude faster than implementations relying on Pregel-like hash-based graph partitioning.
Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar
2017-04-25
In this paper the focus is on subsampling as well as reconstructing the second-order statistics of signals residing on nodes of arbitrary undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals may be obtained by graph filtering zero-mean white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum whose shape is determined by the frequency response of the graph filter. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms an important component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks such as Wiener prediction or inpainting on graphs. The central result of this paper is that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the second-order statistics of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, and more importantly, without any spectral priors. To this end, both a nonparametric approach as well as parametric approaches including moving average and autoregressive models for the graph power spectrum are considered. The results specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non-parametric and the moving average models, whereas a particular subsampling scheme that allows linear estimation for the autoregressive model is proposed. Numerical experiments on synthetic as well as real datasets related to climatology and processing handwritten digits are provided to demonstrate the developed theory.
Hendrix, William; Jenkins, John; Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Chakraborty, Arpan
2014-01-01
Practical Graph Mining with R presents a "do-it-yourself" approach to extracting interesting patterns from graph data. It covers many basic and advanced techniques for the identification of anomalous or frequently recurring patterns in a graph, the discovery of groups or clusters of nodes that share common patterns of attributes and relationships, the extraction of patterns that distinguish one category of graphs from another, and the use of those patterns to predict the category of new graphs. Hands-On Application of Graph Data Mining Each chapter in the book focuses on a graph mining task, such as link analysis, cluster analysis, and classification. Through applications using real data sets, the book demonstrates how computational techniques can help solve real-world problems. The applications covered include network intrusion detection, tumor cell diagnostics, face recognition, predictive toxicology, mining metabolic and protein-protein interaction networks, and community detection in social networks. De...
Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Oury
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.
Storefront Cigarette Advertising Differs by Community Demographic Profile
Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Caughey, Robert W.; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.
2011-01-01
Purpose Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. Design The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Setting Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. Subjects No human subjects were involved in this study. Measures Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Analysis Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. Results The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Conclusion Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising. PMID:20594091
Storefront cigarette advertising differs by community demographic profile.
Seidenberg, Andrew B; Caughey, Robert W; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N
2010-01-01
Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. No human subjects were involved in this study. Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising.
Learning heat diffusion graphs
Thanou, Dorina; Dong, Xiaowen; Kressner, Daniel; Frossard, Pascal
2016-01-01
Effective information analysis generally boils down to properly identifying the structure or geometry of the data, which is often represented by a graph. In some applications, this structure may be partly determined by design constraints or pre-determined sensing arrangements, like in road transportation networks for example. In general though, the data structure is not readily available and becomes pretty difficult to define. In particular, the global smoothness assumptions, that most of the...
Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian
2014-01-01
This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to…
Understanding Charts and Graphs.
1987-07-28
Farenheit degrees, which have no Onaturalo zero ); finally, ratio scales have numbers that are ordered so that the magnitudes of differences are important and...system. They have to do with the very nature of how marks serve as meaningful symbols. In the ideal case, a chart or graph will be absolutely unambiguous...and these laws comprise this principle (see Stevens, 1974). Absolute discriminability: A minimal magnitude of a mark is necessary for it to be detected
BETWEEN ADVERTISING PRACTITIONERS AND ACADEMICS IN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
would complements the existing literature; and it maps out directions for future empirical investigations. Not without inherent limitations, the research reviewed literature ... long decades of research, advertising is perceived to be the least accountable function in ..... The Future of Consumer Decision Making in the Age of New.
Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations
African Journals Online (AJOL)
gold
2012-07-26
Jul 26, 2012 ... market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience ... The relevance of this topic can also be shown by the true story of the Gerber ... product was the product; people thought they were being.
Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising
Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo
2011-01-01
Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...
Chaotic Traversal (CHAT): Very Large Graphs Traversal Using Chaotic Dynamics
Changaival, Boonyarit; Rosalie, Martin; Danoy, Grégoire; Lavangnananda, Kittichai; Bouvry, Pascal
2017-12-01
Graph Traversal algorithms can find their applications in various fields such as routing problems, natural language processing or even database querying. The exploration can be considered as a first stepping stone into knowledge extraction from the graph which is now a popular topic. Classical solutions such as Breadth First Search (BFS) and Depth First Search (DFS) require huge amounts of memory for exploring very large graphs. In this research, we present a novel memoryless graph traversal algorithm, Chaotic Traversal (CHAT) which integrates chaotic dynamics to traverse large unknown graphs via the Lozi map and the Rössler system. To compare various dynamics effects on our algorithm, we present an original way to perform the exploration of a parameter space using a bifurcation diagram with respect to the topological structure of attractors. The resulting algorithm is an efficient and nonresource demanding algorithm, and is therefore very suitable for partial traversal of very large and/or unknown environment graphs. CHAT performance using Lozi map is proven superior than the, commonly known, Random Walk, in terms of number of nodes visited (coverage percentage) and computation time where the environment is unknown and memory usage is restricted.
Graphs cospectral with a friendship graph or its complement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Abdollahi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Let $n$ be any positive integer and let $F_n$ be the friendship (or Dutch windmill graph with $2n+1$ vertices and $3n$ edges. Here we study graphs with the same adjacency spectrum as the $F_n$. Two graphs are called cospectral if the eigenvalues multiset of their adjacency matrices are the same. Let $G$ be a graph cospectral with $F_n$. Here we prove that if $G$ has no cycle of length $4$ or $5$, then $Gcong F_n$. Moreover if $G$ is connected and planar then $Gcong F_n$.All but one of connected components of $G$ are isomorphic to $K_2$.The complement $overline{F_n}$ of the friendship graph is determined by its adjacency eigenvalues, that is, if $overline{F_n}$ is cospectral with a graph $H$, then $Hcong overline{F_n}$.
Total edge irregularity strength of (n,t)-kite graph
Winarsih, Tri; Indriati, Diari
2018-04-01
Let G(V, E) be a simple, connected, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ :V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} of a graph G is a labeling of vertices and edges of G in such a way that for any different edges e and f, weights wt(e) and wt(f) are distinct. The weight wt(e) of an edge e = xy is the sum of the labels of vertices x and y and the label of the edge e. The total edge irregularity strength of G, tes(G), is defined as the minimum k for which a graph G has an edge irregular total k-labeling. An (n, t)-kite graph consist of a cycle of length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached to one vertex of a cycle. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph, with n > 3 and t > 1. We obtain the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph is tes((n, t)-kite) = \\lceil \\frac{n+t+2}{3}\\rceil .
BootGraph: probabilistic fiber tractography using bootstrap algorithms and graph theory.
Vorburger, Robert S; Reischauer, Carolin; Boesiger, Peter
2013-02-01
Bootstrap methods have recently been introduced to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to estimate the measurement uncertainty of ensuing diffusion parameters directly from the acquired data without the necessity to assume a noise model. These methods have been previously combined with deterministic streamline tractography algorithms to allow for the assessment of connection probabilities in the human brain. Thereby, the local noise induced disturbance in the diffusion data is accumulated additively due to the incremental progression of streamline tractography algorithms. Graph based approaches have been proposed to overcome this drawback of streamline techniques. For this reason, the bootstrap method is in the present work incorporated into a graph setup to derive a new probabilistic fiber tractography method, called BootGraph. The acquired data set is thereby converted into a weighted, undirected graph by defining a vertex in each voxel and edges between adjacent vertices. By means of the cone of uncertainty, which is derived using the wild bootstrap, a weight is thereafter assigned to each edge. Two path finding algorithms are subsequently applied to derive connection probabilities. While the first algorithm is based on the shortest path approach, the second algorithm takes all existing paths between two vertices into consideration. Tracking results are compared to an established algorithm based on the bootstrap method in combination with streamline fiber tractography and to another graph based algorithm. The BootGraph shows a very good performance in crossing situations with respect to false negatives and permits incorporating additional constraints, such as a curvature threshold. By inheriting the advantages of the bootstrap method and graph theory, the BootGraph method provides a computationally efficient and flexible probabilistic tractography setup to compute connection probability maps and virtual fiber pathways without the drawbacks of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin SASU
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Advertising is often critiqued for not respecting rules of ethics both in the process of advertisement design and in the way it influences society. The main concern of advertisers as representatives of companies that seek profit making is to increase sales, win new clients, increase the demand for the product they want to be presented in as nice and colorful advertisement as possible. They pretend that their product is the best, has unique qualities, better than their competitor´s, it has a better cost and brings much more benefits. That is the reason why the great challenge in advertising is to create sales efficient and at the same time moral and true advertising messages.
Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel
2016-01-01
An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co...
X-Graphs: Language and Algorithms for Heterogeneous Graph Streams
2017-09-01
are widely used by academia and industry. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Data Analytics, Graph Analytics, High-Performance Computing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...form the core of the DeepDive Knowledge Construction System. 2 INTRODUCTION The goal of the X-Graphs project was to develop computational techniques...memory multicore machine. Ringo is based on Snap.py and SNAP, and uses Python . Ringo now allows the integration of Delite DSL Framework Graph
Frog: Asynchronous Graph Processing on GPU with Hybrid Coloring Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Xuanhua; Luo, Xuan; Liang, Junling; Zhao, Peng; Di, Sheng; He, Bingsheng; Jin, Hai
2018-01-01
GPUs have been increasingly used to accelerate graph processing for complicated computational problems regarding graph theory. Many parallel graph algorithms adopt the asynchronous computing model to accelerate the iterative convergence. Unfortunately, the consistent asynchronous computing requires locking or atomic operations, leading to significant penalties/overheads when implemented on GPUs. As such, coloring algorithm is adopted to separate the vertices with potential updating conflicts, guaranteeing the consistency/correctness of the parallel processing. Common coloring algorithms, however, may suffer from low parallelism because of a large number of colors generally required for processing a large-scale graph with billions of vertices. We propose a light-weight asynchronous processing framework called Frog with a preprocessing/hybrid coloring model. The fundamental idea is based on Pareto principle (or 80-20 rule) about coloring algorithms as we observed through masses of realworld graph coloring cases. We find that a majority of vertices (about 80%) are colored with only a few colors, such that they can be read and updated in a very high degree of parallelism without violating the sequential consistency. Accordingly, our solution separates the processing of the vertices based on the distribution of colors. In this work, we mainly answer three questions: (1) how to partition the vertices in a sparse graph with maximized parallelism, (2) how to process large-scale graphs that cannot fit into GPU memory, and (3) how to reduce the overhead of data transfers on PCIe while processing each partition. We conduct experiments on real-world data (Amazon, DBLP, YouTube, RoadNet-CA, WikiTalk and Twitter) to evaluate our approach and make comparisons with well-known non-preprocessed (such as Totem, Medusa, MapGraph and Gunrock) and preprocessed (Cusha) approaches, by testing four classical algorithms (BFS, PageRank, SSSP and CC). On all the tested applications and
Multiple Illuminant Colour Estimation via Statistical Inference on Factor Graphs.
Mutimbu, Lawrence; Robles-Kelly, Antonio
2016-08-31
This paper presents a method to recover a spatially varying illuminant colour estimate from scenes lit by multiple light sources. Starting with the image formation process, we formulate the illuminant recovery problem in a statistically datadriven setting. To do this, we use a factor graph defined across the scale space of the input image. In the graph, we utilise a set of illuminant prototypes computed using a data driven approach. As a result, our method delivers a pixelwise illuminant colour estimate being devoid of libraries or user input. The use of a factor graph also allows for the illuminant estimates to be recovered making use of a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference process. Moreover, we compute the probability marginals by performing a Delaunay triangulation on our factor graph. We illustrate the utility of our method for pixelwise illuminant colour recovery on widely available datasets and compare against a number of alternatives. We also show sample colour correction results on real-world images.
Sumit Goyal
2013-01-01
This communication reports the latest trends of advertising on social media. Social media advertising means to gain traffic or attention of online users through social media sites. Today, when a user thinks about buying something, he first comes to the internet, searches for that product, compares its price with other competing brands and takes a decision, which one to buy. In this write-up, author has discussed many aspects concerning advertising through social media, viz., what is social me...
Krchňáková, Leontina
2015-01-01
This work is devoted to the Russian language advertising, which examines in an independent system. It aims are analyzing the text of Russian advertising in terms of its information and formal structure. It focuses on a specific aesthetic qualities of language, which the text uses. Work is further focused on the categorization of neologisms and neologisation of the Russian advertising. Next focus is on loanwords from the English language. Used research methods are descriptive and comparative. ...
Fashion blogs and advertisement
Lindblad, Jessica
2013-01-01
This thesis examines advertisement in fashion blogs. The theoretical part of the research discusses blogs and the social media in general, analyzes the decision-making process of the fashion consumer, along with general consumer behavior, and then examines ethical issues and the various advertising and marketing tools used in blogs. The objective of this thesis is to ascertain how blog readers are reacting to the growing amount of advertisement currently present in fashion blogs and the ...
Strategic Targeted Advertising
Andrea Galeotti; Jose Luis Moraga
2003-01-01
textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit random advertising --to induce an unequal distribution of information in the market-- and random pricing --to obtain profits from badly informed buyers--. We characterize a positive profits equilibrium...
Advertising Influence on Market
Dan NASTASE
2014-01-01
A consistent advertising budget does not guarantee a successful advertising campaign. Two companies can spend the same amount of work and get results that completely different. Research demonstrates that creative messages may have greater importance for the success of advertising campaigns than money spent. No matter how big the budget, this activity can be successful only if the ads attract attention and effectively communicate messages.
PERBANDINGAN IMPLEMENTASI ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
Francisca Hanna , Febrianti
2013-01-01
Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...
Advertising literacy and children’s susceptibility to advertising
Rozendaal, E.
2011-01-01
This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising literacy in reducing children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. In doing so, this dissertation not only deepens the existing theoretical and empirical insights on children’s advertising litera...
Key provisions humanities research advertising and advertising exposure
A. A. Sogorin
2015-01-01
The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individ...
Attention competition with advertisement
Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.
2014-09-01
In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.
INTEGRATED ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adina Claudia NEAMŢU
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features
Endomorphisms of graph algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech
2012-01-01
We initiate a systematic investigation of endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras C*(E), extending several known results on endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n. Most but not all of this study is focused on endomorphisms which permute the vertex projections and globally preserve the diagonal MASA D...... that the restriction to the diagonal MASA of an automorphism which globally preserves both D_E and the core AF-subalgebra eventually commutes with the corresponding one-sided shift. Secondly, we exhibit several properties of proper endomorphisms, investigate invertibility of localized endomorphisms both on C...
Yap, Hian-Poh
1996-01-01
This book provides an up-to-date and rapid introduction to an important and currently active topic in graph theory. The author leads the reader to the forefront of research in this area. Complete and easily readable proofs of all the main theorems, together with numerous examples, exercises and open problems are given. The book is suitable for use as a textbook or as seminar material for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. The references are comprehensive and so it will also be useful for researchers as a handbook.
Graph Algorithm Animation with Grrr
Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia
2000-01-01
We discuss geometric positioning, highlighting of visited nodes and user defined highlighting that form the algorithm animation facilities in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The main purpose of animation was initially for the debugging and profiling of Grrr code, but recently it has been extended for the purpose of teaching algorithms to undergraduate students. The animation is restricted to graph based algorithms such as graph drawing, list manipulation or more traditional gra...
Advertising Expenditure and Consumer Prices
Ferdinand Rauch
2011-01-01
This paper studies the effect of a change in the marginal costs of advertising on advertising expenditures of firms and consumer prices across industries. It makes use of a unique policy change that caused a decrease of the taxation on advertising expenditures in parts of Austria and a simultaneous increase in other parts. Advertising expenditures move immediately in the opposite direction to the marginal costs of advertising. Simultaneously the price reaction to advertising is negative in so...
Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage
Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich
2004-01-01
Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...
Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement
Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan
2013-01-01
Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...
Informative Advertising: Competition or Cooperation?
Witness Simbanegavi
2005-01-01
I compare the outcome when firms semicollude on advertising to the outcome in the Grossman and Shapiro (1984) model of informative advertising. I show that advertising is lower but prices and profits are higher under semicollusion on advertising. I also show that semicollusion on advertising is detrimental to welfare. Although firms earn higher profits when colluding on advertising, fewer consumers are informed, and as a result, welfare is lower. Compared to semicollusion on price, semicollus...
Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.
Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan
2012-01-01
Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.
Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Stobb
Full Text Available Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.
Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Nechita
2010-06-01
Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.
Eulerian Graphs and Related Topics
Fleischner, Herbert
1990-01-01
The two volumes comprising Part 1 of this work embrace the theme of Eulerian trails and covering walks. They should appeal both to researchers and students, as they contain enough material for an undergraduate or graduate graph theory course which emphasizes Eulerian graphs, and thus can be read by any mathematician not yet familiar with graph theory. But they are also of interest to researchers in graph theory because they contain many recent results, some of which are only partial solutions to more general problems. A number of conjectures have been included as well. Various problems (such a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lobser, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parekh, Ojas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
In recent years, advanced network analytics have become increasingly important to na- tional security with applications ranging from cyber security to detection and disruption of ter- rorist networks. While classical computing solutions have received considerable investment, the development of quantum algorithms to address problems, such as data mining of attributed relational graphs, is a largely unexplored space. Recent theoretical work has shown that quan- tum algorithms for graph analysis can be more efficient than their classical counterparts. Here, we have implemented a trapped-ion-based two-qubit quantum information proces- sor to address these goals. Building on Sandia's microfabricated silicon surface ion traps, we have designed, realized and characterized a quantum information processor using the hyperfine qubits encoded in two 171 Yb + ions. We have implemented single qubit gates using resonant microwave radiation and have employed Gate set tomography (GST) to characterize the quan- tum process. For the first time, we were able to prove that the quantum process surpasses the fault tolerance thresholds of some quantum codes by demonstrating a diamond norm distance of less than 1 . 9 x 10 [?] 4 . We used Raman transitions in order to manipulate the trapped ions' motion and realize two-qubit gates. We characterized the implemented motion sensitive and insensitive single qubit processes and achieved a maximal process infidelity of 6 . 5 x 10 [?] 5 . We implemented the two-qubit gate proposed by Molmer and Sorensen and achieved a fidelity of more than 97 . 7%.
Contracts for Cross-organizational Workflows as Timed Dynamic Condition Response Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs
2013-01-01
We conservatively extend the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graph process model, introduced in the PhD thesis of the second author, to allow for discrete time deadlines. We prove that safety and liveness properties can be verified by mapping finite timed DCR Graphs to finite state...
Asymptote Misconception on Graphing Functions: Does Graphing Software Resolve It?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Fatih Öçal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Graphing function is an important issue in mathematics education due to its use in various areas of mathematics and its potential roles for students to enhance learning mathematics. The use of some graphing software assists students’ learning during graphing functions. However, the display of graphs of functions that students sketched by hand may be relatively different when compared to the correct forms sketched using graphing software. The possible misleading effects of this situation brought a discussion of a misconception (asymptote misconception on graphing functions. The purpose of this study is two- fold. First of all, this study investigated whether using graphing software (GeoGebra in this case helps students to determine and resolve this misconception in calculus classrooms. Second, the reasons for this misconception are sought. The multiple case study was utilized in this study. University students in two calculus classrooms who received instructions with (35 students or without GeoGebra assisted instructions (32 students were compared according to whether they fell into this misconception on graphing basic functions (1/x, lnx, ex. In addition, students were interviewed to reveal the reasons behind this misconception. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and content analysis methods. The findings indicated that those who received GeoGebra assisted instruction were better in resolving it. In addition, the reasons behind this misconception were found to be teacher-based, exam-based and some other factors.
ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS
Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache
2016-01-01
In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.
Advertising Pressures on Media.
Hammitt, Harry
The majority of the media in the United States is funded through revenues derived from the sale of advertising space. The problem that arises from this situation is fundamentally an economic one: if advertisers are paying the bills for the media, how much control over content should they have? This report offers a review of instances in which…
Print Advertisements in Malaysia
Hashim, Azirah
2010-01-01
This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…
G.L. Urban (Glen); G. Liberali (Gui); E. MacDonald (Erin); R. Bordley (Robert); J. Hauser (J.)
2014-01-01
textabstractResearchers and practitioners devote substantial effort to targeting banner advertisements to consumers, but they focus less effort on how to communicate with consumers once targeted. Morphing enables a website to learn, automatically and near optimally, which banner advertisements to
Strategic Targeted Advertising
A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)
2003-01-01
textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit
Unconscious advertising effects
Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.
2011-01-01
Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is
ERISTIC ARGUMENTATION IN ADVERTISING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skirmantė Biržietienė
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Advertising may be examined as a particular form of rhetoric the aims of which are the same as of rhetoric, namely to affect mind, will, feelings, and to persuade. The theory of rhetoric, the main object of which is discourse not only in narrow meaning (as verbal expression of ideas (i.e. to say text, but also in broad meaning – as a communicative act between the addresser and the addressee since its interdisciplinary nature provides the right tools to explore the advertising discourse. The theory of rhetoric is successfully applied in development of advertising discourse, because it helps to foresee the communicative act between the addresser and the addressee. Advertising and rhetoric are combined by many common elements, but the same goal is the most important: both, rhetoric and advertising seek for persuasion through verbal and non-verbal measures. The paper deals with the analysis of the inventive level of advertising discourse, i.e., eristic arguments, spread of ways of proofing / persuasion. Eristic argumentation is a dominant argumentation type in advertising. This method of persuasion is a way to create truth visibility although it is just superficial. The most typical schemes of eristic argumentation used in advertising are as follows: argumentum ad vanitatem (appeal to the vanity of the addressee, argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to the authority, argumentum baculinum (method of “whip” argument, argumentum ad novitatem (appeal to novelty. The article shows the usage of eristic arguments in Lithuanian commercial ads.
Advertising-Induced Embarrassment
Puntoni, S.; Hooge, de I.E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.
2015-01-01
Abstract Consumer embarrassment is a concern for many advertisers. Yet little is known about ad-induced embarrassment. The authors investigate when and why consumers experience embarrassment as a result of exposure to socially sensitive advertisements. The theory distinguishes between viewing
Graph Theory. 2. Vertex Descriptors and Graph Coloring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorentz JÄNTSCHI
2002-12-01
Full Text Available This original work presents the construction of a set of ten sequence matrices and their applications for ordering vertices in graphs. For every sequence matrix three ordering criteria are applied: lexicographic ordering, based on strings of numbers, corresponding to every vertex, extracted as rows from sequence matrices; ordering by the sum of path lengths from a given vertex; and ordering by the sum of paths, starting from a given vertex. We also examine a graph that has different orderings for the above criteria. We then proceed to demonstrate that every criterion induced its own partition of graph vertex. We propose the following theoretical result: both LAVS and LVDS criteria generate identical partitioning of vertices in any graph. Finally, a coloring of graph vertices according to introduced ordering criteria was proposed.
On an edge partition and root graphs of some classes of line graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Pravas
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The Gallai and the anti-Gallai graphs of a graph $G$ are complementary pairs of spanning subgraphs of the line graph of $G$. In this paper we find some structural relations between these graph classes by finding a partition of the edge set of the line graph of a graph $G$ into the edge sets of the Gallai and anti-Gallai graphs of $G$. Based on this, an optimal algorithm to find the root graph of a line graph is obtained. Moreover, root graphs of diameter-maximal, distance-hereditary, Ptolemaic and chordal graphs are also discussed.
A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs
Freni-Sterrantino, Anna; Ventrucci, Massimo; Rue, Haavard
2018-01-01
In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.
A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs
Freni-Sterrantino, Anna
2018-05-23
In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.
Visual Reasoning in Computational Environment: A Case of Graph Sketching
Leung, Allen; Chan, King Wah
2004-01-01
This paper reports the case of a form six (grade 12) Hong Kong student's exploration of graph sketching in a computational environment. In particular, the student summarized his discovery in the form of two empirical laws. The student was interviewed and the interviewed data were used to map out a possible path of his visual reasoning. Critical…
The planar cubic Cayley graphs
Georgakopoulos, Agelos
2018-01-01
The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.
Groupies in random bipartite graphs
Yilun Shang
2010-01-01
A vertex $v$ of a graph $G$ is called a groupie if its degree is notless than the average of the degrees of its neighbors. In thispaper we study the influence of bipartition $(B_1,B_2)$ on groupiesin random bipartite graphs $G(B_1,B_2,p)$ with both fixed $p$ and$p$ tending to zero.
Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs
2012-01-01
We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner...
Bell inequalities for graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O.
2005-01-01
Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author)
Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert
2017-01-01
specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non
Network reconstruction via graph blending
Estrada, Rolando
2016-05-01
Graphs estimated from empirical data are often noisy and incomplete due to the difficulty of faithfully observing all the components (nodes and edges) of the true graph. This problem is particularly acute for large networks where the number of components may far exceed available surveillance capabilities. Errors in the observed graph can render subsequent analyses invalid, so it is vital to develop robust methods that can minimize these observational errors. Errors in the observed graph may include missing and spurious components, as well fused (multiple nodes are merged into one) and split (a single node is misinterpreted as many) nodes. Traditional graph reconstruction methods are only able to identify missing or spurious components (primarily edges, and to a lesser degree nodes), so we developed a novel graph blending framework that allows us to cast the full estimation problem as a simple edge addition/deletion problem. Armed with this framework, we systematically investigate the viability of various topological graph features, such as the degree distribution or the clustering coefficients, and existing graph reconstruction methods for tackling the full estimation problem. Our experimental results suggest that incorporating any topological feature as a source of information actually hinders reconstruction accuracy. We provide a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon and suggest several avenues for improving this estimation problem.
A cluster algorithm for graphs
S. van Dongen
2000-01-01
textabstractA cluster algorithm for graphs called the emph{Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL~algorithm) is introduced. The algorithm provides basically an interface to an algebraic process defined on stochastic matrices, called the MCL~process. The graphs may be both weighted (with nonnegative weight)
Advertising literacy and children’s susceptibility to advertising
Rozendaal, E.
2011-01-01
This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising
Individual Travel Behavior Modeling of Public Transport Passenger Based on Graph Construction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Liang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for mining the individual travel behavior regularity of different public transport passengers through constructing travel behavior graph based model. The individual travel behavior graph is developed to represent spatial positions, time distributions, and travel routes and further forecasts the public transport passenger’s behavior choice. The proposed travel behavior graph is composed of macronodes, arcs, and transfer probability. Each macronode corresponds to a travel association map and represents a travel behavior. A travel association map also contains its own nodes. The nodes of a travel association map are created when the processed travel chain data shows significant change. Thus, each node of three layers represents a significant change of spatial travel positions, travel time, and routes, respectively. Since a travel association map represents a travel behavior, the graph can be considered a sequence of travel behaviors. Through integrating travel association map and calculating the probabilities of the arcs, it is possible to construct a unique travel behavior graph for each passenger. The data used in this study are multimode data matched by certain rules based on the data of public transport smart card transactions and network features. The case study results show that graph based method to model the individual travel behavior of public transport passengers is effective and feasible. Travel behavior graphs support customized public transport travel characteristics analysis and demand prediction.
Planar graphs theory and algorithms
Nishizeki, T
1988-01-01
Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.
Quantum chaos on discrete graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smilansky, Uzy
2007-01-01
Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral ζ functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of ζ functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76). (fast track communication)
RJSplot: Interactive Graphs with R.
Barrios, David; Prieto, Carlos
2018-03-01
Data visualization techniques provide new methods for the generation of interactive graphs. These graphs allow a better exploration and interpretation of data but their creation requires advanced knowledge of graphical libraries. Recent packages have enabled the integration of interactive graphs in R. However, R provides limited graphical packages that allow the generation of interactive graphs for computational biology applications. The present project has joined the analytical power of R with the interactive graphical features of JavaScript in a new R package (RJSplot). It enables the easy generation of interactive graphs in R, provides new visualization capabilities, and contributes to the advance of computational biology analytical methods. At present, 16 interactive graphics are available in RJSplot, such as the genome viewer, Manhattan plots, 3D plots, heatmaps, dendrograms, networks, and so on. The RJSplot package is freely available online at http://rjsplot.net. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haskins, Louise
1999-01-01
Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the
On characterizing terrain visibility graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Evans
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A terrain is an $x$-monotone polygonal line in the $xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph $M$ there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is $M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with $M$ being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of $3$-signotope.
Graph embedding with rich information through heterogeneous graph
Sun, Guolei
2017-11-12
Graph embedding, aiming to learn low-dimensional representations for nodes in graphs, has attracted increasing attention due to its critical application including node classification, link prediction and clustering in social network analysis. Most existing algorithms for graph embedding only rely on the topology information and fail to use the copious information in nodes as well as edges. As a result, their performance for many tasks may not be satisfactory. In this thesis, we proposed a novel and general framework for graph embedding with rich text information (GERI) through constructing a heterogeneous network, in which we integrate node and edge content information with graph topology. Specially, we designed a novel biased random walk to explore the constructed heterogeneous network with the notion of flexible neighborhood. Our sampling strategy can compromise between BFS and DFS local search on heterogeneous graph. To further improve our algorithm, we proposed semi-supervised GERI (SGERI), which learns graph embedding in an discriminative manner through heterogeneous network with label information. The efficacy of our method is demonstrated by extensive comparison experiments with 9 baselines over multi-label and multi-class classification on various datasets including Citeseer, Cora, DBLP and Wiki. It shows that GERI improves the Micro-F1 and Macro-F1 of node classification up to 10%, and SGERI improves GERI by 5% in Wiki.
CORECLUSTER: A Degeneracy Based Graph Clustering Framework
Giatsidis , Christos; Malliaros , Fragkiskos; Thilikos , Dimitrios M. ,; Vazirgiannis , Michalis
2014-01-01
International audience; Graph clustering or community detection constitutes an important task forinvestigating the internal structure of graphs, with a plethora of applications in several domains. Traditional tools for graph clustering, such asspectral methods, typically suffer from high time and space complexity. In thisarticle, we present \\textsc{CoreCluster}, an efficient graph clusteringframework based on the concept of graph degeneracy, that can be used along withany known graph clusteri...
Strategic informative advertising in a tv-advertising duopoly
Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars
2000-01-01
We consider a model of strategic informative advertising where the advertising is done on TV and where the TV channels' advertising prices are endogenously determined. We discuss how these prices, and the advertising firms' advertising efforts, vary with the two key parameters of the model: the degree of product differentiation in the product market and a measure of the relative sizes of the TV channels' viewer bases. We find, in particular, that the larger the size difference among the TV ch...
Advertising Bans and the Substitutability of Online and Offline Advertising
Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth
2010-01-01
The authors examine whether the growth of the Internet has reduced the effectiveness of government regulation of advertising. They combine nonexperimental variation in local regulation of offline alcohol advertising with data from field tests that randomized exposure to online advertising for 275 different online advertising campaigns to 61,580 people. The results show that people are 8% less likely to say that they will purchase an alcoholic beverage in states that have alcohol advertising b...
Internet Advertising: Ethics and Etiquette.
Machovec, George S.
1994-01-01
Discusses the growth of the Internet and the attitudes of users toward advertising, provides examples of kinds of advertising used on electronic networks, and lists several companies that help advertisers use the Internet. Fifteen guidelines are suggested to help advertisers use the Internet in a reasonable and appropriate way. (Contains 11…
Quality uncertainty and informative advertising
Moraga-González, José Luis
We present a price signalling model with informative advertising. A costly advertisement informs of the good's quality directly and therefore the seller determines the fraction of informed buyers endogenously. We show that informative advertising only occurs in pooling equilibria. For an advertising
Lung vessel segmentation in CT images using graph-cuts
Zhai, Zhiwei; Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C.
2016-03-01
Accurate lung vessel segmentation is an important operation for lung CT analysis. Filters that are based on analyzing the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are popular for pulmonary vessel enhancement. However, due to their low response at vessel bifurcations and vessel boundaries, extracting lung vessels by thresholding the vesselness is not sufficiently accurate. Some methods turn to graph-cuts for more accurate segmentation, as it incorporates neighbourhood information. In this work, we propose a new graph-cuts cost function combining appearance and shape, where CT intensity represents appearance and vesselness from a Hessian-based filter represents shape. Due to the amount of voxels in high resolution CT scans, the memory requirement and time consumption for building a graph structure is very high. In order to make the graph representation computationally tractable, those voxels that are considered clearly background are removed from the graph nodes, using a threshold on the vesselness map. The graph structure is then established based on the remaining voxel nodes, source/sink nodes and the neighbourhood relationship of the remaining voxels. Vessels are segmented by minimizing the energy cost function with the graph-cuts optimization framework. We optimized the parameters used in the graph-cuts cost function and evaluated the proposed method with two manually labeled sub-volumes. For independent evaluation, we used 20 CT scans of the VESSEL12 challenge. The evaluation results of the sub-volume data show that the proposed method produced a more accurate vessel segmentation compared to the previous methods, with F1 score 0.76 and 0.69. In the VESSEL12 data-set, our method obtained a competitive performance with an area under the ROC curve of 0.975, especially among the binary submissions.
Reproducibility of graph metrics in fMRI networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qawi K Telesford
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The reliability of graph metrics calculated in network analysis is essential to the interpretation of complex network organization. These graph metrics are used to deduce the small-world properties in networks. In this study, we investigated the test-retest reliability of graph metrics from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data collected for two runs in 45 healthy older adults. Graph metrics were calculated on data for both runs and compared using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC statistics and Bland-Altman (BA plots. ICC scores describe the level of absolute agreement between two measurements and provide a measure of reproducibility. For mean graph metrics, ICC scores were high for clustering coefficient (ICC=0.86, global efficiency (ICC=0.83, path length (ICC=0.79, and local efficiency (ICC=0.75; the ICC score for degree was found to be low (ICC=0.29. ICC scores were also used to generate reproducibility maps in brain space to test voxel-wise reproducibility for unsmoothed and smoothed data. Reproducibility was uniform across the brain for global efficiency and path length, but was only high in network hubs for clustering coefficient, local efficiency and degree. BA plots were used to test the measurement repeatability of all graph metrics. All graph metrics fell within the limits for repeatability. Together, these results suggest that with exception of degree, mean graph metrics are reproducible and suitable for clinical studies. Further exploration is warranted to better understand reproducibility across the brain on a voxel-wise basis.
Growing hierarchical probabilistic self-organizing graphs.
López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Palomo, Esteban José
2011-07-01
Since the introduction of the growing hierarchical self-organizing map, much work has been done on self-organizing neural models with a dynamic structure. These models allow adjusting the layers of the model to the features of the input dataset. Here we propose a new self-organizing model which is based on a probabilistic mixture of multivariate Gaussian components. The learning rule is derived from the stochastic approximation framework, and a probabilistic criterion is used to control the growth of the model. Moreover, the model is able to adapt to the topology of each layer, so that a hierarchy of dynamic graphs is built. This overcomes the limitations of the self-organizing maps with a fixed topology, and gives rise to a faithful visualization method for high-dimensional data.
Introduction to media and advertising creative relationship
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晴
2013-01-01
This article is based on the relationship of media and advertising creative for the report, Through the analysis of the nature and characteristics of various advertising media, from video, print, advertising, outdoor this four aspects explain the relationship between media and advertising creative. Fully understand the media for advertising creative, make the best combination of media and advertising, make advertising creative into real productivity.
Food advertising towards children and Young People in Norway
Bugge, Annechen Bahr
2016-01-01
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for impleme...
Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis.
Stephen, Mutua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie
2015-01-01
Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it's microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq) and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks.
Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mutua Stephen
Full Text Available Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it's microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks.
Factors influencing advertising effectiveness and purchase intention on Instagram
Mathisen, Alexander; Stangeby, Mats Fredrick
2017-01-01
Instagram has emerged as an important social media and advertising platform, but little or no research has been done to investigate how the users perceive various Instagram advertisement. The current research relies on two studies to determine which attributes in an ad users notice and favour. The first study is an exploratory study utilising qualitative cognitive mapping to address the key attributes for ad evaluation. The second study tests overall ad evaluation using conjoin...
Hierarchy of modular graph identities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin
2016-01-01
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.
Hierarchy of modular graph identities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2016-11-09
The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.
Food advertising in children's magasines
Šorli, Ema
2014-01-01
Children are particularly interesting to the media and advertising, since they are more receptive to advertisement than adults during adolescence. The problem of advertising is mainly unhealthy food, but for child’s healthy growth and development a balanced diet and physical activity are most needed. The objectives of the thesis were to explore children's magazines and to determine the frequency of food advertising, and to present the phenomenon of food advertisements through different period...
CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING
Yuni Retnowati
2016-01-01
At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and nor...
Advertising. Advanced placement of objects
Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh
2016-01-01
The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the ...
A Theory of Combative Advertising
Yuxin Chen; Yogesh V. Joshi; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang
2009-01-01
In mature markets with competing firms, a common role for advertising is to shift consumer preferences towards the advertiser in a tug-of-war, with no effect on category demand. In this paper, we analyze the effect of such “combative” advertising on market power. We show that, depending on the nature of consumer response, combative advertising can reduce price competition to benefit competing firms. However, it can also lead to a procompetitive outcome where individual firms advertise to incr...
Advertising and Business Cycle Fluctuations
Benedetto Molinari; Francesco Turino
2009-01-01
This paper provides new empirical evidence of quarterly U.S. aggregate advertising expenditures, showing that advertising has a well defined pattern over the Business Cycle. To understand this pattern we develop a general equilibrium model where targeted advertising increases the marginal utility of the advertised good. Advertising intensity is endogenously determined by profit maximizing firms. We embed this assumption into an otherwise standard model of business cycle with monopolistic comp...
MadEvent: automatic event generation with MadGraph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maltoni, Fabio; Stelzer, Tim
2003-01-01
We present a new multi-channel integration method and its implementation in the multi-purpose event generator MadEvent, which is based on MadGraph. Given a process, MadGraph automatically identifies all the relevant subprocesses, generates both the amplitudes and the mappings needed for an efficient integration over the phase space, and passes them to MadEvent. As a result, a process-specific, stand-alone code is produced that allows the user to calculate cross sections and produce unweighted events in a standard output format. Several examples are given for processes that are relevant for physics studies at present and forthcoming colliders. (author)
Graph based communication analysis for hardware/software codesign
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan
1999-01-01
In this paper we present a coarse grain CDFG (Control/Data Flow Graph) model suitable for hardware/software partitioning of single processes and demonstrate how it is necessary to perform various transformations on the graph structure before partitioning in order to achieve a structure that allows...... for accurate estimation of communication overhead between nodes mapped to different processors. In particular, we demonstrate how various transformations of control structures can lead to a more accurate communication analysis and more efficient implementations. The purpose of the transformations is to obtain...
XML Graphs in Program Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.
2011-01-01
of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package that enables others to make use of these ideas. We also survey the use of XML graphs for program analysis with four very different languages: XACT (XML in Java), Java Servlets (Web application programming), XSugar......XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation...
Rabern, Landon
2007-01-01
We improve upper bounds on the chromatic number proven independently in \\cite{reedNote} and \\cite{ingo}. Our main lemma gives a sufficient condition for two paths in graph to be completely joined. Using this, we prove that if a graph has an optimal coloring with more than $\\frac{\\omega}{2}$ singleton color classes, then it satisfies $\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\omega + \\Delta + 1}{2}$. It follows that a graph satisfying $n - \\Delta < \\alpha + \\frac{\\omega - 1}{2}$ must also satisfy $\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\ome...
Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres
Knill, Oliver
2015-01-01
d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...
Trends in Advertising Typography.
Moriarty, Sandra Ernst
1982-01-01
Reviews advertising typography in general interest, special interest, and trade magazines and concludes that special interest magazine ads are making the most effort to be fashionable, but also have the greatest chance of having functional problems. (FL)
Alcohol advertising and youth.
Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W
2002-06-01
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard
2010-01-01
Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....
"Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements
Leist, Jay
2007-01-01
Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)
Damjan, Jure
2016-01-01
In time when internet is becoming one of the major channels for sales and spreading information, organizations, companies and individuals face challenges on how to present their websites to wider audience as well as attract new visitors. In this thesis we have presented paid online advertising, which can be used by any website owner, even individual, to drive visitors to their websites in an easy and fast way. We have also presented main advertising channels, major global and local players, t...
Eight worst advertising mistakes.
Maley, Catherine
2010-11-01
This article presents strategies for advertising the medical practice. The emphasis is on breaking out of the old rules of how one should advertise and delves into asking questions that lead to a true strategy unique to one's medical practice and offerings. The article discusses the myriad ways to think about and create a patient-centered approach, turning from "here is what we offer" to instead "what you want we offer." Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT
Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei
2015-01-01
Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodol...
Customer Poaching and Advertising
Rosa Branca Esteves
2007-01-01
This article is a first look at the dynamic effects of customer poaching in homogeneous product markets, where firms need to invest in advertising to generate awareness. When a firm can recognize customers with different past purchasing histories, it may send them targeted advertiseraents with different prices. It is shown that only the firm that advertises the highest price in the first period will engage in price discrimination, and that poaching clearly benefits the discriminating firm, Th...
Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter
2009-01-01
Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...
Publicity, Advertising and Spirituality
Ramona Olivia ŞTEFĂNESCU-MIHĂILĂ
2014-01-01
Advertising industry is more and more often associated to brilliant minds in areas such as: psychology, sociology, anthropology, who turned a job into a full time task of “penetrating the collective public mind, (...) its manipulation, exploitation and control”. That is why, ever since its beginnings, the advertising industry was admonished by social critics for taking materialism to the highest levels; to replace inner happiness and intrinsic motivation with the wish to be productive in soci...
Emotional response to advertising
Bogdan ANASTASIEI; Raluca CHIOSA
2014-01-01
Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P), arousal (A) and domination (D) emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987) develope...
Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor
2007-07-01
Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.
Emotional response to advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Anastasiei
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.
ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.
Properly colored connectivity of graphs
Li, Xueliang; Qin, Zhongmei
2018-01-01
A comprehensive survey of proper connection of graphs is discussed in this book with real world applications in computer science and network security. Beginning with a brief introduction, comprising relevant definitions and preliminary results, this book moves on to consider a variety of properties of graphs that imply bounds on the proper connection number. Detailed proofs of significant advancements toward open problems and conjectures are presented with complete references. Researchers and graduate students with an interest in graph connectivity and colorings will find this book useful as it builds upon fundamental definitions towards modern innovations, strategies, and techniques. The detailed presentation lends to use as an introduction to proper connection of graphs for new and advanced researchers, a solid book for a graduate level topics course, or as a reference for those interested in expanding and further developing research in the area.
Graph anomalies in cyber communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-11
Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.
Open Graphs and Computational Reasoning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucas Dixon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. In particular, this allows equations and rewrite rules to be specified between graphs. Particular computational models can then be encoded as an axiomatic set of such rules. Further rules can be derived graphically and rewriting can be used to simulate the dynamics of a computational system, e.g. evaluating a program on an input. Examples of models which can be formalised in this way include traditional electronic circuits as well as recent categorical accounts of quantum information.
Woeginger, G.J.
1998-01-01
In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).
Generating random networks and graphs
Coolen, Ton; Roberts, Ekaterina
2017-01-01
This book supports researchers who need to generate random networks, or who are interested in the theoretical study of random graphs. The coverage includes exponential random graphs (where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified), growth algorithms (i.e. preferential attachment and the stub-joining configuration model), special constructions (e.g. geometric graphs and Watts Strogatz models) and graphs on structured spaces (e.g. multiplex networks). The presentation aims to be a complete starting point, including details of both theory and implementation, as well as discussions of the main strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It includes extensive references for readers wishing to go further. The material is carefully structured to be accessible to researchers from all disciplines while also containing rigorous mathematical analysis (largely based on the techniques of statistical mechanics) to support those wishing to further develop or implement the theory of rand...
Graph theory and its applications
Gross, Jonathan L
2006-01-01
Gross and Yellen take a comprehensive approach to graph theory that integrates careful exposition of classical developments with emerging methods, models, and practical needs. Their unparalleled treatment provides a text ideal for a two-semester course and a variety of one-semester classes, from an introductory one-semester course to courses slanted toward classical graph theory, operations research, data structures and algorithms, or algebra and topology.
A faithful functor among algebras and graphs
Falcón Ganfornina, Óscar Jesús; Falcón Ganfornina, Raúl Manuel; Núñez Valdés, Juan; Pacheco Martínez, Ana María; Villar Liñán, María Trinidad; Vigo Aguiar, Jesús (Coordinador)
2016-01-01
The problem of identifying a functor between the categories of algebras and graphs is currently open. Based on a known algorithm that identifies isomorphisms of Latin squares with isomorphism of vertex-colored graphs, we describe here a pair of graphs that enable us to find a faithful functor between finite-dimensional algebras over finite fields and these graphs.
Graphs with branchwidth at most three
Bodlaender, H.L.; Thilikos, D.M.
1997-01-01
In this paper we investigate both the structure of graphs with branchwidth at most three, as well as algorithms to recognise such graphs. We show that a graph has branchwidth at most three, if and only if it has treewidth at most three and does not contain the three-dimensional binary cube graph
A Modal-Logic Based Graph Abstraction
Bauer, J.; Boneva, I.B.; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, Arend; Ehrig, H; Heckel, R.; Rozenberg, G.; Taentzer, G.
2008-01-01
Infinite or very large state spaces often prohibit the successful verification of graph transformation systems. Abstract graph transformation is an approach that tackles this problem by abstracting graphs to abstract graphs of bounded size and by lifting application of productions to abstract
Graphs whose complement and square are isomorphic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Anders Sune
2014-01-01
We study square-complementary graphs, that is, graphs whose complement and square are isomorphic. We prove several necessary conditions for a graph to be square-complementary, describe ways of building new square-complementary graphs from existing ones, construct infinite families of square-compl...
Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin
2017-01-01
A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...
Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science
Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian
2017-01-01
Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.
Port-Hamiltonian Systems on Open Graphs
Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.
2010-01-01
In this talk we discuss how to define in an intrinsic manner port-Hamiltonian dynamics on open graphs. Open graphs are graphs where some of the vertices are boundary vertices (terminals), which allow interconnection with other systems. We show that a directed graph carries two natural Dirac
Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles
Lynch, Mark A. M.
2012-01-01
It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…
Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs
Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.
2012-01-01
The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic
Chromatic polynomials of random graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Bussel, Frank; Fliegner, Denny; Timme, Marc; Ehrlich, Christoph; Stolzenberg, Sebastian
2010-01-01
Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.
Commuting graphs of matrix algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akbari, S.; Bidkhori, H.; Mohammadian, A.
2006-08-01
The commuting graph of a ring R, denoted by Γ(R), is a graph whose vertices are all non- central elements of R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if and only if xy = yx. The commuting graph of a group G, denoted by Γ(G), is similarly defined. In this paper we investigate some graph theoretic properties of Γ(M n (F)), where F is a field and n ≥ 2. Also we study the commuting graphs of some classical groups such as GL n (F) and SL n (F). We show that Γ(M n (F)) is a connected graph if and only if every field extension of F of degree n contains a proper intermediate field. We prove that apart from finitely many fields, a similar result is true for Γ(GL n (F)) and Γ(SL n (F)). Also we show that for two fields E and F and integers m, n ≥> 2, if Γ(M m (E)) ≅ Γ(M n (F)), then m = n and vertical bar E vertical bar = vertical bar F vertical bar. (author)
Modelling and analysis of distributed simulation protocols with distributed graph transformation
Lara, Juan de; Taentzer, Gabriele
2005-01-01
Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. J. de Lara, and G. Taentzer, "Modelling and analysis of distributed simulation protocols with distributed graph transformation...
Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes
Peng Mi; Maoyuan Sun; Moeti Masiane; Yong Cao; Chris North
2016-01-01
Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph to...
Khovanov homology of graph-links
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-08-31
Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.
Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?
Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova
2008-01-01
We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.
PRIVATE GRAPHS – ACCESS RIGHTS ON GRAPHS FOR SEAMLESS NAVIGATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Dorner
2016-06-01
Full Text Available After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS – Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites, but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.
Labeling RDF Graphs for Linear Time and Space Querying
Furche, Tim; Weinzierl, Antonius; Bry, François
Indices and data structures for web querying have mostly considered tree shaped data, reflecting the view of XML documents as tree-shaped. However, for RDF (and when querying ID/IDREF constraints in XML) data is indisputably graph-shaped. In this chapter, we first study existing indexing and labeling schemes for RDF and other graph datawith focus on support for efficient adjacency and reachability queries. For XML, labeling schemes are an important part of the widespread adoption of XML, in particular for mapping XML to existing (relational) database technology. However, the existing indexing and labeling schemes for RDF (and graph data in general) sacrifice one of the most attractive properties of XML labeling schemes, the constant time (and per-node space) test for adjacency (child) and reachability (descendant). In the second part, we introduce the first labeling scheme for RDF data that retains this property and thus achieves linear time and space processing of acyclic RDF queries on a significantly larger class of graphs than previous approaches (which are mostly limited to tree-shaped data). Finally, we show how this labeling scheme can be applied to (acyclic) SPARQL queries to obtain an evaluation algorithm with time and space complexity linear in the number of resources in the queried RDF graph.
PathSys: integrating molecular interaction graphs for systems biology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raval Alpan
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of information integration in systems biology is to combine information from a number of databases and data sets, which are obtained from both high and low throughput experiments, under one data management scheme such that the cumulative information provides greater biological insight than is possible with individual information sources considered separately. Results Here we present PathSys, a graph-based system for creating a combined database of networks of interaction for generating integrated view of biological mechanisms. We used PathSys to integrate over 14 curated and publicly contributed data sources for the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae and Gene Ontology. A number of exploratory questions were formulated as a combination of relational and graph-based queries to the integrated database. Thus, PathSys is a general-purpose, scalable, graph-data warehouse of biological information, complete with a graph manipulation and a query language, a storage mechanism and a generic data-importing mechanism through schema-mapping. Conclusion Results from several test studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in retrieving biologically interesting relations between genes and proteins, the networks connecting them, and of the utility of PathSys as a scalable graph-based warehouse for interaction-network integration and a hypothesis generator system. The PathSys's client software, named BiologicalNetworks, developed for navigation and analyses of molecular networks, is available as a Java Web Start application at http://brak.sdsc.edu/pub/BiologicalNetworks.
Strong oriented chromatic number of planar graphs without short cycles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mickaël Montassier
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Let M be an additive abelian group. A strong oriented coloringof an oriented graph G is a mapping φ from V(G to M such that (1 φ(u ≠ φ(v whenever uv is an arc in G and (2 φ(v - φ(u ≠ -(φ(t - φ(z whenever uv and zt are two arcs in G. We say that G has a M-strong-oriented coloring. The strong oriented chromatic number of an oriented graph, denoted by χ s (G, is the minimal order of a group M, such that G has M-strong-oriented coloring. This notion was introduced by Nešetřil and Raspaud. In this paper, we pose the following problem: Let i ≥ 4 be an integer. Let G be an oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to i. Which is the strong oriented chromatic number of G ? Our aim is to determine the impact of triangles on the strong oriented coloring. We give some hints of answers to this problem by proving that: (1 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to 12 is at most 7, and (2 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of length 4 or 6 is at most 19.
On the Total Edge Irregularity Strength of Generalized Butterfly Graph
Dwi Wahyuna, Hafidhyah; Indriati, Diari
2018-04-01
Let G(V, E) be a connected, simple, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ: V(G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, k} of a graph G is a total k-labeling such that the weights calculated for all edges are distinct. The weight of an edge uv in G, denoted by wt(uv), is defined as the sum of the label of u, the label of v, and the label of uv. The total edge irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G), is the minimum value of the largest label k over all such edge irregular total k-labelings. A generalized butterfly graph, BFn , obtained by inserting vertices to every wing with assumption that sum of inserting vertices to every wing are same then it has 2n + 1 vertices and 4n ‑ 2 edges. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of generalized butterfly graph, BFn , for n > 2. The result is tes(B{F}n)=\\lceil \\frac{4n}{3}\\rceil .
Graph Theory Approach for Studying Food Webs
Longjas, A.; Tejedor, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.
2017-12-01
Food webs are complex networks of feeding interactions among species in ecological communities. Metrics describing food web structure have been proposed to compare and classify food webs ranging from food chain length, connectance, degree distribution, centrality measures, to the presence of motifs (distinct compartments), among others. However, formal methodologies for studying both food web topology and the dynamic processes operating on them are still lacking. Here, we utilize a quantitative framework using graph theory within which a food web is represented by a directed graph, i.e., a collection of vertices (species or trophic species defined as sets of species sharing the same predators and prey) and directed edges (predation links). This framework allows us to identify apex (environmental "source" node) to outlet (top predators) subnetworks and compute the steady-state flux (e.g., carbon, nutrients, energy etc.) in the food web. We use this framework to (1) construct vulnerability maps that quantify the relative change of flux delivery to the top predators in response to perturbations in prey species (2) identify keystone species, whose loss would precipitate further species extinction, and (3) introduce a suite of graph-theoretic metrics to quantify the topologic (imposed by food web connectivity) and dynamic (dictated by the flux partitioning and distribution) components of a food web's complexity. By projecting food webs into a 2D Topodynamic Complexity Space whose coordinates are given by Number of alternative paths (topologic) and Leakage Index (dynamic), we show that this space provides a basis for food web comparison and provide physical insights into their dynamic behavior.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrice de Rendinger
2006-05-01
Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount
Quantum centrality testing on directed graphs via P T -symmetric quantum walks
Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.; Abbott, P. C.; Ma, X. S.
2017-09-01
Various quantum-walk-based algorithms have been proposed to analyze and rank the centrality of graph vertices. However, issues arise when working with directed graphs: the resulting non-Hermitian Hamiltonian leads to nonunitary dynamics, and the total probability of the quantum walker is no longer conserved. In this paper, we discuss a method for simulating directed graphs using P T -symmetric quantum walks, allowing probability-conserving nonunitary evolution. This method is equivalent to mapping the directed graph to an undirected, yet weighted, complete graph over the same vertex set, and can be extended to cover interdependent networks of directed graphs. Previous work has shown centrality measures based on the continuous-time quantum walk provide an eigenvectorlike quantum centrality; using the P T -symmetric framework, we extend these centrality algorithms to directed graphs with a significantly reduced Hilbert space compared to previous proposals. In certain cases, this centrality measure provides an advantage over classical algorithms used in network analysis, for example, by breaking vertex rank degeneracy. Finally, we perform a statistical analysis over ensembles of random graphs, and show strong agreement with the classical PageRank measure on directed acyclic graphs.
Mobile Advertising : A Case study of Mobile advertising Solutions
Salim, Ali; Alikhani, Nima
2009-01-01
This report has been produced as a result of a Thesis assignment conducted at Ericsson. Itspurpose is to give an overview of the Mobile Advertising industry. In this report an overviewof mobile advertising is presented and thru which channels advertising could be used. Thenthree mobile advertising campaigns are shown and described with background, strategy andresults. The different global markets, the different actors in the value chain and how the onlinebehavior has changed are analyzed. The...
Online Female Escort Advertisements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James D. Griffith
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.
Advertising Through Social Media : Advertising plan for a hotel
Verbrugghe, Yann
2013-01-01
This thesis was written in order to develop advertising for the manor hotel Karolineburg, located in Kajaani, Finland, by using a social network as advertising media. This work also had for goal to show the possibility of social advertising and the benefits it can bring along. According to the situation of the company, findings and results revealed positive aspects of the work done.
Reconsidering advertising literacy as a defense against advertising effects
Rozendaal, E.; Lapierre, M.A.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Buijzen, M.
2011-01-01
It is widely assumed that advertising literacy makes children less susceptible to advertising effects. However, empirical research does not provide convincing evidence for this view. In this article, we explain why advertising literacy as it is currently defined (i.e., conceptual knowledge of
Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.
Bugge, Annechen Bahr
2016-03-01
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z
2015-12-01
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADVERTISING : TARGETING GENERATION Z December......study recommends improvements for Navy advertising efficiency by examining characteristics of recruits defined as Generation Z. Data gathered from five
On Features of Advertising English
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
任芳; 赵丹丹
2011-01-01
@@ Definition of Advertising English Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, service or ideas by identi- fied sponsors though various media (丁静, 2005:138 ).
Online Advertising in Social Networks
Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet
Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Starčević Slađana
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.
MARKETING AND ADVERTISING ETHICS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florin-Alexandru LUCA
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Each and every day, the TV programmes are interrupted by advertising spots which offer us a range of products as varied as they are tempting. It is enough to buy them and, as the authors of these spots guarantee, we quickly get rid of cold, the portal vein will perfectly function, we lose weight while eating, using the appropriate tooth paste will keep us away from dentists and a certain cream will get our face a couple of years younger. And all these at financial offers often apparently hard to refuse. This work aims at analyzing where the information stops, by giving the eventual buyer the possibility to choose, and where starts, through persuasion techniques, mostly subliminal, cleverly instrumented, the manipulation of advertising consumers? There is ethics in advertising, but is it fully observed and managed according to the financial interest of the seller? On the other hand, can we also talk about a tacit complicity of the buyer?
Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse
Kochetova, Larisa A.
2016-01-01
Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…
Eigenfunction statistics on quantum graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gnutzmann, S.; Keating, J.P.; Piotet, F.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spatial statistics of the energy eigenfunctions on large quantum graphs. It has previously been conjectured that these should be described by a Gaussian Random Wave Model, by analogy with quantum chaotic systems, for which such a model was proposed by Berry in 1977. The autocorrelation functions we calculate for an individual quantum graph exhibit a universal component, which completely determines a Gaussian Random Wave Model, and a system-dependent deviation. This deviation depends on the graph only through its underlying classical dynamics. Classical criteria for quantum universality to be met asymptotically in the large graph limit (i.e. for the non-universal deviation to vanish) are then extracted. We use an exact field theoretic expression in terms of a variant of a supersymmetric σ model. A saddle-point analysis of this expression leads to the estimates. In particular, intensity correlations are used to discuss the possible equidistribution of the energy eigenfunctions in the large graph limit. When equidistribution is asymptotically realized, our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates. The universal and system-dependent components of intensity correlation functions are recovered by means of an exact trace formula which we analyse in the diagonal approximation, drawing in this way a parallel between the field theory and semiclassics. Our results provide the first instance where an asymptotic Gaussian Random Wave Model has been established microscopically for eigenfunctions in a system with no disorder.
Degree-based graph construction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A
2009-01-01
Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)
Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dziopa, P.
1993-01-01
This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs
Integer Flows and Circuit Covers of Graphs and Signed Graphs
Cheng, Jian
The work in Chapter 2 is motivated by Tutte and Jaeger's pioneering work on converting modulo flows into integer-valued flows for ordinary graphs. For a signed graphs (G, sigma), we first prove that for each k ∈ {2, 3}, if (G, sigma) is (k - 1)-edge-connected and contains an even number of negative edges when k = 2, then every modulo k-flow of (G, sigma) can be converted into an integer-valued ( k + 1)-ow with a larger or the same support. We also prove that if (G, sigma) is odd-(2p+1)-edge-connected, then (G, sigma) admits a modulo circular (2 + 1/ p)-flows if and only if it admits an integer-valued circular (2 + 1/p)-flows, which improves all previous result by Xu and Zhang (DM2005), Schubert and Steffen (EJC2015), and Zhu (JCTB2015). Shortest circuit cover conjecture is one of the major open problems in graph theory. It states that every bridgeless graph G contains a set of circuits F such that each edge is contained in at least one member of F and the length of F is at most 7/5∥E(G)∥. This concept was recently generalized to signed graphs by Macajova et al. (JGT2015). In Chapter 3, we improve their upper bound from 11∥E( G)∥ to 14/3 ∥E(G)∥, and if G is 2-edgeconnected and has even negativeness, then it can be further reduced to 11/3 ∥E(G)∥. Tutte's 3-flow conjecture has been studied by many graph theorists in the last several decades. As a new approach to this conjecture, DeVos and Thomassen considered the vectors as ow values and found that there is a close relation between vector S1-flows and integer 3-NZFs. Motivated by their observation, in Chapter 4, we prove that if a graph G admits a vector S1-flow with rank at most two, then G admits an integer 3-NZF. The concept of even factors is highly related to the famous Four Color Theorem. We conclude this dissertation in Chapter 5 with an improvement of a recent result by Chen and Fan (JCTB2016) on the upperbound of even factors. We show that if a graph G contains an even factor, then it
Television Advertising and Soda Demand
Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen
2012-01-01
This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...
Targeted advertising in magazine markets
Chandra, Ambarish; Kaiser, Ulrich
2010-01-01
We examine the scope and value of targeted advertising in the magazine industry. We use data on reader characteristics at individual media, in contrast to previous work that has needed to infer this information from aggregate data. Our results show a strong relationship between subscriber characteristics and advertising prices. Advertisers clearly value more homogenous groups of readers, measured according to income, gender and age. Our results explain recent trends of declining advertising e...
Essays on Economics of Advertising
Valei, Azamat
2017-01-01
The dissertation studies two topics in economics of advertising in the framework of Industrial Organization. Particularly, it considers a role of advertising in the markets with network externalities in consumption and advertising as a strategic response of incumbent to new entry. The first chapter investigates the incentives for a monopolistic firm producing a good with network externalities to advertise when consumers face imperfect information and therefore must search to realize their act...
Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets
Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael
2015-01-01
We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...
Factor of originality in advertising
Ešner, Rudolf
2009-01-01
The bachelor thesis deals with exploitation of original attitudes in advertising. The thesis solves answers, what role plays the factor of originality in advertising, when and why firms use that factor, how creators work with it, how consumers perceive the factor and what other elements it generally contains. The bachelor thesis qualifies relationship of advertising and originality, describes and probes practical situations, when originality in advertising can be used as a serious competitive...
Advertising Campaign: Building Creative Ideas
TANASE, George Cosmin
2015-01-01
Advertising is the most visible and most important instrument of the marketing communications mix. Large sums of money are spent on advertising, and no other marketing phenomenon is subject to so much public debate and controversy. Huge amounts of research are devoted to the question of what makes advertising effective and to the role of advertising characteristics on its effectiveness. As is the case with other communications instruments, special attention has to be devoted to the different ...
Recruiters, Advertising, and Navy Enlistments.
1980-03-01
Population’s Awareness and Advertising Previous studies on advertising have focused on measuring its effects in product markets : the consensus is that...needed that would have an immediate effect. Since about half of the HSGs generated by advertising accrue after the second year, the proper strategy is...1 June 1973. 4. Clarke, D.G., "Econometric Measurement of the Duration of Advertising Effect on Sales," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. III
Target Advertising and Market Transparency
Stühmeier, Torben
2012-01-01
This paper examines the effects of increased transparency over online news sources, e.g. due to news aggregators, on online news outlets and the advertising industry. The role of news aggregators is controversially discussed, where the discussion widely points on user side effect. The present paper widens the discussion on the advertising side and shows that aggregators can help to better target advertising messages to a more homogenous group of users and, in turn, may both benefit advertiser...
Optimal Advertising with Stochastic Demand
George E. Monahan
1983-01-01
A stochastic, sequential model is developed to determine optimal advertising expenditures as a function of product maturity and past advertising. Random demand for the product depends upon an aggregate measure of current and past advertising called "goodwill," and the position of the product in its life cycle measured by sales-to-date. Conditions on the parameters of the model are established that insure that it is optimal to advertise less as the product matures. Additional characteristics o...
Retorical figures in advertising language
Radenković-Šošić Bojana
2012-01-01
Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figur...
The advertising and children's audience
A.S. Teletov; T.Ye. Ivanova
2015-01-01
The aim of article. The article shows that today more and more citizens supply from advertising. Children's perception of the world is radically different from the adults’ perception. Modern advertising industry affects children's audience more and more. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of advertising on children's audience with further proposals. The results of the analysis. Some social critics believe that advertising provides new information that helps to be more adaptive...
2014-01-01
M.A. (Communication) The information age we find ourselves in require a different approach to advertising than the traditional advertising approach we are used to. Messages will no longer be placed in order to reach a mass audience, but to reach a very closely defined audience. Products and services will be customised to meet individual needs and the relationship with the consumer will be the key to success in a global economy. We are moving towards a many-to-many model of communication. T...
Some Aspects Regarding Internet Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiţu I.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.
Advertising quality and market share
Πέκκα - Οικονόμου, Βικτωρία; Σολδάτος, Γεράσιμος Θ.
1999-01-01
This paper utilizes a signaling-game approach to advertising and concludes that advertising is a means of increasing profits and not an instrument of consumer preferences manipulation. It also concludes that advertised brands should offer to the consumer something original and if not, then offer what more or less the rival do.
Advertising. Advanced placement of objects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising
Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown
Chen, Sherry Yong
2014-01-01
This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…
Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
严妙
2014-01-01
This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.
From Advertising to Hyper-advertising: Semiotics, Narrative and Discourse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Yalán-Dongo
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Advertising design is a discursive planning that does not only build an identity as brand value or graphic development, but also as Semiotics suggests, it produces a narrative level outlining the advertising story. The use of media, construction of characters, storytelling, organization of advertisement, are all expressions of this narrative level which in turn depends on a “context” or expression process from which they are built. This article aims to identify the different forms of narrative production in relation to three types of advertising discourse (Discourse Phase 1, Phase 2 and hyperadvertising as well as evaluate its contrasts and expressions within the advertising communication and consumer society.
Graph modeling systems and methods
Neergaard, Mike
2015-10-13
An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.
Feder, Tomá s; Motwani, Rajeev
2009-01-01
Results on graph turnpike problem without distinctness, including its NP-completeness, and an O(m+n log n) algorithm, is presented. The usual turnpike problem has all pairwise distances given, but does not specify which pair of vertices w e corresponds to. There are two other problems that can be viewed as special cases of the graph turnpike problem, including the bandwidth problem and the low-distortion graph embedding problem. The aim for the turnpike problem in the NP-complete is to orient the edges with weights w i in either direction so that when the whole cycle is transversed in the real line, it returns to a chosen starting point for the cycle. An instance of the turnpike problem with or without distinctness is uniquely mappable if there exists at most one solution up to translation and choice of orientation.
Feder, Tomás
2009-06-01
Results on graph turnpike problem without distinctness, including its NP-completeness, and an O(m+n log n) algorithm, is presented. The usual turnpike problem has all pairwise distances given, but does not specify which pair of vertices w e corresponds to. There are two other problems that can be viewed as special cases of the graph turnpike problem, including the bandwidth problem and the low-distortion graph embedding problem. The aim for the turnpike problem in the NP-complete is to orient the edges with weights w i in either direction so that when the whole cycle is transversed in the real line, it returns to a chosen starting point for the cycle. An instance of the turnpike problem with or without distinctness is uniquely mappable if there exists at most one solution up to translation and choice of orientation.
Negation switching invariant signed graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepa Sinha
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosmanis, Ansis
2011-01-01
I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.
Efficient graph-cut tattoo segmentation
Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.
2015-03-01
Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.
A Research Graph dataset for connecting research data repositories using RD-Switchboard.
Aryani, Amir; Poblet, Marta; Unsworth, Kathryn; Wang, Jingbo; Evans, Ben; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Hausstein, Brigitte; Klas, Claus-Peter; Zapilko, Benjamin; Kaplun, Samuele
2018-05-29
This paper describes the open access graph dataset that shows the connections between Dryad, CERN, ANDS and other international data repositories to publications and grants across multiple research data infrastructures. The graph dataset was created using the Research Graph data model and the Research Data Switchboard (RD-Switchboard), a collaborative project by the Research Data Alliance DDRI Working Group (DDRI WG) with the aim to discover and connect the related research datasets based on publication co-authorship or jointly funded grants. The graph dataset allows researchers to trace and follow the paths to understanding a body of work. By mapping the links between research datasets and related resources, the graph dataset improves both their discovery and visibility, while avoiding duplicate efforts in data creation. Ultimately, the linked datasets may spur novel ideas, facilitate reproducibility and re-use in new applications, stimulate combinatorial creativity, and foster collaborations across institutions.
Youth perceptions of alcohol advertising: are current advertising regulations working?
Aiken, Alexandra; Lam, Tina; Gilmore, William; Burns, Lucy; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Lenton, Simon; Lloyd, Belinda; Lubman, Dan; Ogeil, Rowan; Allsop, Steve
2018-06-01
We investigated young people's exposure to alcohol advertising, their intentions to consume and purchase alcohol products following the viewing of advertisements, and whether they perceived the actors in the advertisements as being under the age of 25 years. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 351 risky drinking 16-19-year-old Australians, with a sub-sample (n=68) responding to a range of alcohol advertisements in an in-depth interview. Participants were exposed to alcohol advertisements from an average of seven specific contexts in the past 12 months, with younger adolescents more likely to recall TV and outdoor billboards (n=351). Positive perception of advertisements was associated with increased intention to use and to purchase advertised products (n=68). A liqueur advertisement actor was perceived by 94% as being under 25 years-old, and almost 30% thought the advertisement was marketed at people younger than 18 years of age. Young people's perceptions of alcohol advertising are not necessarily in line with expert/industry assessment; products are sometimes marketed in a way that is highly appealing to young people. Greater appeal was associated with increased intention to consume and to purchase products. Implications for public health: These results indicate deficiencies in the effectiveness of current advertising codes in regard to protecting the health and wellbeing of adolescents. © 2018 The Authors.
On Graph Rewriting, Reduction and Evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zerny, Ian
2010-01-01
We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter-derive a t......We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter...
The fascinating world of graph theory
Benjamin, Arthur; Zhang, Ping
2015-01-01
Graph theory goes back several centuries and revolves around the study of graphs-mathematical structures showing relations between objects. With applications in biology, computer science, transportation science, and other areas, graph theory encompasses some of the most beautiful formulas in mathematics-and some of its most famous problems. The Fascinating World of Graph Theory explores the questions and puzzles that have been studied, and often solved, through graph theory. This book looks at graph theory's development and the vibrant individuals responsible for the field's growth. Introducin
Graph-based modelling in engineering
Rysiński, Jacek
2017-01-01
This book presents versatile, modern and creative applications of graph theory in mechanical engineering, robotics and computer networks. Topics related to mechanical engineering include e.g. machine and mechanism science, mechatronics, robotics, gearing and transmissions, design theory and production processes. The graphs treated are simple graphs, weighted and mixed graphs, bond graphs, Petri nets, logical trees etc. The authors represent several countries in Europe and America, and their contributions show how different, elegant, useful and fruitful the utilization of graphs in modelling of engineering systems can be. .
XML Graphs in Program Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2007-01-01
XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation...... of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package that enables others to make use of these ideas. We also survey four very different applications: XML in Java, Java Servlets and JSP, transformations between XML and non-XML data, and XSLT....
Graph topologies on closed multifunctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Di Maio
2003-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study function space topologies on closed multifunctions, i.e. closed relations on X x Y using various hypertopologies. The hypertopologies are in essence, graph topologies i.e topologies on functions considered as graphs which are subsets of X x Y . We also study several topologies, including one that is derived from the Attouch-Wets filter on the range. We state embedding theorems which enable us to generalize and prove some recent results in the literature with the use of known results in the hyperspace of the range space and in the function space topologies of ordinary functions.
Cyclic graphs and Apery's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorokin, V N
2002-01-01
This is a survey of results about the behaviour of Hermite-Pade approximants for graphs of Markov functions, and a survey of interpolation problems leading to Apery's result about the irrationality of the value ζ(3) of the Riemann zeta function. The first example is given of a cyclic graph for which the Hermite-Pade problem leads to Apery's theorem. Explicit formulae for solutions are obtained, namely, Rodrigues' formulae and integral representations. The asymptotic behaviour of the approximants is studied, and recurrence formulae are found
Interacting particle systems on graphs
Sood, Vishal
In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations
Children's Advertisement Writing
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
2010-01-01
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Teaching Burke Using Advertisements.
Larson, Charles U.
Kenneth Burke's concepts of identification, the five terms of dramatism, and strategic uses of ambiguity can be successfully taught to undergraduates if appropriate and familiar examples are used. Print and electronic advertising offer the instructor an up-to-date, familiar, and abundant source of classroom examples. Market segmentation models…
Britt, Steuart-Henderson
1979-01-01
Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)
ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan
2012-11-19
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-01-01
Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.
Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin
2012-11-19
Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Jim
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.
Advertising styles in different cultures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasulja Nevena
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.
SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.
Advertising media and cigarette demand.
Goel, Rajeev K
2011-01-01
Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.
Privacy issues in mobile advertising
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix
The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... becomes an important part of marketing strategies. The development of mobile advertising, however, will be dependent on acceptance and usability issues in order to ensure permission-based advertising. Growing concerns about the protection of the users' privacy have been raised since mobile advertising may...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...
MSGD: Scalable back-end for indoor magnetic field-based GraphSLAM
Gao, C; Harle, Robert Keith
2017-01-01
Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) systems that recover the trajectory of a robot or mobile device are characterised by a front-end and back-end. The front-end uses sensor observations to identify loop closures; the back-end optimises the estimated trajectory to be consistent with these closures. The GraphSLAM framework formulates the back-end problem as a graph-based optimisation on a pose graph. This paper describes a back-end system optimised for very dense sequence-based lo...
Constructing Knowledge Graphs of Depression
Huang, Zhisheng; Yang, Jie; van Harmelen, Frank; Hu, Qing
2017-01-01
Knowledge Graphs have been shown to be useful tools for integrating multiple medical knowledge sources, and to support such tasks as medical decision making, literature retrieval, determining healthcare quality indicators, co-morbodity analysis and many others. A large number of medical knowledge
Partitioning graphs into connected parts
Hof, van 't P.; Paulusma, D.; Woeginger, G.J.; Frid, A.; Morozov, A.S.; Rybalchenko, A.; Wagner, K.W.
2009-01-01
The 2-DISJOINT CONNECTED SUBGRAPHS problem asks if a given graph has two vertex-disjoint connected subgraphs containing pre-specified sets of vertices. We show that this problem is NP-complete even if one of the sets has cardinality 2. The LONGEST PATH CONTRACTIBILITY problem asks for the largest
Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pacelli Bessa, G.; Montenegro, J.F.
2007-09-01
Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)
Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.
Esmael, F.
1982-01-01
In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)
Contracting a planar graph efficiently
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Jacob; Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Karczmarz, Adam
2017-01-01
the data structure, we can achieve optimal running times for decremental bridge detection, 2-edge connectivity, maximal 3-edge connected components, and the problem of finding a unique perfect matching for a static planar graph. Furthermore, we improve the running times of algorithms for several planar...
Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin
2009-01-01
The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...
A graph with fractional revival
Bernard, Pierre-Antoine; Chan, Ada; Loranger, Érika; Tamon, Christino; Vinet, Luc
2018-02-01
An example of a graph that admits balanced fractional revival between antipodes is presented. It is obtained by establishing the correspondence between the quantum walk on a hypercube where the opposite vertices across the diagonals of each face are connected and, the coherent transport of single excitations in the extension of the Krawtchouk spin chain with next-to-nearest neighbour interactions.
Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs
Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai
Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.
Semiotic Analysis Of Mcdonald's Printed Advertisement
URAIDA, SITI
2014-01-01
Keywords: Semiotic, printed advertisement, sign, icon, symbol, index, connotation, myth Printed advertisement has a promotional function as medium to advertise aproduct. It implicitly persuades people to create demand of product which is being advertised. In this study, the writer uses printed advertisement of McDonald's fast food company as the object. The printed advertisement was analyzed by usingSemiotics study. There are seven printed advertisements that were analyzes in this study. All ...
Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare
Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D.
2003-01-01
This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a ...
Coloring sums of extensions of certain graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan Kok
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We recall that the minimum number of colors that allow a proper coloring of graph $G$ is called the chromatic number of $G$ and denoted $\\chi(G$. Motivated by the introduction of the concept of the $b$-chromatic sum of a graph the concept of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum are introduced in this paper. The extended graph $G^x$ of a graph $G$ was recently introduced for certain regular graphs. This paper furthers the concepts of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum to extended paths and cycles. Bipartite graphs also receive some attention. The paper concludes with patterned structured graphs. These last said graphs are typically found in chemical and biological structures.
Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph
Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph
2013-01-01
Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.
Towards a theory of geometric graphs
Pach, Janos
2004-01-01
The early development of graph theory was heavily motivated and influenced by topological and geometric themes, such as the Konigsberg Bridge Problem, Euler's Polyhedral Formula, or Kuratowski's characterization of planar graphs. In 1936, when Denes Konig published his classical Theory of Finite and Infinite Graphs, the first book ever written on the subject, he stressed this connection by adding the subtitle Combinatorial Topology of Systems of Segments. He wanted to emphasize that the subject of his investigations was very concrete: planar figures consisting of points connected by straight-line segments. However, in the second half of the twentieth century, graph theoretical research took an interesting turn. In the most popular and most rapidly growing areas (the theory of random graphs, Ramsey theory, extremal graph theory, algebraic graph theory, etc.), graphs were considered as abstract binary relations rather than geometric objects. Many of the powerful techniques developed in these fields have been su...
Bounds on Gromov hyperbolicity constant in graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Infinite graphs; Cartesian product graphs; independence number; domin- ation number; geodesics ... the secure transmission of information through the internet (see [15, 16]). In particular, ..... In particular, δ(G) is an integer multiple of 1/4.
Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.
1984-09-01
Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability
Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon
2017-01-01
We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)
GRAPES: a software for parallel searching on biological graphs targeting multi-core architectures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosalba Giugno
Full Text Available Biological applications, from genomics to ecology, deal with graphs that represents the structure of interactions. Analyzing such data requires searching for subgraphs in collections of graphs. This task is computationally expensive. Even though multicore architectures, from commodity computers to more advanced symmetric multiprocessing (SMP, offer scalable computing power, currently published software implementations for indexing and graph matching are fundamentally sequential. As a consequence, such software implementations (i do not fully exploit available parallel computing power and (ii they do not scale with respect to the size of graphs in the database. We present GRAPES, software for parallel searching on databases of large biological graphs. GRAPES implements a parallel version of well-established graph searching algorithms, and introduces new strategies which naturally lead to a faster parallel searching system especially for large graphs. GRAPES decomposes graphs into subcomponents that can be efficiently searched in parallel. We show the performance of GRAPES on representative biological datasets containing antiviral chemical compounds, DNA, RNA, proteins, protein contact maps and protein interactions networks.
Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems
Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy
2015-01-01
A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...
A Graph Calculus for Predicate Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo A. S. Veloso
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce a refutation graph calculus for classical first-order predicate logic, which is an extension of previous ones for binary relations. One reduces logical consequence to establishing that a constructed graph has empty extension, i. e. it represents bottom. Our calculus establishes that a graph has empty extension by converting it to a normal form, which is expanded to other graphs until we can recognize conflicting situations (equivalent to a formula and its negation.
Sphere and dot product representations of graphs
R.J. Kang (Ross); T. Müller (Tobias)
2012-01-01
textabstractA graph $G$ is a $k$-sphere graph if there are $k$-dimensional real vectors $v_1,\\dots,v_n$ such that $ij\\in E(G)$ if and only if the distance between $v_i$ and $v_j$ is at most $1$. A graph $G$ is a $k$-dot product graph if there are $k$-dimensional real vectors $v_1,\\dots,v_n$ such
Deep Learning with Dynamic Computation Graphs
Looks, Moshe; Herreshoff, Marcello; Hutchins, DeLesley; Norvig, Peter
2017-01-01
Neural networks that compute over graph structures are a natural fit for problems in a variety of domains, including natural language (parse trees) and cheminformatics (molecular graphs). However, since the computation graph has a different shape and size for every input, such networks do not directly support batched training or inference. They are also difficult to implement in popular deep learning libraries, which are based on static data-flow graphs. We introduce a technique called dynami...
Constructs for Programming with Graph Rewrites
Rodgers, Peter
2000-01-01
Graph rewriting is becoming increasingly popular as a method for programming with graph based data structures. We present several modifications to a basic serial graph rewriting paradigm and discuss how they improve coding programs in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The constructs we present are once only nodes, attractor nodes and single match rewrites. We illustrate the operation of the constructs by example. The advantages of adding these new rewrite modifiers is to reduce t...
Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed
2014-05-01
Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of an advertising competition model with sales promotion
Jiang, Hui; Feng, Zhaosheng; Jiang, Guirong
2017-01-01
In this paper, an advertising competition model with sales promotion is constructed and investigated. Conditions of the existence and stability of period-T solutions are obtained by means of the discrete map. Flip bifurcation is analyzed by using the center manifold theory and three sales promotion strategies are discussed. Example and numerical simulations are illustrated which agree well with our theoretical analysis.
On the sizes of expander graphs and minimum distances of graph codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn
2014-01-01
We give lower bounds for the minimum distances of graph codes based on expander graphs. The bounds depend only on the second eigenvalue of the graph and the parameters of the component codes. We also give an upper bound on the size of a degree regular graph with given second eigenvalue....
McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth
2010-01-01
Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…
The groupies of random multipartite graphs
Portmann, Marius; Wang, Hongyun
2012-01-01
If a vertex $v$ in a graph $G$ has degree larger than the average of the degrees of its neighbors, we call it a groupie in $G$. In the current work, we study the behavior of groupie in random multipartite graphs with the link probability between sets of nodes fixed. Our results extend the previous ones on random (bipartite) graphs.
Modeling Software Evolution using Algebraic Graph Rewriting
Ciraci, Selim; van den Broek, Pim
We show how evolution requests can be formalized using algebraic graph rewriting. In particular, we present a way to convert the UML class diagrams to colored graphs. Since changes in software may effect the relation between the methods of classes, our colored graph representation also employs the
A Type Graph Model for Java Programs
Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo
2009-01-01
In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java
An intersection graph of straight lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten
2002-01-01
G. Ehrlich, S. Even, and R.E. Tarjan conjectured that the graph obtained from a complete 3 partite graph K4,4,4 by deleting the edges of four disjoint triangles is not the intersection graph of straight line segments in the plane. We show that it is....
Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Leif Kjær
2005-01-01
We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree $k$ and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed ...
Cycles in weighted graphs and related topics
Zhang, Shenggui
2002-01-01
This thesis contains results on paths andcycles in graphs andon a more or less relatedtopic, the vulnerability of graphs. In the first part of the thesis, Chapters 2 through 5, we concentrate on paths andcycles in weightedgraphs. A number of sufficient conditions are presentedfor graphs to contain
Graph Transformation Semantics for a QVT Language
Rensink, Arend; Nederpel, Ronald; Bruni, Roberto; Varró, Dániel
It has been claimed by many in the graph transformation community that model transformation, as understood in the context of Model Driven Architecture, can be seen as an application of graph transformation. In this paper we substantiate this claim by giving a graph transformation-based semantics to
Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Leif Kjær
We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed by G...
Improper colouring of (random) unit disk graphs
Kang, R.J.; Müller, T.; Sereni, J.S.
2008-01-01
For any graph G, the k-improper chromatic number ¿k(G) is the smallest number of colours used in a colouring of G such that each colour class induces a subgraph of maximum degree k. We investigate ¿k for unit disk graphs and random unit disk graphs to generalise results of McDiarmid and Reed
Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten
2013-01-01
An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances in polyn...
A Type Graph Model for Java Programs
Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.
2009-01-01
In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax
RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.
Minch, Bradley A.
1987-01-01
Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)
A new cluster algorithm for graphs
S. van Dongen
1998-01-01
textabstractA new cluster algorithm for graphs called the emph{Markov Cluster algorithm ($MCL$ algorithm) is introduced. The graphs may be both weighted (with nonnegative weight) and directed. Let~$G$~be such a graph. The $MCL$ algorithm simulates flow in $G$ by first identifying $G$ in a
Well-covered graphs and factors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.
2006-01-01
A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...
A new characterization of trivially perfect graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Rubio Montiel
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A graph $G$ is \\emph{trivially perfect} if for every induced subgraph the cardinality of the largest set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices (the stability number $\\alpha(G$ equals the number of (maximal cliques $m(G$. We characterize the trivially perfect graphs in terms of vertex-coloring and we extend some definitions to infinite graphs.
47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.
2010-10-01
... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2005-01-01
This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map
CHALLENGES IN CROSS CULTURAL ADVERTISING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuni Retnowati
2016-04-01
Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.
Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.
Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin
2011-07-01
It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.
Graph-cut based discrete-valued image reconstruction.
Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Karl, W Clem; Stojanovic, Ivana; Castañòn, David; Ünlü, M Selim
2015-05-01
Efficient graph-cut methods have been used with great success for labeling and denoising problems occurring in computer vision. Unfortunately, the presence of linear image mappings has prevented the use of these techniques in most discrete-amplitude image reconstruction problems. In this paper, we develop a graph-cut based framework for the direct solution of discrete amplitude linear image reconstruction problems cast as regularized energy function minimizations. We first analyze the structure of discrete linear inverse problem cost functions to show that the obstacle to the application of graph-cut methods to their solution is the variable mixing caused by the presence of the linear sensing operator. We then propose to use a surrogate energy functional that overcomes the challenges imposed by the sensing operator yet can be utilized efficiently in existing graph-cut frameworks. We use this surrogate energy functional to devise a monotonic iterative algorithm for the solution of discrete valued inverse problems. We first provide experiments using local convolutional operators and show the robustness of the proposed technique to noise and stability to changes in regularization parameter. Then we focus on nonlocal, tomographic examples where we consider limited-angle data problems. We compare our technique with state-of-the-art discrete and continuous image reconstruction techniques. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in challenging scenarios involving discrete valued unknowns.
Belief propagation and loop series on planar graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chertkov, Michael; Teodorescu, Razvan; Chernyak, Vladimir Y
2008-01-01
We discuss a generic model of Bayesian inference with binary variables defined on edges of a planar graph. The Loop Calculus approach of Chertkov and Chernyak (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 065102(R) [cond-mat/0601487]; 2006 J. Stat. Mech. P06009 [cond-mat/0603189]) is used to evaluate the resulting series expansion for the partition function. We show that, for planar graphs, truncating the series at single-connected loops reduces, via a map reminiscent of the Fisher transformation (Fisher 1961 Phys. Rev. 124 1664), to evaluating the partition function of the dimer-matching model on an auxiliary planar graph. Thus, the truncated series can be easily re-summed, using the Pfaffian formula of Kasteleyn (1961 Physics 27 1209). This allows us to identify a big class of computationally tractable planar models reducible to a dimer model via the Belief Propagation (gauge) transformation. The Pfaffian representation can also be extended to the full Loop Series, in which case the expansion becomes a sum of Pfaffian contributions, each associated with dimer matchings on an extension to a subgraph of the original graph. Algorithmic consequences of the Pfaffian representation, as well as relations to quantum and non-planar models, are discussed
Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.
Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew
2015-06-08
Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.
Gender bias in cardiovascular advertisements.
Ahmed, Sofia B; Grace, Sherry L; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Tomlinson, George; Cheung, Angela M
2004-11-01
Women with cardiovascular disease are treated less aggressively than men. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. Pharmaceutical advertisements may influence physician practices and patient care. To determine if female and male patients are equally likely to be featured in cardiovascular advertisements. We examined all cardiovascular advertisements from US editions of general medical and cardiovascular journals published between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1998. For each unique advertisement, we recorded the total number of journal appearances and the number of appearances in journals' premium positions. We noted the gender, age, race and role of both the primary figure and the majority of people featured in the advertisement. Nine hundred and nineteen unique cardiovascular advertisements were identified of which 254 depicted a patient as the primary figure. A total of 20%[95% confidence interval (CI) 15.3-25.5%] of these advertisements portrayed a female patient, while 80% (95% CI 74.5-84.7%) depicted a male patient, P advertisements appeared 249 times (13.3%; 95% CI 8.6-18.9%) while male patient advertisements appeared 1618 times (86.7%; 95% CI 81.1-91.4%), P advertisements also had significantly fewer mean appearances than male patient advertisements in journals' premium positions (0.82 vs. 1.99, P=0.02). Similar results were seen when the advertisements were analysed according to predominant gender. Despite increasing emphasis on cardiovascular disease in women, significant under-representation of female patients exists in cardiovascular advertisements. Physicians should be cognizant of this gender bias.
Generalized N-coupled maps with invariant measure in Bose ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
chronization problem of an array of the linearly coupled map lattices of ... groups and graphs and also in the design of experiments, coding theory, partition ... coupled map lattice which covers internal and external couplings in a form of asso-.
From Advertising to Hyper-advertising: Semiotics, Narrative and Discourse
Eduardo Yalán-Dongo
2016-01-01
Advertising design is a discursive planning that does not only build an identity as brand value or graphic development, but also as Semiotics suggests, it produces a narrative level outlining the advertising story. The use of media, construction of characters, storytelling, organization of advertisement, are all expressions of this narrative level which in turn depends on a “context” or expression process from which they are built. This article aims to identify the different forms of narrativ...
Advertising in virtual space. An increasing threat for traditional advertising.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Razvan DINA
Full Text Available Traditional advertising media used as a main TV, radio and print media. When the Internet has become one of the most important channels of communication between people, advertising has proposed to use this new medium to promote products and services on the market. Currently, more than 50% of the western countries population and share increasingly larger of population from other countries have Internet access, which creates a huge potential for online advertising.
Key provisions humanities research advertising and advertising exposure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Sogorin
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individual. The boundaries of the social and humanitarian scientific field are defined. Accordingly, the study presents the main aspects of advertising in terms of art learning, sociology, cultural studies, history, psychology, political science, philosophy and linguistics. It is proved that the study of sociohumanitarian field is characterized with a permanent disciplinary interaction in the case study of advertising (the pairing of linguistics and psychology, political science and psychology, sociology and psychology. The chief strategies of advertising research within social and humanitarian fields include: a single basic approach strategy: the recognition of advertising as a twoway communication process; communication strategy: the rejection of research within the subject of a separate discipline, active interaction with the related sciences on the subject of the study; application of the principle of mutual academic enrichment; future strategy: focus on new technologies, methods, implementation of schemes of advertising in the social space, the attempts of futurological analysis. The article demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary scientific cooperation in the study of advertising as a social phenomenon.
Moustafa, Khaled
2016-02-01
The Internet has revolutionized the way knowledge is currently produced, stored and disseminated. A few finger clicks on a keyboard can save time and many hours of search in libraries or shopping in stores. Online trademarks with an (e-) prefix such as e-library, e-business, e-health etc., are increasingly part of our daily professional vocabularies. However, the Internet has also produced multiple negative side effects, ranging from an unhealthy dependency to a dehumanization of human relationships. Fraudulent, unethical and scam practices are also flourishing through for example misleading online advertising methods. Some social and professional networks gather users' profiles for selling and advertising purposes, sometimes by making it technically difficult to unsubscribe. Here, I discuss some of these unethical aspects and propose some potential solutions to reduce them.
On a conjecture concerning helly circle graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Durán Guillermo
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We say that G is an e-circle graph if there is a bijection between its vertices and straight lines on the cartesian plane such that two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if the corresponding lines intersect inside the circle of radius one. This definition suggests a method for deciding whether a given graph G is an e-circle graph, by constructing a convenient system S of equations and inequations which represents the structure of G, in such a way that G is an e-circle graph if and only if S has a solution. In fact, e-circle graphs are exactly the circle graphs (intersection graphs of chords in a circle, and thus this method provides an analytic way for recognizing circle graphs. A graph G is a Helly circle graph if G is a circle graph and there exists a model of G by chords such that every three pairwise intersecting chords intersect at the same point. A conjecture by Durán (2000 states that G is a Helly circle graph if and only if G is a circle graph and contains no induced diamonds (a diamond is a graph formed by four vertices and five edges. Many unsuccessful efforts - mainly based on combinatorial and geometrical approaches - have been done in order to validate this conjecture. In this work, we utilize the ideas behind the definition of e-circle graphs and restate this conjecture in terms of an equivalence between two systems of equations and inequations, providing a new, analytic tool to deal with it.
Policy Implications of Advertising to Children.
Griffin, Emilie
Since its inception the Children's Advertising Review Unit has turned to research in order to better evaluate children's advertisements, to develop guidelines for children's advertisers and to resolve some perplexing questions about certain types of advertising content. Although some work has been done in advertising directed toward children, most…
Advertising as a tool of communication mix
DUFKOVÁ, Iva
2010-01-01
The target of the thesis is an evaluation of current advertising offers and budgeting system characteristic of a particular organization. Object of study is advertising on various radio stations, satisfaction with the work of companies, advertising agencies and then to their advertising and consumers look to advertising.
Job and Career Satisfaction among Advertising Practitioners.
Jugenheimer, Donald W.
A questionnaire survey of 300 advertising practitioners was used to determine the degree of job and career satisfaction among advertising practitioners. The subjects were separated according to whether they worked for advertising agencies, advertisers, or advertising media; 100 subjects in each area were selected from the prestigious directories…
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 230.8 Section 230.8 Banks and... SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.8 Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement... obtain the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum balance required for...
27 CFR 5.66 - Comparative advertising.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 5..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Advertising of Distilled Spirits § 5.66 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...
27 CFR 7.55 - Comparative advertising.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comparative advertising. 7..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Advertising of Malt Beverages § 7.55 Comparative advertising. (a) General. Comparative advertising shall not be disparaging of a...
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 707.8 Section 707.8 Banks and... Advertising. (a) Misleading or inaccurate advertisements. An advertisement must not: (1) Be misleading or... balance required to earn the advertised annual percentage yield. For tiered-rate accounts, the minimum...
Centrosymmetric Graphs And A Lower Bound For Graph Energy Of Fullerenes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katona Gyula Y.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The energy of a molecular graph G is defined as the summation of the absolute values of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of a graph G. In this paper, an infinite class of fullerene graphs with 10n vertices, n ≥ 2, is considered. By proving centrosymmetricity of the adjacency matrix of these fullerene graphs, a lower bound for its energy is given. Our method is general and can be extended to other class of fullerene graphs.
Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert
2016-01-01
In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.
On 4-critical t-perfect graphs
Benchetrit, Yohann
2016-01-01
It is an open question whether the chromatic number of $t$-perfect graphs is bounded by a constant. The largest known value for this parameter is 4, and the only example of a 4-critical $t$-perfect graph, due to Laurent and Seymour, is the complement of the line graph of the prism $\\Pi$ (a graph is 4-critical if it has chromatic number 4 and all its proper induced subgraphs are 3-colorable). In this paper, we show a new example of a 4-critical $t$-perfect graph: the complement of the line gra...
Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar
2016-10-06
In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.
Proving relations between modular graph functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, Anirban
2016-01-01
We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links. (paper)
MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.
MARKETING RESEARCH IN ADVERTISING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vranceanu Diana
2008-05-01
Full Text Available 21th century advertising might just be the most powerful weapon a marketer haves and a quite efficient one if we think about the way it changed our world. But all that power comes with great responsibility: used accordingly by planning everything in the smallest detail possible it can be the best thing that ever happen to a company, used without any kind of strategy it can very well be a large scale disaster. Because of the great costs that advertising is much too often associated with and also the long term affects it haves on the consumer a company should never start an advertising campaign without knowing every single last detail concerning their product and consumers. The study of the promotional message will show its capacity to gain the attention of the targeted audience, to stand out from other messages, to be associated with the product/service it promotes, to generate a positive reaction towards that specific product/service and to encourage its purchasing.
Dialogism in Advertising Persuasion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Helena Cruz Pistori
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This article analyzes two advertisements from the same brand, but produced in different local media: France and Brazil. It aims to pursue the interrelation and nexus needed between the verbal, visual and extraverbal dimensions to produce and understand the effects of persuasive sense. Concepts from ancient and modern Rhetoric, as well as dialogic discourse analysis notions and categories, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the article’s theoretical-methodological basis. In the chosen advertisements, we observe the tense way they reflect and refract reality and how this is expressed in concrete utterances, constructed according to genre coercions. By analyzing the produced meaning effects, we especially highlight the presence of persuasion in different dialogic relationships allowed by the texts, audience importance in effect construction of text persuasive meaning, and proximity between advertisement and epidictic genre in ancient rhetoric. Persuasive dialogic relationships express broad and different spheres of human activity, in connection with the organization of social life, space and time; in fact, they are not aimed at product purchase, but at access to a way of life, which is linked to ideological values of privilege.
Sobrietology in Social Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Nikolaeva
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social advertising in promoting the ideas of a sobrietology – the science exploring the negative phenomena affecting human consciousness, investigating the conformities of human society, where the sobriety is a vitally important norm and value, and taking psychoactive substances is limited to the non-affecting the individual and society minimum. Sobrietology emphasizes psychic processes, interpersonal pedagogical interactions and social prospects of a healthy nation. This field of human knowledge can guarantee the necessary assistance to teachers in counteracting the tobacco smoking, taking alcohol, narcotics and toxic substances. The authors denote the structural aspects of sobrientology, its pedagogical guidelines and demonstrate the possible ways of social advertising in educational sphere, developing the ideals of moral and physical health, and steady socially adequate behavior patterns. Social advertising is regarded as the relevant new resource in propagating the healthy and sober life style, and providing the grounds for personal growth. It combines the informational, communicative, educational, patriotic and image-making functions and possesses a powerful potential of influencing people’s consciousness and behavior. In the authors’ opinion, this sort of informational activity is quite perspective and efficient for promoting the ideas of sobriety, sustaining the moral norms and values, and carrying the state anti-alcohol and anti-narcotic policy.
Sobrietology in Social Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Nikolaeva
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social advertising in promoting the ideas of a sobrietology – the science exploring the negative phenomena affecting human consciousness, investigating the conformities of human society, where the sobriety is a vitally important norm and value, and taking psychoactive substances is limited to the non-affecting the individual and society minimum. Sobrietology emphasizes psychic processes, interpersonal pedagogical interactions and social prospects of a healthy nation. This field of human knowledge can guarantee the necessary assistance to teachers in counteracting the tobacco smoking, taking alcohol, narcotics and toxic substances. The authors denote the structural aspects of sobrientology, its pedagogical guidelines and demonstrate the possible ways of social advertising in educational sphere, developing the ideals of moral and physical health, and steady socially adequate behavior patterns. Social advertising is regarded as the relevant new resource in propagating the healthy and sober life style, and providing the grounds for personal growth. It combines the informational, communicative, educational, patriotic and image-making functions and possesses a powerful potential of influencing people’s consciousness and behavior. In the authors’ opinion, this sort of informational activity is quite perspective and efficient for promoting the ideas of sobriety, sustaining the moral norms and values, and carrying the state anti-alcohol and anti-narcotic policy.
Xiong, B.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.
2014-07-01
In the task of 3D building model reconstruction from point clouds we face the problem of recovering a roof topology graph in the presence of noise, small roof faces and low point densities. Errors in roof topology graphs will seriously affect the final modelling results. The aim of this research is to automatically correct these errors. We define the graph correction as a graph-to-graph problem, similar to the spelling correction problem (also called the string-to-string problem). The graph correction is more complex than string correction, as the graphs are 2D while strings are only 1D. We design a strategy based on a dictionary of graph edit operations to automatically identify and correct the errors in the input graph. For each type of error the graph edit dictionary stores a representative erroneous subgraph as well as the corrected version. As an erroneous roof topology graph may contain several errors, a heuristic search is applied to find the optimum sequence of graph edits to correct the errors one by one. The graph edit dictionary can be expanded to include entries needed to cope with errors that were previously not encountered. Experiments show that the dictionary with only fifteen entries already properly corrects one quarter of erroneous graphs in about 4500 buildings, and even half of the erroneous graphs in one test area, achieving as high as a 95% acceptance rate of the reconstructed models.
Significance evaluation in factor graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet
2017-01-01
in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...
Groups, graphs and random walks
Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina
2017-01-01
An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...
Flux networks in metabolic graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, P B; Queiros, S M Duarte; Jones, J L
2009-01-01
A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms
On the centrality of some graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vecdi Aytac
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A central issue in the analysis of complex networks is the assessment of their stability and vulnerability. A variety of measures have been proposed in the literature to quantify the stability of networks and a number of graph-theoretic parameters have been used to derive formulas for calculating network reliability. Different measures for graph vulnerability have been introduced so far to study different aspects of the graph behavior after removal of vertices or links such as connectivity, toughness, scattering number, binding number, residual closeness and integrity. In this paper, we consider betweenness centrality of a graph. Betweenness centrality of a vertex of a graph is portion of the shortest paths all pairs of vertices passing through a given vertex. In this paper, we obtain exact values for betweenness centrality for some wheel related graphs namely gear, helm, sunflower and friendship graphs.
Quantum walk on a chimera graph
Xu, Shu; Sun, Xiangxiang; Wu, Jizhou; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Arshed, Nigum; Sanders, Barry C.
2018-05-01
We analyse a continuous-time quantum walk on a chimera graph, which is a graph of choice for designing quantum annealers, and we discover beautiful quantum walk features such as localization that starkly distinguishes classical from quantum behaviour. Motivated by technological thrusts, we study continuous-time quantum walk on enhanced variants of the chimera graph and on diminished chimera graph with a random removal of vertices. We explain the quantum walk by constructing a generating set for a suitable subgroup of graph isomorphisms and corresponding symmetry operators that commute with the quantum walk Hamiltonian; the Hamiltonian and these symmetry operators provide a complete set of labels for the spectrum and the stationary states. Our quantum walk characterization of the chimera graph and its variants yields valuable insights into graphs used for designing quantum-annealers.
Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joe DeMaio
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In 1982, Prodinger and Tichy defined the Fibonacci number of a graph G to be the number of independent sets of the graph G. They did so since the Fibonacci number of the path graph Pn is the Fibonacci number F(n+2 and the Fibonacci number of the cycle graph Cn is the Lucas number Ln. The tadpole graph Tn,k is the graph created by concatenating Cn and Pk with an edge from any vertex of Cn to a pendant of Pk for integers n=3 and k=0. This paper establishes formulae and identities for the Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph via algebraic and combinatorial methods.
Software for Graph Analysis and Visualization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Kolomeychenko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the software for graph storage, analysis and visualization. The article presents a comparative analysis of existing software for analysis and visualization of graphs, describes the overall architecture of application and basic principles of construction and operation of the main modules. Furthermore, a description of the developed graph storage oriented to storage and processing of large-scale graphs is presented. The developed algorithm for finding communities and implemented algorithms of autolayouts of graphs are the main functionality of the product. The main advantage of the developed software is high speed processing of large size networks (up to millions of nodes and links. Moreover, the proposed graph storage architecture is unique and has no analogues. The developed approaches and algorithms are optimized for operating with big graphs and have high productivity.
Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of Â¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....
Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, ..... by means of trees (connected graphs without cycles) and forests (disjoint unions of trees, see [6]) given in [3], by extending it to weak ... CR-submanifold. In this case, every tree is a K2. Finally, Theorem 3.8 of [3] can ...
Advertising as a communications tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aduss, E.L.; Bisconti, A.S.
1990-01-01
Advertising is one component of the US nuclear industry's co-ordinated communications programme aimed at assuring an understanding of nuclear energy's role and benefits. This communication programme, conducted by the US Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA), includes many media and public relations activities, a variety of publications aimed at key audiences, reports, technical analyses, as well as advertising. Advertising enables USCEA to disseminate key information to very broad audiences continuously and consistently
Attracting Investor Attention through Advertising
Dong Lou
2014-01-01
This paper provides empirical evidence that managers adjust firm advertising expenditures to influence investor behavior and short-term stock prices. First, this paper shows that increased advertising spending is associated with individual investor buying and a contemporaneous rise in abnormal stock returns, which is then reversed in subsequent years. Second, there is a significant rise in firm advertising expenditures prior to insider sales and seasoned equity offerings. This large increase ...
Negotiation platform for personalised advertising
Sousa, Luís Ventura de; Malheiro, Benedita; Foss, Jerry
2012-01-01
This paper describes a multi-agent brokerage platform for near real time advertising personalisation organised in three layers: user interface, agency and marketplace. The personalisation is based on the classification of viewer profiles and advertisements (ads). The goal is to provide viewers with a personalised advertising alignment during programme intervals. The enterprise interface agents upload new ads and negotiation profiles to producer agents and new user and negotiation profiles to ...
De etiske journalister: Native Advertising
Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus
2016-01-01
This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...
Tobacco advertising in retail stores.
Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J
1991-01-01
Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...
Brand Personality Creation through Advertising
Ouwersloot Hans; Tudorica Anamaria
2001-01-01
Brand Personality is one of the core dimensions of brand equity. Brand personality refers to the emotional side of a brand image. It is created by all experiences of consumers with a brand, but advertising plays a dominant role in personality creation. In this paper we explore the mechanism that builds brand personality with the help of advertising. We integrate advertising models with the theory of brand personality. Our integrated framework leads to a number of propositions that set an agen...
Advertising, brand loyalty and pricing
Chioveanu, I.
2009-01-01
I consider an oligopoly model where, prior to price competition, firms invest in persuasive advertising and induce brand loyalty in consumers who would otherwise buy the cheapest alternative on the market. This setting, in which persuasive advertising is introduced to homogenous product markets, provides an alternative explanation for price dispersion phenomena. Despite ex-ante symmetry, the equilibrium profile of advertising outlays is asymmetric. It follows that endogenously determine...
Retorical figures in advertising language
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radenković-Šošić Bojana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.
Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. B. Kalmykov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the deﬁnitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are oﬀered; the quality factors with three groups by level of eﬀect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising
Undergraduates’ attitudes toward mobile advertising
Usta, Resul
2009-01-01
The rapid proliferation of mobile devices such as cellular phones has created a new communication channel for marketing. Currently, cellular phones are mostly used for Short Messaging Service (SMS) advertising. The aim of this study is to explore the factors that underline undergraduates’ attitudes toward SMS advertising. The results obtained indicated factors such as entertainment, informativeness, irritation, reliability, general attitude and permission and incentive-based advertising. The ...
Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
易高燕
2010-01-01
Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.
Internet advertising effectiveness measurement model
Marcinkevičiūtė, Milda
2007-01-01
The research object of the master thesis is internet advertising effectiveness measurement. The goal of the work is after making theoretical studies of internet advertising effectiveness measurement (theoretical articles, practical researches and cetera), formulate the conceptual IAEM model and examine it empirically. The main tasks of the work are: to analyze internet advertising, it’s features, purposes, spread formats, functions, advantages and disadvantages; present the effectiveness of i...
Graph Regularized Auto-Encoders for Image Representation.
Yiyi Liao; Yue Wang; Yong Liu
2017-06-01
Image representation has been intensively explored in the domain of computer vision for its significant influence on the relative tasks such as image clustering and classification. It is valuable to learn a low-dimensional representation of an image which preserves its inherent information from the original image space. At the perspective of manifold learning, this is implemented with the local invariant idea to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional input space. Inspired by the recent successes of deep architectures, we propose a local invariant deep nonlinear mapping algorithm, called graph regularized auto-encoder (GAE). With the graph regularization, the proposed method preserves the local connectivity from the original image space to the representation space, while the stacked auto-encoders provide explicit encoding model for fast inference and powerful expressive capacity for complex modeling. Theoretical analysis shows that the graph regularizer penalizes the weighted Frobenius norm of the Jacobian matrix of the encoder mapping, where the weight matrix captures the local property in the input space. Furthermore, the underlying effects on the hidden representation space are revealed, providing insightful explanation to the advantage of the proposed method. Finally, the experimental results on both clustering and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our GAE as well as the correctness of the proposed theoretical analysis, and it also suggests that GAE is a superior solution to the current deep representation learning techniques comparing with variant auto-encoders and existing local invariant methods.
Topological structure of dictionary graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuks, Henryk; Krzeminski, Mark
2009-01-01
We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers-that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 10 3 and 10 4 . A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.
Quantum information processing with graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlingemann, Dirk-Michael
2005-04-01
Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)
Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamil Luczaj
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.
Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry
2017-01-01
In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...
Advertising and generic market entry.
Königbauer, Ingrid
2007-03-01
The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.
Topological visual mapping in robotics.
Romero, Anna; Cazorla, Miguel
2012-08-01
A key problem in robotics is the construction of a map from its environment. This map could be used in different tasks, like localization, recognition, obstacle avoidance, etc. Besides, the simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) problem has had a lot of interest in the robotics community. This paper presents a new method for visual mapping, using topological instead of metric information. For that purpose, we propose prior image segmentation into regions in order to group the extracted invariant features in a graph so that each graph defines a single region of the image. Although others methods have been proposed for visual SLAM, our method is complete, in the sense that it makes all the process: it presents a new method for image matching; it defines a way to build the topological map; and it also defines a matching criterion for loop-closing. The matching process will take into account visual features and their structure using the graph transformation matching (GTM) algorithm, which allows us to process the matching and to remove out the outliers. Then, using this image comparison method, we propose an algorithm for constructing topological maps. During the experimentation phase, we will test the robustness of the method and its ability constructing topological maps. We have also introduced new hysteresis behavior in order to solve some problems found building the graph.