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Sample records for graphite lithium-ion cells

  1. New anode material for lithium-ion cells produced by catalytic graphitization of glassy carbon at 1000 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronski, J.M. [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry; Central Lab. of Batteries and Cells, Poznan (Poland); Knofczynski, K. [Central Lab. of Batteries and Cells, Poznan (Poland)

    2006-10-15

    This study investigated the conversion of glassy carbon into graphite at relatively low temperature of 1000 degrees C under ambient pressure using iron powder as the catalyst. The composite product of reaction was a graphite and turbostratic carbon whose use was then examined in terms of application in lithium-ion cells. Glassy, hard carbon spheres of 10 to 15 {iota}m were prepared from phenolic resin in a nitrogen atmosphere and then subjected to heat treatment with an iron powder mixture. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the carbon/iron mixture was treated with diluted HCl solution to remove metallic additives. The modified carbon was then washed with distilled water until chloride ions disappeared in a filtrate. All samples were characterized using XRD analysis. Working electrodes for electrochemical measurements were made by mixing carbons with PVDF. Cyclic voltammograms recorded for unmodified and modified carbons were consistent with XRD measurements. SEM analysis revealed that the process of graphitization begins at the external regions of glassy carbon spheres where erosion occurs when the carbon reacts with iron particles. The surface destruction of carbon spheres progresses into the interior of the spheres, resulting in their collapse followed by the transformation into pallets resembling a stack of graphite sheets. It was noted that not all unorganized carbon was conversed to graphite. Rather, only 50 per cent of turbostratic carbon existed in the product of heat treatment. The product of graphitization appeared to be a promising material for the preparation of anodes for lithium-ion cells. The discharge capacity for carbon produced by catalytic treatment was found to be approximately 5 times higher, while the discharge/charge reversibility was 23 per cent higher than values obtained for untreated carbon. The study showed that the uptake of lithium ions by the original carbon depends on the insertion/deinsertion mechanism of hard carbon as well

  2. Catalytically graphitized glass-like carbon examined as anode for lithium-ion cell performing at high charge/discharge rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Knofczynski, Krzysztof [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-10-20

    The influence of a long-time heat treatment of hard carbon in the presence of iron catalyst on its structural properties and electrochemical performance is concerned in terms of potential application as anode material for lithium-ion cell. Glass-like carbon spheres obtained by carbonization of phenol resin were catalytically graphitized by heat treatment at temperature 1000 C in argon atmosphere for 20 h and 100 h. After this process iron was completely removed from the product of reaction. The original carbon was entirely useless as anode for Li-ion cell because of its extremely poor reversible capacity (54 mAh g{sup -1}). Due to heat treatment composite materials consisting of microcrystalline graphite admixed with turbostratic carbon were produced. Modified carbons were tested as anode materials using gradually increasing current density. Based on electrochemical measurements a mixed intercalation/insertion mechanism for storage of lithium ions was concluded. Discharge capacity of carbon heat treated for 100 h attained value of 276 mAh g{sup -1} and its reversible capacity appeared to be better than that of flaky graphite upon discharging at current density in the range 50-250 mA g{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Behaviour of highly crystalline graphitic materials in lithium-ion cells with propylene carbonate containing electrolytes: An in situ Raman and SEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, Laurence J.; Buqa, Hilmi; Holzapfel, Michael; Scheifele, Werner; Novak, Petr [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Krumeich, Frank [ETH-Zurich, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2007-04-20

    The microcrystalline flaked graphites SFG6 and SFG44 were evaluated with regard to their compatibility with propylene carbonate (PC) by in situ Raman microscopy and postmortem scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. PC is employed as electrolyte component in lithium-ion batteries. However, when used with certain types of graphitic materials, exfoliation occurs. To compare the effects of exfoliation, the first lithium insertion properties of these graphitic materials were measured with in situ Raman microscopy. Lithium half-cells containing either 1 M LiClO{sub 4} 1:1 (w/w) ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) or 1:1 (w/w) EC:PC were investigated. The commencement of the exfoliation process was detected in SFG44 EC:PC by the appearance of a shoulder band at 1597 cm{sup -1} on the G-band (1584 cm{sup -1}) below 0.9 V versus Li/Li{sup +}. The band (assigned as the exfoliation or E-band) at higher wavenumbers (1597 cm{sup -1}) corresponded to solvated lithium ions intercalated into graphite. The in situ Raman spectra of SFG6 in EC:DMC or EC:PC and SFG44 in EC:DMC did not show the E-band and instead displayed regular lithium intercalation spectra. In situ Raman microscopy and SEM were further employed to study the exfoliation process observed for SFG44 in 1:1 (w/w) EC:PC, when the potential was held under steady-state conditions at 0.8, 0.6 and 0.3 V, respectively. A blue-shift in the E-band from 1597 to 1607 cm{sup -1} was observed as the potential was lowered. SEM images showed dissimilar degrees of exfoliation at these three potentials. (author)

  4. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  5. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  6. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  7. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO 2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO 2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  9. A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electroche...

  10. Gas explosions and thermal runaways during external heating abuse of commercial lithium-ion graphite-LiCoO2 cells at different levels of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Bertilsson, Simon; Furlani, Maurizio; Albinsson, Ingvar; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2018-01-01

    Commercial 6.8 Ah lithium-ion cells with different ageing/status have been abused by external heating in an oven. Prior to the abuse test, selected cells were aged either by C/2 cycling up to 300 cycles or stored at 60 °C. Gas emissions were measured by FTIR and three separate vents were identified, two well before the thermal runaway while the third occurred simultaneously with the thermal runaway releasing heavy smoke and gas. Emissions of toxic carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) were detected in the third vent, regardless if there was a fire or not. All abused cells went into thermal runaway and emitted smoke and gas, the working cells also released flames as well as sparks. The dead cells were however less reactive but still underwent thermal runaway. For about half of the working cells, for all levels of cycle ageing, ignition of the accumulated battery released gases occurred about 15 s after the thermal runaway resulting in a gas explosion. The thermal runaway temperature, about 190 °C, varied somewhat for the different cell ageing/status where a weak local minimum was found for cells cycled between 100 and 200 times.

  11. A coupled thermal and electrochemical study of lithium-ion battery cooled by paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cooling using a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) composite is investigated, for a cylindrical battery cell and for a battery module scale. An electrochemistry model (average model) is coupled to the thermal model, with the addition of a one-dimensional model for the solution and solid diffusion using the nodal network method. The analysis of the temperature distribution of the battery module scale has shown that a two-dimensi...

  12. A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-14

    The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 86 W·h·kg -1 at 150 W·kg -1 , and 48 W·h·kg -1 at a high-power density of 7.4 kW·kg -1 . This high-performance LIC based on PVG and GPC is believed to be promising for practical applications, due to its low-cost raw materials and industrially feasible production.

  13. Characteristics Of Quallion's Lithium-Ion Cells For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Hisashi; Beach, Paul; Visco, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Rechargeable batteries that are presently in use in space missions include: Silver-Zinc (Ag-Zn), Nickel- Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2), and more recently, Lithium-Ion batteries. In space applications, lithium-ion batteries offer significant mass and volume advantages (three- to four-fold) compared to standard Ni-Cd and Ni-H2 batteries. To address this need, Quallion LLC has developed custom true prismatic Li ion cells for use in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) & Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) applications: a 15Ah cell (QL015KA) and a 72Ah cell (QL075KA). In addition to using Quallion's patented long life lithium-ion chemistry, these cells are also Zero-VoltTM enabled, allowing for battery recovery in loss of spacecraft attitude and lower maintenance before launching.

  14. Effect of milling on the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as an anode material for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Ikeda, Taisa; Fukuda, Kenji; Yoshio, Masaki

    The electrochemical performance of natural graphite as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries can be improved by both jet milling and turbo milling. The effect of milling on electrochemical performance of natural graphite was discussed in terms of morphological change in graphite. The correlations between some aspects of morphology and electrochemical performance of natural graphite were studied.

  15. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  16. Rice husk-originating silicon-graphite composites for advanced lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Choi, Jin Hyeok; Choi, Jang Wook

    2017-09-01

    Rice husk is produced in a massive amount worldwide as a byproduct of rice cultivation. Rice husk contains approximately 20 wt% of mesoporous SiO2. We produce mesoporous silicon (Si) by reducing the rice husk-originating SiO2 using a magnesio-milling process. Taking advantage of meso-porosity and large available quantity, we apply rice husk-originating Si to lithium ion battery anodes in a composite form with commercial graphite. By varying the mass ratio between these two components, trade-off relation between specific capacity and cycle life was observed. A controllable pre-lithiation scheme was adopted to increase the initial Coulombic efficiency and energy density. The series of electrochemical results suggest that rice husk-originating Si-graphite composites are promising candidates for high capacity lithium ion battery anodes, with the prominent advantages in battery performance and scalability.

  17. Results of screening over 200 pristine lithium-ion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela Barreras, Jorge; Raj, Trishna; Howey, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses results from simplified screening tests conducted on more than 200 large format Kokam NMC lithium-ion pouch cells at their beginning of life. Such data are not common in the literature. The cells were sandwiched between two large heat sinks for testing, which was ...

  18. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  19. Investigating continuous co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and graphite exfoliation in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hee-Youb; Jeong, Soon-Ki

    2018-01-01

    Forming an effective solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a significant issue in lithium ion batteries that utilize graphite as a negative electrode material, because the SEI determines the reversibility of the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions into graphite for secondary batteries. In propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte solutions, ceaseless co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions takes place because no effective SEI is formed. It is indisputable that this continuous co-intercalation leads to graphite exfoliation; however, the reason for this is currently not well understood. In this study, we investigate interfacial reactions that contribute to SEI formation on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in ethylene carbonate (EC) and PC-based electrolyte solutions by in situ atomic force microscopy. The blisters formed on HOPG after the decomposition of solvated lithium ions within the graphite layers do not change over the course of ten electrochemical cycles in an EC-based electrolyte solution. In contrast, when cycling in PC-based electrolytes, the blisters continually change, and the height at the vicinity of the graphite edge plane increases. These morphological changes are attributed to the continuous co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions in PC-based electrolyte solutions.

  20. Development of Embedded Fiber-Optic Evanescent Wave Sensors for Optical Characterization of Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, AbdulRahman; Nieva, Patricia; Yu, Aiping; Khajepour, Amir

    2017-11-29

    The development, fabrication, and embedment of fiber-optic evanescent wave sensors (FOEWSs) to monitor the state of charge (SOC) and the state of health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are presented. Etching of FOEWSs is performed using a solution of 40 wt % ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F) and 49 wt % hydrofluoric acid (HF) (6:1), which is found to be superior to an etching solution containing just 49 wt % HF. FOEWSs were characterized using glycerol and found to have the highest sensitivity in a lithium-ion battery when they lose 92% of their transmittance in the presence of glycerol on their sensing region. The physical effect that the FOEWS has on the graphite anode is also investigated and is found to be much more significant in Swagelok cells compared to that in in-house-fabricated pouch cells, mainly due to pressure variation. The FOEWS was found to be most sensitive to the changes in the LIB when it was completely embedded using a slurry of graphite anode material within a pouch cell. The optimized fabrication process of the embedded FOEWS demonstrates the potential of using such sensors commercially for real-time monitoring of the SOC and SOH of LIBs while in operation.

  1. Modularized battery management for large lithium ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; Zhu, Wei [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 308, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A modular electronic battery management system (BMS) is described along with important features for protecting and optimizing the performance of large lithium ion (LiIon) battery packs. Of particular interest is the use of a much improved cell equalization system that can increase or decrease individual cell voltages. Experimental results are included for a pack of six series connected 60 Ah (amp-hour) LiIon cells. (author)

  2. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performances of new antimony-containing graphite compounds used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailly, A.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    2002-01-01

    Graphite intercalation intercalated with metal alloys able to alloy reversibly lithium constitute a large set of new anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries of significantly improved reversible capacities. Especially, graphite intercalated with cesium-antimony alloys can be used as materials for anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical insertion of lithium in such chemically modified precursors shows that lithium both intercalates in the empty van der Waals spaces of graphite and alloys reversibly with antimony. The total electrochemical reversible capacities, measured between 0 and 2 V vs Li + /Li, close to 700 mAh g -1 have been currently obtained

  3. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  4. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  5. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  6. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Lv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m2/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li+ ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  7. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  8. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang , Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Bao, Wurigumula [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Ma, Lu [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Tan, Guoqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Su , Yuefeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Chen , Shi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Wu , Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA

    2015-11-09

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide–nickel–graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx/Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx/Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials.

  9. Surface passivation of natural graphite electrode for lithium ion battery by chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Mazej, Zoran; Zemva, Boris; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Surface lattice defects would act as active sites for electrochemical reduction of propylene carbonate (PC) as a solvent for lithium ion battery. Effect of surface chlorination of natural graphite powder has been investigated to improve charge/discharge characteristics of natural graphite electrode in PC-containing electrolyte solution. Chlorination of natural graphite increases not only surface chlorine but also surface oxygen, both of which would contribute to the decrease in surface lattice defects. It has been found that surface-chlorinated natural graphite samples with surface chlorine concentrations of 0.5-2.3 at% effectively suppress the electrochemical decomposition of PC, highly reducing irreversible capacities, i.e. increasing first coulombic efficiencies by 20-30% in 1 mol L-1 LiClO4-EC/DEC/PC (1:1:1 vol.). In 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/EMC/PC (1:1:1 vol.), the effect of surface chlorination is observed at a higher current density. This would be attributed to decrease in surface lattice defects of natural graphite powder by the formation of covalent C-Cl and C=O bonds.

  10. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2013-11-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH 4 -air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO 2 cells pose a CH 4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO 4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO 2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level.

  11. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Santhanagopalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells' performance.

  12. Circuit for Full Charging of Series Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, William E.; Saunders, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced charger has been proposed for a battery that comprises several lithium-ion cells in series. The proposal is directed toward charging the cells in as nearly an optimum manner as possible despite unit-to-unit differences among the nominally identical cells. The particular aspect of the charging problem that motivated the proposal can be summarized as follows: During bulk charging (charging all the cells in series at the same current), the voltages of individual cells increase at different rates. Once one of the cells reaches full charge, bulk charging must be stopped, leaving other cells less than fully charged. To make it possible to bring all cells up to full charge once bulk charging has been completed, the proposed charger would include a number of top-off chargers one for each cell. The top-off chargers would all be powered from the same DC source, but their outputs would be DC-isolated from each other and AC-coupled to their respective cells by means of transformers, as described below. Each top-off charger would include a flyback transformer, an electronic switch, and an output diode. For suppression of undesired electromagnetic emissions, each top-off charger would also include (1) a resistor and capacitor configured to act as a snubber and (2) an inductor and capacitor configured as a filter. The magnetic characteristics of the flyback transformer and the duration of its output pulses determine the energy delivered to the lithium-ion cell. It would be necessary to equip the cell with a precise voltage monitor to determine when the cell reaches full charge. In response to a full-charge reading by this voltage monitor, the electronic switch would be held in the off state. Other cells would continue to be charged similarly by their top-off chargers until their voltage monitors read full charge.

  13. Soluble Graphene Nanosheets from Recycled Graphite of Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangliang; Liu, Xiya; Wan, Chuanyun; Ye, Xiangrong; Wu, Fanhong

    2018-02-01

    Soluble graphene nanosheets are fabricated from recycled graphite of spent lithium ion batteries through a modified Hammers process followed by deoxygenation with NaOH-KOH eutectic. Ultrasonic exfoliation in N-methyl-pyrrolidone indicates the loosened graphene layers in recycled graphite are prone to exfoliation. Reduction of the exfoliated graphene oxide sheets was conducted in molten NaOH-KOH eutectic at different temperatures. The results show that molten NaOH-KOH effectively eliminates the unsaturated oxygen-containing moieties from the exfoliated graphene oxide sheets while creating more hydroxyl functional groups. Higher temperature treatment is more prone to remove hydroxyls while producing the shrinkage on the surface of graphene sheets. Graphene sheet with a good solubility is produced when the graphene oxide is heat-treated at 220 °C for 10 h. After reduction, the graphene oxide sheets exhibit excellent dispersibility or solubility in water, ethanol and other polar solvents, therefore being highly desirable for solution processing of graphene materials. Such study not only identifies a high-quality stockpile to prepare soluble graphene but also paves a feasible alternative of graphite recycling from spent lithium batteries.

  14. Nitrogen-Deficient Graphitic Carbon Nitride with Enhanced Performance for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Mao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Lexi; Wang, Dajian; Xu, Ran; Bie, Lijian; Fahlman, Bradley D

    2017-12-26

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) behaving as a layered feature with graphite was indexed as a high-content nitrogen-doping carbon material, attracting increasing attention for application in energy storage devices. However, poor conductivity and resulting serious irreversible capacity loss were pronounced for g-C 3 N 4 material due to its high nitrogen content. In this work, magnesiothermic denitriding technology is demonstrated to reduce the nitrogen content of g-C 3 N 4 (especially graphitic nitrogen) for enhanced lithium storage properties as lithium ion battery anodes. The obtained nitrogen-deficient g-C 3 N 4 (ND-g-C 3 N 4 ) exhibits a thinner and more porous structure composed of an abundance of relatively low nitrogen doping wrinkled graphene nanosheets. A highly reversible lithium storage capacity of 2753 mAh/g was obtained after the 300th cycle with an enhanced cycling stability and rate capability. The presented nitrogen-deficient g-C 3 N 4 with outstanding electrochemical performances may unambiguously promote the application of g-C 3 N 4 materials in energy-storage devices.

  15. Performance degradation of high-power lithium-ion cells-Electrochemistry of harvested electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J. L.; Dees, D. W.; Bloom, I.; Christophersen, J. P.

    The performance of 18650-type high-power lithium-ion cells is being evaluated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. In this article, we present accelerated aging data acquired on 18650-cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2- or LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2-based positive electrodes, MAG-10 graphite-based negative electrodes, and 1.2-M LiPF 6 in EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) electrolyte. Capacity and impedance data acquired on electrodes harvested from these cells highlight the contributions of the positive and negative electrodes to the degradation of cell performance. We also describe test methodologies used to examine the electrochemical characteristics of the harvested electrodes. Identifying and optimizing cell components responsible for performance degradation should enable the development of new lithium-ion cell chemistries that will meet the 15-year cell calendar life goal established by DOEs FreedomCar initiative.

  16. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-07

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Mechanical damage in a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hailing; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Qing

    2017-07-01

    The short circuit of lithium-ion batteries induced by mechanical abuse is a great concern in electric vehicle design. It remains a challenge to fully understand the nature of the mechanical damage process with the aim of improving battery crash safety. The present paper investigates the evolution of the damage process for a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation by loading the cell to various force levels. A significant inflection point on the force-indentation curve is observed before the force peak. Post-mortem examinations indicate that the characteristic change in the local slope of the curve is related to the change occurring at the local interfaces, including three phenomena - formation of tight adhesion on the anode-separator interfaces, delamination in the separators and decoating of graphite particles from the anodes. Analysis of the fracture sequence at the onset of short circuit clearly shows that the number of short-circuited electrode pairs is equal to the number of anode layers adhered with delaminated separator material before fracture occurs. The experimental study in the present paper implies that the inflection point on the force-indentation curve may be an indicator of damage initiation inside pouch cells under indentation.

  18. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  19. Thermal modeling of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgez, Christophe; Vinh Do, Dinh; Friedrich, Guy [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, EA 1006, Laboratoire d' Electromecanique de Compiegne, BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne Cedex (France); Morcrette, Mathieu; Delacourt, Charles [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 Rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2010-05-01

    A lumped-parameter thermal model of a cylindrical LiFePO{sub 4}/graphite lithium-ion battery is developed. Heat transfer coefficients and heat capacity are determined from simultaneous measurements of the surface temperature and the internal temperature of the battery while applying 2 Hz current pulses of different magnitudes. For internal temperature measurements, a thermocouple is introduced into the battery under inert atmosphere. Heat transfer coefficients (thermal resistances in the model) inside and outside the battery are obtained from thermal steady state temperature measurements, whereas the heat capacity (thermal capacitance in the model) is determined from the transient part. The accuracy of the estimation of internal temperature from surface temperature measurements using the model is validated on current-pulse experiments and a complete charge/discharge of the battery and is within 1.5 C. Furthermore, the model allows for simulating the internal temperature directly from the measured current and voltage of the battery. The model is simple enough to be implemented in battery management systems for electric vehicles. (author)

  20. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  1. An excellent performance anode of ZnFe2O4/flake graphite composite for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Lingmin; Hou, Xianhua; Hu, Shejun; Tang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiang; Ru, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite composite was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode demonstrated high initial coulombic efficiency of 87.7%. • The initial discharge /charge capacity was 848 mA h g −1 and 744 mA h g −1 . • The high capacity retention of 98% was obtained for the ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode. -- Abstract: An approach of hydrothermal reaction for lithium ion battery was adopted, by which ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite composites with excellent performance could be prepared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. With nano-sized ZnFe 2 O 4 particles coating on the electrochemical active matrix of flake graphite, the special composites allowed improved electronic conductivity and constructed an expressway for the transport of charges and lithium ions. Thus the ZnFe 2 O 4 /flake graphite anode became a compromise between capacity and cycle ability. The initial discharge–charge capacity was 848 mA h g −1 and 744 mA h g −1 at a constant current density of 100 mA g −1 , respectively. As high as 87.7% of the initial coulombic efficiency was obtained. Additionally, the charge capacity maintained constantly in the range of 720–735 mA h g −1 in following cycles. And a high reversible charge capacity of 730 mA h g −1 could be attained after 100 cycles, with the reversible capacity retention of 98%

  2. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  3. Li4Ti5O12-coated graphite anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu Han; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO)-coated graphite core–shell prepared by sol–gel process. • LTO-coated graphite is used in Li-ion battery to improve the cycle life under 55 °C. • Graphite coated with LTO shows smaller resistance than graphite after cell cycling. • The LTO coating suppress the disorder of SP 2 structure in graphite during cycling. • Resistance and structure stabilization results in good cycle life of the Li-ion cell. - Abstract: In this study, we synthesized and characterized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO)-coated graphite as an anode material for Li-batteries. The surface of graphite powders was uniformly coated by the LTO nanoparticles to form a core–shelled structure via a sol–gel process, followed by calcination. The average size of graphite core was 20 μm while the thickness of LTO shell was 60 nm to 100 nm. We found that LTO-coated graphite has better rate-capability and cycle life at RT and 55 °C, compared with the pristine graphite. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results of the cell with LTO-coated graphite anode showed a significant suppression of the impedance rise after 60 cycles. In addition, the Raman spectrum showed that after 60 charge–discharge cycles at 55 °C, the I D /I G ratio of the LTO-coated graphite electrode increased slightly, while that of the pristine graphite electrode increased significantly. The batteries with LTO-coated graphite anode exhibited excellent cyclic ability and high temperature performance

  4. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  5. Internal Impedance of the Lithium-Ion Secondary Cells Used for Reimei Satellite after the Eleven Years Operation in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sone Yoshitsugu

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion secondary cell of the REIMEI battery was designed using spinel manganese oxide type material for the positive electrode, and the graphitized type carbon for the negative electrode. The cell case was made of aluminium laminated film and the structure was reinforced by the epoxy resin and aluminium housing. After the operation of eleven years, the cells still maintain the appropriate uniform balance and operative. In order to identify the internal condition of the battery/cell, we calculated the ac impedance by the pulse duration to the on-board battery.

  6. A coupled thermal and electrochemical study of lithium-ion battery cooled by paraffin/porous-graphite-matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Angelo; Jiang, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cooling using a phase change material (PCM)/compressed expanded natural graphite (CENG) composite is investigated, for a cylindrical battery cell and for a battery module scale. An electrochemistry model (average model) is coupled to the thermal model, with the addition of a one-dimensional model for the solution and solid diffusion using the nodal network method. The analysis of the temperature distribution of the battery module scale has shown that a two-dimensional model is sufficient to describe the transient temperature rise. In consequence, a two-dimensional cell-centred finite volume code for unstructured meshes is developed with additions of the electrochemistry and phase change. This two-dimensional thermal model is used to investigate a new and usual battery module configurations cooled by PCM/CENG at different discharge rates. The comparison of both configurations with a constant source term and heat generation based on the electrochemistry model showed the superiority of the new design. In this study, comparisons between the predictions from different analytical and computational tools as well as open-source packages were carried out, and close agreements have been observed.

  7. Characterization of graphite etched with potassium hydroxide and its application in fast-rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified graphite for application as an anode material in lithium ion batteries was obtained by etching with KOH under mild conditions without high-temperature annealing. The surface of the etched graphite is covered with many nano-sized pores that act as entrances for lithium ions during the charging process. As compared with pristine graphite and other references such as pitch-coated or etched graphite samples with annealing, our non-annealed etched graphite exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, particularly at fast charging rates of over 2.5 C. While avoidance of the trade-off between increase of irreversible capacity and good rate capability has previously been a main concern in highly porous carbonaceous materials, we show that the slightly larger surface area created by the etching does not induce a significant increase of irreversible capacity. This study shows that it is important to limit the size of pores to the nanometer scale for excellent battery performance, which is possible by etching under relatively mild conditions.

  8. Nanostructured Phosphorus Doped Silicon/Graphite Composite as Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqiang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Cai

    2017-07-19

    Silicon as the potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries suffers from huge volume change (up to 400%) during charging/discharging processes. Poor electrical conductivity of silicon also hinders its long-term cycling performance. Herein, we report a two-step ball milling method to prepare nanostructured P-doped Si/graphite composite. Both P-doped Si and coated graphite improved the conductivity by providing significant transport channels for lithium ions and electrons. The graphite skin is able to depress the volume expansion of Si by forming a stable SEI film. The as-prepared composite anode having 50% P-doped Si and 50% graphite exhibits outstanding cyclability with a specific capacity of 883.4 mAh/g after 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA/g. The cost-effective materials and scalable preparation method make it feasible for large-scale application of the P-doped Si/graphite composite as anode for Li-ion batteries.

  9. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  10. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  11. Purity of silicon: with great effect on its performance in graphite-silicon anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenxin; Xu, Guojun; Liu, Liekai; Yue, Zhihao; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Fugen; Tang, Hao; Huang, Haibin; Zhou, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Ferrosilicon, industrial grade silicon, solar grade silicon, and electronic grade silicon were ball-milled to form four types of silicon powders, which were mixed with graphite powders at weight ratio of 5:95, respectively, for being used as graphite-silicon anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The effect of the purity of silicon on its electrochemical performance in graphite-silicon anode materials for LIBs was investigated by the cycle and rate tests. Results show that silicon with higher purity shows higher capacity, better cycle, and rate performance. In addition, the significant difference in capacity of the four graphite-silicon anodes with different purities of silicon is not completely resulted from the content of silicon materials, and the influence of the impurity inside the silicon cannot be ignored as well. The sample prepared from electronic grade silicon presents the highest first discharge capacity, which is 440.5 mAh g-1.

  12. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriramulu, Suresh [Tiax LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Stringfellow, Richard [Tiax LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  13. (Invited) Effect of Aging on Mechanical Properties of Lithium Ion Cell Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zenan; Cao, Lei; Hartig, Julia; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2017-07-07

    The mechanical properties of aged and fresh lithium ion cell components are evaluated in this paper. Cells components were obtained from destructive physical analysis of 40Ah NMC/Graphite-based pouch cells before and after cycling and were subjected to mechanical testing. The aging tests comprised of cycling the cell across a voltage window of 4.1V to 3.0V at room temperature (25?). Using a 2C charging rate and 1C discharging rate, the cells were subjected to over 5600 cycles before a 80% drop in the name-plate capacity was observed. Mechanical tests, including compression test, tensile test and indentation test, were conducted on the cell components to investigate differences in the mechanical performance. Comparison of the fresh and aged cells components shows that cycling the cells has different degrees of impact on the different cell components. Anodes suffered the most serious deterioration in mechanical properties while separators remained intact under the test condition investigated.

  14. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  15. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  16. Mesoscopic modeling and parameter estimation of a lithium-ion battery based on LiFePO4/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Ali; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-03-01

    A novel numerical model for simulating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on LiFePO4(LFP)/graphite is presented. The model is based on the modified Single Particle Model (SPM) coupled to a mesoscopic approach for the LFP electrode. The model comprises one representative spherical particle as the graphite electrode, and N LFP units as the positive electrode. All the SPM equations are retained to model the negative electrode performance. The mesoscopic model rests on non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions and uses a non-monotonic open circuit potential for each unit. A parameter estimation study is also carried out to identify all the parameters needed for the model. The unknown parameters are the solid diffusion coefficient of the negative electrode (Ds,n), reaction-rate constant of the negative electrode (Kn), negative and positive electrode porosity (εn&εn), initial State-Of-Charge of the negative electrode (SOCn,0), initial partial composition of the LFP units (yk,0), minimum and maximum resistance of the LFP units (Rmin&Rmax), and solution resistance (Rcell). The results show that the mesoscopic model can simulate successfully the electrochemical behavior of lithium-ion batteries at low and high charge/discharge rates. The model also describes adequately the lithiation/delithiation of the LFP particles, however, it is computationally expensive compared to macro-based models.

  17. Electrochemical performance of SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite composite material as anode of lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Qiang [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Yang, Guan-Hua; Huang, You-Guo; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Zhi-Xiong [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Li, Qing-Yu, E-mail: liqingyu62@126.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Energy Materials, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we synthesized SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite anode composite material by a simple reflux method using SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O as tin source and modified graphite as carbon source. The as-obtained composite was investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and galvanostatic cycling tests. The results show that the composite has a wave-shaped fold structure and the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on it have an average size of about 50 nm. Compared to pure modified graphite, the SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite exhibits a better electrochemical performance with a reversible specific capacity of 581.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 80 cycles, owing to high mechanical stress and elasticity of modified graphite could hinder the volume effect of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles during the Li{sup +} insertion/extraction process. All these favourable characters reveal that the composite is a great potential anode material in high-performance lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple synthetic method of SnO{sub 2}/modified graphite composite as anode. • The as-prepared composite with layered structure alleviates the huge reunion of SnO{sub 2}. • The composite exhibits a good capacity retention rate of 85.8% after 25 cycles.

  18. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Lili; Qu, Qunting; Zhang, Longfei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  19. Instantaneous measurement of the internal temperature in lithium-ion rechargeable cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Rengaswamy; Carkhuff, Bliss G.; Butler, Michael H.; Baisden, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate, in three different rechargeable lithium-ion cells, the existence of an intrinsic relationship between a cell's internal temperature and a readily measurable electrical parameter, namely the phase shift between an applied sinusoidal current and the resulting voltage. The temperature range examined spanned from -20 to 66 deg. C. The optimum single frequency for the phase measurement is in the 40-100 Hz range, allowing for a measurement time of much less than a second; the phase shift in this range depends predominantly on temperature, and is almost completely independent of the state-of-charge. Literature reports suggest that the observed dependence of the phase shift on temperature arises from the ionic conduction of the so-called solid-electrolyte-interphase layer between the graphite anode and the electrolyte. A meter measuring the phase shift across this interphase is analogous to a thermometer reporting the temperature, thereby providing feedback for rapid corrections of any operating conditions that might lead to the catastrophic destruction of the cell. This level of monitoring and control is distinctly different from the present safety-enabling mechanisms: typically positive thermal coefficient ceramics/plastics, or 'shutdown' separators based on polyethylene that act to often permanently shut down current flow through the cell.

  20. SEI film formation on highly crystalline graphitic materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buqa, H.; Würsig, A.; Vetter, J.; Spahr, M. E.; Krumeich, F.; Novák, P.

    In situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) was used to study the SEI film formation on highly crystalline TIMREX ® SLX50 graphite negative electrodes during the first electrochemical lithium insertion using either 1 M LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) with either dimethyl carbonate (DMC) or propylene carbonate (PC) as co-solvent. In the case of the propylene and ethylene carbonate containing electrolyte, DEMS measurements indicate strong formation of ethylene and propylene gas below 0.75 V versus Li/Li +, which does not decrease at lower cell potential and in the subsequent charge/discharge cycles. Whereas for the dimethyl carbonate containing electrolyte, ethylene gas formation could be observed already above 1 V versus Li/Li +. Post mortem scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the electrodes show strong exfoliation of the graphite electrode when they are discharged in the ethylene/propylene carbonate electrolyte, indicating the formation of an unstable SEI layer. The addition of vinylene carbonate (VC) as a film forming additive significantly decreases the gas formation at the graphite electrode in the propylene carbonate containing electrolyte. The exfoliation was suppressed by the vinylene carbonate additive. We show that the combination of different in situ and ex situ methods can provide new useful information about the passivation process of graphite, as well as the solid electrolyte interphase layer formed, during the first electrochemical insertion of lithium into graphite negative electrode materials.

  1. Polymer-derived-SiCN ceramic/graphite composite as anode material with enhanced rate capability for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2011-08-01

    We report on a new composite material in view of its application as a negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries. A commercial preceramic polysilazane mixed with graphite in 1:1 weight ratio was transformed into a SiCN/graphite composite material through a pyrolytic polymer-to-ceramic conversion at three different temperatures, namely 950 °C, 1100 °C and 1300 °C. By means of Raman spectroscopy we found successive ordering of carbon clusters into nano-crystalline graphitic regions with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The reversible capacity of about 350 mAh g-1 was measured with constant current charging/discharging for the composite prepared at 1300 °C. For comparison pure graphite and pure polysilazane-derived SiCN ceramic were examined as reference materials. During fast charging and discharging the composite material demonstrates enhanced capacity and stability. Charging and discharging in half an hour lead to about 200 and 10 mAh g-1, for the composite annealed at 1300 °C and pure graphite, respectively. A clear dependence between the final material capacity and pyrolysis temperature is found and discussed with respect to possible application in batteries, i.e. practical discharging potential limit. The best results in terms of capacity recovered under 1 V and high rate capability were also obtained for samples synthesized at 1300 °C.

  2. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  3. Nano-Sn embedded in expanded graphite as anode for lithium ion batteries with improved low temperature electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yong; Ben, Liubin; Zhan, Yuanjie; Huang, Xuejie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-Sn embedded in interlayers of expanded graphite is fabricated. • The graphene/nano-Sn/graphene stacked structure promotes cycling stability of Sn. • The Sn/EG shows improved low temperature electrochemical performance. • Chemical diffusion coefficients of the Sn/EG are obtained by GITT. • The Sn/EG exhibits faster Li-ion intercalation kinetics than graphite. - Abstract: Metallic tin (Sn) used as anode material for lithium ion batteries has long been proposed, but its low temperature electrochemical performance has been rarely concerned. Here, a Sn/C composite with nano-Sn embedded in expanded graphite (Sn/EG) is synthesized. The nano-Sn particles (∼30 nm) are uniformly distributed in the interlayers of expanded graphite forming a tightly stacked layered structure. The electrochemical performance of the Sn/EG, particularly at low temperature, is carefully investigated compared with graphite. At -20 °C, the Sn/EG shows capacities of 200 mAh g −1 at 0.1C and 130 mAh g −1 at 0.2C, which is much superior to graphite (<10 mAh g −1 ). EIS measurements suggest that the charge transfer impedance of the Sn/EG increases less rapidly than graphite with decreasing temperatures, which is responsible for the improved low temperature electrochemical performance. The Li-ion chemical diffusion coefficients of the Sn/EG obtained by GITT are an order of magnitude higher at room temperature than that at -20 °C. Furthermore, the Sn/EG exhibits faster Li-ion intercalation kinetics than graphite in the asymmetric charge/discharge measurements, which shows great promise for the application in electric vehicles charged at low temperature.

  4. Review of lithium-ion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) as battery anodes was reported in a 1981 patent by Basu in which a molten salt cell was described having a negative electrode that consisted of lithium intercalated in graphite. A second patent by Basu, issued in 1983, described an ambient temperature rechargeable system which also utilized lithium intercalated in graphite as the anode. Work in this area progressed at a low level, however, until interest was sparked in 1990 when Sony Corporation announced a new ``lithium-ion`` rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode. These cells have the advantages of metallic lithium systems; i.e., high energy density, high voltage, and light weight, without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium. Materials other than carbon have been studied as intercalation anodes. Examples are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 2} and TiS{sub 2}. Although these alternate anode materials are of interest academically and for specialty applications, they do not hold much promise for widespread general use due to their increased weight and lower cell voltage. Studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion systems have centered on the transition metal chalcogenides. A number of these materials are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions at a useful potential versus lithium. Both organic liquids and polymers are candidate electrolytes for this technology.

  5. Investigation of PF6(-) and TFSI(-) anion intercalation into graphitized carbon blacks and its influence on high voltage lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Blizanac, Berislav; DuPasquier, Aurelien; Meister, Paul; Placke, Tobias; Oljaca, Miodrag; Li, Jie; Winter, Martin

    2014-12-14

    Graphitized carbon blacks have shown a more promising electrochemical performance than the non-treated ones when being applied in small amounts as conductive additives in composite cathode electrodes for lithium ion batteries, due to the absence of surface functional groups which contribute to detrimental side-reactions with the electrolyte. Here, we report that at high potentials of >4.5 V vs. Li/Li(+), graphitic structures in carbon black can provide host sites for the partially reversible intercalation of electrolyte salt anions. This process is in analogy to the charge reaction of graphite positive electrodes in dual-ion cells. A standard furnace carbon black with small graphitic structural units, as well as slightly and highly graphitized carbon blacks, were characterized and analyzed with regard to anion intercalation. A LiPF6 containing organic solvent based electrolyte as well as a state-of-the-art ionic liquid based electrolyte composed of LiTFSI in PYR14TFSI were applied. The intercalation of both PF6(-) and TFSI(-) could be confirmed by cyclic voltammetry in electrodes made of carbon blacks. When exposed to high potentials, carbon blacks experienced strong activation in the 1st cycle, which promotes the perception for anion intercalation, and thus increases the anion intercalation capacity in the following cycles. The specific capacity from anion intercalation was evaluated by constant current charge-discharge cycling. The obtained capacity was proportional to the graphitization degree. As anion intercalation might be accompanied by decomposition reactions of the electrolyte, e.g., by co-intercalation of solvent molecules, it could induce the decomposition of the electrolyte inside the carbon and thus degradation of the carbon black graphitic structure. In order to avoid side reactions from surface groups and from anion intercalation, the thermal treatment of carbon blacks must be optimized.

  6. Considerations for the Thermal Modeling of Lithium-Ion Cells for Battery Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Christie, Robert J.; White, Ralph E.

    Recent well-publicized events involving lithium-ion batteries in laptops, electric cars, commercial aircraft and even hover boards have raised concerns regarding thermal runaway -- a phenomenon in which stored energy in a cell is rapidly released as heat along with vented effluents. If not properly...

  7. Validation of Lithium-ion cell technology for JPL's 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    n early 2004 JPL successfully landed two Rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, on the surface of Mars after traveling >300 million miles over a 6-7 month period. In order to operate for extended duration on the surface of Mars, both Rovers are equipped with rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries, which were designed to aid in the launch, correct anomalies during cruise, and support surface operations in conjunction with a triple-junction deployable solar arrays. The requirements of the Lithium-ion battery include the ability to provide power at least 90 sols on the surface of Mars, operate over a wide temperature range (-20 C to +40 C), withstanding long storage periods (e.g., cruise period), operate in an inverted position, and support high currents (e.g., firing pyro events). In order to determine the viability of Lithium-ion technology to meet these stringent requirements, a comprehensive test program was implemented aimed at demonstrating the performance capability of prototype cells fabricated by Lithion, Inc. (Yardney Technical Products, Inc.). The testing performed includes, determining the (a) room temperature cycle life, (b) pulse capability as a function of temperature, (e) self-discharge and storage characteristics mission profile capability, (f) cycle life under mission simulation conditions, (g) impedance characteristics, (h) impact of cell orientation, and (i) performance in 8-cell engineering batteries. As will be discussed, the Lithium-ion prototype cells and batteries were demonstrated to meet, as well as, exceed the requirements defined by the mission.

  8. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  9. Inhomogeneity and relaxation phenomena in the graphite anode of a lithium-ion battery probed by in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Veronika; von Lüders, Christian; Wilhelm, Jörn; Erhard, Simon V.; Hofmann, Michael; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Rebelo-Kornmeier, Joana; Gan, Weimin; Jossen, Andreas; Gilles, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    In this study, lithium gradients forming in the graphite anode of a commercial 18650-type lithium-ion battery during discharge and the associated relaxation processes after discharge were monitored by neutron diffraction. The experiments reveal the coexistence of several Li1-xC6 phases with different lithium contents during discharge, which can be explained by the formation of an inhomogeneity or lithium gradient in the graphite anode. The observed inhomogeneity is more pronounced at higher discharging rates, but at low temperatures it appears at a rate as low as C/10. After discharge, the inhomogeneity gradually disappears and the coexisting phases diminish in favor of one or several Li1-xC6 phases with close to mean lithium content. At room temperature these relaxation processes take 20-40 min with the main changes in the first 10 min. In contrast, at -20 °C changes are still observed after 11 h. The observed phenomena can be explained by a faster delithiation of the graphite particles than the equilibration of the resulting lithium gradient by lithium diffusion in the solid phase during discharge.

  10. Thermal characterizations of a large-format lithium ion cell focused on high current discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, C.; Dragicevic, D.; Merten, C.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal behavior of a large-format lithium ion cell has been investigated during measurements on cell and battery level. High current discharges up to 300 A are the main topic of this study. This paper demonstrates that the temperature response to high current loads provides the possibility to investigate internal cell parameters and their inhomogeneity. In order to identify thermal response caused by internal cell processes, the heat input due to contact resistances has been minimized. The differences between the thermal footprint of a cell during cell and battery measurements are being addressed. The study presented here focuses on the investigation of thermal hot and cold spots as well as temperature gradients in a 50 Ah pouch cell. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the difference between charge and discharge can have significant influence on the thermal behavior of lithium ion cells. Moreover, the miscellaneous thermal characteristics of differently aged lithium ion cells highlight the possibility of an ex-situ non-destructive post-mortem-analysis, providing the possibility of a qualitative and quantitative characterization of inhomogeneous cell-aging. These investigations also generate excellent data for the validation and parameterization of electro-thermal cell models, predicting the distribution of temperature, current, potential, SOC and SOH inside large-format cells.

  11. Electrical and electrochemical performance characteristics of large capacity lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; Doughty, D.; Radzykewycz, D.; Hill, C.; Marsh, C.

    We are currently evaluating large capacity (20-40 Ah) Bluestar (cylindrical) and Yardney (prismatic) lithium-ion cells for their electrical and electrochemical performance characteristics at different temperatures. The cell resistances were nearly constant from room temperature down to -20°C, but increased by over 10 times at -40°C. The specific energies and powers, as well as the energy densities and power densities are high and did not reach a plateau even at the highest discharge rates tested. For example, the prismatic lithium-ion cells gave close to 280 Wh dm -3 from a 4 A discharge and 249 Wh dm -3 at 20 A, both at room temperature. For the same current range the specific energy values were 102 Wh kg -1 and 91 Wh kg -1. Cycle life and other electrical and electrochemical properties of the cells will be presented.

  12. Internal Impedance of the Lithium-Ion Secondary Cells Used for Reimei Satellite after the Eleven Years Operation in Space

    OpenAIRE

    Sone Yoshitsugu; Watanabe Hiromi; Tanaka Kohei; Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel; Fukuda Seisuke; Itagaki Masayuki; Ogawa Keita; Asamura Kazushi; Yamazaki Atsushi; Nagamatsu Hiroyuki; Fukushima Yosuke; Saito Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion secondary batteries have been widely used for the space programs, today. Among them, REIMEI was one of the first satellites using lithium-ion secondary battery. In 2005, the satellite was launched, and injected into the low earth polar orbit. Eleven years has passed since the launch and over 60,000 cycles of charge and discharge was experienced in space. The lithium-ion secondary cell of the REIMEI battery was designed using spinel manganese oxide type material for the posi...

  13. Diagnosis of power fade mechanisms in high-power lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. H.; Hyung, Y. E.; Stoll, M.; Elsen, N.; MacLaren, S.; Twesten, R.; Haasch, R.; Sammann, E.; Petrov, I.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G.

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) need long-lived high-power batteries as energy storage devices. Batteries based on lithium-ion technology can meet the high-power goals but have been unable to meet HEV calendar-life requirements. As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, diagnostic studies are being conducted on 18650-type lithium-ion cells that were subjected to accelerated aging tests at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70 °C. This article summarizes data obtained by gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques, and identifies cell components that are responsible for the observed impedance rise and power fade.

  14. Non-aqueous Electrode Processing and Construction of Lithium-ion Coin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Malcolm; Chen, Chien-Fan; Robles, Daniel J; Rhodes, Christopher; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    Research into new and improved materials to be utilized in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) necessitates an experimental counterpart to any computational analysis. Testing of lithium-ion batteries in an academic setting has taken on several forms, but at the most basic level lies the coin cell construction. In traditional LIB electrode preparation, a multi-phase slurry composed of active material, binder, and conductive additive is cast out onto a substrate. An electrode disc can then be punched from the dried sheet and used in the construction of a coin cell for electrochemical evaluation. Utilization of the potential of the active material in a battery is critically dependent on the microstructure of the electrode, as an appropriate distribution of the primary components are crucial to ensuring optimal electrical conductivity, porosity, and tortuosity, such that electrochemical and transport interaction is optimized. Processing steps ranging from the combination of dry powder, wet mixing, and drying can all critically affect multi-phase interactions that influence the microstructure formation. Electrochemical probing necessitates the construction of electrodes and coin cells with the utmost care and precision. This paper aims at providing a step-by-step guide of non-aqueous electrode processing and coin cell construction for lithium-ion batteries within an academic setting and with emphasis on deciphering the influence of drying and calendaring.

  15. Electrochemical performance and interfacial investigation on Si composite anode for lithium ion batteries in full cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Alvarado, Judith; Yang, Yangyuchen; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2017-08-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) containing silicon (Si) as a negative electrode have gained much attention recently because they deliver high energy density. However, the commercialization of LIBs with Si anode is limited due to the unstable electrochemical performance associated with expansion and contraction during electrochemical cycling. This study investigates the electrochemical performance and degradation mechanism of a full cell containing Si composite anode and LiFePO4 (lithium iron phosphate (LFP)) cathode. Enhanced electrochemical cycling performance is observed when the full cell is cycled with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive compared to the standard electrolyte. To understand the improvement in the electrochemical performance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. Based on the electrochemical behavior, FEC improves the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si composite anode. Moreover, XPS analysis demonstrates that the SEI composition generated from the addition of FEC consists of a large amount of LiF and less carbonate species, which leads to better capacity retention over 40 cycles. The effective SEI successively yields more stable capacity retention and enhances the reversibility of lithium ion diffusion through the interphase of the Si anode, even at higher discharge rate. This study contributes to a basic comprehension of electrochemical performance and SEI formation of LIB full cells with a high loading Si composite anode.

  16. Fast Thermal Runaway Detection for Lithium-Ion Cells in Large Scale Traction Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal runaway of single cells within a large scale lithium-ion battery is a well-known risk that can lead to critical situations if no counter measures are taken in today’s lithium-ion traction batteries for battery electric vehicles (BEVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The United Nations have published a draft global technical regulation on electric vehicle safety (GTR EVS describing a safety feature to warn passengers in case of a thermal runaway. Fast and reliable detection of faulty cells undergoing thermal runaway within the lithium-ion battery is therefore a key factor in battery designs for comprehensive passenger safety. A set of various possible sensors has been chosen based on the determined cell thermal runaway impact. These sensors have been tested in different sized battery setups and compared with respect to their ability of fast and reliable thermal runaway detection and their feasibility for traction batteries.

  17. Gas Desorption Behavior of Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion Secondary Batteries After Adsorption of Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshinori; Nobuta, Yuji; Yamauchi, Yuji; Hino, Tomoaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Ohzeki, Katsutomo

    When it was soaked, more were desorbed In this study, gas desorption behaviors of graphite anode samples after various surface treatments and electrolyte solvent adsorption properties were investigated. The total amount of desorbed gases for the natural graphite samples increased after soaking in propylene carbonate, and increased even further with Raman R value, suggesting that surface defects act as an effective adsorption site for the electrolyte. These findings indicate that surface treatment such as a coating might be an effective remedy to reduce the amount of desorption gases in natural graphite samples. It was also found that the total amount of gas desorption largely decreased with the coating with polymer resin and subsequent heat treatment at 423 K for 12 hours in a medium of air. It is likely that the dominant gas species present in the natural graphite after the electrolyte soaking are dependent on the binding energy and the molecular structure of the electrolyte solvent.

  18. A general salt-templating method to fabricate vertically aligned graphitic carbon nanosheets and their metal carbide hybrids for superior lithium ion batteries and water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Sakaushi, Ken; Clavel, Guylhaine; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2015-04-29

    The synthesis of vertically aligned functional graphitic carbon nanosheets (CNS) is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate a general approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS composites via a facile salt templating induced self-assembly. The resulting vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS structures possess ultrathin walls, good electrical conductivity, strong adhesion, excellent structural robustness, and small particle size. In electrochemical energy conversion and storage such unique features are favorable for providing efficient mass transport as well as a large and accessible electroactive surface. The materials were tested as electrodes in a lithium ion battery and in electrochemical water splitting. The vertically aligned nanosheets exhibit remarkable lithium ion storage properties and, concurrently, excellent properties as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

  19. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schweiger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods.

  20. V79 cell survival after a single lithium ion nuclear traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, M.; Buonanno, M.; Campajola, L.; Durante, M.; Grossi, G.; Publiese, G.; Scampoli, P.; Gialanella, G.; Manti, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Biological studies on the effects of low doses of densely ionising radiation are highly influenced by the stochastic character of the energy deposition events. For several end-points, including clonogenic survival, to follow-up individual cells that have undergone an exactly determined number of charged particle traversals is highly desirable. While RBE-LET curves have been measured after conventional 'broad beam' irradiation with several ions of varying energies, the probability of cell survival after a single charged particle traversal has only been determined for accelerated protons and alpha particles, whereas the ability of single particle traversals at higher LET to cause clonogenic death is yet unknown. Recently, low dose studies have also shown phenomena of high interest, such as the hypersensitivity/induced radioresistance(HS/IRR) adaptive responses. However, for particles of high LET, even a single nuclear traversal may deliver an average dose to a single cell that may be beyond the dose region of the HS/IRR response. We ave set up an experimental apparatus for the determination of the inactivation cross section after an exactly known number of accelerated Lithium ions traversals (210 keV/micron when hitting the cell surface). Using a bio-stack approach (Pugliese et al, IJRB Oct;72(4):397-407 1997) LR115 thin nuclear track detectors have been employed for the direct visualisation of Lithium ion traversals in V79 cells nuclei that are labeled with Hoechst 33258. A computer software has been designed and implemented to control micro-meter movements of a motorised Marzhauser stage, mounted on a fluorescent microscope, for the acquisition of individual attached cell coordinates, type of traversal, as well as for re-visiting the registered coordinates for analysis of survivors. The V79 cell survival experiment after exactly known numbers of Lithium ions traversals is in progress, along with a classical 'broad beam' survival assay

  1. The existence of optimal molecular weight for poly(acrylic acid) binders in silicon/graphite composite anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Linghong; Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Yan; Liao, Chen; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Lu, Wenquan; Zhang, Lu

    2018-02-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) based binders have been widely used for the high capacity silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries. While numerous promising progress has been reported, there is no general guideline for choosing the right PAA binders for optimized cycling performance. In this report, aiming to optimize the cycling performance of the Si/graphite composite anodes (15 wt% Si), we systemically investigated a series of PAA binders by validating their molecular weights (MWs) and correlating them to the cycling performance of the anodes fabricated with such binders. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to validate the MWs of six PAA binders (PAA1 to PAA6). Those binders then underwent a series of characterizations, including rheology study, half-cell cycling, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is observed that the MWs of PAA binders not only affected the viscosities of the binder solutions but also impacted the cycling performance, possibly due to the cohesion changes. A range of 24-150 kDa is found to be optimal for minimizing the rate and extent of capacity fade and maintaining the cohesion in the electrode matrix despite the dramatic volumetric changes due to Si alloying.

  2. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, and Shriram Santhanagopalan

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  3. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  4. Challenges Considering the Degradation of Cell Components in Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells: A Review and Evaluation of Present Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Karin; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the high energy and power density of lithium-ion cells (1200 Wh kg -1 and 200 Wh kg -1 ) and due to their compact design, they are used as energy storage devices in many contemporary mobile applications such as telecommunication systems, notebooks and domestic appliances. Meanwhile their application is not limited only to consumer electronics, they are also standard in hybrid electric (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profitable application of lithium-ion cells in the automobile industry requires lower costs, lower safety risks, a higher specific energy density and a longer lifetime under everyday conditions. All these aspects are directly or indirectly related to the degradation of the materials in a lithium-ion cell. One possibility for reducing the costs is a second life application of the cells after their usage in (H)EVs. In order to enable this, the safety risks at the end of life of a cell operated in a vehicle have to be reliably predicted. This requires a fundamental knowledge about underlying material degradations during operation. The safety risk of a lithium-ion cell increases during operation because the voltage windows in which the electrodes are cycled shift, resulting in a higher possibility that at least one electrode is operated in a meta- or unstable state. Furthermore, higher impedances due to material degradations lead to increasing heat generation and therefore to an increase in the risk of failure. Higher energy densities can be achieved by raising the end of charge voltage of a cell, causing additional safety risks because many cathode materials tend to decompose at high voltages. Another possibility for achieving higher energy densities is to use nickel-rich or lithium-excess cathode materials, since cathodes are currently limiting the capacity of lithium-ion cells. But these systems show a poor cycling stability (a higher degradation rate). The lifetime of a lithium-ion cell is limited by the degradation of the

  5. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-01

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  6. Results of screening over 200 pristine lithium-ion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela Barreras, Jorge; Raj, Trishna; Howey, David

    2017-01-01

    was conducted using an automated dis/charge test system and thermal chambers. Analysis of the screening data gives valuable quantitative information, but also qualitative insights into the nature of cell-to-cell variations and the complex interactions between battery temperature, capacity, voltage or internal...

  7. Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Zhang, Chao; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Models capture the force response for single-cell and cell-string levels to within 15%-20% accuracy and predict the location for the origin of failure based on the deformation data from the experiments. At the module level, there is some discrepancy due to poor mechanical characterization of the packaging material between the cells. The thermal response (location and value of maximum temperature) agrees qualitatively with experimental data. In general, the X-plane results agree with model predictions to within 20% (pending faulty thermocouples, etc.); the Z-plane results show a bigger variability both between the models and test-results, as well as among multiple repeats of the tests. The models are able to capture the timing and sequence in voltage drop observed in the multi-cell experiments; the shapes of the current and temperature profiles need more work to better characterize propagation. The cells within packaging experience about 60% less force under identical impact test conditions, so the packaging on the test articles is robust. However, under slow-crush simulations, the maximum deformation of the cell strings with packaging is about twice that of cell strings without packaging.

  8. A Universal Strategy for Hollow Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Encapsulated into B/N Co-Doped Graphitic Nanotubes as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Zou, Ruqiang; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Song; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Guo, Shaojun

    2018-02-01

    Yolk-shell nanostructures have received great attention for boosting the performance of lithium-ion batteries because of their obvious advantages in solving the problems associated with large volume change, low conductivity, and short diffusion path for Li + ion transport. A universal strategy for making hollow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated into B, N co-doped graphitic nanotubes (TMO@BNG (TMO = CoO, Ni 2 O 3 , Mn 3 O 4 ) through combining pyrolysis with an oxidation method is reported herein. The as-made TMO@BNG exhibits the TMO-dependent lithium-ion storage ability, in which CoO@BNG nanotubes exhibit highest lithium-ion storage capacity of 1554 mA h g -1 at the current density of 96 mA g -1 , good rate ability (410 mA h g -1 at 1.75 A g -1 ), and high stability (almost 96% storage capacity retention after 480 cycles). The present work highlights the importance of introducing hollow TMO NPs with thin wall into BNG with large surface area for boosting LIBs in the terms of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li 4/3 Ti 5/3 O 4 composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF 6 -bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C

  10. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  11. Understanding the crack formation of graphite particles in cycled commercial lithium-ion batteries by focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Jia, Zhe; Wang, Zhihui; Zhao, Hui; Ai, Guo; Song, Xiangyun; Bai, Ying; Battaglia, Vincent; Sun, Chengdong; Qiao, Juan; Wu, Kai; Liu, Gao

    2017-10-01

    The structure degradation of commercial Lithium-ion battery (LIB) graphite anodes with different cycling numbers and charge rates was investigated by focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross-section image of graphite anode by FIB milling shows that cracks, resulted in the volume expansion of graphite electrode during long-term cycling, were formed in parallel with the current collector. The crack occurs in the bulk of graphite particles near the lithium insertion surface, which might derive from the stress induced during lithiation and de-lithiation cycles. Subsequently, crack takes place along grain boundaries of the polycrystalline graphite, but only in the direction parallel with the current collector. Furthermore, fast charge graphite electrodes are more prone to form cracks since the tensile strength of graphite is more likely to be surpassed at higher charge rates. Therefore, for LIBs long-term or high charge rate applications, the tensile strength of graphite anode should be taken into account.

  12. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  13. Diagnostic studies on lithium-ion cells at Argonne National Laboratory: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Daniel P.

    2010-04-01

    High-power and high-energy lithium-ion cells are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. Cells ranging in capacity from 1 mAh to 1Ah, and containing a variety of electrodes and electrolytes, are examined to determine suitable material combinations that will meet and exceed the FCVT performance, cost, and safety targets. In this article, accelerated aging of 18650-type cells, and characterization of components harvested from these cells, is described. Several techniques that include electrochemical measurements, analytical electron microscopy, and x-ray spectroscopy were used to study the various cell components. Data from these studies were used to identify the most likely contributors to property degradation and determine mechanisms responsible for cell capacity fade and impedance rise.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells for an implantable battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, G.K. [Cardiovascular Devices Div., Univ. Ottawa, Heart Inst., ON (Canada); Aiken, P.A. [Cardiovascular Devices Div., Univ. Ottawa, Heart Inst., ON (Canada); Adams, W.A. [Electrochemical Science and Technology Centre, Univ. Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mussivand, T. [Cardiovascular Devices Div., Univ. Ottawa, Heart Inst., ON (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the performance characteristics of 1.08 Ah lithium-ion cells was undertaken utilizing operating conditions similar to that required for an implanted medical device, such as a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart, in order to determine their potential usefulness for this application. The major parameters studied at 22 or 37 C were discharge-rate capability, specific energy and energy density, surface temperature, self-discharge and cycle life. The discharge loads used in the cycle-life study were either constant or pulsatile, with the constant discharge load being equivalent to the average of the pulsatile load. The lithium-ion cells showed high discharge-rate capability up to 1.5 A at 37 C, with over 74% of their rated capacity being obtained and a midpoint voltage of over 3.3 V (>72% of rated capacity and >3.3 V for up to 1.0 A discharges at 22 C), before the first indication of cell polarization was noticed. The specific energy and energy density of cells discharged at 0.88 A to 2.5 V at 37 C was 73 Wh/kg and 190 Wh/l, respectively (64 Wh/kg and 167 Wh/l at 22 C). The internal resistance of the cells was calculated to be 198 m{Omega} at 37 C (316 m{Omega} at 22 C), which resulted in a relatively high, 8.0 C, increase in surface temperature under a 0.88 A discharge load. The self-discharge of the cells at 37 C was relatively low, with only a 1.3% loss in capacity being observed after 24 h. The lithium-ion cells yielded longer cycle lives at 37 C (2 239 cycles) compared with 22 C operation (1 539 cycles) under similar 0.88 A discharge loads. The cells peformed slightly better under constant discharge loads than under pulsatile loads of equivalent average current (0.83 A average) with cycles lives of 2 279 cycles versus 1941 cycles and operating times were 1.6{+-}1.1 min (mean) longer. (orig./MM)

  15. Fast and Accurate Measurement of Entropy Profiles of Commercial Lithium-Ion Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osswald, Patrick J.; Rosario, Manuel del; Garche, Jürgen; Jossen, Andreas; Hoster, Harry E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an effective approach to speed up the measurement of thermodynamic characterization curves (entropy of reaction Δ r S(x)) of rechargeable batteries, in particular commercial 18650 lithium ion cells. We propose and demonstrate a measurement and data processing protocol that reduces the time required to record entropy profiles from time scales of weeks to time scales of hours – without loss in accuracy. For time consuming studies such as investigations on ageing of battery cells, entropy profile measurements thus become as feasible as conventional electrochemical characterisation techniques like dV/dQ or cyclic voltammetry. We demonstrate this at the examples of two ageing protocols applied to a commercial high power and a commercial high energy cell, respectively: (i) accelerated calendric aging by storing cells at 100% state of charge at 60 °C and (ii) continuous cycling with a 1C current at 25 °C

  16. Organic solvents, electrolytes, and lithium ion cells with good low temperature performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Multi-component organic solvent systems, electrolytes and electrochemical cells characterized by good low temperature performance are provided. In one embodiment, an improved organic solvent system contains a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate. In other embodiments, quaternary systems include a fourth component, i.e, an aliphatic ester, an asymmetric alkyl carbonate or a compound of the formula LiOX, where X is R, COOR, or COR, where R is alkyl or fluoroalkyl. Electrolytes based on such organic solvent systems are also provided and contain therein a lithium salt of high ionic mobility, such as LiPF.sub.6. Reversible electrochemical cells, particularly lithium ion cells, are constructed with the improved electrolytes, and preferably include a carbonaceous anode, an insertion type cathode, and an electrolyte interspersed therebetween.

  17. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2015-10-11

    Lithium-ion cells provide the highest specific energy (>280 Wh/kg) and energy density (>600 Wh/L) rechargeable battery building block to date with the longest life. Electrode/electrolyte thermal instability and flammability of the electrolyte of Li-ion cells make them prone to catastrophic thermal runaway under some rare internal short circuit conditions. Despite extensive QC/QA, standardized industry safety testing, and over 18 years of manufacturing experience, major recalls have taken place and incidents still occur. Many safety incidents that take place in the field originate due to an internal short that was not detectable or predictable at the point of manufacture. The Internal Short-Circuit Instigator can be used to study types of separators, non-flammable electrolytes, electrolyte additives, fusible tabs, propagation studies, and gas generation within a cell.

  18. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop and accu...

  19. Synthesis of graphitized carbon, nanodiamond and graphene supported Li4Ti5O12 and comparison of their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Miao, Juan; Wang, Qiufen; Lu, Mengwei; Sun, Jiufang; Wen, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Graphitized carbon (GC), nanodiamond (ND) and graphene (GE) supported Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) composites have been synthesized via a solid-state reaction, respectively. The particle sizes of LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE are smaller than pure LTO. When tested as the anode for lithium ion batteries, the discharge capacities of LTO, LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE composites are 100.1 mAh g-1, 150.4 mAh g-1, 90.4 mAh g-1 and 218.3 mAh g-1 at the current density of 175 mA g-1 after 500 cycles. Their rate capacities retain 59.8%, 80.0%, 81.0% and 85.7% at the current density of 175 mA g-1, 438 mA g-1, 875 mA g-1 and 175 mA g-1, respectively. Moreover, the recovery rates of their rate capacities are 78.6%, 83.4%, 88.9% and 90.1% when returned to the current density of 175 mA g-1, respectively. The reasons can be attributed to the synergistic effect between GC (ND and GE) and LTO as well as the features of the different carbon supports. This strategy, with the carbon constituting a good supporting structure, is an effective way to improve the cycling performance of anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  20. Statistical methodology for predicting the life of lithium-ion cells via accelerated degradation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E. V.; Bloom, I.; Christophersen, J. P.; Battaglia, V. S.

    Statistical models based on data from accelerated aging experiments are used to predict cell life. In this article, we discuss a methodology for estimating the mean cell life with uncertainty bounds that uses both a degradation model (reflecting average cell performance) and an error model (reflecting the measured cell-to-cell variability in performance). Specific forms for the degradation and error models are presented and illustrated with experimental data that were acquired from calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Technology Development program. Monte Carlo simulations, based on the developed models, are used to assess lack-of-fit and develop uncertainty limits for the average cell life. In addition, we discuss the issue of assessing the applicability of degradation models (based on data acquired from cells aged under static conditions) to the degradation of cells aged under more realistic dynamic conditions (e.g., varying temperature).

  1. New In Situ Synthesis Method for Fe3O4/Flake Graphite Nanosheet Composite Structure and Its Application in Anode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure torsion (HPT, a severe plastic deformation (SPD method, is rarely used in the manufacturing process of functional materials. In the present work, the authors creatively proposed using HPT as an alternative method an approach for high energy ball-milling in the preparation of an Fe3O4 and lamellar graphite nanosheet (GNS composite material. The corresponding electrochemical experiments verified that the in situ synthesized Fe3O4/GNS composite material has good lithium-storage performance and that it can retain good capacity (548.2 mA h g−1 even after several hundred cycles with high current density (8 C. Meanwhile, this performance has directly confirmed that SPD technique has great potential for the preparation of anode materials of lithium-ion batteries, especially in manufacturing metallic functional nanomaterials.

  2. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Croft, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enable future missions involving the exploration of the surface of Mars with Landers and Rovers, NASA desires long life, high energy density rechargeable batteries which can operate well at very low temperature (down to 40(deg)C). Lithium-ion technology has been identified as being the most promising chemistry, due to high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, as well as, long life characteristics. However, the state-of-art (SOA) technology is not sufficient to meet the needs of many applications that require excellent low temperature capabilities. To further improve this technology, work at JF'L has been focused upon developing electrolytes that result in lithium-ion cells with wider temperature ranges of operation. These efforts have led to the identification of a number of ternary and quaternary, all carbonate-based electrolytes that have been demonstrated to result in improved low temperature performance in experimental three-electrode MCMB carbon/LiNio.sCoo.zOz cells. A number of electrochemical characterization techniques were performed on these cells (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further enhance our understanding of the performance limitations at low temperature. The most promising electrolyte formulations, namely 1 .O M LiPF6EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1 : 1: 1 :2 v/v) and 1 .O M LiPF6 EC+DEC+DMC+EMC (1 : 1 : 1 :3 v/v), were incorporated into SAFT prototype DD-size (9 Ahr) lithium- cells for evaluation. A number of electrical tests were performed on these cells, including rate characterization as a function of temperature, cycle life characterization at different temperatures, as well as, many mission specific characterization test to determine their viability to enable future missions to Mars. Excellent performance was observed with the prototype DD-size cells over a wide temperature range (-50 to 4OoC), with high specific energy being delivered at very

  3. Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Biendicho, Jordi Jacas; Hull, Stephen; Beran, Premysl; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Svensson, Gunnar; Edström, Kristina

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new cell design for the construction of lithium ion batteries with conventional electrochemical performance whilst allowing in situ neutron diffraction measurement. A cell comprising of a wound cathode, electrolyte and anode stack has been prepared. The conventional hydrogen-containing components of the cell have been replaced by hydrogen-free equivalents. The electrodes are fabricated using a PTFE binder, the electrolyte consists of deuterated solvents which are supported in a quartz glass fibre separator. Typical battery performance is reported using the hydrogen-free components with a specific capacity of 140 mA h g-1 being observed for LiFePO4 at a rate of 0.2 C. Neutron diffraction patterns of full cells were recorded with phase change reactions monitored. When aluminium packaging was used a better signal to noise ratio was obtained. The obtained atomic positions and lattice parameters for all cells investigated were found to be consistent with parameters refined from the diffraction pattern of a powder of the pure electrode material. This paper highlights the pertinent points in designing cells for these measurements and addresses some of the problems.

  4. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  5. Investigation of Metal Oxide/Carbon Nano Material as Anode for High Capacity Lithium-ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Jianjun; Hong, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing high specific energy and high specific capacity lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology for future NASA missions. Current state-of-art LIBs have issues in terms of safety and thermal stability, and are reaching limits in specific energy capability based on the electrochemical materials selected. For example, the graphite anode has a limited capability to store Li since the theoretical capacity of graphite is 372 mAh/g. To achieve higher specific capacity and energy density, and to improve safety for current LIBs, alternative advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are pursued under the NASA Advanced Space Power System Project. In this study, the nanostructed metal oxide, such as Fe2O3 on carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite as an LIB anode has been investigated.

  6. X-ray Raman spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions in a flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Spiekermann, Georg; Harder, Manuel; Oz, Erdinc; Koz, Cevriye; Yagci, Mehmet C; Yilmaz, Eda; Yin, Zhong; Sahle, Christoph J; Detlefs, Blanka; Yavaş, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of varying LiPF 6 salt concentration and the presence of lithium bis(oxalate)borate additive on the electronic structure of commonly used lithium-ion battery electrolyte solvents (ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate) have been investigated. X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy (a non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering method) was utilized together with a closed-circle flow cell. Carbon and oxygen K-edges provide characteristic information on the electronic structure of the electrolyte solutions, which are sensitive to local chemistry. Higher Li + ion concentration in the solvent manifests itself as a blue-shift of both the π* feature in the carbon edge and the carbonyl π* feature in the oxygen edge. While these oxygen K-edge results agree with previous soft X-ray absorption studies on LiBF 4 salt concentration in propylene carbonate, carbon K-edge spectra reveal a shift in energy, which can be explained with differing ionic conductivities of the electrolyte solutions.

  7. Performance of Novel Randomly Oriented High Graphene Carbon in Lithium Ion Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S. Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of carbon material comprising the anode is the key to the performance of a lithium ion capacitor. In addition to determining the capacity, the structure of the carbon material also determines the diffusion rate of the lithium ion into the anode which in turn controls power density which is vital in high rate applications. This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the performance of a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG carbon, and graphite in a high rate application device, that is, lithium ion capacitor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that ROHG is less resistive and has faster lithium ion diffusion rates (393.7 × 10−3 S·s(1/2 compared to graphite (338.1 × 10−3 S·s(1/2. The impedance spectroscopy data is supported by the cell data showing that the ROHG carbon based device has energy density of 22.8 Wh/l with a power density of 4349.3 W/l, whereas baseline graphite based device has energy density of 5 Wh/l and power density of 4243.3 W/l. This data clearly shows advantage of the randomly oriented graphene platelet structure of ROHG in lithium ion capacitor performance.

  8. In operando neutron diffraction study of a commercial graphite/(Ni, Mn, Co) oxide-based multi-component lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, N. S.; Yartys, V. A.; Azib, T.; Latroche, M.; Cuevas, F.; Forseth, S.; Vie, P. J. S.; Denys, R. V.; Sørby, M. H.; Hauback, B. C.; Arnberg, L.; Henry, P. F.

    2016-09-01

    In situ neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the structural evolution of the electrode materials in an ICR 10440 commercial cylindrical lithium-ion battery, which has a discharge capacity of 360 mAh and a nominal voltage of 3.7 V. A three-phase mixture of Li(Ni,Mn,Co)O2, LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 was identified as the active material of the cathode, with graphite acting as the anode material. The study revealed that the graphite anode underwent structural changes to form a series of insertion-type lithiated derivatives, with up to 12.7% volume expansion for the Li-saturated compound LiC6. The charge-discharge behavior was more complex for the cathode. Here, the charge process was associated with partial lithium depletion from the initially Li-saturated compounds, leading to volume shrinkage for Li(Ni,Mn,Co)O2, in contrast to (Ni,Mn)-free LiCoO2. Electrochemical discharge experiments performed under a fast regime (2 C) at 5, 25 and 45 °C revealed that the discharge capacity followed the trend of an increased diffusion rate of Li+ ions in the electrolyte and Li atoms in both electrodes, being highest for 45 °C. At the lowest tested temperature (5 °C), a rapid drop in the discharge capacity took place using the same kinetic regime.

  9. Characterization and modeling of the thermal mechanics of lithium-ion battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal swelling shape is different than Li-ion intercalation swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature and gap creation leads to a convex shape at free conditions. • Important parameters of thermal mechanics are estimated through experiments. • A coupled thermal-structural analysis accurately predicts thermal swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature still plays a critical role at pack conditions. - Abstract: The thermal mechanics of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is explored with a focus on thermal swelling. Experiments show for the first time that the swelling shape of prismatic battery cells due to temperature variations is significantly different from that due to Li-ion intercalation in unconstrained conditions. In contrast to uniform and orthotropic Li-ion intercalation swelling in a direction perpendicular to electrodes, the nonuniform temperature distribution in the jellyroll and the gaps/voids between electrodes result in distinguishable different swelling shapes. A unique coupled thermal-structural analysis with a simple, but efficient 3-D finite numerical model is proposed to investigate the impact of temperature variations on the thermal behaviors of battery cells. Anisotropic heat conduction and temperature dependency of the coefficient of thermal expansion are taken into account and found to have an impact on temperature distribution and thermal expansion. Experimental validation of the proposed model clearly demonstrates that the coupled thermal-structural analysis with the proposed model can predict accurately the thermal swelling at unconstrained conditions. The solution at pack (constrained) conditions shows that the nonuniform temperature distribution of the jellyroll still plays a critical role for the thermal swelling shape, although the gaps/voids do not occur because of the constraints from spacers in the pack, suggesting that the estimation of core temperature is important. Such an accurate model, able to estimate cell

  10. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S. [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  11. STM study on graphite/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries: solid electrolyte interface formation in trifluoropropylene carbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Minoru; Kawatate, Yutaka; Funabiki, Atsushi; Jeong, Soon-Ki; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Kyoto University (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Lithium intercalation within graphite was studied in an electrolyte system. 1 M LiClO{sub 4} dissolved in trifluoropropylene carbonate (TFPC). Lithium was intercalated within graphite in TFPC. The reversible capacity obtained (275 mAh g{sup -1}) was smaller than that in ethylene carbonate-based solutions while the irreversible capacity was larger (335 mAh g{sup -1}). The morphology change of the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was observed by electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) to obtain information about passivating film (solid electrolyte interface, SEI) formation in this solvent system. The exfoliation of graphite layers was observed at 1.1 and 1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, and then swelling of graphite layers appeared along step edges at 0.5 V. The feature observed at 0.5 V was considered as SEI itself in this solvent system. (Author)

  12. Lithium ion batteries (NMC/graphite) cycling at 80 °C: Different electrolytes and related degradation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieser, R.; Ferrari, S.; Loveridge, M.; Beattie, S. D.; Beanland, R.; Amari, H.; West, G.; Bhagat, R.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on high temperature cycling (80 °C) of industrial manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) filled with different electrolytes is introduced. Ageing processes such as capacity fade, resistance increase and gas generation are reduced by the choice of appropriate electrolyte formulations. However, even by using additive formulations designed for elevated temperatures a large resistance increase is observed after 200 cycles and more (which does not happen at 55 °C). Symmetrical EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) shows that the cathodic charge transfer resistance is the main reason for this behaviour. Nonetheless most of the active Li is still available when cycling with suitable additives. No change of the cathode crystalline structure or a growth of the cathodic surface reconstruction layer is observed post cycling at 80 °C. Therefore a disintegration of NMC secondary particles is believed to be the main reason of the cell failure. A separation of single grains is leading to new decomposition and reconstruction layers between primary particles and an increased charge transfer resistance. Further approaches to improve the high temperature cycle stability of NMC based materials should therefore be aimed at the cathode particles morphology in combination with similar electrolyte formulations as used in this study.

  13. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  14. Core-shell composite of hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets supported on graphitized hollow carbon microspheres for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Beibei; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a core-shell composite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets grown on hollow carbon microspheres is synthesized by a hydrothermal and a subsequent annealing route. The result shows that well-graphitized hollow-carbon@highlycrystallineMoS 2 (HC@MoS 2 ) was obtained after the four-step reaction. And it is found that the synthesized MoS 2 is consist of 2H and 1T phases. The lithium storage property of the composite is investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Benefited from the special morphology and structure, a stable capacity of 970 mAh g −1 for over 100 cycles at a current density of 0.25 A g −1 is realized on the material. Even at a high current density of 4 A g −1 , a reversible capacity as high as 560 mAh g −1 is delivered. Moreover, the reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of the material are explored and discussed in detail.

  15. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Catarini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of health (SOH is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH and Dap correlation is well behaved, disclosing a cubic dependency. The time analyze was reduced by more than 1 h.

  16. A novel mechanistic modeling framework for analysis of electrode balancing and degradation modes in commercial lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stefan; Danzer, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at a long-term stable and safe operation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells, elementary design aspects and degradation phenomena have to be considered depending on the specific application. Among the degrees of freedom in cell design, electrode balancing is of particular interest and has a distinct effect on useable capacity and voltage range. Concerning intrinsic degradation modes, understanding the underlying electrochemical processes and tracing the overall degradation history are the most crucial tasks. In this study, a model-based, minimal parameter framework for combined elucidation of electrode balancing and degradation pathways in commercial lithium-ion cells is introduced. The framework rests upon the simulation of full cell voltage profiles from the superposition of equivalent, artificially degraded half-cell profiles and allows to separate aging contributions from loss of available lithium and active materials in both electrodes. A physically meaningful coupling between thermodynamic and kinetic degradation modes based on the correlation between altered impedance features and loss of available lithium as well as loss of active material is proposed and validated by a low temperature degradation profile examined in one of our recent publications. The coupled framework is able to determine the electrode balancing within an error range of < 1% and the projected cell degradation is qualitatively and quantitatively in line with experimental observations.

  17. Efficient Strategies for Predictive Cell-Level Control of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Marcelo A.

    This dissertation introduces a set of state-space based model predictive control (MPC) algorithms tailored to a non-zero feedthrough term to account for the ohmic resistance that is inherent to the battery dynamics. MPC is herein applied to the problem of regulating cell-level measures of performance for lithium-ion batteries; the control methodologies are used first to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints, i.e., input current, terminal voltage, and state of charge for an equivalent circuit model of the battery cell, and extended later to a linearized physics-based reduced-order model. The novelty of this work can summarized as follows: (1) the MPC variants are employed to a physics based reduce-order model in order to make use of the available set of internal electrochemical variables and mitigate internal mechanisms of cell degradation. (e.g., lithium plating); (2) we developed a dual-mode MPC closed-loop paradigm that suits the battery control problem with the objective of reducing computational effort by solving simpler optimization routines and guaranteeing stability; and finally (3) we developed a completely new approach of the use of a predictive control strategy where MPC is employed as a "smart sensor" for power estimation. Results are presented that show the comparative performance of the MPC algorithms for both EMC and PBROM These results highlight that dual-mode MPC can deliver optimal input current profiles by using a shorter horizon while still guaranteeing stability. Additionally, rigorous mathematical developments are presented for the development of the MPC algorithms. The use of MPC as a "smart sensor" presents it self as an appealing method for power estimation, since MPC permits a fully dynamic input profile that is able to achieve performance right at the proper constraint boundaries. Therefore, MPC is expected to produce accurate power limits for each computed sample time when compared to the

  18. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  19. Charge/discharge performance of lithium-ion secondary cells under microgravity conditions: Lessons learned from operation of interplanetary spacecraft Hayabusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is developing a lithium-ion secondary battery for deep space missions. Lithium-ion secondary battery was first used for the interplanetary spacecraft, Hayabusa. With a view to future long-term operations on the moon and interplanetary travel, the in-orbit performance of the lithium-ion battery of Hayabusa was examined. The battery cells maintained a constant performance over 2.7 years of operation as Hayabusa travelled to the asteroid Itokawa. To maintain cell conditions. The state of charge was fixed by using a balance circuit. The cell voltages differed by less than 60 mV during the operation, which is within the error expected based on the circuit design and the telemetry conditions

  20. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  1. Graphite-supported 2,2′-bipyridine-capped ultrafine tin nanoparticles for anodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabais, Catarina; Schneider, Raphaël; Willmann, Patrick; Billaud, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2,2′-bipyridine capped Sn nanoparticles as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. ► High dispersion of Sn nanoparticles at the surface of the graphite matrix. ► The introduction of 2,2′-bipyridine improves the capacity and cycling stability. ► A stable reversible capacity of ca. 480 mA h g −1 after 20 cycles was observed. - Abstract: Monodisperse and small tin nanoparticles were prepared from a 2,2′-bipyridine–tin(+2) chloride complex using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. When the synthesis was conducted in the presence of graphite, Sn particles with an average diameter of ca. 29 nm well-dispersed at the surface of graphite were obtained. Electrochemical lithium insertion was carried out in these materials. A stable reversible capacity of ca. 480 mA h g −1 , value 37% higher than that of pure graphite, was found.

  2. Semi-empirical long-term cycle life model coupled with an electrolyte depletion function for large-format graphite/LiFePO4 lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonam; Appiah, Williams Agyei; Byun, Seoungwoo; Jin, Dahee; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2017-10-01

    To overcome the limitation of simple empirical cycle life models based on only equivalent circuits, we attempt to couple a conventional empirical capacity loss model with Newman's porous composite electrode model, which contains both electrochemical reaction kinetics and material/charge balances. In addition, an electrolyte depletion function is newly introduced to simulate a sudden capacity drop at the end of cycling, which is frequently observed in real lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). When simulated electrochemical properties are compared with experimental data obtained with 20 Ah-level graphite/LiFePO4 LIB cells, our semi-empirical model is sufficiently accurate to predict a voltage profile having a low standard deviation of 0.0035 V, even at 5C. Additionally, our model can provide broad cycle life color maps under different c-rate and depth-of-discharge operating conditions. Thus, this semi-empirical model with an electrolyte depletion function will be a promising platform to predict long-term cycle lives of large-format LIB cells under various operating conditions.

  3. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  4. Surface temperature evolution and the location of maximum and average surface temperature of a lithium-ion pouch cell under variable load profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutam, Shovon; Timmermans, Jean-Marc; Omar, Noshin

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work attempts to determine the surface temperature evolution of large (20 Ah-rated capacity) commercial Lithium-Ion pouch cells for the application of rechargeable energy storage of plug in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. The cathode of the cells is nickel...

  5. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-NMC/graphite lithium ion batteries part II: Calendar aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Zhang, Mengjia; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    A detailed post-mortem analysis was carried out for commercial lithium ion batteries stored at 4.2 V and 4.0 V at 60 °C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes for the cells aged at 4.2 V were loss of cycleable lithium, decomposition of the electrolyte and loss of active cathode material (LiMn2O4/Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2). The cells aged at 4.0 V also exhibited loss of cycleable lithium, but at a smaller extent. In fact, the aged anodes did not show significant changes compared to the new anode. Electrochemical impedance measurements including symmetric laboratory test cells gained from new and aged cells revealed valuable information about changing charge-transfer processes. The 4.2 V-cathode and both aged anodes surprisingly exhibited a decreased charge-transfer resistance, while the 4.0 V-cathode's charge-transfer resistance increased.

  6. Research Progress of Preparation Methods of Graphene Nanocomposites for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique two-dimensional structure, huge specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, and other excellent performances, graphene has shown great potential for application in catalysis, electronics, sensors, energy storage, and other areas. Especially, graphene nanocomposites have been found to be promising catalyst support for low-temperature fuel cells, and as anode nanomaterials for high reversible capacity and excellent rate capability for lithium-ion batteries, which has triggered a new round of research hotspot. Preparation methods of graphene nanocomposites mainly for low-temperature fuel cells are reviewed. Particularly, the research progress and principles of physical preparation methods (molecular beam epitaxy, chemical preparation methods (chemical reduction, electrochemical deposition and hydrothermal/solvothermal methods, etc. and high-energy ball milling are summarized. Research outlook of graphene nanocomposites for low-temperature fuel cells are prospected.

  7. On-Orbit Demonstration of a Lithium-Ion Capacitor and Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Yuki; Sakai, Tomohiko; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yu; Murashima, Mio; Uno, Masatoshi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration of the Next-generation Small Satellite Instrument for Electric power systems (NESSIE) on which an aluminum- laminated lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) and a lightweight solar panel called KKM-PNL, which has space solar sheets using thin-film multijunction solar cells, were installed. The flight data examined in this paper covers a period of 143 days from launch. We verified the integrity of an LIC constructed using a simple and lightweight mounting method: no significant capacitance reduction was observed. We also confirmed that inverted metamorphic multijunction triple-junction thin-film solar cells used for evaluation were healthy at 143 days after launch, because their degradation almost matched the degradation predictions for dual-junction thin-film solar cells.

  8. Dynamic NMR studies of polymer electrolyte materials for application to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfan, Amish N.

    This dissertation investigates the structural and dynamical properties of polymer electrolyte materials for applications to lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to characterize these materials. NMR aids in understanding the local environments of nuclei and the mobility of a molecular/ionic species. Five research projects were carried out, and they have been outlined in this work. NASA has developed rod-coil block copolymers for use as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The copolymers exhibit a microphase separation within their structure leading to the formation of ionically conducting channels. We studied ion transport properties of the copolymers, and determined the predominant mechanism for transport to occur in the amorphous phase. Seven gel polymer electrolytes, each containing a mixture of LiBETI salt and organic solvents, were studied. Two of them incorporated BMI (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are room temperature molten salts. BMI had been thought to enhance ion mobility. However, the BMI component was observed to restrict ion mobility. Gel polymer electrolytes containing LiTFSI salt and P13TFSI ionic liquid with or without the inclusion of ethylene carbonate (EC) were studied for application to lithium metal/air batteries, which have high theoretical energy densities. The addition of EC was found to improve lithium ion transport. The gels with EC therefore prove to be favorable for use as electrolytes in lithium metal/air batteries. Highly sulfonated poly(arylenethioethersulfone) (SPTES) membranes were examined for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) as an alternative to the Nafion membrane. DMFCs use methanol as a fuel instead of reformed hydrogen as in conventional proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Compared to Nafion, the SPTES membranes were shown to retain water better at high temperatures and yield lower methanol diffusion. SPTES membranes with the

  9. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  10. Improved performance and safety of lithium ion cells with the use of fluorinated carbonate-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ryan, V. S.; Surampudi, S.; Prakashi, G. K. S.; Hu, J.; Cheung, I.

    2002-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in developing lithium-ion electrolytes that possess enhanced safety characteristics, while still able to provide the desired stability and performance. Toward this end, our efforts have been focused on the development of lithium-ion electrolytes which contain partially and fully fluorinated carbonate solvents. The advantage of using such solvents is that they possess the requisite stability demonstrated by the hydrocarbon-based carbonates, while also possessing more desirable physical properties imparted by the presence of the fluorine substituents, such as lower melting points, increased stability toward oxidation, and favorable SEI film forming Characteristics on carbon. Specifically, we have demonstrated the beneficial effect of electrolytes which contain the following fluorinated carbonate-based solvents: methyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (MTFEC), ethyl-2,2,2 trifluoroethyl carbonate (ETFEC), propyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (PTFEC), methyl-2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (MHFPC), ethyl- 2,2,2,2',2',2' -hexafluoro-i-propyl carbonate (EHFPC), and di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC). These solvents have been incorporated into multi-component ternary and quaternary carbonate-based electrolytes and evaluated in lithium-carbon and carbon-LiNio.8Coo.202 cells (equipped with lithium reference electrodes). In addition to determining the charge/discharge behavior of these cells, a number of electrochemical techniques were employed (i.e., Tafel polarization measurements, linear polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) to further characterize the performance of these electrolytes, including the SEI formation characteristics and lithium intercalatiodde-intercalation kinetics. In addition to their evaluation in experimental cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and conductivity measurements were performed on select electrolyte formulations to further our understanding of the trends

  11. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-10

    Cesium salt has been demonstrated as an efficient electrolyte additive in suppressing the lithium (Li) dendrite formation and directing the formation of an ultrathin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) even in propylene carbonate (PC)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes. Here, we further investigate the effect of PC content in the presence of CsPF6 additive (0.05 M) on the performances of graphite electrode in Li||graphite half cells and in graphite||LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is also affected by PC content even though CsPF6 additive is present in the electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of the Cs+ additive and the PC solvent. The formation of a robust, ultrathin and compact SEI layer containing lithium-enriched species on the graphite electrode, directed by Cs+, effectively suppresses the PC co-intercalation and thus prevents the graphite exfoliation. This SEI layer is only permeable for de-solvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it, which therefore largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent also enables the sustainable operation of the graphite||NCA full cells under a wide spectrum of temperatures. The fundamental findings of this work shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in a variety of energy storage devices.

  12. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  13. Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Cycling and Usage Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Truck Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Svens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field test performed on commercial power-optimized lithium-ion battery cells cycled on three heavy-duty trucks. The goal with this study was to age battery cells in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV environment and find suitable methods for identifying cell ageing. The battery cells were cycled on in-house developed equipment intended for testing on conventional vehicles by emulating an HEV environment. A hybrid strategy that allows battery usage to vary within certain limits depending on driving patterns was used. This concept allows unobtrusive and low-cost testing of battery cells under realistic conditions. Each truck was equipped with one cell cycling equipment and two battery cells. One cell per vehicle was cycled during the test period while a reference cell on each vehicle experienced the same environmental conditions without being cycled. Differential voltage analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to identify ageing of the tested battery cells. Analysis of driving patterns and battery usage was performed from collected vehicle data and battery cell data.

  14. Development of High Conductivity Lithium-Ion Electrolytes for Low Temperature Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    have been identified to have good low temperature conductivity and stability were incorporated into lithium-graphite cells for evaluation. Using various electrochemical methods, including ac impedence and DC micropolarization techniques, the film formation characteristics of graphite electrodes in contact with various lectrolyte formulations was investigated.

  15. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  16. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  17. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2016-09-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH 4 )-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH 4 -air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH 4 -air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl 2 ) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure.

  18. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  19. Microscopic evaluation of nuclear foci (gamma H2AX) in cells irradiated with protons and lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracalente, C.; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Duran, Hebe; Ibanez, I.; Palmieri, M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Burlon, Alejandro; Valda, Alejandro; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Vazquez, Monica; Ozafran, Mabel J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The special properties of both physical and biological radiation particles with high-LET (Linear Transfer of Energy) have led to its increased use in cancer therapy. In this work, the effect of high and low LET radiation on cell lines with different radiosensitivity (Irs-20 and CHO-10B2) quantifying the number and size of nuclear foci obtained from histone H2AX (γH2AX) phosphorylation which plays an important role in DNA damage reparation is compared. Foci detection was performed by immunocytochemical methods and fluorescence microscopy. The cells cultures were irradiated with plateau-phase protons (14 MeV, LET: 3 keV/μ), on Bragg peak (3 MeV. LET: 14 KeV/μ) and with Lithium ions (7 MeV, LET: 250 KeV//μ) on the Tandar accelerator. A clonogenic analysis of the two cell lines was made. Irradiation with protons (low LET) showed a significant difference (p [es

  20. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH 4 -air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO 4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO 2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO 2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO 2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO 2 cells pose a CH 4 -air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO 4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO 2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant.

  1. Degradation of lithium ion batteries employing graphite negatives and nickel-cobalt-manganese oxide + spinel manganese oxide positives: Part 2, chemical-mechanical degradation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Justin; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason; Soukiazian, Souren; Tataria, Harshad; Verbrugge, Mark W.

    2014-12-01

    Capacity fade is reported for 1.5 Ah Li-ion batteries containing a mixture of Li-Ni-Co-Mn oxide (NCM) + Li-Mn oxide spinel (LMO) as positive electrode material and a graphite negative electrode. The batteries were cycled at a wide range of temperatures (10 °C-46 °C) and discharge currents (0.5C-6.5C). The measured capacity losses were fit to a simple physics-based model which calculates lithium inventory loss from two related mechanisms: (1) mechanical degradation at the graphite anode particle surface caused by diffusion-induced stresses (DIS) and (2) chemical degradation caused by lithium loss to continued growth of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). These two mechanisms are coupled because lithium is consumed through SEI formation on newly exposed crack surfaces. The growth of crack surface area is modeled as a fatigue phenomenon due to the cyclic stresses generated by repeated lithium insertion and de-insertion of graphite particles. This coupled chemical-mechanical degradation model is consistent with the observed capacity loss features for the NCM + LMO/graphite cells.

  2. Thermal investigation of lithium-ion battery module with different cell arrangement structures and forced air-cooling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Tseng, K.J.; Zhao, Jiyun; Wei, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional CFD model with forced air cooling are developed for battery modules. • Impact of different air cooling strategies on module thermal characteristics are investigated. • Impact of different model structures on module thermal responses are investigated. • Effect of inter-cell spacing on cell thermal characteristics are also studied. • The optimal battery module structure and air cooling strategy is recommended. - Abstract: Thermal management needs to be carefully considered in the lithium-ion battery module design to guarantee the temperature of batteries in operation within a narrow optimal range. This article firstly explores the thermal performance of battery module under different cell arrangement structures, which includes: 1 × 24, 3 × 8 and 5 × 5 arrays rectangular arrangement, 19 cells hexagonal arrangement and 28 cells circular arrangement. In addition, air-cooling strategies are also investigated by installing the fans in the different locations of the battery module to improve the temperature uniformity. Factors that influence the cooling capability of forced air cooling are discussed based on the simulations. The three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and lumped model of single cell have been applied in the simulation. The temperature distributions of batteries are quantitatively described based on different module patterns, fan locations as well as inter-cell distance, and the conclusions are arrived as follows: when the fan locates on top of the module, the best cooling performance is achieved; the most desired structure with forced air cooling is cubic arrangement concerning the cooling effect and cost, while hexagonal structure is optimal when focus on the space utilization of battery module. Besides, the optimized inter-cell distance in battery module structure has been recommended

  3. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO 4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF 6 . While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material. (paper)

  4. Lithium loss in the solid electrolyte interphase: Lithium quantification of aged lithium ion battery graphite electrodes by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Timo; Evertz, Marco; Mense, Maximilian; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-07-01

    In this work we present a new method using LA-ICP-MS to quantitatively determine the lithium content in aged graphite electrodes of a lithium ion battery (LIB) by performing total depth profiling. Matrix matched solid external standards are prepared using a solid doping approach to avoid elemental fractionation effects during the measurement. The results are compared and matched to the established ICP-OES technique for bulk quantification after performing a microwave assisted acid digestion. The method is applied to aged graphite electrodes in order to determine the lithium immobilization (= "Li loss") in the solid electrolyte interphase after the first cycle of formation. For this, different samples including a reference sample are created to obtain varying thicknesses of the SEI covering the electrode particles. By applying defined charging voltages, an initial lithiation process is performed to obtain specific graphite intercalation compounds (GICs, with target stoichiometries of LiC30, LiC18, LiC12 and LiC6). Afterwards, the graphite electrode is completely discharged to obtain samples without mobile, thus active lithium in its lattice. Taking the amount of lithium into account which originates from the residues of the LiPF6 (dissolved in the carbon components containing electrolyte), it is possible to subtract the amount of lithium in the SEI.

  5. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Cells using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAO SHOJI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li+-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZAl, which is a Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ with Li+-ion conductivity of ~10–4 S cm–1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 um depth holes in 700 x 700 um2 area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO2 / LLZAl / lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO2-LLZAl interface is formed by point to point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, the application of mechanically soft Li3BO3 with a low melting point at around 700 °C was also performed as a supporting

  6. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  7. Laser cutting of graphite anodes for automotive lithium-ion secondary batteries: investigations in the edge geometry and heat-affected zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Benjamin

    2012-03-01

    To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy.

  8. Characterization of the passivation layer on disordered carbons in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.; Johnson, B.

    1995-12-01

    Intercalation anodes of graphite or disordered carbon in rechargeable Li-ion batteries (based on aprotic organic solvents) develop a passivating film during the first intercalation of Li{sup +}. The formation of this film reduces the cycling efficiency and results in excessive consumption of Li{sup +}. The exact nature of this film is not well defined, although there are many similarities in properties to the films that form on Li anodes under similar cycling conditions. In this study we report on characterization studies of films formed during galvanostatic cycling of disordered carbons derived from polymethylacryolintrile (PMAN) in a 1M LiPF{sub 6} solution in ethylene carbonateldimethyl carbonate solution (1:1 by vol.). Complementary tests were also conducted with glass carbon, where intercalation cannot occur. Complex-impedance spectroscopy was the primary measurement technique, supplemented by cyclic voltammetry.

  9. Investigation of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries by deconvolution of electrochemical impedance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Balasundaram; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Balaya, Palani

    2017-09-01

    The individual physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries namely solid-state diffusion and charge transfer polarization are difficult to be tracked by impedance spectroscopy due to simultaneous contributions from cathode and anode. A deeper understanding of various polarization processes in lithium-ion batteries is important to enhance storage performance and cycle life. In this context, the polarization processes occurring in cylindrical 18650 cells comprising different cathodes against graphite anode (LiNi0.2Mn0.2Co0.6O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2vs. graphite and LiFePO4vs. graphite) are investigated by deconvolution of impedance spectra across various states of charge. Further, cathodes and anodes are extracted from the investigated 18650-type cells and tested in half-cells against Li-metal as well as in symmetric cell configurations to understand the contribution of cathode and anode to the full cells of various battery chemistries studied. Except for the LiFePO4vs. graphite cell, the polarization resistance in graphite of other cells are found to be higher than those of the investigated cathodes, proving that the polarization in lithium-ion battery is largely influenced by the graphitic anode. Furthermore, the charge transfer polarization resistance encountered by the cathodes investigated in this work is found to be a strong function of the states of charge.

  10. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  11. Finite element model approach of a cylindrical lithium ion battery cell with a focus on minimization of the computational effort and short circuit prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffler, Marco; Sevarin, Alessio; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Heindl, Simon F.; Breitfuss, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    In this research, a parameterized beam-element-based mechanical modeling approach for cylindrical lithium ion batteries is developed. With the goal to use the cell model in entire vehicle crash simulations, focus of development is on minimizing the computational effort whilst simultaneously obtaining accurate mechanical behavior. The cylindrical cell shape is approximated by radial beams connected to each other in circumferential and longitudinal directions. The discrete beam formulation is used to define an anisotropic material behavior. An 18650 lithium ion cell model constructed in LS-Dyna is used to show the high degree of parameterization of the approach. A criterion which considers the positive pole deformation and the radial deformation of the cell is developed for short circuit prediction during simulation. An abuse testing program, consisting of radial crush, axial crush, and penetration is performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and internal short circuit behavior of a commercially available 18650 lithium cell. Additional 3-point-bending tests are performed to verify the approach objectively. By reducing the number of strength-related elements to 1600, a fast and accurate cell model can be created. Compared to typical cell models in technical literature, simulation time of a single cell load case can be reduced by approx. 90%.

  12. Homogenized mechanical properties for the jellyroll of cylindrical Lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Sahraei, Elham

    2013-11-01

    A hybrid experimental/analytical approach was developed for extracting the average mechanical properties of cylindrical Li-ion cells. By using the principle of virtual work, and estimating the load transfer mechanism inside the cell, the stress-strain relation for the jellyroll was calculated for the case where the cell was crushed between two flat plates. The procedure was illustrated on an example of a commercial 18650 cell. A finite element model of the cell was then developed using the crushable foam material in LS Dyna. The model calibrated with this method closely predicts kinematic of the cell during two different load cases used for validation. These cases include local crush by a hemispherical punch and indentation by a rigid rod. The load and displacement during deformation, as well as onset of electric short circuit observed from experiments were closely predicted from simulations. It was found that the resistance of the cell comes primarily from the jellyroll. Additional analytical calculations showed that the shell casing and the end-caps provide little contribution to the overall crash resistance of the cell in the loading cases studied in this paper.

  13. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...

  14. Development of Nanosized/Nanostructured Silicon as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing high energy and high capacity Li-ion cell and battery designs for future exploration missions under the NASA Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) Program. The specific energy goal is 265 Wh/kg at 10 C. center dot Part of effort for NASA advanced Li-ion cells ? Anode: Silicon (Si) as an advanced anode. ? Electrolyte: advanced electrolyte with flame-retardant additives for enhanced performance and safety (NASA JPL).

  15. Degradation analysis of 18650-type lithium-ion cells by operando neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Shinya; Naka, Takahiro; Morishima, Makoto; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Ukyo, Yoshio; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-09-01

    In-situ and operando neutron diffraction are used to analyze the degradation of 18650-type Li-ion cells. Structural characterization of the electrode materials is performed by applying the Rietveld refinement technique to the in-situ data. The structural refinement of both electrodes in the degraded cells indicates that the amount of active Li-ions is reduced by 14.4% and 13.7% in the cathode and anode, respectively. This reduction is good in agreement with the capacity loss determined electrochemically. The results suggest that capacity loss might be mainly caused by loss of active Li-ions due to side reactions such as solid electrolyte interface (SEI) growth. Furthermore, operando measurements are performed to examine the deterioration of the electrode and active materials. Because the structural evolution depending on capacity is increased in the cathode of degraded cells, it is presumed that the cathode active material has deteriorated due to phase transitions.

  16. Determining the maximum charging currents of lithium-ion cells for small charge quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsmann, F.; Gerbert, T.; Brauchle, F.; Gruhle, A.; Parisi, J.; Knipper, M.

    2017-10-01

    In order to optimize the operating parameters of battery management systems for electric and hybrid vehicles, great interest has been shown in achieving the maximum permissible charging currents during recuperation, without causing a cell damage due to lithium plating, in relation to the temperature, charge quantity and state of charge. One method for determining these recuperation currents is measuring the cell thickness, where excessively high charging currents can be detected by an irreversible increase in thickness. It is not possible to measure particularly small charge quantities by employing mechanic dial indicators, which have a limited resolution of 1 μm. This is why we developed a measuring setup that has a resolution limit of less than 10 nm using a high-resolution contactless inductance sensor. Our results show that the permissible charging current I can be approximated in relation to the charge quantity x by a correlating function I =a /√{(x) } which is compliant with the Arrhenius law. Small charge quantities therefore have an optimization potential for energy recovery during recuperation.

  17. Aging in lithium-ion batteries: Model and experimental investigation of harvested LiFePO4 and mesocarbon microbead graphite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavalis, Tommy Georgios; Klett, Matilda; Kjell, Maria H.; Behm, Mårten; Lindström, Rakel Wreland; Lindbergh, Göran

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aging in LiFePO 4 /mesocarbon microbead graphite cells that have been subjected to either a synthetic hybrid drive cycle or calendar aging, at 22 °C. The investigation involves detailed examination and comparison of harvested fresh and aged electrodes. The electrode properties are determined using a physics-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) model that is fitted to three-electrode EIS measurements, with input from measured electrode capacity and scanning electrode microscopy (SEM). Results from the model fitting provide a detailed insight to the electrode degradation and is put into context with the behavior of the full cell aging. It was established that calendar aging has negligible effect on cell impedance, while cycle aging increases the impedance mainly due to structural changes in the LiFePO 4 porous electrode and electrolyte decomposition products on both electrodes. Further, full-cell capacity fade is mainly a consequence of cyclable lithium loss caused by electrolyte decomposition

  18. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  19. Silicon Derived from Glass Bottles as Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Full Cell Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Liu, Chueh; Wang, Wei; Mutlu, Zafer; Bell, Jeffrey; Ahmed, Kazi; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2017-04-19

    Every year many tons of waste glass end up in landfills without proper recycling, which aggravates the burden of waste disposal in landfill. The conversion from un-recycled glass to favorable materials is of great significance for sustainable strategies. Recently, silicon has been an exceptional anode material towards large-scale energy storage applications, due to its extraordinary lithiation capacity of 3579 mAh g -1 at ambient temperature. Compared with other quartz sources obtained from pre-leaching processes which apply toxic acids and high energy-consuming annealing, an interconnected silicon network is directly derived from glass bottles via magnesiothermic reduction. Carbon-coated glass derived-silicon (gSi@C) electrodes demonstrate excellent electrochemical performance with a capacity of ~1420 mAh g -1 at C/2 after 400 cycles. Full cells consisting of gSi@C anodes and LiCoO 2 cathodes are assembled and achieve good initial cycling stability with high energy density.

  20. Synthesis of graphitized carbon, nanodiamond and graphene supported Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and comparison of their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuai; Miao, Juan, E-mail: miaojuan@hpu.edu.cn; Wang, Qiufen, E-mail: grp2009wqf@163.com; Lu, Mengwei; Sun, Jiufang; Wen, Tao

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized graphitized carbon, nanodiamond and graphene supported Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, respectively. • The order of the capacities is LTO/GE > LTO/GC > LTO > LTO/ND after 500 cycles. • The rate capabilities and cycling stabilities are in the order of LTO/GE > LTO/ND > LTO/GC > LTO. - Abstract: Graphitized carbon (GC), nanodiamond (ND) and graphene (GE) supported Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO) composites have been synthesized via a solid-state reaction, respectively. The particle sizes of LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE are smaller than pure LTO. When tested as the anode for lithium ion batteries, the discharge capacities of LTO, LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE composites are 100.1 mAh g{sup −1}, 150.4 mAh g{sup −1}, 90.4 mAh g{sup −1} and 218.3 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 175 mA g{sup −1} after 500 cycles. Their rate capacities retain 59.8%, 80.0%, 81.0% and 85.7% at the current density of 175 mA g{sup −1}, 438 mA g{sup −1}, 875 mA g{sup −1} and 175 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the recovery rates of their rate capacities are 78.6%, 83.4%, 88.9% and 90.1% when returned to the current density of 175 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. The reasons can be attributed to the synergistic effect between GC (ND and GE) and LTO as well as the features of the different carbon supports. This strategy, with the carbon constituting a good supporting structure, is an effective way to improve the cycling performance of anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Group IVA Element (Si, Ge, Sn)-Based Alloying/Dealloying Anodes as Negative Electrodes for Full-Cell Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Liu, Zheng Jiao; Li, Xiuwan; Xie, Wenhe; Wang, Qi; Liu, Qiming; Fu, Yujun; He, Deyan

    2017-12-01

    To satisfy the increasing energy demands of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and miniaturized energy storage devices, improvements to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are required to provide higher energy/power densities and longer cycle lives. Group IVA element (Si, Ge, Sn)-based alloying/dealloying anodes are promising candidates for use as electrodes in next-generation LIBs owing to their extremely high gravimetric and volumetric capacities, low working voltages, and natural abundances. However, due to the violent volume changes that occur during lithium-ion insertion/extraction and the formation of an unstable solid electrolyte interface, the use of Group IVA element-based anodes in commercial LIBs is still a great challenge. Evaluating the electrochemical performance of an anode in a full-cell configuration is a key step in investigating the possible application of the active material in LIBs. In this regard, the recent progress and important approaches to overcoming and alleviating the drawbacks of Group IVA element-based anode materials are reviewed, such as the severe volume variations during cycling and the relatively brittle electrode/electrolyte interface in full-cell LIBs. Finally, perspectives and future challenges in achieving the practical application of Group IVA element-based anodes in high-energy and high-power-density LIB systems are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  3. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Richard E., E-mail: richard.e.lyon@faa.gov; Walters, Richard N.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • First measure of anaerobic failure energy of lithium ion batteries. • Novel and simple bomb calorimeter method developed and demonstrated. • Four different cathode chemistries examined. • Full range of charged capacity used as independent variable. • Failure energy identified as primary safety hazard. - Abstract: The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔH{sub f}, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential × charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔU{sub rxn}. The contribution of E and ΔU{sub rxn} to ΔH{sub f} was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  4. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  5. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the proof-of-concept of an electric traction power system with a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell range extender, usable for automotive class electrical vehicles. The hybrid system concept examined, consists of a power system where the primary power...... is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... monoxide, the HTPEM fuel cell system can efficiently use a liquid methanol/water mixture of 60%/40% by volume, as fuel instead of compressed hydrogen, enabling potentially a higher volumetric energy density. In order to test the performance of such a system, the experimental validation conducted uses...

  6. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 ) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF 6 dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes (1). Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley (2). The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation (3). The resulting system of differential equations was solved

  7. Pure inorganic separator for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Zhang, Xinjie; Jiang, Kuiyang; Wang, Joe; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Battery safety is critical for many applications including portable electronics, hybrid and electric vehicles, and grid storage. For lithium ion batteries, the conventional polymer based separator is unstable at 120 °C and above. In this research, we have developed a pure aluminum oxide nanowire based separator; this separator does not contain any polymer additives or binders; additionally, it is a bendable ceramic. The physical and electrochemical properties of the separator are investigated. The separator has a pore size of about 100 nm, and it shows excellent electrochemical properties under both room and high temperatures. At room temperature, the ceramic separator shows a higher rate capability compared to the conventional Celgard 2500 separator and life cycle performance does not show any degradation. At 120 °C, the cell with the ceramic separator showed a much better cycle performance than the conventional Celgard 2500 separator. Therefore, we believe that this research is really an exciting scientific breakthrough for ceramic separators and lithium ion batteries and could be potentially used in the next generation lithium ion batteries requiring high safety and reliability.

  8. Preparation and characterization of electrospun poly(acrylonitrile) fibrous membrane based gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Priya; Ramakrishnan, Prakash; John, Bibin; Cheruvally, Gouri

    Electrospun, non-woven membrane of high molecular weight poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) is demonstrated as an efficient host matrix for the preparation of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Electrospinning process parameters are optimized to get a fibrous membrane of PAN consisting of bead-free, uniformly dispersed thin fibers with diameter in the range 880-1260 nm. The membrane with good mechanical strength and porosity exhibits high uptake when activated with the liquid electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 in a mixture of organic solvents and the gel polymer electrolyte shows ionic conductivity of 1.7 × 10 -5 S cm -1 at 20 °C. Electrochemical performance of the gel polymer electrolyte at 20 °C is evaluated in lithium-ion cell with lithium cobalt oxide cathode and graphite anode. Good performance with a low capacity fading on charge-discharge cycling is demonstrated.

  9. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O.; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2014-07-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  10. Cell design and image analysis for in situ Raman mapping of inhomogeneous state-of-charge profiles in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuyu; Yan, Min; Hamers, Robert J.

    2017-06-01

    The study of inhomogeneous battery failure processes requires proper tools with high spatial resolving power. Here we describe a simple way to adapt industry-standard coin cells to enable in situ Raman mapping of lithium-ion battery materials. We describe the important cell design parameters and validate that the design achieves a uniform potential distribution within the region probed by Raman. We further validate that the cell yields electrical performance characteristics equivalent to a standard, non-modified coin cell. Using this cell, we probe the local charging profiles of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 ("NMC") particles during cycling and demonstrate the ability to achieve spatial maps of the Raman spectra. In order to reduce the effects of local topography, we further analyze these data by numerically extracting the local frequency of the A1g vibrational mode, which is sensitive to the local extent of lithiation, and producing spatial maps of the local frequency of the A1g mode. This work demonstrates a way to collect and analyze high quality in situ spectra with an easy-to-implement cell design that can be applied to a wide range of electrode materials.

  11. Visualization of electrolyte filling process and influence of vacuum during filling for hard case prismatic lithium ion cells by neutron imaging to optimize the production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydanz, W. J.; Reisenweber, H.; Gottschalk, A.; Schulz, M.; Knoche, T.; Reinhart, G.; Masuch, M.; Franke, J.; Gilles, R.

    2018-03-01

    The process of filling electrolyte into lithium ion cells is time consuming and critical to the overall battery quality. However, this process is not well understood. This is partially due to the fact, that it is hard to observe it in situ. A powerful tool for visualization of the process is neutron imaging. The filling and wetting process of the electrode stack can be clearly visualized in situ without destruction of the actual cell. The wetting of certain areas inside the electrode stack can clearly be seen when using this technique. Results showed that wetting of the electrode stack takes place in a mostly isotropic manner from the outside towards a center point of the cell at very similar speed. When the electrolyte reaches the center point, the wetting process can be considered complete. The electrode wetting is a slow but rather steady process for hard case prismatic cells. It starts with a certain speed, which is reduced over the progress of the wetting. Vacuum can assist the process and accelerate it by about a factor of two as was experimentally shown. This gives a considerable time and cost advantage for designing the production process for large-scale battery cell production.

  12. Analysis of a Battery Management System (BMS Control Strategy for Vibration Aged Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bruen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are using cylindrical format cells as part of the vehicle’s rechargeable energy storage system (RESS. In a recent study focused at determining the ageing behavior of 2.2 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18650 battery cells, significant increases in the ohmic resistance (RO were observed post vibration testing. Typically a reduction in capacity was also noted. The vibration was representative of an automotive service life of 100,000 miles of European and North American customer operation. This paper presents a study which defines the effect that the change in electrical properties of vibration aged 18650 NMC cells can have on the control strategy employed by the battery management system (BMS of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV. It also proposes various cell balancing strategies to manage these changes in electrical properties. Subsequently this study recommends that EV manufacturers conduct vibration testing as part of their cell selection and development activities so that electrical ageing characteristics associated with road induced vibration phenomena are incorporated to ensure effective BMS and RESS performance throughout the life of the vehicle.

  13. Lithium-ion: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Marion; Tessard, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Today energy needs are increasing. This energy must be mobile through EV or portable electronics. Thus, energy density is a major criterion. Lithium-ion technology is far more energetic than lead or nickel batteries. But behind the appellation 'Lithium-ion' resides in fact a wide range of technologies, each one having its benefits and its drawbacks. Some of them are more dedicated to high energy and shorter life like LCO. Some others focus on EV market which key-requirements are safety, cycle life and cost. For such applications, LFP technology matches the needs, as some specific NMC ones. For longer application use, like in stationary energy storage systems, LTO technology is more suitable, as some specific LFP. Based on its conception and materials, lithium-ion battery cannot be as safe as wished. A special care is mandatory when choosing a cell for an application, based on electrodes' technology, manufacturing processes and BMS (battery management system). Finally, the lithium-ion battery world is a fast moving one. Huge investments have been done during the last years to reach the estimated demand for EVs. But this demand is not yet here, so the market has too much production capacity compared to the present market needs. This situation is leading in a cost cut-down on lithium-ion batteries. The 2020 price estimation is about 300 euros/kWh, forecasting better days for EVs. (authors)

  14. Mars Express Lithium Ion Batteries Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now more than 12 years in orbit, Mars Express battery telemetry during some of the deepest discharge cycles has been analysed with the help of the ESTEC lithium ion cell model. The best-fitting model parameter sets were then used to predict the energy that is expected to be available before the battery voltage drops below the minimum value that can support the power bus. This allows mission planners to determine what future power profiles could be supported without risk of entering safe mode. It also gives some more insights into the ageing properties of these batteries.

  15. Limitations of disordered carbons obtained from biomass as anodes for real lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alvaro; Hernán, Lourdes; Morales, Julián

    2011-05-23

    Two disordered microporous carbons were obtained from two different types of biomass residues: olive and cherry stones. The former (OS) was activated physically under steam while the latter (CS) chemically with an aqueous solution of ZnCl(2). Their structural and textural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N(2) adsorption/desorption. Although the samples possess similar textural properties (BET surface areas, micropore surfaces and volumes), the CS carbon is more disordered than the OS carbon. Their electrochemical response in half-cells (CS[OS]/Li) is good; the values are comparable to those obtained from mesocarbon microbeads commonly used in commercial lithium-ion batteries, which consist of highly graphitized carbon. However, cells featuring the OS or CS carbon as anode and LiMn(2)O(4) as cathode perform poorly. Electrochemical activation of the electrodes against lithium metal, a recommended procedure for boosting the electrochemical properties of real lithium-ion batteries, improves cell performance (particularly with OS) but is ultimately ineffective: the delivered average capacity of the activated cell made from OS was less than half its theoretical value. The high irreversible capacity, high polarization between the charge and discharge curves, combined with the presence of various functional groups and the high disorder of the studied carbons which may facilitate side reactions such as electrolyte decomposition, results in a degraded cell performance. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Truchot, Cyril; Cugnet, Mikael; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gering, Kevin; Sazhin, Sergiy; Jamison, David; Michelbacher, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  17. Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}-coated graphite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Meng-Lun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Li, Yu-Han; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jing-Ming [Materials and Chemical Engineering, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Section 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung 31040, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Jien-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shih, Han C., E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, 55, Hwa-Kang Road, Yang-Ming-Shan, Taipei 11114, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we have synthesized and characterized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LTO)-coated meso-carbon micro beads (MCMB) as an anode material for Li-batteries. The surface of MCMB powders was uniformly coated by the LTO nanoparticles to form a core-shell structure via a sol-gel process, followed by calcination. The average size of MCMB core was 20 {mu}m while the thickness of LTO shell was 80-120 nm. We found that LTO-coated MCMB has better rate-capability and cycle life, compared with the pristine MCMB. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that after 40 cycles, the cell resistance of the LTO-coated MCMB electrode increased slightly, while that of the pristine MCMB electrode increased significantly. The enhanced performance of the LTO-coated MCMB electrode is attributed to the LTO coating, which suppresses the increase in the charge-transfer resistance during prolonged cycle.

  18. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  19. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  20. Stress-induced Ageing of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Marcel; Sennhauser, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are well established for use in portable consumer products and are increasingly used in high power electro-mobility and photovoltaic storage applications. In hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles degradation and useful lifetime at standard operation conditions are critical parameters in addition to performance and safety. Here stress-induced ageing of commercially available high power battery cells of the type A123 AHR32113M1 Ultra-B, consisting of a LiFePO(4) cathode and a graphite anode have been investigated. A usually accepted capacity loss for electric vehicles of 20% was reached after 8560 stress profiles corresponding to a driving distance of almost 200'000 km. Cycling with a stress profile applying constant power corresponding to the average power and energy of a full stress profile and starting at 60% state of charge showed a much faster capacity loss. Electric impedance measurements show the dependence of the capacity loss and constant phase element at low frequency, indicating Li-ion diffusion blocking in the cathode. Microscopic analysis of anode, separator, and cathode, shows defect formation in bulk material and at interfaces.

  1. Technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030; Technologie-Roadmap Lithium-Ionen-Batterien 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielmann, Axel; Isenmann, Ralf; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030 presents a graphical representation of the cell components, cell types and cell characteristics of lithium ion batteries and their connection with the surrounding technology field from today through 2030. This is a farsighted orientation on the way into the future and an implementation of the ''Roadmap: Batterieforschung Deutschland'' of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Science). The developments in lithium ion batteries are identified through 2030 form today's expert view in battery development and neighbouring areas. (orig.)

  2. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  3. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  4. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described.

  5. Li4Ti5O12 on graphene for high rate lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li(sub4)Ti(sub5)O(sub12) has been considered as a promising anode material to substitute graphite in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for large scale electrical energy storage due to its high safety and long cycling stability. However...

  6. Lithium Ion Batteries Development for CubeSats and SmallSats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) cells are being developed for high-power batteries in space; especially there is a strong need to miniaturize Li-Ion batteries for CubeSat and...

  7. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  8. Influence of aging on the heat and gas emissions from commercial lithium ion cells in case of thermal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lammer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for thermal ramp experiments on cylindrical 18650 Li-ion cells has been established. The method was applied on pristine cells as well as on devices aged by cyclisation or by storage at elevated temperature respectively. The tested cells comprise three types of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cells for either high power or high energy applications. The heat flux to and from the cell was investigated. Degradation and exothermic breakdown released large amounts of heat and gas. The total gas and heat emission from cycled cells was significantly larger than emission from cells aged by storage. After aging, the low energy cell ICR18650HE4 did not transgress into thermal runaway. Gas composition changed mainly in the early stage of the experiment. The composition of the initial gas release changed from predominantly CO2 towards hydrocarbons. The thermal runaway emitted for all tests a comparable mixture of H2, CO and CO2.

  9. Accelerating Rate Calorimetry Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Before and After Storage Degradation at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of Li-ion cells during thermal runaway is critical to evaluate the safety of these energy storage devices under outstanding conditions. Li-ion cells possess a high energy density and are used to store and supply energy to many aerospace applications. Incidents related to the overheating or thermal runaway of these cells can cause catastrophic damages that could end up costly space missions; therefore, thermal studies of Li-ion cells are very important for ensuring safety and reliability of space missions. This work evaluates the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells before and after storage degradation at high temperature using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC equipment to analyze the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells under adiabatic conditions. Onset temperature points of self-heating and thermal runaway reactions are obtained. The onset points are used to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge. The results obtained can be useful to develop accurate thermo-electrochemical models of Li-ion cells.

  10. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular, how the cells will be affected by vibration that is representative of a typical automotive service life (e.g., 100,000 miles. This paper presents a study to determine the durability of commercially available 18,650 cells and quantifies both the electrical and mechanical vibration-induced degradation through measuring changes in cell capacity, impedance and natural frequency. The impact of the cell state of charge (SOC and in-pack orientation is also evaluated. Experimental results are presented which clearly show that the performance of 18,650 cells can be affected by vibration profiles which are representative of a typical vehicle life. Consequently, it is recommended that EV manufacturers undertake vibration testing, as part of their technology selection and development activities to enhance the quality of EVs and to minimize the risk of in-service warranty claims.

  11. Development of a Constitutive Model Predicting the Point of Short-Circuit Within Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    best suited to the portable electronic world because of a high power density, low weight, faster charge time, and long cell life Raman , N.S. et al...used lithium cobalt dioxide chemistry. The 18650 is a standard designation for cylindrical cells that are 18mm in diameter and 65mm in length. The...could actually occur as a result of a complex interaction of cells inside a module during a severe crash. The state of stress in the bending test is

  12. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  13. Electrochemical properties and lithium ion solvation behavior of sulfone-ester mixed electrolytes for high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuu; Kinoshita, Shin-ichi; Wada, Satoshi; Hoshino, Keiji; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Tobishima, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Sulfone-ester mixed solvent electrolytes were examined for 5 V-class high-voltage rechargeable lithium cells. As the base-electrolyte, sulfolane (SL)-ethyl acetate (EA) (1:1 mixing volume ratio) containing 1 M LiBF4 solute was investigated. Electrolyte conductivity, electrochemical stability, Li+ ion solvation behavior and cycleability of lithium electrode were evaluated. 13C NMR measurement results suggest that Li+ ions are solvated with both SL and EA. Charge-discharge cycling efficiency of lithium anode in SL-EA electrolytes was poor, being due to its poor tolerance for reduction. To improve lithium charge-discharge cycling efficiency in SL-EA electrolytes, following three trials were carried out: (i) improvement of the cathodic stability of electrolyte solutions by change in polarization through modification of solvent structure; isopropyl methyl sulfone and methyl isobutyrate were investigated as alternative SL and EA, respectively, (ii) suppression of the reaction between lithium and electrolyte solutions by addition of low reactivity surfactants of cycloalkanes (decalin and adamantane) or triethylene glycol derivatives (triglyme, 1,8-bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane and triethylene glycol di(methanesulfonate)) into SL-EA electrolytes, and (iii) change in surface film by addition of surface film formation agent of vinylene carbonate (VC) into SL-EA electrolytes. These trials made lithium cycling behavior better. Lithium cycling efficiency tended to increase with a decrease in overpotential. VC addition was most effective for improvement of lithium cycling efficiency among these additives. Stable surface film is formed on lithium anode by adding VC and the resistance between anode/electrolyte interfaces showed a constant value with an increase in cycle number. When the electrolyte solutions without VC, the interfacial resistance increased with an increase in cycle number. VC addition to SL-EA was effective not only for Li/LiCoO2 cell with charge

  14. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical lithium cobalt oxide lithium-ion cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary......, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633–3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point...... where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting....

  15. Towards quantification of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes - development and validation of a liquid-liquid extraction GC-MS method for the determination of organic carbonates in cell culture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jenny; Weber, Till; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Bornhorst, Julia; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    A novel method based on liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the quantification of organic carbonates in cell culture materials is presented. Method parameters including the choice of extraction solvent, of extraction method and of extraction time were optimised and the method was validated. The setup allowed for determination within a linear range of more than two orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.0002 and 0.002 mmol/L and the repeatability precisions were in the range of 1.5-12.9%. It could be shown that no matrix effects were present and recovery rates between 98 and 104% were achieved. The methodology was applied to cell culture models incubated with commercial lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes to gain more insight into the potential toxic effects of these compounds. The stability of the organic carbonates in cell culture medium after incubation was studied. In a porcine model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, it could be shown that a transfer of organic carbonates into the brain facing compartment took place. Graphical abstract Schematic setup for the investigation of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes.

  16. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    is required. This paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behaviour of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Lithium-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured mission profile, which is characteristic......Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...... competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour...

  17. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  18. A Tunable Molten-Salt Route for Scalable Synthesis of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Nanosheets as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixian; Tian, Wei; Wang, Luhai; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Jialiang; Peng, Tingyue; Pan, Lei; Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Mingbo

    2018-02-14

    Amorphous carbon is regarded as a promising alternative to commercial graphite as the lithium-ion battery anode due to its capability to reversibly store more lithium ions. However, the structural disorder with a large number of defects can lead to low electrical conductivity of the amorphous carbon, thus limiting its application for high power output. Herein, ultrathin amorphous carbon nanosheets were prepared from petroleum asphalt through tuning the carbonization temperature in a molten-salt medium. The amorphous nanostructure with expanded carbon interlayer spacing can provide substantial active sites for lithium storage, while the two-dimensional (2D) morphology can facilitate fast electrical conductivity. As a result, the electrodes deliver a high reversible capacity, outstanding rate capability, and superior cycling performance (579 and 396 mAh g -1 at 2 and 5 A g -1 after 900 cycles). Furthermore, full cells consisting of the carbon anodes coupled with LiMn 2 O 4 cathodes exhibit high specific capacity (608 mAh g -1 at 50 mA g -1 ) and impressive cycling stability with slow capacity loss (0.16% per cycle at 200 mA g -1 ). The present study not only paves the way for industrial-scale synthesis of advanced carbon materials for lithium-ion batteries but also deepens the fundamental understanding of the intrinsic mechanism of the molten-salt method.

  19. Characterization of LiFePO4 cathode by addition of graphene for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honggowiranto, Wagiyo; Kartini, Evvy

    2016-02-01

    The improvement of LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode performance has been performed by addition of Graphene (LFP+Graphene). The cathode was prepared from the active material with 5 wt % graphene and 10 wt % polyvinylidene fluoride in an n-methyl pyrrolidone solvent. Another cathode material used only 5% artificial graphite for comparison (LFP+Graphite). The crystal structure, microstructure, electronic conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the cathodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and Impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Two half cell coin batteries were assembled using a lithium metal as an anode and LiPf6 as an electrolyte, and two cathodes (LFP+Graphene) and (LFP+Graphite). Charge discharge performance of battery was characterized by Battery analyser (BTS 8). The electronic conductivity of cathode with grapheme increased of about one order magnitude compared with the only cathode with graphite, namely from 1.97E-7S/cm (LFP+Graphite) to 1.92E-6S/cm (LFP+Graphene). The charge-discharge capacity after 10th cycles of LiFePO4 with graphene decreased of about 0.68% from 114.3 mAh/g to113.1 mAh/g, while LFP with graphite decreased of about 2.84% from 110.2 mAh/g to 107.1 mAh, at 0.1C-rates. It could be concluded that the addition of graphene has increased the ionic conductivity, and improved performance of the LFP lithium ion battery, such as higher capacity and better efficiency.

  20. Electrochemical-mechanical coupled modeling and parameterization of swelling and ionic transport in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Daniel; Hanselmann, Nina; Arzberger, Arno; Reinshagen, Holger; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Bund, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    The intercalation and aging induced volume changes of lithium-ion battery electrodes lead to significant mechanical pressure or volume changes on cell and module level. As the correlation between electrochemical and mechanical performance of lithium ion batteries at nano and macro scale requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, physical modeling accounting for chemical and mechanical phenomena during operation is very useful for the battery design. Since the introduced fully-coupled physical model requires proper parameterization, this work also focuses on identifying appropriate mathematical representation of compressibility as well as the ionic transport in the porous electrodes and the separator. The ionic transport is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using symmetric pouch cells comprising LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode, graphite anode and polyethylene separator. The EIS measurements are carried out at various mechanical loads. The observed decrease of the ionic conductivity reveals a significant transport limitation at high pressures. The experimentally obtained data are applied as input to the electrochemical-mechanical model of a prismatic 10 Ah cell. Our computational approach accounts intercalation induced electrode expansion, stress generation caused by mechanical boundaries, compression of the electrodes and the separator, outer expansion of the cell and finally the influence of the ionic transport within the electrolyte.

  1. Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Olson, Donald W.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Graphite is a form of pure carbon that normally occurs as black crystal flakes and masses. It has important properties, such as chemical inertness, thermal stability, high electrical conductivity, and lubricity (slipperiness) that make it suitable for many industrial applications, including electronics, lubricants, metallurgy, and steelmaking. For some of these uses, no suitable substitutes are available. Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composite applications could substantially increase world demand for graphite.Graphite ores are classified as “amorphous” (microcrystalline), and “crystalline” (“flake” or “lump or chip”) based on the ore’s crystallinity, grain-size, and morphology. All graphite deposits mined today formed from metamorphism of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks, and the ore type is determined by the geologic setting. Thermally metamorphosed coal is the usual source of amorphous graphite. Disseminated crystalline flake graphite is mined from carbonaceous metamorphic rocks, and lump or chip graphite is mined from veins in high-grade metamorphic regions. Because graphite is chemically inert and nontoxic, the main environmental concerns associated with graphite mining are inhalation of fine-grained dusts, including silicate and sulfide mineral particles, and hydrocarbon vapors produced during the mining and processing of ore. Synthetic graphite is manufactured from hydrocarbon sources using high-temperature heat treatment, and it is more expensive to produce than natural graphite.Production of natural graphite is dominated by China, India, and Brazil, which export graphite worldwide. China provides approximately 67 percent of worldwide output of natural graphite, and, as the dominant exporter, has the ability to set world prices. China has significant graphite reserves, and

  2. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  3. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  4. Perfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates: Novel electrolyte additives for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Casselman, Matthew D.; Li, Yan; Wei, Alexander; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of polyfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates is synthesized and tested as additives in lithium-ion cells containing EC:EMC + LiPF6-based electrolyte. The influence of these compounds is investigated in Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2//graphite cells via a combination of galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Among the four additives studied in this work (4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (TFM-EC), 4-(perfluorobutyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFB-EC), 4-(perfluorohexyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFH-EC), and 4-(perfluorooctyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFO-EC)), small amounts (0.5 wt%) of PFO-EC is found to be most effective in lessening cell performance degradation during extended cycling. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy are used to further characterize the effects of PFO-EC on the positive and negative electrodes. LSV data from the electrolyte, and XPS analyses of electrodes harvested after cycling, suggest that PFO-EC is oxidized on the cathode forming surface films that slow electrode/cell impedance rise. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) plots from graphite//Li cells suggest that PFO-EC is involved in solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Raman data from anodes after cycling suggest that structural disordering of graphite is reduced by the addition of PFO-EC, which may explain the improved cell capacity retention.

  5. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  6. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  7. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  8. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  9. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  10. Creation of nanosized holes in graphene planes for improvement of rate capability of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusheva, L. G.; Stolyarova, S. G.; Chuvilin, A. L.; Shubin, Yu V.; Asanov, I. P.; Sorokin, A. M.; Mel'gunov, M. S.; Zhang, Su; Dong, Yue; Chen, Xiaohong; Song, Huaihe; Okotrub, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Holes with an average size of 2-5 nm have been created in graphene layers by heating of graphite oxide (GO) in concentrated sulfuric acid followed by annealing in an argon flow. The hot mineral acid acts simultaneously as a defunctionalizing and etching agent, removing a part of oxygen-containing groups and lattice carbon atoms from the layers. Annealing of the holey reduced GO at 800 °C-1000 °C causes a decrease of the content of residual oxygen and the interlayer spacing thus producing thin compact stacks from holey graphene layers. Electrochemical tests of the obtained materials in half-cells showed that the removal of oxygen and creation of basal holes lowers the capacity loss in the first cycle and facilitates intercalation-deintercalation of lithium ions. This was attributed to minimization of electrolyte decomposition reactions, easier desolvation of lithium ions near the hole boundaries and appearance of multiple entrances for the naked ions into graphene stacks.

  11. Drying and moisture resorption behaviour of various electrode materials and separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Michael; Pandey, Nisrit; Bund, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The drying behaviour and water uptake of a variety of commonly used electrode materials (graphite, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, Li(NiCoMn)O2) and separators (polyolefin, glass fibre) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. The drying experiments are carried out using a coulometric Karl Fischer titrator in combination with a vaporiser. This setup leads to a highly sensitive and precise method to quantify water amounts in the microgram range in solid materials. Thereby the mass specific drying behaviour at RT and 120 °C is determined as well as the water resorption of the investigated materials in conditioned air atmosphere (T: 25 °C, RH: 40%). By extracting characteristic water detection rate curves for the investigated materials, a method is developed to predict the water detection beyond the runtime of the experiment. The results help optimising drying procedures of LIB components and thus can save time and costs. It is also shown, that water contaminations in graphite/LiFePO4 coin cells with a LiPF6 based electrolyte lead to a faster capacity fade during cycling and a significant change of the cell impedance.

  12. Contribution to the systemic study of energetic systems including electrochemical devices: Bond Graph formalism applied to modelling fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries and sun-racer; Contribution a l'etude systemique de dispositifs energetiques a composants electrochimiques. Formalisme Bond Graph applique aux piles a combustible, accumulateurs lithium-ion, vehicule solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisset, R.

    2004-04-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of electric power conversion systems including electrochemical devices. A systemic approach draws advantage of the unified Bond Graph formalism in order to model every component as well as the whole system. A state of the art of electrochemical devices for decentralized electric energy generation and storage put emphasis on common phenomena with the aim of developing 'system oriented' generic models. Solid Oxide and Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (SOFC, PEMFC), as well as Lithium Ion batteries, have been modelled through an efficient work with electrochemistry specialists. These models involve an explicit representation, at a macroscopic level, of conversion and irreversible phenomena linked to the chemical reaction and coupled together both in the hydraulic, chemical, thermodynamic, electric and thermal fields. These models are used to study the modularity of the components, particularly the electric and thermal imbalances in the series and parallel fuel cells associations. The systemic approach is also applied to the study of architectures and energy management of electric power generating units involving PEMFC and battery or super-capacitors storage. Different working conditions for the fuel cells are defined and studied, consisting in either voltage or current or power imposed by means of the storage and static converters environment. Identification of parameters and working tests are performed on specially developed test benches so as to validate theoretical results. At last, the method is applied to study a 'sun-racer', an original complex system with embedded photovoltaic generator, electrochemical storage and brush-less wheel motor, wholly modelled in order to compare various energy management onboard the solar vehicle 'Solelhada'. (author)

  13. Toward State Estimation of Satellite-Borne Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Low Frequency Impedance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Kohei

    2017-01-01

    As a result, the decrease in the impedance for the charge transfer through the cycles was observed at each test condition. Furthermore, especially in over recommended charge condition at 10°C, cells that were charged and discharged at 1.1 A/1.1 A were led to internal short circuit. The results suggested that the negative electrode performed as a “lithium-ion excess” by cycles. We define “lithium-ion excess” that lithium-ion happens to stay inside the negative electrode without desorption after cells discharge.

  14. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Raymond R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sun, Xiao-Guang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sacci, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adamczyk, Leslie A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alsem, Daan Hein [Hummingbird Scientific, Lacey, WA (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudney, Nancy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); More, Karren Leslie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  15. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  16. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Manthiram, Arumugam [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Chao-Yang [EC Power LLC, State College, PA (United States); Liu, Gao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-15

    High-loading and high quality PSU Si anode has been optimized and fabricated. The electrochemical performance has been utilized. The PSU Si-graphite anode exhibits the mass loading of 5.8 mg/cm2, charge capacity of 850 mAh/ g and good cycling performance. This optimized electrode has been used for full-cell fabrication. The performance enhancement of Ni-rich materials can be achieved by a diversity of strategies. Higher Mn content and a small amount of Al doping can improve the electrochemical performance by suppressing interfacial side reactions with electrolytes, thus greatly benefiting the cyclability of the samples. Also, surface coatings of Li-rich materials and AlF3 are able to improve the performance stability of Ni-rich cathodes. One kilogram of optimized concentration-gradient LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 (CG) with careful control of composition, morphology and electrochemical performance was delivered to our collaborators. The sample achieved an initial specific capacity close to 190 mA h g-1 at C/10 rate and 180 mA h g-1 at C/3 rate as well as good cyclability in pouch full cells with a 4.4 V upper cut-off voltage at room temperature. Electrolyte additive with Si-N skeleton forms a less resistant SEI on the surface of silicon anode (from PSU) as evidenced by the evolution of the impedance at various lithiation/de-lithiation stages and the cycling data The prelithiation result demonstrates a solution processing method to achieve large area, uniform SLMP coating on well-made anode surface for the prelithiation of lithium-ion batteries. The prelithiation effect with this method is applied both in graphite half cells, graphite/NMC full cells, SiO half cells, SiO/NMC full cells, Si-Graphite half cells and Si-Graphite/NMC full cells with improvements in cycle performance and higher first cycle coulombic efficiency than their corresponding cells without SLMP prelithiation. As to the full

  17. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  18. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. High flash point electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isken, P.; Dippel, C.; Schmitz, R.; Schmitz, R.W.; Kunze, M.; Passerini, S.; Winter, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Lex-Balducci, A., E-mail: a.lex-balducci@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Substitution of linear carbonates in conventional electrolytes with adiponitrile allows the realization of high flash point electrolytes. > EC:ADN based electrolytes display a higher anodic stability than a conventional electrolyte based on EC:DEC. > Graphite and NCM electrodes used in combination with the EC:ADN based electrolyte display a performance comparable with that of conventional electrolytes. - Abstract: The high flash point solvent adiponitrile (ADN) was investigated as co-solvent with ethylene carbonate (EC) for use as lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The flash point of this solvent mixture was more than 110 deg. C higher than that of conventional electrolyte solutions involving volatile linear carbonate components, such as diethyl carbonate (DEC) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The electrolyte based on EC:ADN (1:1 wt) with lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) displayed a conductivity of 2.6 mS cm{sup -1} and no aluminum corrosion. In addition, it showed higher anodic stability on a Pt electrode than the standard electrolyte 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}) in EC:DEC (3:7 wt). Graphite/Li half cells using this electrolyte showed excellent rate capability up to 5C and good cycling stability (more than 98% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 1C). Additionally, the electrolyte was investigated in NCM/Li half cells. The cells were able to reach a capacity of 104 mAh g{sup -1} at 5C and capacity retention of more than 97% after 50 cycles. These results show that an electrolyte with a considerably increased flash point with respect to common electrolyte systems comprising linear carbonates, could be realized without any negative effects on the electrochemical performance in Li-half cells.

  20. Carbon aerogel with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure for lithium-ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Huang, Hong; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Xinxi; Wu, Dingcai; Fu, Ruowen

    2015-01-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) with 3-D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel polymerization method and then used as the anode materials of lithium-ion batteries. It was found that the reversible specific capacity of the as-prepared CAs could stay at about 470 mA h g −1 for 80 cycles, much higher than the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh g −1 ). In addition, CA also showed a better rate capacity compared to commercial graphite. The good electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the following three factors: (1) the large BET surface area of 620 m 2  g −1 , which can provide more lithium ion insertion sites, (2) 3-D continuous skeleton of CAs, which favors the transport of the electrons, (3) 3-D continuous mesopore structure with narrow mesopore size distribution and high mesopore ratio of 87.3%, which facilitates the diffusion and transport of the electrolyte and lithium ions. - Highlights: • Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared via a microemulsion-templated sol–gel method. • The CA presents high surface area, 3D continuous skeleton and mesopore structure. • The reversible capacity of CA is much higher than that of graphite

  1. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  2. Performance Testing of Yardney MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 Lithium-ion Cells Possessing Electrolytes with Improved Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Whitcanack, Larry D.; Krause, Frederick C.; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Santee, Stuart; Puglia, Frank J.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Many future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon and Mars require high specific energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for HEV and PHEV automotive applications. In previous work focused upon evaluating various potential flame retardant additives1, triphenyl phosphate (TPP)2 was observed to have the most desirable attributes, including good life characteristics and resilience to high voltage operation. We have employed a number of approaches in the design of promising TPP-based electrolytes with improved safety, including: (a) varying the flame retardant additive (FRA) content (from 5 to 15%), (b) the use of fluorinated co-solvents, (c) the use of additives to improve compatibility, and (c) the use of ester co-solvents to decrease the viscosity and increase the conductivity. In recent work, we have demonstrated a number of these electrolyte formulations to be compatible with a number of chemistries, including: MCMB carbon-LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, graphite-LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, Li-Li(Li0.17Ni 0.25 Mn 0.58 )O2, Li-LiNiCoMnO2 and graphite- LiNiCoMnO2.3,4 In the current study, we have demonstrated the performance of a number of TPP-containing electrolytes in 7 Ah prototype MCMB-LiNiCoO2 cells. We will describe the results of a number of performance tests, including: a) 100% DOD cycle life testing at various temperatures, b) discharge rate characterization as a function of temperature, c) charge rate characterization as a function of temperature, and d) impedance as a function of temperature. In addition to displaying good life characteristics, being comparable to baseline chemistries, a number of cells were observed to provide good performance over a wide temperature range.

  3. Impedance based time-domain modeling of lithium-ion batteries: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantenbein, Sophia; Weiss, Michael; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel lithium-ion cell model, which simulates the current voltage characteristic as a function of state of charge (0%-100%) and temperature (0-30 °C). It predicts the cell voltage at each operating point by calculating the total overvoltage from the individual contributions of (i) the ohmic loss η0, (ii) the charge transfer loss of the cathode ηCT,C, (iii) the charge transfer loss and the solid electrolyte interface loss of the anode ηSEI/CT,A, and (iv) the solid state and electrolyte diffusion loss ηDiff,A/C/E. This approach is based on a physically meaningful equivalent circuit model, which is parametrized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and time domain measurements, covering a wide frequency range from MHz to μHz. The model is exemplarily parametrized to a commercial, high-power 350 mAh graphite/LiNiCoAlO2-LiCoO2 pouch cell and validated by continuous discharge and charge curves at varying temperature. For the first time, the physical background of the model allows the operator to draw conclusions about the performance-limiting factor at various operating conditions. Not only can the model help to choose application-optimized cell characteristics, but it can also support the battery management system when taking corrective actions during operation.

  4. Post-mortem analysis on LiFePO4|Graphite cells describing the evolution & composition of covering layer on anode and their impact on cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-11-01

    During cyclic aging of lithium-ion batteries the formation of a μm-thick covering layer on top of the anode facing the separator is found on top of the anode. In this work several post-mortem analyses of cyclic aged cylindrical LFP|Graphite cells are evaluated to give a detailed characterization of the covering layer and to find possible causes for the evolution of such a layer. The analyses of the layer with different methods return that it consists to high percentage of plated active lithium, deposited Fe and products of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The deposition is located mainly in the center of the cell symmetrical to the coating direction. The origin of these depositions is assumed in locally overcharged particles, Fe deposition or inhomogeneous distribution of capacity density. As a secondary effect the deposition on one side increases the thickness locally; thereafter a pressure-induced overcharging due to charge agglomeration of the back side of the anode occurs. Finally a compact and dense covering layer in a late state of aging leads to deactivation of the covered parts of the anode and cathode due to suppressed lithium-ion conductivity. This leads to increasing slope of capacity fade and increase of internal resistance.

  5. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  6. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoon Hwang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV. As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode by addition of graphene for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honggowiranto, Wagiyo, E-mail: wagiyo@batan.go.id; Kartini, Evvy, E-mail: kartini@batan.go.id [Center for Science and Technology Advanced Materials, National Nuclear Energy Agency Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The improvement of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode performance has been performed by addition of Graphene (LFP+Graphene). The cathode was prepared from the active material with 5 wt % graphene and 10 wt % polyvinylidene fluoride in an n-methyl pyrrolidone solvent. Another cathode material used only 5% artificial graphite for comparison (LFP+Graphite). The crystal structure, microstructure, electronic conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the cathodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and Impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Two half cell coin batteries were assembled using a lithium metal as an anode and LiPf{sub 6} as an electrolyte, and two cathodes (LFP+Graphene) and (LFP+Graphite). Charge discharge performance of battery was characterized by Battery analyser (BTS 8). The electronic conductivity of cathode with grapheme increased of about one order magnitude compared with the only cathode with graphite, namely from 1.97E-7S/cm (LFP+Graphite) to 1.92E-6S/cm (LFP+Graphene). The charge-discharge capacity after 10{sup th} cycles of LiFePO{sub 4} with graphene decreased of about 0.68% from 114.3 mAh/g to113.1 mAh/g, while LFP with graphite decreased of about 2.84% from 110.2 mAh/g to 107.1 mAh, at 0.1C-rates. It could be concluded that the addition of graphene has increased the ionic conductivity, and improved performance of the LFP lithium ion battery, such as higher capacity and better efficiency.

  9. Unraveling transition metal dissolution of Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM 111) in lithium ion full cells by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertz, Marco; Horsthemke, Fabian; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-10-01

    In this work we investigated the transition metal dissolution of the layered cathode material Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in dependence on the cycle number and cut-off cell voltage during charge by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique for the elemental analysis of the specific lithium ion battery degradation products. We could show that with ongoing cycling transition metal dissolution from the cathode increased over time. However, it was less pronounced at 4.3 V compared to elevated charge cut-off voltages of 4.6 V. After a maximum of 100 cycles, we detected an overall transition metal loss of 0.2 wt‰ in relation to the whole cathode active material for cells cycled to 4.3 V. At an increased charge cut-off voltage of 4.6 V, 4.5 wt‰ transition metal loss in relation to the whole cathode active material could be detected. The corresponding transition metal dissolution induced capacity loss at the cathode could thus be attributed to 1.2 mAh g-1. Compared to the overall capacity loss of 80 mAh g-1 of the complete cell after 100 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles the value is quite low. Hence, the overall full cell capacity fade cannot be assigned exclusively to the transition metal dissolution induced cathode fading.

  10. Lithium salt with a super-delocalized perfluorinated sulfonimide anion as conducting salt for lithium-ion cells: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Han, Hongbo; Cheng, Xiaorong; Zheng, Liping; Cheng, Pengfei; Feng, Wenfang; Nie, Jin; Armand, Michel; Huang, Xuejie; Zhou, Zhibin

    2015-11-01

    Lithium salt with a super-delocalized imide anion, namely (trifluoromethane(S-trifluoromethanesulfonylimino)sulfonyl) (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CF3SO(=NSO2CF3)2]-), [sTFSI]-), has been prepared and studied as conducting salt for Li-ion cells. The fundamental physicochemical and electrochemical properties of neat Li[sTFSI] and its carbonate-based liquid electrolyte have been characterized with various chemical and electrochemical tools. Li[sTFSI] shows a low melting point at 118 °C, and is thermally stable up to 300 °C without decomposition on the spectra of differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-TG-MS). The electrolyte of 1.0 M (mol dm-3) Li[sTFSI] in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl-methyl-carbonate (EMC) (3:7, v/v) containing 0.3% water does not show any hydrolytic decomposition on the spectra of 1H and 19F NMR, after storage at 85 °C for 10 days. The conductivities of 1.0 M Li[sTFSI]-EC/EMC (3:7, v/v) are slightly lower than those of Li[(CF3SO2)2N] (LiTFSI), but higher than those of Li[(C2F5SO2)2N] (LiBETI). The electrochemical behavior of Al foil in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte has been investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is illustrated that Al metal does not corrode in the high potential region (3-5 V vs. Li/Li+) in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte. On Pt electrode, the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte is highly resistant to oxidation (ca. 5 V vs. Li/Li+), and is also resistant to reduction to allow Li deposition and stripping. The applicability of Li[sTFSI] as conducting salt for Li-ion cells has been tested using graphite/LiCoO2 cells. It shows that the cell with Li[sTFSI] displays better cycling performance than that with LiPF6.

  11. Succinonitrile as a corrosion inhibitor of copper current collectors for overdischarge protection of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Seon-Ha; Son, Mi-Young; Jung, Young Mee; Song, Hyun-Kon; Lee, Hochun

    2014-02-12

    Succinonitrile (SN) is investigated as an electrolyte additive for copper corrosion inhibition to provide overdischarge (OD) protection to lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The anodic Cu corrosion, occurring above 3.5 V (vs Li/Li(+)) in conventional LIB electrolytes, is suppressed until a voltage of 4.5 V is reached in the presence of SN. The corrosion inhibition by SN is ascribed to the formation of an SN-induced passive layer, which spontaneously develops on the copper surface during the first anodic scan. The passive layer is composed mainly of Cu(SN)2PF6 units, which is evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The effects of the SN additive on OD protection are confirmed by using 750 mAh pouch-type full cells of LiCoO2 and graphite with lithium metal as a reference electrode. Addition of SN completely prevents corrosion of the copper current collector in the full cell configuration, thereby tuning the LIB chemistry to be inherently immune to the OD abuses.

  12. Electrochemical model based charge optimization for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sourav; Anwar, Sohel

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose the design of a novel optimal strategy for charging the lithium-ion battery based on electrochemical battery model that is aimed at improved performance. A performance index that aims at minimizing the charging effort along with a minimum deviation from the rated maximum thresholds for cell temperature and charging current has been defined. The method proposed in this paper aims at achieving a faster charging rate while maintaining safe limits for various battery parameters. Safe operation of the battery is achieved by including the battery bulk temperature as a control component in the performance index which is of critical importance for electric vehicles. Another important aspect of the performance objective proposed here is the efficiency of the algorithm that would allow higher charging rates without compromising the internal electrochemical kinetics of the battery which would prevent abusive conditions, thereby improving the long term durability. A more realistic model, based on battery electro-chemistry has been used for the design of the optimal algorithm as opposed to the conventional equivalent circuit models. To solve the optimization problem, Pontryagins principle has been used which is very effective for constrained optimization problems with both state and input constraints. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal charging algorithm is capable of shortening the charging time of a lithium ion cell while maintaining the temperature constraint when compared with the standard constant current charging. The designed method also maintains the internal states within limits that can avoid abusive operating conditions.

  13. Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

  14. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  15. Electrode architectures for enhanced lithium ion battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Sharon Loeffler

    Increasing prevalence of portable electronic devices and growing concern over the consumption of fossil fuels have led to a growing demand for more efficient energy storage options. Lithium ion chemistry has grown to dominate the battery market, but still requires improvement to meet the increasing need for smaller, cheaper, better performing batteries. The use of nanomaterials has garnered much attention in recent years as a potential way of improving battery performance while decreasing the size. However, new problems are introduced with these materials such as low packing density and high reactivity with the electrolyte. This research focuses on the development of an electrode architecture using nanomaterials which will decrease lithium ion transport distance while enhancing electrical conductivity within the cell. The proposed architecture consists of a stacked, 2D structure composed of layers of carbon nanotubes and active material particles, and can be applied to both the anode and the cathode. The process also has the advantage of low cost because it can be performed under normal laboratory conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) and easily adapted to a commercial scale.

  16. New Aqueous Binders for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Andrew N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Trask, Stephen E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Polzin, Bryant J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Lu, Wenquan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Kahvecioglu Feridun, Ozge [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Hellring, Stuart D. [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Stewart, Matthew [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Inc., Allison Park, PA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    This final report summarizes the research effort of the CRADA between PPG Industries and Argonne National Laboratory (CRADA # C1400501 and Amendment 1 - ACK 85C11, Rev. 1), and completes the requirements of Task #5 in the CRADA. The results from Argonne represent a combined effort between the MERF and CAMP Facility (Materials Engineering Research Facility and the Cell Analysis, Modeling and Prototyping Facility). The key points of this report can be briefly summarized as: The multicomponent aqueous binder for NCM cathodes developed by PPG shows promising results when used on the CAMP Facility’s pilot-scale coater; NCM523 cathode electrodes exposed to water exhibit a voltage anomaly in the first two formation cycles that appears to have little effect on the material capacity, but needs to be explored further; the experimental LFP electrode produced by PPG does cycle electrochemically, but with reduced capacity and an uncharacteristic voltage profile; there is no obvious correlation between the pH and zeta-potential of materials that are commonly used in the lithium-ion battery; lithium ions are more readily dissolved out of NCM523 by water than the transition metals (by two orders of magnitude), and suggests that the plating bath may need to be spiked with a lithium salt; the approach of creating sub-micron size NCM523 particles via ball milling results in a cathode material with poor electrochemical performance.

  17. Novel 2D Layered Molybdenum Ditelluride Encapsulated in Few-Layer Graphene as High-Performance Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Yu-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2018-02-28

    Molybdenum ditelluride nanosheets encapsulated in few-layer graphene (MoTe 2 /FLG) are synthesized by a simple heating method using Te and Mo powder and subsequent ball milling with graphite. The as-prepared MoTe 2 /FLG nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a highly reversible capacity of 596.5 mAh g -1 at 100 mA g -1 , a high rate capability (334.5 mAh g -1 at 2 A g -1 ), and superior cycling stability (capacity retention of 99.5% over 400 cycles at 0.5 A g -1 ). Ex situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy are used to explore the lithium storage mechanism of MoTe 2 . Moreover, the electrochemical performance of a MoTe 2 /FLG//0.35Li 2 MnO 3 ·0.65LiMn 0.5 Ni 0.5 O 2 full cell is investigated, which displays a reversible capacity of 499 mAh g -1 (based on the MoTe 2 /FLG mass) at 100 mA g -1 and a capacity retention of 78% over 50 cycles, suggesting the promising application of MoTe 2 /FLG for lithium-ion storage. First-principles calculations exhibit that the lowest diffusion barrier (0.18 eV) for lithium ions along pathway III in the MoTe 2 layered structure is beneficial for improving the Li intercalation/deintercalation property. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  19. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    -depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves...

  20. Lithium ion battery cathode materials as a case study to support the teaching of ionic solids

    OpenAIRE

    Coppo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    A lithium ion battery cathode material is proposed as a case study to investigate ionic solids in an undergraduate inorganic chemistry course. The concepts of unit cell, ionic lattice arrangements, nonstoichiometric compounds, and the thermodynamics of defects in crystals are introduced to students within the framework of research into materials for rechargeable batteries.

  1. Electrospun core-shell fibers for robust silicon nanoparticle-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae Hoon; Lee, Yong Min; Kong, Byung-Seon; Seo, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jang Wook

    2012-02-08

    Because of its unprecedented theoretical capacity near 4000 mAh/g, which is approximately 10-fold larger compared to those of the current commercial graphite anodes, silicon has been the most promising anode for lithium ion batteries, particularly targeting large-scale energy storage applications including electrical vehicles and utility grids. Nevertheless, Si suffers from its short cycle life as well as the limitation for scalable electrode fabrication. Herein, we develop an electrospinning process to produce core-shell fiber electrodes using a dual nozzle in a scalable manner. In the core-shell fibers, commercially available nanoparticles in the core are wrapped by the carbon shell. The unique core-shell structure resolves various issues of Si anode operations, such as pulverization, vulnerable contacts between Si and carbon conductors, and an unstable sold-electrolyte interphase, thereby exhibiting outstanding cell performance: a gravimetric capacity as high as 1384 mAh/g, a 5 min discharging rate capability while retaining 721 mAh/g, and cycle life of 300 cycles with almost no capacity loss. The electrospun core-shell one-dimensional fibers suggest a new design principle for robust and scalable lithium battery electrodes suffering from volume expansion. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Electrospun melamine resin-based multifunctional nonwoven membrane for lithium ion batteries at the elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfu; Yu, Yong; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2016-09-01

    A flame retardant and thermally dimensional stable membrane with high permeability and electrolyte wettability can overcome the safety issues of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) at elevated temperatures. In this work, a multifunctional thermoset nonwoven membrane composed of melamine formaldehyde resin (MFR) nano-fibers was prepared by a electro-spinning method. The resultant porous nonwoven membrane possesses superior permeability, electrolyte wettability and thermally dimensional stability. Using the electrospun MFR membrane, the LiFePO4/Li battery exhibits high safety and stable cycling performance at the elevated temperature of 120 °C. Most importantly, the MFR membrane contains lone pair electron in the nitrogen element, which can chelate with Mn2+ ions and suppress their transfer across the separator. Therefore, the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with the electrospun MFR multifunctional membranes reveal an improved cycle performance even at high temperature. This work demonstrated that electrospun MFR is a promising candidate material for high-safety separator of LIBs with stable cycling performance at elevated temperatures.

  3. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  4. Two-stage energy storage equalization system for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z. X.; Dong, G. Q.; Li, Y. B.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    How to raise the efficiency of energy storage and maximize storage capacity is a core problem in current energy storage management. For that, two-stage energy storage equalization system which contains two-stage equalization topology and control strategy based on a symmetric multi-winding transformer and DC-DC (direct current-direct current) converter is proposed with bidirectional active equalization theory, in order to realize the objectives of consistent lithium-ion battery packs voltages and cells voltages inside packs by using a method of the Range. Modeling analysis demonstrates that the voltage dispersion of lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs can be kept within 2 percent during charging and discharging. Equalization time was 0.5 ms, which shortened equalization time of 33.3 percent compared with DC-DC converter. Therefore, the proposed two-stage lithium-ion battery equalization system can achieve maximum storage capacity between lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs, meanwhile efficiency of energy storage is significantly improved.

  5. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Thermal stability and modeling of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Gerardine Gabriela

    2000-10-01

    First-principles mathematical models were developed to examine the effect of the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles on the performance of a lithium foil cell. Two different models were developed: the chemical potential model (CPM) that includes the lithium-lithium ion interactions inside the anode particles and the diffusion model (DIM) that does not include the interactions. Significant differences in the thermal and electrochemical performance of the cell were observed between the two approaches. The temperature of the cell predicted by the DFM is higher than the one predicted by the CPM at a given capacity. The discharge time of the cell predicted by the DFM is shorter than the one predicted by the CPM. The results indicate that the cell needs to be modeled using the CPM approach especially at high discharge rates. An evaluation of the numerical techniques, control volume formulation (CVF) and finite difference method (FDM), used for the models was performed. It is shown that the truncation error is the same for both methods when the boundary conditions are of the Dirichlet type, the system of equations are linear and represented in Cartesian coordinates. A new technique to analyze the accuracy of the methods is presented. The only disadvantage of the FDM is that it failed to conserve mass for a small number of nodes when both boundary conditions include a derivative term whereas the CVF did conserve mass for these cases. However, for a large number of nodes the FDM provides mass conservation. It is important to note that the CVF has only (DeltaX) order of accuracy for a Neumann type boundary condition whereas the FDM has (DeltaX) 2 order. The second topic of this dissertation presents a study of the thermal stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to perform the study of the electrolyte. For first time, the effect of different variables on its thermal stability

  7. Issues and Challenges Facing Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries for Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyungyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Yoonji; Cho, Jaephil; Park, Minjoon

    2017-12-27

    With the advent of flexible electronics, lithium-ion batteries have become a key component of high performance energy storage systems. Thus, considerable effort is made to keep up with the development of flexible lithium-ion batteries. To date, many researchers have studied newly designed batteries with flexibility, however, there are several significant challenges that need to be overcome, such as degradation of electrodes under external load, poor battery performance, and complicated cell preparation procedures. In addition, an in-depth understanding of the current challenges for flexible batteries is rarely addressed in a systematical and practical way. Herein, recent progress and current issues of flexible lithium-ion batteries in terms of battery materials and cell designs are reviewed. A critical overview of important issues and challenges for the practical application of flexible lithium-ion batteries is also provided. Finally, the strategies are discussed to overcome current limitations of the practical use of flexible lithium-based batteries, providing a direction for future research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    CNMs (0.7 mg/cm2) as compared to metallic foils (5-10 mg/cm2). We show that the energy density of the fully foldable battery with CMF current collectors can be up to 2-fold higher than conventional LIBs at realistic mass loading (5mg/cm2) of the electrode materials. Therefore, not only does the CMF impart shape conformability, it also significantly boosts the energy density of the device by removing the dead weight of the batteries. Silicon (Si) shows enormous potential as the next generation anode material in Lithium-ion batteries due to its high energy denisty. However, Si is highly brittle, and in an effort to prevent Si from fracturing, the research community has migrated from the use of Si films to Si nanoparticle based electrodes. Such a strategy significantly reduces volumetric energy density due to the porosity of Si nanoparticle electrodes. In Chapters 4 and 5, we propose two solutions to incorporate Si films in foldable batteries. We show that contrary to conventional wisdom, Si films can be stabilized by two strategies: (a) anchoring the Si films to a carbon nanotube macrofilm (CNM) current-collector and (b) draping the films with a graphene monolayer. After electrochemical cycling, the graphene-coated Si films on CNM resembled a tough mud-cracked surface in which the graphene capping layer suppresses delamination and stabilizes the solid electrolyte interface by creating a slippery interface and reducing the stress transfer across the interface. The graphene-draped Si films on CNM exhibit long cycle life (> 1000 charge/discharge steps) with an average specific capacity of 806 mAh/g. The volumetric capacity averaged over 1000 cycles of charge/discharge is 2821 mAh/cm3 which is 2 to 5 times higher than what is reported in the literature for Si nanoparticle based electrodes. The graphene-draped Si anode could also be successfully cycled against commercial cathodes in a full-cell configuration. In Chapter 5, an alternate strategy has been explored to stabilize

  9. Composite anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Guzman, Rhet C.; Ng, K.Y. Simon; Salley, Steven O.

    2018-03-06

    A composite anode for a lithium-ion battery is manufactured from silicon nanoparticles having diameters mostly under 10 nm; providing an oxide layer on the silicon nanoparticles; dispersing the silicon nanoparticles in a polar liquid; providing a graphene oxide suspension; mixing the polar liquid containing the dispersed silicone nanoparticles with the graphene oxide suspension to obtain a composite mixture; probe-sonicating the mixture for a predetermined time; filtering the composite mixture to obtain a solid composite; drying the composite; and reducing the composite to obtain graphene and silicon.

  10. Flexible, Heat-Resistant, and Flame-Retardant Glass Fiber Nonwoven/Glass Platelet Composite Separator for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schadeck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of high-temperature stable and self-supporting composite separator for lithium-ion batteries was developed consisting of custom-made ultrathin micrometer-sized glass platelets embedded in a glass fiber nonwoven together with a water-based sodium alginate binder. The physical and electrochemical properties were investigated and compared to commercial polymer-based separators. Full-cell configuration cycling tests at different current rates were performed using graphite and lithium iron phosphate as electrode materials. The glass separator was high-temperature tested and showed a stability up to at least 600 °C without significant shrinking. Furthermore, it showed an exceptional wettability for non-aqueous electrolytes. The electrochemical performance was excellent compared to commercially available polymer-based separators. The results clearly show that glass platelets integrated into a glass fiber nonwoven performs remarkably well as a separator material in lithium-ion batteries and show high-temperature stability.

  11. Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Feng, Zimin; Yang, Shi-Ze; Gagnon, Catherine; Gariépy, Vincent; Laul, Dharminder; Zhu, Wen; Veillette, René; Trudeau, Michel L.; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-01

    High-performance and long-cycling rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been in steadily increasing demand for the past decades. Nevertheless, the two dominant anodes at the moment, graphite and L4T5O12, suffer from a safety issue of lithium plating (operating voltage at ∼ 0.1 V vs. Li+/Li) and low capacity (175 mAh/g), respectively. Here, we report LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as an alternative anode material which has a working voltage of ∼1.1 V and a capacity as high as 330 mAh/g at the current rate of C/15. Symmetric cells with both electrodes containing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can deliver average discharge voltage of 2.2 V. In-situ XRD, HRTEM and first principles calculations indicate that the reaction mechanism of a LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 anode is comprised mainly of conversion. Both the fundamental understanding and practical demonstrations suggest that LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  13. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  14. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  15. Application of C60, C72 and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    The application of C 60 , C 72 , CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V cell ) and adsorption energy (E ad ) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C 60 and C 72 ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH 2 functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH 2 functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH 2 functionalized C 72 and CNT (10, 0) have larger V cell and E ad values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C 60 and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V cell and E ad of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C 60 and C 72 ca. • NH 2 functionalization of C 60 improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  17. Aging Mechanisms of Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode material aging leads to a decrease in capacity and/or a rise in resistance of the whole cell and thus can dramatically affect the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the aging phenomena are extremely complicated to describe due to the coupling of various factors. In this review, we give an interpretation of capacity/power fading of electrode-oriented aging mechanisms under cycling and various storage conditions for metallic oxide-based cathodes and carbon-based anodes. For the cathode of lithium-ion batteries, the mechanical stress and strain resulting from the lithium ions insertion and extraction predominantly lead to structural disordering. Another important aging mechanism is the metal dissolution from the cathode and the subsequent deposition on the anode. For the anode, the main aging mechanisms are the loss of recyclable lithium ions caused by the formation and increasing growth of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI and the mechanical fatigue caused by the diffusion-induced stress on the carbon anode particles. Additionally, electrode aging largely depends on the electrochemical behaviour under cycling and storage conditions and results from both structural/morphological changes and side reactions aggravated by decomposition products and protic impurities in the electrolyte.

  18. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  19. Secondary-Phase Stochastics in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mistry, Aashutosh N. [Purdue University; Mukherjee, Partha P. [Purdue University

    2018-01-12

    Lithium-ion battery electrodes exhibit complex interplay among multiple electrochemically coupled transport processes, which rely on the underlying functionality and relative arrangement of different constituent phases. The electrochemically inactive solid phases (e.g., conductive additive and binder, referred to as the secondary phase), while beneficial for improved electronic conductivity and mechanical integrity, may partially block the electrochemically active sites and introduce additional transport resistances in the pore (electrolyte) phase. In this work, the role of mesoscale interactions and inherent stochasticity in porous electrodes is elucidated in the context of short-range (interface) and long-range (transport) characteristics. The electrode microstructure significantly affects kinetically and transport-limiting scenarios and thereby the cell performance. The secondary-phase morphology is also found to strongly influence the microstructure-transport-kinetics interactions. Apropos, strategies have been proposed for performance improvement via electrode microstructural modifications.

  20. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case, the performances of the active material are inaccurate, especially at high current densities. In this work we show the error committed in neglecting the polarizability of lithium counter electrodes, and we propose two reference electrodes to use in organic electrolytes based on lithium salts, namely Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO 4. In particular, it was observed that, the polarizability of the metallic lithium counter electrode has a relevant stochastic component, which renders measurements at high current densities (above 1 mA·cm - 2) in two electrode cells non reproducible.

  1. Development of Electrode Materials of Lithium-Ion Battery Utilizing Nanospaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takunori Minamisawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To develop high capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion battery (LIB, dissimilar materials are mixed and, as a result, carbon nanofibers containing silicon (Si nanoparticles and its components are successfully created by electrospinning method and some heat treatments. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and Si nanoparticles are adopted as additives of carbon nanofibers because of their huge potential for obtaining high capacity. In this research, therefore, we develop TEOS/Si hybrid carbon nanofibers. Consequently, some samples obtain much higher charging/discharging capacity than the theoretical capacity for graphite (372 mAh/g, LiC6 even after second cycle.

  2. Electrochemical performance of graphene nanosheets as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    Graphene nanosheets (GNSs) were prepared from artificial graphite by oxidation, rapid expansion and ultrasonic treatment. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of GNSs as anode material for lithium-ion batteries were systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. It was found that GNSs exhibited a relatively high reversible capacity of 672 mA h/g and fine cycle performance. The exchange current density of GNSs increased with the growth of cycle numbers exhibiting the peculiar electrochemical performance. (author)

  3. Shutdown potential adjustment of modified carbene adducts as additives for lithium ion battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Pia; Streipert, Benjamin; Krafft, Roman; Murmann, Patrick; Wagner, Ralf; Lewis-Alleyne, Lesley; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2017-11-01

    To improve the intrinsic safety of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by preventing cells from a thermal runaway, we studied two carbene adduct electrolyte additives. The recently synthesized compounds (1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-μm-trifluoroborate (NHC-BF3) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolidin-2-μm-tetrafluorotrifluoromethylphosphate (NHC-PF4CF3)) were investigated on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC111) electrodes in Li metal and Li-ion cell setups as overcharge protection shutdown additives in 1M LiPF6 in EC:DEC (3:7, by wt.) electrolyte. By varying the NHC-ligand (-BF3, -PF5, -PF4CF3) in the molecule, the shutdown potential of the investigated carbene adduct electrolyte additives can be tailored for specific applications with different cut-off potentials. NHC-BF3 was identified as a promising candidate for the application with NMC111 electrodes up to 4.4 V vs. Li/Li+, whereas the carbene adduct NHC-PF4CF3 is ideal for the high-voltage application with the NMC-based electrode up to 4.6 V vs. Li/Li+. Next to electrochemical investigations in NMC111/Li and NMC111/graphite cells, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to verify the presence of a decomposition layer on the cathode, responsible for the shutdown effect. Furthermore, it has been proven that the investigated electrolyte additives have no influence on the cell performance under normal conditions in both, Li metal and Li-ion cell setups.

  4. High Voltage Li-Ion Battery Using Exfoliated Graphite/Graphene Nanosheets Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Marco; Brutti, Sergio; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-04

    The achievement of a new generation of lithium-ion battery, suitable for a continuously growing consumer electronic and sustainable electric vehicle markets, requires the development of new, low-cost, and highly performing materials. Herein, we propose a new and efficient lithium-ion battery obtained by coupling exfoliated graphite/graphene nanosheets (EGNs) anode and high-voltage, spinel-structure cathode. The anode shows a capacity exceeding by 40% that ascribed to commercial graphite in lithium half-cell, at very high C-rate, due to its particular structure and morphology as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Li-ion battery reveals excellent efficiency and cycle life, extending up to 150 cycles, as well as an estimated practical energy density of about 260 Wh kg(-1), that is, a value well exceeding the one associated with the present-state Li-ion battery.

  5. Hyperfine structure of muonic lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Martynenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of perturbation theory in fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the ratio of electron to muon masses we calculate recoil corrections of order $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu$, $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu^2\\ln(M_e/M_\\mu$, $\\alpha^4 (M_e/M_\\mu^2$, $\\alpha^5(m_e/m_\\mu\\ln(m_e/m_\\mu$ to hyperfine splitting of the ground state in muonic lithium ions $(\\mu e ^6_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$ and $(\\mu e ^7_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$. We obtain total results for the ground state small hyperfine splittings in $(\\mu e ^6_3\\mathrm{Li}^+$ $\\Delta\

  6. An optically pumped polarized lithium ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, E.G.; Mendez, A.J.; Schmidt, B.G.; Kemper, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    A laser-optically-pumped polarized lithium ion source is being developed to provide beams of nuclear polarized 6,7 Li - for injection into the FSU tandem Van de Graaff-linac. Electro-optically modulated, circularly polarized light optically pumps a lithium atomic beam into a single magnetic substate, M 1 =1, M J =1/2. No inhomogeneous magnetic field (sextupole or quadrupole) is needed. Adiabatic rf transitions enable the polarization to be changed by transferring the population into different magnetic substates. Using a second electro-optic to modulate a second beam from the same laser, and Zeeman tuning, the polarization of the atomic beam is obtained by laser induced fluorescence. The polarized atomic beam is ionized to Li + and then charge exchanged to Li - . (orig.)

  7. Progress in Application of CNTs in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithium-ion battery is widely used in the fields of portable devices and electric cars with its superior performance and promising energy storage applications. The unique one-dimensional structure formed by the graphene layer makes carbon nanotubes possess excellent mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties and becomes a hot material in the research of lithium-ion battery. In this paper, the applicable research progress of carbon nanotubes in lithium-ion battery is described, and its future development is put forward from its two aspects of being not only the anodic conductive reinforcing material and the cathodic energy storage material but also the electrically conductive framework material.

  8. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... was validated by running a verification stage of the lifetime model, where Lithium-ion battery cells were tested at normal operating conditions using an application specific mission profile....

  9. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 by electrochemical method from TiCl4 solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO 2 is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO 2 gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO 2 crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO 2 powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO 2 have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO 2 particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO 2 powders was TiCl 4 in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO 2 particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase

  11. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  12. Multiphysics Based Thermal Modeling of a Pouch Lithium-Ion Battery Cell for the Development of Pack Level Thermal Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    The research is focused on the development of a three-dimensional cell level multiphysics battery thermal model. The primary aim is to represent the cooling mechanism inside the unit cell battery pack. It is accomplished through the coupling of heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...

  13. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... days and is open to all. Attendance is free, and no registration is required. The NTSB Chairman Deborah... serve as members of the Board of Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion...

  14. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  15. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  16. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  17. Safe and recyclable lithium-ion capacitors using sacrificial organic lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżowski, P.; Crosnier, O.; Deunf, E.; Poizot, P.; Béguin, F.; Brousse, T.

    2018-02-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) shrewdly combine a lithium-ion battery negative electrode capable of reversibly intercalating lithium cations, namely graphite, together with an electrical double-layer positive electrode, namely activated carbon. However, the beauty of this concept is marred by the lack of a lithium-cation source in the device, thus requiring a specific preliminary charging step. The strategies devised thus far in an attempt to rectify this issue all present drawbacks. Our research uncovers a unique approach based on the use of a lithiated organic material, namely 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile dilithium salt. This compound can irreversibly provide lithium cations to the graphite electrode during an initial operando charging step without any negative effects with respect to further operation of the LIC. This method not only restores the low CO2 footprint of LICs, but also possesses far-reaching potential with respect to designing a wide range of greener hybrid devices based on other chemistries, comprising entirely recyclable components.

  18. Recycling metals from lithium ion battery by mechanical separation and vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiefeng; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhengming

    2017-09-15

    The large-batch application of lithium ion batteries leads to the mass production of spent batteries. So the enhancement of disposal ability of spent lithium ion batteries is becoming very urgent. This study proposes an integrated process to handle bulk spent lithium manganese (LiMn 2 O 4 ) batteries to in situ recycle high value-added products without any additives. By mechanical separation, the mixed electrode materials mainly including binder, graphite and LiMn 2 O 4 are firstly obtained from spent batteries. Then, the reaction characteristics for the oxygen-free roasting of mixed electrode materials are analyzed. And the results show that mixed electrode materials can be in situ converted into manganese oxide (MnO) and lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 ) at 1073K for 45min. In this process, the binder is evaporated and decomposed into gaseous products which can be collected to avoid disposal cost. Finally, 91.30% of Li resource as Li 2 CO 3 is leached from roasted powders by water and then high value-added Li 2 CO 3 crystals are further gained by evaporating the filter liquid. The filter residues are burned in air to remove the graphite and the final residues as manganous-manganic oxide (Mn 3 O 4 ) is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Free-form Flexible Lithium-Ion Microbattery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-03-02

    Wearable electronics need miniaturized, safe and flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present integration strategy to rationally design materials and processes to report flexible inorganic lithium-ion microbattery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery shows an enhanced normalized capacity of 147 μAh/cm2 when bent.

  20. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  1. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  2. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  3. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  4. The Role of Cations on the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries: A Quantitative Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin

    2018-02-20

    Lithium ion batteries are nowadays the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronic devices and the most promising candidate for energy storage in large-size batteries, e.g., pure and hybrid vehicles. However, the degradation of the cell components minimizes both storage and operation lifetime (calendar and cycle life), which is called aging. Due to the numerous different aging effects, in either the single constituents or their interactions with each other, many reports about methodologies and techniques, both electrochemical and analytical, can be found in the literature. However, quantitative data about the degradation effects were seldom stated. One important effect is the cation distribution and migration during operation. Metal dissolution and metal migration of the cathode and the corresponding deposition of these metals on the graphitic anode are known harmful degradation effects, especially for the formed solid electrolyte interphase on the surface of the anode. Depending on the applied cell chemistries and therefore the cathode material, different mechanisms were reported so far. For lithium manganese oxide based cells, the acidification of the electrolyte due to composition of the conduction salt is attributed as the main source of metal migration. Due to subsequent loss of manganese from the cathode, the overall performance of the cell is seriously impaired. Based on the obtained observations, this degradation mechanism was adapted to lithium nickel cobalt manganese based cells as main cause of the capacity fading. However, with the help a developed total X-ray fluorescence method and additional surface and electrolyte investigations, the proposed HF based mechanism was disproven. Instead, the migration was directly associated with material defects or mechanical spalling of the particles. Furthermore, with the obtained quantitative data of the migrated transition metals on the anode and separator, the contribution on the capacity fade was

  5. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Transient Voltage Response of Lithium-Ion Secondary Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Yu; Kobayashi, Yoshikazu

    To apply lithium-ion secondary batteries to electric power storage apparatus in distributed power generation systems, electric vehicles, etc., it is necessary to take into consideration their transient cell voltage response to the change of the charge/discharge current. The authors, therefore, develop a simulation method that can accurately calculate this transient cell voltage response of lithium-ion secondary battery even when the cell temperature and state of charge vary as the time proceeds in the time-dependent calculation. The transient cell voltage responses of a commercially available small-sized lithium-ion secondary battery to the square-wave charge/discharge and discharge currents are numerically simulated, and the calculation results are compared and examined with the experimental results. It is made clear that the calculation results coincide well with the experimental results not only for the charge/discharge current with short period under constant temperature and state of charge condition, but also for the discharge current with long period under variable temperature and state of charge condition, indicating the validity of the developed simulation method.

  7. Effect of pre-lithiation degrees of mesocarbon microbeads anode on the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Shi, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chengyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MCMB with different pre-lithiation capacity as negative electrode in LIC. • Pre-lithiation improves the electrochemical performance of LIC. • The optimal pre-lithiation capacity has been proposed. - Abstract: Lithium ion capacitors are assembled with pre-lithiated mesocarbon microbeads (LMCMB) anode and activated carbon (AC) cathode. The effect of pre-lithiation degrees on the crystal structure of MCMB electrode and the electrochemical capacitance behavior of LIC are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the charge-discharge test of three-electrode cell. The structure of graphite still maintained when the pre-lithiation capacity is less than 200 mAh g −1 , phase transition takes place with the increase of pre-lithiation capacity from 250 mAh g −1 to 350 mAh g −1 . Pre-lithiation degrees of MCMB anode greatly affect the charge-discharge process and behavior, which impact on the electrochemical performance of LIC. The LIC with pre-lithiation capacity of 300 mAh g −1 has the optimal electrochemical performance. The energy density of LIC300 is up to 92.3 Wh kg −1 , the power density as high as 5.5 kW kg −1 and the capacity retention is 97.0% after 1000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance benefits from the appropriate pre-lithiation capacity of negative electrode. The appropriate pre-lithiation ensures the working voltage of negative electrode in low and relative stable charge-discharge platform corresponding to the mutual phase transition from the second stage graphite intercalation compound (LiC 12 ) to the first stage graphite intercalation compound (LiC 6 ). The stable charge-discharge platform of negative electrode is conductive to the sufficient utilization of AC positive electrode

  8. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hannah Elise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  9. Differential pulse effects of solid electrolyte interface formation for improving performance on high-power lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Ming; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yu, Meng-Han; Hsiao, Yi-Ju; Tsai, Ying

    Solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation is a key that utilizes to protect the structure of graphite anode and enhances the redox stability of lithium-ion batteries before entering the market. The effect of SEI formation applies a differential pulse (DP) and constant current (CC) charging on charge-discharge performance and cycling behavior into brand new commercial lithium ion batteries is investigated. The morphologies and electrochemical properties on the anode surface are also inspected by employing SEM and EDS. The electrochemical impedance spectra of the anode electrode in both charging protocols shows that the interfacial resistance on graphite anodes whose SEI layer formed by DP charging is smaller than that of CC charging. Moreover, the cycle life result shows that the DP charging SEI formation is more helpful in increasing the long-term stability and maintaining the capacity of batteries even under high power rate charge-discharge cycling. The DP charging method can provide a SEI layer with ameliorated properties to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries.

  10. Aggressive electrolyte poisons and multifunctional fluids comprised of diols and diamines for emergency shutdown of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelle, Daniel J.; Shi, Yang; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Qiao, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Electrolyte poisons comprised of diols and diamines are investigated for the intended function of exacerbating internal resistance in lithium-ion batteries upon short circuit failure, to quickly arrest uncontrolled joule heat generation in the earliest stages. The competing dynamics of powerful short circuit currents and electrolyte poisoning interactions are evaluated via simultaneous nail penetration and poison injection of LIR2450 format LiCoO2/graphite 120 mAh coin cells. To forcibly increase electrolyte impedance, diols serve to hinder charge-carrying ion mobility by raising solution viscosity, while diamines disrupt solvent permittivity by rapidly polymerizing the ethylene carbonate solvent. Diamines demonstrate great potency, and are suitable for integration into battery cells within chemically-inert, breakable containers, rigged for release upon mechanical activation. Mixtures of 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-ethanediamine show synergistic poisoning effects, decreasing peak temperature accrued by 70% when introduced simultaneously upon nail penetration. With the innate presence and abundance of diols and diamines in electric vehicle heat exchangers, they may be employed for multifunctional applications.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of LATP/PAN composite fiber-based lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yinzheng; Lin Zhan; Qiu Yiping; Zhang Xiangwu

    2011-01-01

    Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fiber-based membranes were prepared by electrospinning dispersions of LATP particles in PAN solutions. The electrolyte uptakes of the electrospun LATP/PAN composite fiber-based membranes were measured and the results showed that the electrolyte uptake increased as the LATP content increased. The lithium ion conductivity, the electrochemical oxidation limit and the interface resistance of liquid electrolyte-soaked electrospun LATP/PAN composite fiber-based membranes were also measured and it was found that as the LATP content increased, the electrospun LATP/PAN composite fiber-based membranes had higher lithium ion conductivity, better electrochemical stability, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium electrode. Additionally, lithium//1 M LiPF 6 /EC/EMC//lithium iron phosphate cells using LATP/PAN composite fiber-based membranes as the separator demonstrated high charge/discharge capacity and good cycle performance.

  12. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-Cu x Sb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  13. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  14. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing of fossil fuel sources and ecological worries has spurred global attention in the expansion of developing energy storing systems for electric vehicles (EVs). As a consequence of escalating appeal on new dependable power supplier for hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion (Li...... that make them interesting for researchers and producers. Thermal problem related to electric vehicle (EV) battery packs has been a matter of contention and can considerably influence battery functioning and life cycle. Temperature variations from module to module in a battery pack could result in reduced...... performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...

  15. Simulation of electrochemical behavior in Lithium ion battery during discharge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Lin, Muyi; Zhao, Li

    2018-01-01

    An electrochemical Lithium ion battery model was built taking into account the electrochemical reactions. The polarization was divided into parts which were related to the solid phase and the electrolyte mass transport of species, and the electrochemical reactions. The influence factors on battery polarization were studied, including the active material particle radius and the electrolyte salt concentration. The results showed that diffusion polarization exist in the positive and negative electrodes, and diffusion polarization increase with the conducting of the discharge process. The physicochemical parameters of the Lithium ion battery had the huge effect on cell voltage via polarization. The simulation data show that the polarization voltage has close relationship with active material particle size, discharging rate and ambient temperature. PMID:29293535

  16. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  17. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US140 for the Li-ion battery and US362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be 16.65 W -1 and 0.77 W h -1, and the energy consumption costs to be 0.00051 W h -1 and 0.00032 W h -1, respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under 0.5 kg -1. Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to 6.30 W -1, then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea.

  18. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US$140 for the Li-ion battery and US$362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be $16.65 W -1 and $0.77 W h -1 , and the energy consumption costs to be $0.00051 W h -1 and $0.00032 W h -1 , respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under $0.5 kg -1 . Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to $6.30 W -1 , then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea. (author)

  19. Sn/Al2O3/C/CNT composite prepared by wet milling as anode material for lithium-ion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sandhya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sn/Al2O3/C/CNT (SAC/CNT composite was synthesized by a simple wet milling route. The physico-chemical, structural and morphological properties of the material were studied. The electrochemical performance of the composite as an anode material in Li-ion cells was evaluated by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, charge–discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance measurements. The SAC/CNT material delivered an initial specific capacity of 835 mAh g−1 with the coulombic efficiency of ∼77% along with good charge–discharge cycle performance retaining ∼88% of the initial capacity after 35 cycles. A comparison of the results with those for Sn/C (SC and Sn/Al2O3/C (SAC showed that the SAC/CNT composite exhibited better overall performance compared to the other two materials. The enhanced performance of SAC/CNT is attributed to the combined effect of the buffer action provided by Al2O3 accommodating volume changes of the electrode during cycling and the reduced charge transfer resistance of the electrode resulting from the inclusion of conductive CNTs.

  20. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  1. Anodic Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries: TiO2-rGO Composites for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minella, M.; Versaci, D.; Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Minero, C.; Battiato, A.; Penazzi, N.; Bodoardo, S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide (TiO 2 -rGO) composites were synthesized at different loadings of carbonaceous phase, characterized and used as anode materials in Lithium-ion cells, focusing not only on the high rate capability but also on the simplicity and low cost of the electrode production. It was therefore chosen to use commercial TiO 2 , GO was synthesized from graphite, adsorbed onto TiO 2 and reduced to rGO following a chemical, a photocatalytic and an in situ photocatalytic procedure. The synthesized materials were in-depth characterized with a multi-technique approach and the electrochemical performances were correlated i) to an effective reduction of the GO oxidized moieties and ii) to the maintenance of the 2D geometry of the final graphenic structure observed. TiO 2 -rGO obtained with the first two procedures showed good cycle stability, high capacity and impressive rate capability particularly at 10% GO loading. The photocatalytic reduction applied in situ on preassembled electrodes showed similarly good results reaching the goal of a further simplification of the anode production.

  2. Characterization of the Cathode Electrolyte Interface in Lithium Ion Batteries by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Min; G Nicolau, Bruno; Esbenshade, Jennifer L; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-07-19

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed via electrolyte decomposition on the anode of lithium ion batteries is largely responsible for the stable cycling of conventional lithium ion batteries. Similarly, there is a lesser-known analogous layer on the cathode side of a lithium ion battery, termed the cathode electrolyte interface (CEI), whose composition and role are debated. To confirm the existence and composition of the CEI, desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is applied to study common lithium ion battery cathodes. We observe CEI formation on the LiMn2O4 cathode material after cycling between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs Li/Li(+) in electrolyte solution containing 1 M LiPF6 or LiClO4 in 1:1 (v/v) ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Intact poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether is identified as the electrolyte degradation product on the cathode surface by the high mass-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. When EC is paired with ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether, poly(ethylene glycol) ethyl methyl ether, and poly(ethylene glycol) are found on the surface simultaneously. The presence of ethoxy and methoxy end groups indicates both methoxide and ethoxide are produced and involved in the process of oligomerization. Au surfaces cycled under different electrochemical windows as model systems for Li-ion battery anodes are also examined. Interestingly, the identical oligomeric species to those found in the CEI are found on Au surfaces after running five cycles between 2.0 and 0.1 V vs Li/Li(+) in half-cells. These results show that DESI-MS provides intact molecular information on battery electrodes, enabling deeper understanding of the SEI or CEI composition.

  3. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikolian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests, ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model, state of charge (SoC estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT and world harmonized light vehicle profiles have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL and aged (95%, 90% state of health ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro, polarization resistance (Rp, activation resistance (Rp2 and time constants (τ is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C. The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed.

  4. Scalable 2D Mesoporous Silicon Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao; Xia, Min; Luo, Yunjun

    2018-02-05

    Constructing unique mesoporous 2D Si nanostructures to shorten the lithium-ion diffusion pathway, facilitate interfacial charge transfer, and enlarge the electrode-electrolyte interface offers exciting opportunities in future high-performance lithium-ion batteries. However, simultaneous realization of 2D and mesoporous structures for Si material is quite difficult due to its non-van der Waals structure. Here, the coexistence of both mesoporous and 2D ultrathin nanosheets in the Si anodes and considerably high surface area (381.6 m 2 g -1 ) are successfully achieved by a scalable and cost-efficient method. After being encapsulated with the homogeneous carbon layer, the Si/C nanocomposite anodes achieve outstanding reversible capacity, high cycle stability, and excellent rate capability. In particular, the reversible capacity reaches 1072.2 mA h g -1 at 4 A g -1 even after 500 cycles. The obvious enhancements can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the unique 2D mesoporous nanostructure and carbon capsulation. Furthermore, full-cell evaluations indicate that the unique Si/C nanostructures have a great potential in the next-generation lithium-ion battery. These findings not only greatly improve the electrochemical performances of Si anode, but also shine some light on designing the unique nanomaterials for various energy devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  6. Calendar aging of commercial graphite/LiFePO4 cell - Predicting capacity fade under time dependent storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolleau, Sébastien; Delaille, Arnaud; Gualous, Hamid; Gyan, Philippe; Revel, Renaud; Bernard, Julien; Redondo-Iglesias, Eduardo; Peter, Jérémy

    2014-06-01

    In applications such as electrical transportation, most of the battery life is spent under storage. Understanding and estimating aging under storage, also named as calendar aging, is therefore a prerequisite for cell life prediction. This work investigates aging behavior upon storage of a commercial 15 Ah lithium-ion graphite/iron phosphate cell. Performance decline during 450 days of storage under nine stationary conditions is analyzed using non-destructive electrochemical tests. Temperature is found to be more detrimental than State of Charge (SoC). Most often, degradation models express the accumulated degradation with respect to time and aging conditions. In this article, a simple modeling approach is proposed focusing on the degradation rate to predict capacity fade. This permits predicting cell degradation under time dependent storage conditions (SoC and temperature) which are usually experienced in real applications. Model prediction is compared to experimental calendar aging data obtained over 625 days in a controlled time dependent temperature storage conditions. Predictions are in good agreement with experimental results as the absolute error on capacity prediction never exceeds 3% over 400 days and 5% over 625 days.

  7. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  8. Investigation of the Storage Behavior of Shredded Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Recycling Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützke, Martin; Krüger, Steffen; Kraft, Vadim; Vortmann, Britta; Rothermel, Sergej; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-10-26

    Shredding of the cells is often the first step in lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling. Thus, LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC)/graphite lithium-ion cells from a field-tested electric vehicle were shredded and transferred to tinplate or plastic storage containers. The formation of hazardous compounds within, and being released from, these containers was monitored over 20 months. The tinplate cans underwent fast corrosion as a result of either residual charge in the active battery material, which could not fully be discharged because of contact loss to the current collector, or redox reactions between the tinplate surface and metal parts of the shredded material. The headspace compositions of the containers were investigated at room temperature and 150 °C using headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Samples of the waste material were also collected using microwave-assisted extraction and the extracts were analyzed over a period of 20 months using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS). LiPF6 was identified as a conducting salt, whereas dimethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were the main solvent components. Cyclohexylbenzene was also detected, which is an additive for overcharge protection. Diethyl carbonate, fluoride, difluorophosphate and several ionic and non-ionic alkyl (fluoro)phosphates were also identified. Importantly, dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were quantified using HS-GC-MS through the use of an internal standard. DMFP, DEFP, and related compounds are known as chemical warfare agents, and the presence of these materials is of great interest. In the case of this study, these hazardous materials are present but in manageable low concentrations. Nonetheless, the presence of such compounds and their potential release during an accident that may occur during shredding or recycling of large amounts of LIB waste should be considered. © 2015

  9. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansor, N.; Jorge, A. B.; Corà, F.; Gibbs, C.; Jervis, R.; McMillan, P. F.; Wang, X.; Brett, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li(+)Cl(-)), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion...

  10. Environmental Emissions from Chemical Etching Synthesis of Silicon Nanotube for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanotubes (SiNTs have been researched as a promising anode material to replace graphite in next-generation lithium ion batteries. Chemical etching synthesis of SiNTs is a simple, controllable and scalable process for SiNT fabrication, but the environmental emissions are of grave concern. In this paper, the process emissions from chemical etching synthesis of SiNTs as anode for lithium ion batteries is studied through experimental techniques, considering the categories of aqueous wastes, gaseous emissions, aqueous nano-particle emissions, and gaseous aerosol emissions. The synthesized SiNTs are measured at 10 μm length and 1–2.2 μm diameter, and can maintain a specific capacity of over 800 mAh/g after 100 cycles in battery testing. In aqueous waste, the chemical compositions of all elements participating in the chemical etching are experimentally determined, with AgNO3 and Co(NO32 identified as the major pollutants. The only gaseous emission generated from the chemical etching synthesis process is H2, with 0.0088 ± 0.0002 mol H2 generated to produce 1.0 mg SiNTs. The aqueous nanoparticle sizes are found to be between 250 nm and 1540 nm. A large number of aerosol nanoparticle emissions of up to 2.96 × 107 particles/cm3 are detected through in situ experimental measurement.

  11. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  12. High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery...

  13. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  14. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-08-08

    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  15. Laser printing and femtosecond laser structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrek, P.; Kim, H.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures have attracted great interest for the development of lithium-ion micro-batteries applicable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), sensors, and hearing aids. Since commercial available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. In case of such standard microbatteries, two-dimensional (2D) electrode arrangements are applied with thicknesses up to 200 μm. These electrode layers are composed of active material, conductive agent, graphite, and polymeric binder. Nevertheless, with respect to the type of active material, the active material to conductive agent ratio, and the film thickness, such thick-films suffer from low ionic and electronic conductivities, poor electrolyte accessibility, and finally, limited electrochemical performance under challenging conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, 3D electrode arrangements are under intense investigation since they allow the reduction of lithium-ion diffusion pathways in between inter-digitated electrodes, even for electrodes with enhanced mass loadings. In this paper, we present how to combine laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring for the development of advanced 3D electrodes composed of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC). In a first step, NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered to achieve film thicknesses in the range of 50 μm - 80 μm. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was carried out in order to generate 3D architectures directly into thick-films. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode designs suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.

  16. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  17. Nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yazami, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    ""The book has good technical depth, yet is still very readable. It contains many photos, illustrations, tables, and graphs of data that provide the reader with the insight needed to understand the phenomena being described and the processes occurring in lithium battery chemistry. Researchers as well as students studying lithium-ion batteries will find this book well worth reading. It provides insight into many different avenues for potentially improving lithium-ion battery performance. The reader will learn about these new ideas and gain a better understanding of what currently limits batt

  18. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing d0 cations. Keywords. Lithium ion conductors; lithium–lanthanum perovskites; lithium– lanthanum titanates. 1. Introduction. There is a continuous search for new materials exhibiting high lithium ion conductivity in view of their potential technological application as ...

  19. Theoretical Limits of Energy Density in Silicon-Carbon Composite Anode Based Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjan; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-06-17

    Silicon (Si) is under consideration as a potential next-generation anode material for the lithium ion battery (LIB). Experimental reports of up to 40% increase in energy density of Si anode based LIBs (Si-LIBs) have been reported in literature. However, this increase in energy density is achieved when the Si-LIB is allowed to swell (volumetrically expand) more than graphite based LIB (graphite-LIB) and beyond practical limits. The volume expansion of LIB electrodes should be negligible for applications such as automotive or mobile devices. We determine the theoretical bounds of Si composition in a Si-carbon composite (SCC) based anode to maximize the volumetric energy density of a LIB by constraining the external dimensions of the anode during charging. The porosity of the SCC anode is adjusted to accommodate the volume expansion during lithiation. The calculated threshold value of Si was then used to determine the possible volumetric energy densities of LIBs with SCC anode (SCC-LIBs) and the potential improvement over graphite-LIBs. The level of improvement in volumetric and gravimetric energy density of SCC-LIBs with constrained volume is predicted to be less than 10% to ensure the battery has similar power characteristics of graphite-LIBs.

  20. Thermal properties of lithium-ion battery and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, H.; Hallaj, S.A.; Selman, J.R. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Wang, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-03-01

    Experimental thermal property data of the Sony US-18650 lithium-ion battery and components are presented, as well as thermal property measuring techniques. The properties in question are specific heat capacity (C{sub p}), thermal diffusivity ({alpha}), and thermal conductivity ({kappa}), in the presence and absence of electrolyte [1 M LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC, 1:1 wt %)]. The heat capacity of the battery, C{sub p}, is 0.96 {+-} 0.02 J/g K at an open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 2.75 V, and 1.04 {+-} 0.02 J/g K at 3.75 V. The thermal conductivity, {kappa}, was calculated from {kappa} {identical_to} {alpha}{rho}C{sub p} where {alpha} was measured by a xenon-flash technique. In the absence of electrolyte, {kappa} increases with OCV, for both the negative electrode (NE) and the positive electrode (PE). For the NE, the increase is 26% as the OCV increases from 2.75 to 3.75 V, whereas for the PE the increase is only 5 to 6%. The dependence of both C{sub p} and {kappa} on OCV is explained qualitatively by considering the effect of lithiation and delithiation on the electron carrier density, which leads to n-type semiconduction in the graphitic NE material, but a change from semiconducting to metallic character in Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} PE material. The overall effect is an increase of C{sub p} and {kappa} with OCV. For {kappa} this dependence is eliminated by electrolyte addition, which, however, greatly increases the effective {kappa} of the layered battery components by lowering the thermal contact resistance. For both NE and PE, the in-plane {kappa} value (measured along layers) is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the cross-plane {kappa}. This is ascribed mostly to the high thermal conductivity of the current collectors and to a lesser extent to the orientation of particles in the layers of electrodes.

  1. Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite prepared by spray drying technique for lithium ion batteries anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Libao [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie Xiaohua [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Baofeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Ke [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie Jingying [Energy Science and Technology Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China) and Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)]. E-mail: jyxie@mail.sim.ac.cn

    2006-07-15

    Spherical nanostructured Si/C composite was prepared by spray drying technique, followed by heat treatment, in which nanosized silicon and fine graphite particles were homogeneously embedded in carbon matrix pyrolyzed by phenol formaldehyde resin. Cyclic voltammetry tests showed two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to lithiation and delithiation of Si/C composite. The Si/C composite exhibited a reversible capacity of 635 mAh g{sup -1} and good cycle performance used in lithium ion batteries. To improve cycle performance of this Si/C composite further, the carbon-coated Si/C composite was synthesized by the second spray drying and heat treatment processing. The cycle performance of carbon-coated Si/C composite was improved significantly, which was attributed to the formation of stable SEI passivation layers on the outer surface of carbon shell which protected the bared silicon from exposing to electrolyte directly.

  2. Advanced electrolyte/additive for lithium-ion batteries with silicon anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-08-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  3. Simulation of passive thermal management system for lithium-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Al-Hallaj, Said

    A passive thermal management system that uses a phase change material (PCM) is designed and simulated for a lithium-ion (Li-ion) laptop battery pack. The problem of low thermal conductivity of the PCM was significantly improved by impregnating an expanded graphite (EG) matrix with the PCM. The heat generation rate for a commercial 186502.2 Ah Li-ion battery was experimentally measured for various constant power discharges. Simulation of the battery pack, composed of six Li-ion batteries, shows that safe operation of the battery pack during the most extreme case requires the volume of the battery pack be almost doubled to fit sufficient PCM in the pack. Improving the properties of the PCM composite have the potential to significantly reduce the volume increase in comparison to the original battery pack volume.

  4. Natural and synthetic graphite powders: production and main industrial uses; Graphites naturels et synthetiques pulverulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, H.A. [Timcal Graphite et Carton, CH (Switzerland); L' heureux, J. [Timcal Graphite et Carton, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Large volumes of natural and synthetic graphite powders are yearly used worldwide in applications as different as alkaline and lithium-ion batteries, refractory, lubricant and carbon brushes for instance... After a short description of the conventional processes used to obtain these powders, the role of graphite material into chosen applications is detailed. (authors)

  5. Fundamental Investigation of Si Anode in Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is approximately 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of Si anode during the first cycle, the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes.

  6. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  7. Lithium ion conducting solid polymer blend electrolyte based on bio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium ion conducting polymer blend electrolyte films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) with different Mwt% of lithium nitrate (LiNO3) salt, using a solution cast technique, have been prepared. The polymer blend electrolyte has been characterized by XRD, FTIR, DSC and impedance ...

  8. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...

  9. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  10. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  11. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    , thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...... for thermal characterization of batteries. The scientific intention of this paper is to collect and systematize the state of knowledge about electrothermal impedance spectroscopy and present different measurement methods on the example of a high-power lithium battery cell and finally to discuss the prospect....

  12. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K

    2014-01-01

    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  13. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  14. Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Guangsheng; Ge, Shanhai; Xu, Terrence; Ji, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Leng, Yongjun

    2016-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries suffer severe power loss at temperatures below zero degrees Celsius, limiting their use in applications such as electric cars in cold climates and high-altitude drones. The practical consequences of such power loss are the need for larger, more expensive battery packs to perform engine cold cranking, slow charging in cold weather, restricted regenerative braking, and reduction of vehicle cruise range by as much as 40 per cent. Previous attempts to improve the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries have focused on developing additives to improve the low-temperature behaviour of electrolytes, and on externally heating and insulating the cells. Here we report a lithium-ion battery structure, the 'all-climate battery' cell, that heats itself up from below zero degrees Celsius without requiring external heating devices or electrolyte additives. The self-heating mechanism creates an electrochemical interface that is favourable for high discharge/charge power. We show that the internal warm-up of such a cell to zero degrees Celsius occurs within 20 seconds at minus 20 degrees Celsius and within 30 seconds at minus 30 degrees Celsius, consuming only 3.8 per cent and 5.5 per cent of cell capacity, respectively. The self-heated all-climate battery cell yields a discharge/regeneration power of 1,061/1,425 watts per kilogram at a 50 per cent state of charge and at minus 30 degrees Celsius, delivering 6.4-12.3 times the power of state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells. We expect the all-climate battery to enable engine stop-start technology capable of saving 5-10 per cent of the fuel for 80 million new vehicles manufactured every year. Given that only a small fraction of the battery energy is used for self-heating, we envisage that the all-climate battery cell may also prove useful for plug-in electric vehicles, robotics and space exploration applications.

  15. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  16. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Latz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  17. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-07-02

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance spectroscopy in equilibrium conditions at different lithium compositions and during several cycles of charge and discharge in a half cell vs. metallic lithium. The impedance analysis shows the contribution of both surface resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominated by a solid electrolyte layer (SEI) consisting of an inner, inorganic insoluble part and several organic compounds at the outer interface, as seen by XPS analysis. The surface resistivity, which seems to be correlated with the Coulombic efficiency of the electrode, grows at very high lithium contents due to an increase in the inorganic SEI thickness. We estimate the diffusion coefficient of about 2 × 10 -10 cm 2/s for lithium diffusion in silicon. A large increase in the electrode impedance was observed at very low lithium compositions, probably due to a different mechanism for lithium diffusion inside the wires. Restricting the discharge voltage to 0.7 V prevents this large impedance and improves the electrode lifetime. Cells cycled between 0.07 and 0.70 V vs. metallic lithium at a current density of 0.84 A/g (C/5) showed good Coulombic efficiency (about 99%) and maintained a capacity of about 2000 mAh/g after 80 cycles. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  19. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Noramalina; Jorge, A Belen; Corà, Furio; Gibbs, Christopher; Jervis, Rhodri; McMillan, Paul F; Wang, Xiaochen; Brett, Daniel J L

    2014-04-03

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li + Cl - ), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li + Cl - catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA.

  20. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  1. Ultrashort pulsed laser ablation for decollation of solid state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördemann, C.; Anand, H.; Gillner, A.

    2017-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with liquid electrolytes are the main energy source for many electronic devices that we use in our everyday lives. However, one of the main drawbacks of this energy storage technology is the use of liquid electrolyte, which can be hazardous to the user as well as the environment. Moreover, lithium-ion batteries are limited in voltage, energy density and operating temperature range. One of the most novel and promising battery technologies available to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks is the Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery (SSLB). This battery type can be produced without limitations to the geometry and is also bendable, which is not possible with conventional batteries1 . Additionally, SSLBs are characterized by high volumetric and gravimetric energy density and are intrinsically safe since no liquid electrolyte is used2-4. Nevertheless, the manufacturing costs of these batteries are still high. The existing production-technologies are comparable to the processes used in the semiconductor industry and single cells are produced in batches with masked-deposition at low deposition rates. In order to decrease manufacturing costs and to move towards continuous production, Roll2Roll production methods are being proposed5, 6. These methods offer the possibility of producing large quantities of substrates with deposited SSLB-layers. From this coated substrate, single cells can be cut out. For the flexible decollation of SSLB-cells from the substrate, new manufacturing technologies have to be developed since blade-cutting, punching or conventional laser-cutting processes lead to short circuiting between the layers. Here, ultra-short pulsed laser ablation and cutting allows the flexible decollation of SSLBs. Through selective ablation of individual layers, an area for the cutting kerf is prepared to ensure a shortcut-free decollation.

  2. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) supported cobalt- nickel sulfide (CoNi2S4) nanoparticles hybrid anode for high performance lithium ion capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Ajay; Zhou, Xuan; Blaisdell, Douglas; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-25

    Lithium ion capacitors possess an ability to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. The main concern of fabricating lithium ion capacitors is poor rate capability and cyclic stability of the anode material which uses sluggish faradaic reactions to store an electric charge. Herein, we have fabricated high performance hybrid anode material based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and cobalt-nickel sulfide (CoNi 2 S 4 ) nanoparticles via simple electrospinning and electrodeposition methods. Porous and high conducting CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode acts as an expressway network for electronic and ionic diffusion during charging-discharging processes. The effect of anode to cathode mass ratio on the performance has been studied by fabricating lithium ion capacitors with different mass ratios. The surface controlled contribution of CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode was 73% which demonstrates its excellent rate capability. Lithium ion capacitor fabricated with CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 to AC mass ratio of 1:2.6 showed excellent energy density of 85.4 Wh kg -1 with the power density of 150 W kg -1 . Also, even at the high power density of 15 kW kg -1 , the cell provided the energy density of 35 Wh kg -1 . This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid anode with the combination of simple and cost effective approaches.

  3. Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Radhakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder, and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation, the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

  4. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  5. Carbonaceous anodes for lithium-ion batteries in combination with protic ionic liquids-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne, Sebastian; Schroeder, Matthias; Vogl, Thomas; Balducci, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Protic ionic liquids (PILs) have been recently proposed as a new class of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). So far, PILs-based electrolytes have been used in combination with several battery materials, but never with carbonaceous anodes. Since graphite is the state-of-the-art anode in LIBs, the use of PILs-based electrolyte in combination with this material appears of particular importance. In this work we showed, for the first time, that PILs-based electrolytes can be successfully used also in combination with graphite. Even if the lithium intercalation and deintercalation process of these electrode materials occur outside the ESW of PILs, the addition of film-forming additive makes possible the formation of a stable SEI and, consequently, the use of PILs-based electrolytes. The results of this study indicate that the performance of graphite electrode in PILs-based electrolytes is comparable, and even slightly higher, than that observed in AIL-based electrolytes.

  6. Remaining useful life assessment of lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Ye, Hui; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prognostic study on lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices, in which a hybrid data-driven/model-based method is employed for remaining useful life assessment. The method is developed on and evaluated against data from two sets of lithium-ion prismatic cells used in implantable applications exhibiting distinct fade performance: 1) eight cells from Medtronic, PLC whose rates of capacity fade appear to be stable and gradually decrease over a 10-year test duration; and 2) eight cells from Manufacturer X whose rates appear to be greater and show sharp increase after some period over a 1.8-year test duration. The hybrid method enables online prediction of remaining useful life for predictive maintenance/control. It consists of two modules: 1) a sparse Bayesian learning module (data-driven) for inferring capacity from charge-related features; and 2) a recursive Bayesian filtering module (model-based) for updating empirical capacity fade models and predicting remaining useful life. A generic particle filter is adopted to implement recursive Bayesian filtering for the cells from the first set, whose capacity fade behavior can be represented by a single fade model; a multiple model particle filter with fixed-lag smoothing is proposed for the cells from the second data set, whose capacity fade behavior switches between multiple fade models.

  7. Thermal runaway detection of cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery under quasi-static loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Muhammad; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Elkady, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on state of charge (SOC) dependent mechanical failure analysis of 18650 lithium-ion battery to detect signs of thermal runaway. Quasi-static loading conditions are used with four test protocols (Rod, Circular punch, three-point bend and flat plate) to analyse the propagation of mechanical failures and failure induced temperature changes. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to model single battery cell with the concentric layered formation which represents a complete cell. The numerical simulation model is designed with solid element formation where stell casing and all layers followed the same formation, and fine mesh is used for all layers. Experimental work is also performed to analyse deformation of 18650 lithium-ion cell. The numerical simulation model is validated with experimental results. Deformation of cell mimics thermal runaway and various thermal runaway detection strategies are employed in this work including, force-displacement, voltage-temperature, stress-strain, SOC dependency and separator failure. Results show that cell can undergo severe conditions even with no fracture or rupture, these conditions may slow to develop but they can lead to catastrophic failures. The numerical simulation technique is proved to be useful in predicting initial battery failures, and results are in good correlation with the experimental results.

  8. Next Generation Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Thermodynamic Understanding and Abuse Performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    As we develop new materials to increase performance of lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, the impact of potential safety and reliability issues become increasingly important. In addition to electrochemical performance increases (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance behavior. Introduction of a next generation materials, such as silicon based anode, requires a full understanding of the abuse response and degradation mechanisms for these anodes. This work aims to understand the breakdown of these materials during abuse conditions in order to develop an inherently safe power source for our next generation electric vehicles. The effect of materials level changes (electrolytes, additives, silicon particle size, silicon loading, etc.) to cell level abuse response and runaway reactions will be determined using several techniques. Experimentation will start with base material evaluations in coin cells and overall runaway energy will be evaluated using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). The goal is to understand the effect of materials parameters on the runaway reactions, which can then be correlated to the response seen on larger cells (18650). Experiments conducted showed that there was significant response from these electrodes. Efforts to minimize risk during testing were taken by development of a smaller capacity cylindrical design in order to quantify materials decision and how they manifest during abuse response.

  9. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  10. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  11. Ultra-light and flexible pencil-trace anode for high performance potassium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design of battery configurations and new battery system development are alternative approaches to achieve high performance batteries. A novel flexible and ultra-light graphite anode is fabricated by simple friction drawing on filter paper with a commercial 8B pencil. Compared with the traditional anode using copper foil as current collector, this innovative current-collector-free design presents capacity improvement of over 200% by reducing the inert weight of the electrode. The as-prepared pencil-trace electrode exhibits excellent rate performance in potassium-ion batteries (KIBs, significantly better than in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, with capacity retention of 66% for the KIB vs. 28% for the LIB from 0.1 to 0.5 A g−1. It also shows a high reversible capacity of ∼230 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1, 75% capacity retention over 350 cycles at 0.4 A g−1and the highest rate performance (based on the total electrode weight among graphite electrodes for K+ storage reported so far. Keywords: Current-collector-free, Flexible pencil-trace electrode, Potassium-ion battery, Lithium-ion battery, Layer-by-layer interconnected architecture

  12. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} by electrochemical method from TiCl{sub 4} solution as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, Adrian, E-mail: adriannur@staff.uns.ac.id; Purwanto, Agus; Jumari, Arif; Dyartanti, Endah R.; Sari, Sifa Dian Permata; Hanifah, Ita Nur [Research Group of Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Metal oxide combined with graphite becomes interesting composition. TiO{sub 2} is a good candidate for Li ion battery anode because of cost, availability of sufficient materials, and environmentally friendly. TiO{sub 2} gravimetric capacity varied within a fairly wide range. TiO{sub 2} crystals form highly depends on the synthesis method used. The electrochemical method is beginning to emerge as a valuable option for preparing TiO{sub 2} powders. Using the electrochemical method, the particle can easily be controlled by simply adjusting the imposed current or potential to the system. In this work, the effects of some key parameters of the electrosynthesis on the formation of TiO{sub 2} have been investigated. The combination of graphite and TiO{sub 2} particle has also been studied for lithium-ion batteries. The homogeneous solution for the electrosynthesis of TiO{sub 2} powders was TiCl{sub 4} in ethanol solution. The electrolysis was carried out in an electrochemical cell consisting of two carbon electrodes with dimensions of (5 × 2) cm. The electrodes were set parallel with a distance of 2.6 cm between the electrodes and immersed in the electrolytic solution at a depth of 2 cm. The electrodes were connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply. The electrosynthesis was performed galvanostatically at 0.5 to 2.5 hours and voltages were varied from 8 to 12 V under constant stirring at room temperature. The resulted suspension was aged at 48 hrs, filtered, dried directly in an oven at 150°C for 2 hrs, washed 2 times, and dried again 60 °C for 6 hrs. The particle product has been used to lithium-ion battery as anode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} particle by electrochemical method at 10 V for 1 to 2.5 hrs resulted anatase and rutile phase.

  13. Reactive sintering of ceramic lithium ion electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Michael Edward; Dutta, Indrajit; Iyer, Sriram Rangarajan; Kent, Brian Alan; Lonnroth, Nadja Teresia

    2017-06-06

    Disclosed herein are methods for making a solid lithium ion electrolyte membrane, the methods comprising combining a first reactant chosen from amorphous, glassy, or low melting temperature solid reactants with a second reactant chosen from refractory oxides to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature to form a homogenized composite, wherein the first temperature is between a glass transition temperature of the first reactant and a crystallization onset temperature of the mixture; milling the homogenized composite to form homogenized particles; casting the homogenized particles to form a green body; and sintering the green body at a second temperature to form a solid membrane. Solid lithium ion electrolyte membranes manufactured according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  14. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  15. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in cobalt (Co and lithium (Li from spent lithium ion battery. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs were heated over the range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA and furthermore image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that cobalt and lithium were mainly recovered to about 49 wt.% and 4 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  16. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  17. Cost and Price Metrics for Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-02-01

    Values of current energy technology costs and prices, available from a variety of sources, can sometimes vary. While some of this variation can be due to differences in the specific materials or configurations assumed, it can also reflect differences in the definition and context of the terms "cost" and "price." This fact sheet illustrates and explains this latter source of variation in a case study of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  19. Adsorption of lithium ion to amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1982-01-01

    Adsorption process of lithium ion to amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide (a-HAO) was investigated by pH titration method with lithium chloride-lithium hydroxide mixed solution and X-ray diffraction analysis of a-HAO after pH titration. In the pH titration, the addition of hydroxide ion in amount from 0 to 4.0 mmol.g -1 gave no change to the pH of the solution and caused adsorption of lithium ion equivalent in amount to added hydroxide ion. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of lithium hydrogenaluminate LiH (AlO 2 ) 2 .5H 2 O (LHA) in the a-HAO after pH titration. These results showed that adsorption of lithium ion by a-HAO was related to a reaction which consumed hydroxide ion and formed LHA. In order to elucidate detail process of the reaction, changes of pH, aluminium concentration and lithium concentration of the solution, respectively with time, were determined. The pH of the solution decreased in two stages. At the first stage of the pH decrease, the aluminium concentration increased whereas the lithium concentration did not change. At the second stage, the lithium concentration decreased together with the decrease of the aluminium concentration. It was inferred that adsorption of lithium ion proceeded through dissolution of a-HAO and precipitation of LHA. Theoretical adsorption capacity calculated from the above formula for LHA and aluminium content in a-HAO was 4.7 mmol.g -1 and agreed fairly well with observed value 4.0 mmol.g -1 . (author)

  20. Differential voltage analysis as a tool for analyzing inhomogeneous aging: A case study for LiFePO4|Graphite cylindrical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Marongiu, Andrea; Warnecke, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-11-01

    In this work the differential voltage analysis (DVA) is evaluated for LiFePO4|Graphite cylindrical cells aged in calendaric and cyclic tests. The homogeneity of the active lithium distribution and the loss of anode active material (LAAM) are measured by the characteristic shape and peaks of the DVA. The results from this analysis exhibit an increasing homogeneity of the lithium-ion distribution during aging for all cells subjected to calendaric aging. At 60 °C, LAAM is found additionally and can be associated with the deposition of dissolved Fe from the cathode on the anode, where it finally leads to the clogging of pores. For cells aged under cyclic conditions, several phenomena are correlated to degradation, such as loss of active lithium and local LAAM for 100% DOD. Moreover, the deactivation of certain parts of anode and cathode due to a lithium-impermeable covering layer on top of the anode is observed for some cells. While the 100% DOD cycling is featured by a continuous LAAM, the LAAM due to deactivation by a covering layer of both electrodes starts suddenly. The homogeneity of the active lithium distribution within the cycled cells is successively reduced with deposited passivation layers and with LAAM that is lost locally at positions with lower external pressure on the electrode.

  1. Mesoporous Silicon Hollow Nanocubes Derived from Metal-Organic Framework Template for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Taeseung; Bok, Taesoo; Kim, Chulhyun; Na, Younghoon; Park, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S

    2017-05-23

    Controlling the morphology of nanostructured silicon is critical to improving the structural stability and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The use of removable or sacrificial templates is an effective and easy route to synthesize hollow materials. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of mesoporous silicon hollow nanocubes (m-Si HCs) derived from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as an anode material with outstanding electrochemical properties. The m-Si HC architecture with the mesoporous external shell (∼15 nm) and internal void (∼60 nm) can effectively accommodate volume variations and relieve diffusion-induced stress/strain during repeated cycling. In addition, this cube architecture provides a high electrolyte contact area because of the exposed active site, which can promote the transportation of Li ions. The well-designed m-Si HC with carbon coating delivers a high reversible capacity of 1728 mAhg -1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 80.1% after the first cycle and an excellent rate capability of >1050 mAhg -1 even at a 15 C-rate. In particular, the m-Si HC anode effectively suppresses electrode swelling to ∼47% after 100 cycles and exhibits outstanding cycle stability of 850 mAhg -1 after 800 cycles at a 1 C-rate. Moreover, a full cell (2.9 mAhcm -2 ) comprising a m-Si HC-graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode exhibits remarkable cycle retention of 72% after 100 cycles at a 0.2 C-rate.

  2. Tin–indium/graphene with enhanced initial coulombic efficiency and rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongxun; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid was firstly synthesized. • Indium in the hybrid reduces charge transfer resistance of electrode. • Graphene can accommodate the volume change of nanoparticles during cycling. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced initial coulombic efficiency. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced rate capability. -- Abstract: Tin is an attractive anode material replacing the current commercial graphite for the next generation lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretical storage capacity and energy density. However, poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling, and low rate capability frustrate its practical application. In this study, a new ternary composite based on tin–indium alloy (Sn–In) and graphene nanosheet (GNS) was prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis followed by thermal treatment in hydrogen and argon at 550 °C. Characterizations show that the tin–indium nanoparticles with about 100 nm in size were wrapped between the graphene nanosheets. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the Sn–In/GNS composite exhibits a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of lithium storage capacity (865.6 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 rate), initial coulombic efficiency (78.6%), cycling stability (83.9% capacity retention after 50 cycles), and rate capability (493.2 mAh g −1 at 600 mA g −1 rate after 25 cycles) compared to Sn/GNS and Sn–In electrode. This improvement is attributed to the introduction of lithium activity metal, indium, which reduces the charge transfer resistance of electrode, and the graphene nanosheet which accommodates the volume change of tin–indium nanoparticles during cycling and improves electrical conductivity of material

  3. Fabrication of 3-Dimensional Porous Graphene Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Jiang, Zhong-Jie; Cheng, Shuang; Liu, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure involving hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcination has been employed to synthesis porous graphene material, which exhibits significantly high electrochemical performance when used as the anode in lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A PGM been synthesized by a simple two-step process involving hydrothermal reaction and subsequent calcination. • The PGM exhibits exhibit a significantly high specific surface area. • The PGM can deliver large capacities and excellent cycling performance when used in LIBs. • The high electrochemical performance of the PGM is attributed to its unique porous structure with more disordered carbon atoms. - Abstract: A 3-dimensional porous graphene material (PGM) has been synthesized using a simple two-step process: hydrothermal reaction and calcination. Hydrothermal reaction of graphene oxide (GO) in the presence of resorcinol and glutaraldehyde leads to covalent grafting of partially reduced GO with glutaraldehyde and the deposition of phenolic resin. Subsequent calcination of the composite consisting of phenolic resin deposited on partially reduced GO in the presence of KOH produces structurally stable, highly porous graphene material with a specific surface area of ∼1,066 ± 2 m 2 g −1 . When used as an active electrode material in a lithium battery, the PGM exhibits an initial discharge capacity of ∼1,538 mAh g −1 , which is significantly higher than those of graphite and other carbonaceous materials reported previously. More importantly, when cycled at higher discharge/charge rates, the PGM-based electrodes still deliver large capacities and excellent cycling performance, demonstrating great potential for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The attractive electrochemical performance of the PGM is attributed to its unique porous structure with large specific surface area and the presence of more disordered carbon atoms produced by the KOH activation

  4. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  5. Twin boundary-assisted lithium-ion transport

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-01-14

    With the increased need for high-rate Li-ion batteries, it has become apparent that new electrode materials with enhanced Li-ion transport should be designed. Interfaces, such as twin boundaries (TBs), offer new opportunities to navigate the ionic transport within nanoscale materials. Here, we demonstrate the effects of TBs on the Li-ion transport properties in single crystalline SnO2 nanowires. It is shown that the TB-assisted lithiation pathways are remarkably different from the previously reported lithiation behavior in SnO2 nanowires without TBs. Our in situ transmission electron microscopy study combined with direct atomic-scale imaging of the initial lithiation stage of the TB-SnO2 nanowires prove that the lithium ions prefer to intercalate in the vicinity of the (101¯) TB, which acts as conduit for lithium-ion diffusion inside the nanowires. The density functional theory modeling shows that it is energetically preferred for lithium ions to accumulate near the TB compared to perfect neighboring lattice area. These findings may lead to the design of new electrode materials that incorporate TBs as efficient lithium pathways, and eventually, the development of next generation rechargeable batteries that surpass the rate performance of the current commercial Li-ion batteries.

  6. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  7. Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) anion based ionic liquid as an additive for lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciencese Division; Liao, Chen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciencese Division; Baggetto, Loïc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Guo, Bingkun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciencese Division; Unocic, Raymond R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Veith, Gabriel M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciencese Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-02-21

    Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. But, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. We report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. Additionally, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

  8. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Investigation of lithium ion battery electrolytes containing flame retardants in combination with the film forming electrolyte additives vinylene carbonate, vinyl ethylene carbonate and fluoroethylene carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagger, Tim; Grützke, Martin; Reichert, Matthias; Haetge, Jan; Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to address the trade-off between the safety lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes and their electrochemical performance, synergetic effects of flame retardant additives (FRs) in combination with film forming additives (FFAs) are investigated. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and a silicon-containing additive (WA) are applied as FRs to improve the onset temperature of the thermal runaway of a LIB standard electrolyte (LP57: 1 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC 3:7) about 15 K and 28 K, respectively. The application of the FRs in MCMB graphite/lithium metal and NMC111/lithium metal three-electrode cells induces insufficiencies in terms of charge/discharge cycling stability and rate capability. It is investigated if the addition of FFAs can degrade the insufficiencies that are induced by the FRs. Vinylene carbonate, vinyl ethylene carbonate and fluoroethylene carbonate are added to a mixture of LP57 with 10% FR to enhance the cycling performance via improved interphase formation. Results reveal, that the rate capability of cells containing TPP or WA is especially improved by addition of 2% or 5% FEC, respectively. Postmortem analyses of the electrodes by SEM and of the electrolyte by GC-MS are performed. Direct correlations between the cycling behavior during the C-rate study and the electrolyte decomposition products are drawn.

  10. Toward practical all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and safety: Comparative study for electrodes fabricated by dry- and slurry-mixing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Oh, Dae Yang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2018-01-01

    Owing to their potential for greater safety, higher energy density, and scalable fabrication, bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) employing deformable sulfide superionic conductors are considered highly promising for applications in battery electric vehicles. While fabrication of sheet-type electrodes is imperative from the practical point of view, reports on relevant research are scarce. This might be attributable to issues that complicate the slurry-based fabrication process and/or issues with ionic contacts and percolation. In this work, we systematically investigate the electrochemical performance of conventional dry-mixed electrodes and wet-slurry fabricated electrodes for ASLBs, by varying the different fractions of solid electrolytes and the mass loading. This information calls for a need to develop well-designed electrodes with better ionic contacts and to improve the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes. As a scalable proof-of-concept to achieve better ionic contacts, a premixing process for active materials and solid electrolytes is demonstrated to significantly improve electrochemical performance. Pouch-type 80 × 60 mm2 all-solid-state LiNi0·6Co0·2Mn0·2O2/graphite full-cells fabricated by the slurry process show high cell-based energy density (184 W h kg-1 and 432 W h L-1). For the first time, their excellent safety is also demonstrated by simple tests (cutting with scissors and heating at 110 °C).

  11. Electrochemical behavior of LiCoO2 as aqueous lithium-ion battery electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2009-02-01

    Despite the large number of studies on the behavior of LiCoO2 in organic electrolytes and its recent application as a positive electrode in rechargeable water battery prototypes, a little information is available about the lithium intercalation reaction in this layered compound in aqueous electrolytes. This work shows that LiCoO2 electrodes can be reversibly cycled in LiNO3 aqueous electrolytes for tens of cycles at remarkably high rates with impressive values specific capacity higher than 100 mAh/g, and with a coulomb efficiency greater than 99.7%. Stable and reproducible cycling measurements have been made using a simple cell design that can be easily applied to the study of other intercalation materials, assuming that they are stable in water and that their intercalation potential range matches the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte. The experimental arrangement uses a three-electrode flooded cell in which another insertion compound acts as a reversible source and sink of lithium ions, i.e., as the counter electrode. A commercial reference electrode is also present. Both the working and the counter electrodes have been prepared as thin layers on a metallic substrate using the procedures typical for the study of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries in organic solvent electrolytes. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of 18650 format lithium ion battery vent mechanism flow parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Frank Austin; Hargather, Michael; Ferreira, Summer

    2017-11-01

    Under abuse conditions, decomposition reactions within a lithium-ion battery can lead to gas generation resulting in an internal pressure increase. To mitigate the risk of case rupture, commercially available lithium batteries generally contain a pressure relief vent. However, the process of cell venting still presents risks associated with the flow of flammable gases and liquid electrolyte. To better understand this flow, tests are performed on vent mechanisms from the commonly available 18650 format of lithium-ion battery. Experimentally determined flow parameters include opening pressure, effective area, and coefficient of discharge. The batteries tested have a vent mechanism located on the cell's positive terminal which presents a unique geometry. A test fixture was designed and constructed to pressurize the vent mechanism from a disassembled battery to the point of opening, at which point the opening pressure is recorded. Measurements of stagnation pressure within an accumulator and static pressure in a known cross-sectional area are used to solve for the opening area of the vent with compressible-isentropic flow relationships. An additional measurement of stagnation temperature allows for calculation of mass flow rate out of the system and thus coefficient of discharge. This work was funded by the US DOE OE's Energy Storage Program under contract SAND2017-8019 A.

  13. Parameter Identification of Electrochemical Model for Vehicular Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic characteristics of power batteries directly affect the performance of electric vehicles, and the mathematical model is the basis for the design of a battery management system (BMS.Based on the electrode-averaged model of a lithium-ion battery, in view of the solid phase lithium-ion diffusion equation, the electrochemical model is simplified through the finite difference method. By analyzing the characteristics of the model and the type of parameters, the solid state diffusion kinetics are separated, and then the cascade parameter identifications are implemented with Particle Swarm Optimization. Eventually, the validity of the electrochemical model and the accuracy of model parameters are verified through 0.2–2 C multi-rates battery discharge tests of cell and road simulation tests of a micro pure electric vehicle under New European Driving Cycle (NEDC conditions. The results show that the estimated parameters can guarantee the output accuracy. In the test of cell, the voltage deviation of discharge is generally less than 0.1 V except the end; in road simulation test, the output is close to the actual value at low speed with the error around ±0.03 V, and at high speed around ±0.08 V.

  14. Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Orcioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment.

  15. Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Lifetime Models and Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications...... of the Li-ion battery and its degradation behavior is required. Thus, this paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behavior of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Li-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured...... is their higher cost—in comparison with other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods—combined with performance-degradation uncertainties. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper operation of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime...

  16. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  17. Enhancing Near Zero Volt Storage Tolerance of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Kyle R.

    There are inherent safety risks associated with inactive lithium ion batteries leading to greater restrictions and regulations on shipping and storage. Maintaining all cells of a lithium ion battery at near zero voltage with an applied fixed resistive load is one promising approach which can lessen (and potentially eliminate) the risk of a lithium ion battery entering thermal runaway when in an inactive state. However, in a conventional lithium ion cell, a near zero cell voltage can be damaging if the anode electrochemical potential increases to greater than the potential where dissolution of the standard copper current collector occurs (i.e. 3.1 V vs. Li/Li+ at room temperature). Past approaches to yield lithium ion cells that are resilient to a near zero volt state of charge involve use of secondary active materials or alternative current collectors which have anticipated tradeoffs in terms of cell performance and cost. In the the present dissertation work the approach of managing the amount of reversible lithium in a cell during construction to prevent the anode potential from increasing to greater than 3.1 V vs. Li/Li+ during near zero volt storage is introduced. Anode pre-lithiation was used in LiCoO 2/MCMB pouch cells to appropriately manage the amount of reversible lithium so that there is excess reversible lithium compared to the cathodes intercalation capacity (reversible lithium excess cell or RLE cell). RLE LiCoO 2/MCMB cells maintained 99% of their original capacity after three, 3-day and three, 7-day storage periods at near zero volts under fixed load. A LiCoO2/MCMB pouch cell fabricated with a pre-lithiated anode also maintained its original discharge performance after three, 3-day storage periods under fixed load at 45°C. The strong recharge performance after near zero volt storage is attributed to the anode potential remaining below the copper dissolution potential during near zero volt storage as informed by reference electrode measurements. Pulse

  18. Graphene-Based Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the superior mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, graphene was a perfect candidate to improve the performance of lithium ion batteries. Herein, we review the recent advances in graphene-based composites and their application as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. We focus on the synthesis methods of graphene-based composites and the superior electrochemical performance of graphene-based composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Dual-carbon enhanced silicon-based composite as superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Dai-Huo; Wang, Ying-Ying; Hou, Bao-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Rong-Shun; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-03-01

    Dual-carbon enhanced Si-based composite (Si/C/G) has been prepared via employing the widely distributed, low-cost and environmentally friendly Diatomite mineral as silicon raw material. The preparation processes are very simple, non-toxic and easy to scale up. Electrochemical tests as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) demonstrate that this Si/C/G composite exhibits much improved Li-storage properties in terms of superior high-rate capabilities and excellent cycle stability compared to the pristine Si material as well as both single-carbon modified composites. Specifically for the Si/C/G composite, it can still deliver a high specific capacity of about 470 mAh g-1 at an ultrahigh current density of 5 A g-1, and exhibit a high capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with excellent capacity retention in the following 300 cycles. The significantly enhanced Li-storage properties should be attributed to the co-existence of both highly conductive graphite and amorphous carbon in the Si/C/G composite. While the former can enhance the electrical conductivity of the obtained composite, the latter acts as the adhesives to connect the porous Si particulates and conductive graphite flakes to form robust and stable conductive network.

  20. Enhancement of Electrochemical Stability about Silicon/Carbon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon/carbon (Si/C composite anode materials are successfully synthesized by mechanical ball milling followed by pyrolysis method. The structure and morphology of the composite are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results show that the composite is composed of Si, flake graphite, and phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, and Si and flake graphite are enwrapped by phenolic resin-pyrolyzed carbon, which can provide not only a good buffering matrix but also a conductive network. The Si/C composite also shows good electrochemical stability, in which the composite anode material exhibits a high initial charge capacity of 805.3 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 and it can still deliver a high charge capacity of 791.7 mAh g−1 when the current density increases to 500 mA g−1. The results indicate that it could be used as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Capacity fade modelling of lithium-ion battery under cyclic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Chung, Yongmann M.; Wang, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) electro-chemical lithium-ion battery model is presented in this paper to study the capacity fade under cyclic charge-discharge conditions. The Newman model [1,2] has been modified to include a continuous solvent reduction reaction responsible for the capacity fade and power fade. The temperature variation inside the cell is accurately predicted using a distributed thermal model coupled with the internal chemical heat generation. The model is further improved by linking the porosity variation with the electrolyte partial molar concentration, thereby proving a stronger coupling between the battery performance and the chemical properties of electrolyte. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth is estimated for different cut-off voltages and charging current rates. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the porosity variation influences the SEI layer growth and the battery life significantly. The choice of an electrolyte decides the conductivity and partial molar concentration, which is found to have a strong influence on the capacity fade of the battery. The present battery model integrates all essential electro-chemical processes inside a lithium-ion battery under a strong implicit algorithm, proving a useful tool for computationally fast battery monitoring system.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  3. A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juner; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the downside is that accidents will be more violent due to battery inevitable explosion. With today's technology, severe crashes involving intrusion into the battery pack will potentially result in a thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. Most of research on lithium-ion batteries have been concerned with the electrochemistry of cells. However, in most cases failure and thermal runaway is caused by mechanical loading due to crash events. There is a growing need to summarize the already published results on mechanical loading and response of batteries and offer a critical evaluation of work in progress. The objective of this paper is to present such review with a discussion of many outstanding issues and outline of a roadmap for future research.

  4. Silk Fibroin Separators: A Step Toward Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rui F P; Brito-Pereira, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Renato; Silva, Marco P; Costa, Carlos M; Silva, Maria Manuela; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2018-02-14

    Battery separators based on silk fibroin (SF) have been prepared aiming at improving the environmental issues of lithium-ion batteries. SF materials with three different morphologies were produced: membrane films (SF-F), sponges prepared by lyophilization (SF-L), and electrospun membranes (SF-E). The latter materials presented a suitable porous three-dimensional microstructure and were soaked with a 1 M LiPF 6 electrolyte. The ionic conductivities for SF-L and SF-E were 1.00 and 0.32 mS cm -1 at 20 °C, respectively. A correlation between the fraction of β-sheet conformations and the ionic conductivity was observed. The electrochemical performance of the SF-based materials was evaluated by incorporating them in cathodic half-cells with C-LiFePO 4 . The discharge capacities of SF-L and SF-E were 126 and 108 mA h g -1 , respectively, at the C/2-rate and 99 and 54 mA h g -1 , respectively, at the 2C-rate. Furthermore, the capacity retention and capacity fade of the SF-L membrane after 50 cycles at the 2C-rate were 72 and 5%, respectively. These electrochemical results show that a high percentage of β-sheet conformations were of prime importance to guarantee excellent cycling performance. This work demonstrates that SF-based membranes are appropriate separators for the production of environmentally friendlier lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Cathode solid electrolyte interface’s function originated from salt type additives in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yu; Park, Juyeon; Yokotsuji, Hokuto; Odawara, Makoto; Takase, Hironari; Ue, Makoto; Lee, Maeng-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our chemical analysis determines the important functional groups of cathode’s solid electrolyte interface originated from salt type additives. • Our quantum chemical calculation reveals the redox character of the additives and their candidate chemical components of the solid electrolyte interface. • Our molecular dynamics simulation reproduces the selective lithium ion translocation and protective layer formation as the solid electrolyte interface function. - Abstract: This is the study about the cathode’s solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation mechanism of salt type additives (STAs) and its function. To address this issue, we performed several types of chemical analysis and computer simulation techniques. In order to reveal the redox nature and oxidative decomposition dynamics, the electrolyte (EL) solution dynamics by Quantum mechanics and Molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method was applied. The estimation of SEI chemical components agrees with our chemical analyses data and other group’s reports. The molecular dynamics simulation of sub micro second sampling indicates that the SEI phase induced from STAs functions as a lithium ion selective translocation media and protective coating layer against the degradation of the solvent molecules. The results give us an insight how to design additive’s chemical structure to improve longevity of the cell in the high voltage regime.

  6. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  7. Aerosol-assisted extraction of silicon nanoparticles from wafer slicing waste for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hee Dong; Kim, Hyekyoung; Chang, Hankwon; Kim, Jiwoong; Roh, Kee Min; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Cho, Bong-Gyoo; Park, Eunjun; Kim, Hansu; Luo, Jiayan; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-03-30

    A large amount of silicon debris particles are generated during the slicing of silicon ingots into thin wafers for the fabrication of integrated-circuit chips and solar cells. This results in a significant loss of valuable materials at about 40% of the mass of ingots. In addition, a hazardous silicon sludge waste is produced containing largely debris of silicon, and silicon carbide, which is a common cutting material on the slicing saw. Efforts in material recovery from the sludge and recycling have been largely directed towards converting silicon or silicon carbide into other chemicals. Here, we report an aerosol-assisted method to extract silicon nanoparticles from such sludge wastes and their use in lithium ion battery applications. Using an ultrasonic spray-drying method, silicon nanoparticles can be directly recovered from the mixture with high efficiency and high purity for making lithium ion battery anode. The work here demonstrated a relatively low cost approach to turn wafer slicing wastes into much higher value-added materials for energy applications, which also helps to increase the sustainability of semiconductor material and device manufacturing.

  8. Faster-Than-Real-Time Simulation of Lithium Ion Batteries with Full Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Mazumder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional coupled electrochemical-thermal model of a lithium ion battery with full temporal and normal-to-electrode spatial resolution is presented. Only a single pair of electrodes is considered in the model. It is shown that simulation of a lithium ion battery with the inclusion of detailed transport phenomena and electrochemistry is possible with faster-than-real-time compute times. The governing conservation equations of mass, charge, and energy are discretized using the finite volume method and solved using an iterative procedure. The model is first successfully validated against experimental data for both charge and discharge processes in a LixC6-LiyMn2O4 battery. Finally, it is demonstrated for an arbitrary rapidly changing transient load typical of a hybrid electric vehicle drive cycle. The model is able to predict the cell voltage of a 15-minute drive cycle in less than 12 seconds of compute time on a laptop with a 2.33 GHz Intel Pentium 4 processor.

  9. High Cycle Life, Low Temperature Lithium Ion Battery for Earth Orbiting and Planetary Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires development of advanced rechargeable electrochemical battery systems for lithium ion batteries to support orbiting spacecraft and planetary missions....

  10. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  11. Electrospun polyimide-composite separator for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayapat, Jaritphun; Chung, Ok Hee; Park, Jun Seo

    2015-01-01

    Non-woven mats of thermally stable polyimide (PI) composites were fabricated as a separator of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by first electrospinning a mixture of the pre-polymer, poly(amic acid) ammonium salt (PAAS), and inorganic nanoparticles of SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 and then imidizing the electrospun nanofibers of the PAAS composites at 350 °C. The microstructures of the electrospun PI nanofibers, electrospun PI–SiO 2 -composite nanofibers, electrospun PI–Al 2 O 3 -composite nanofibers, and the commercial separator SV718 were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Test results of the thermal properties of the PI nanofibers, PI-composite nanofibers, and SV718, obtained with a thermal gravimetric analyzer and a differential scanning calorimeter, indicate the superior thermal stability of PI and PI composites, which showed no melting peak and no decomposition at 600 °C, while SV718 had a melting peak at 137 °C and decomposed at 300 °C. The thermal stability of the separators, evaluated in a hot-oven test, showed no shrinkage of PI and PI composites at 200 °C, while SV718 started to shrink at above 100 °C. Using a drop of liquid electrolyte on the surface of each separator, the electrolyte contact angle on PI and PI composites was around 10° and that on SV718 was 54°, indicating that PI and PI composites had better wettability than SV718. The porosity and liquid-electrolyte uptake of the PI composites were over 90% and 790%, respectively, while the corresponding values for SV718 were 40% and 101%, respectively, implying that the separators consisting of the non-woven mats of PI–SiO 2 -composite nanofibers and PI–Al 2 O 3 -composite nanofibers had lower interfacial resistance than the commercial SV718 separator. The electrochemical performance of the PI-composite separator assembled between the LiCoO 2 cathode and the Li anode of an LIB exhibited more stable cycle performance, higher discharge

  12. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  13. MnO2 prepared by hydrothermal method and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Two α-MnO2 crystals with caddice-clew-like and urchin-like morphologies are prepared by the hydrothermal method, and their structure and electrochemical performance are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), galvanostatic cell cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The morphology of the MnO2 prepared under acidic condition is urchin-like, while the one prepared under neutral condition is caddice-clew-like. The identical crystalline phase of MnO2 crystals is essential to evaluate the relationship between electrochemical performances and morphologies for lithium-ion battery application. In this study, urchin-like α-MnO2 crystals with compact structure have better electrochemical performance due to the higher specific capacity and lower impedance. We find that the relationship between electrochemical performance and morphology is different when MnO2 material used as electrochemical supercapacitor or as anode of lithium-ion battery. For lithium-ion battery application, urchin-like MnO2 material has better electrochemical performance. PMID:24982603

  14. Scalable integration of Li5FeO4 towards robust, high-performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lim, Young-Geun; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have attracted great interest due to their high specific energy relative to conventional electrical double-layer capacitors. Nevertheless, the safety issue still remains a drawback for lithium-ion capacitors in practical operational environments because of the use of metallic lithium. Herein, single-phase Li5FeO4 with an antifluorite structure that acts as an alternative lithium source (instead of metallic lithium) is employed and its potential use for lithium-ion capacitors is verified. Abundant Li(+) amounts can be extracted from Li5FeO4 incorporated in the positive electrode and efficiently doped into the negative electrode during the first electrochemical charging. After the first Li(+) extraction, Li(+) does not return to the Li5FeO4 host structure and is steadily involved in the electrochemical reactions of the negative electrode during subsequent cycling. Various electrochemical and structural analyses support its superior characteristics for use as a promising lithium source. This versatile approach can yield a sufficient Li(+)-doping efficiency of >90% and improved safety as a result of the removal of metallic lithium from the cell. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Spinal Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferg, E

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available Anodes of Li4Mn5O12, Li4Ti5O12, and Li2Mn4O9 with a spinel-type structure have been evaluated in room-temperature lithium cells. The cathodes that were selected for this study were the stabilized spinels, Li1.03Mn1.97O4 and LiZn0.025Mn1.95O4...

  16. Application of C{sub 60}, C{sub 72} and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Meysam, E-mail: meysamnajafi2016@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    The application of C{sub 60}, C{sub 72}, CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V{sub cell}) and adsorption energy (E{sub ad}) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C{sub 60} and C{sub 72} ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH{sub 2} functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH{sub 2} functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH{sub 2} functionalized C{sub 72} and CNT (10, 0) have larger V{sub cell} and E{sub ad} values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C{sub 60} and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V{sub cell} and E{sub ad} of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C{sub 60} and C{sub 72} ca. • NH{sub 2} functionalization of C{sub 60} improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  18. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Incremental Capacity Analysis of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Different Charging Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Nyborg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    the experimental conditions. Several ICA research studies have been performed on various Li-ion chemistries and several mathematical approaches have been employed to obtain the differential curves, with most studies however to be focused on a cell level analysis. In the present work, we have performed an in......-depth investigation of two battery packs composed of 14 Lithium-ion cells each; for the purpose of evaluating the applicability and the challenges of the ICA on a battery pack level by means of different charging current rates. Also, at a certain charging current, the influence of the temperature on the ICA curves......Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) is a method used to investigate the capacity state of health of batteries by tracking the electrochemical properties of the cell. It is based on the differentiation of the battery capacity over the battery voltage, for a full or a partial cycle regarding...

  20. A degradation-based sorting method for lithium-ion battery reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available In a world where millions of people are dependent on batteries to provide them with convenient and portable energy, battery recycling is of the utmost importance. In this paper, we developed a new method to sort 18650 Lithium-ion batteries in large quantities and in real time for harvesting used cells with enough capacity for battery reuse. Internal resistance and capacity tests were conducted as a basis for comparison with a novel degradation-based method based on X-ray radiographic scanning and digital image contrast computation. The test results indicate that the sorting accuracy of the test cells is about 79% and the execution time of our algorithm is at a level of 200 milliseconds, making our method a potential real-time solution for reusing the remaining capacity in good used cells.

  1. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  2. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  3. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  4. Composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries: status and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs is constituted by carbon-based materials that exhibit a limited specific capacity 372 mAh g−1 associated with the cycle between C and LiC6. Therefore, many efforts are currently made towards the technological development nanostructured materials in which the electrochemical processes occurs as intercalation, alloying or conversion reactions with a good accommodation of dilatation/contraction during cycling. In this review, attention is focused on advanced anode composite materials based on carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, titanium and conversion anode composite based on transition-metal oxides.

  5. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  6. Silicene: A Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincheng; Xu, Xun; Peleckis, Germanas; Hao, Weichang; Dou, Shi Xue; Du, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Silicene, a single-layer-thick silicon nanosheet with a honeycomb structure, is successfully fabricated by the molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) deposition method on metallic substrates and by the solid-state reaction method. Here, recent progress on the features of silicene that make it a prospective anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are discussed, including its charge-carrier mobility, chemical stability, and metal-silicene interactions. The electrochemical performance of silicene is reviewed in terms of both theoretical predictions and experimental measurements, and finally, its challenges and outlook are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Advances on Microsized On-Chip Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Weng, Qunhong; Lu, Xueyi; Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lin; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-12-01

    Development of microsized on-chip batteries plays an important role in the design of modern micro-electromechanical systems, miniaturized biomedical sensors, and many other small-scale electronic devices. This emerging field intimately correlates with the topics of rechargeable batteries, nanomaterials, on-chip microfabrication, etc. In recent years, a number of novel designs are proposed to increase the energy and power densities per footprint area, as well as other electrochemical performances of microsized lithium-ion batteries. These advances may guide the pathway for the future development of microbatteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as phosphates and silicates as cathode materials, will also be discussed.

  9. Interconnected α-Fe2O3 nanosheet arrays as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dandan; Li, Dongdong; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials with structure stability and binder-free are urgently required for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays directly grown on Ti foil were fabricated via a facile galvanostatic electrodeposition method followed by thermal treatment. The as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 has an open network structure constituted of interconnected nanosheets and can be directly used as integrated electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays exhibit a high reversible capacity of 986.3 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Moreover, a reversible capacity of ca. 425.9 mAh g −1 is achieved even at a superhigh current density of 10 A g −1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of commercially used graphite. The excellent performance could be attributed to the efficient electron transport, the large electrode/electrolyte interfaces and the good accommodations for volume expansion from the interconnected nanosheet arrays structure.

  10. Electrochemical cell studies on fluorinated natural graphite in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Lithium battery; low temperature; fluoroester additive; organic electrolyte; natural graphite. 1. Introduction. In recent years, the application of the carboneous materials are widely dispersed in all form of the energy storage devices such as lithium battery, fuel cell and capacitor applications due to their safety,.

  11. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES POTENTIALLY STREAMING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Halutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models in the electrical parameters of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries are developed. The developed model parameters (discharge mode are identified out of family of discharging curve. By using of the parameters of this model we get the numerically model of lithium-ion battery.

  12. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  13. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  14. Thermal modeling of cylindrical lithium ion battery during discharge cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Dong Hyup; Baek, Seung Man

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. → This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. → A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. → The contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate. → The contribution of heat source due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. - Abstract: Transient and thermo-electric finite element analysis (FEA) of cylindrical lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was presented. The simplified model by adopting a cylindrical coordinate was employed. This model provides the thermal behavior of Li-ion battery during discharge cycle. The mathematical model solves conservation of energy considering heat generations due to both joule heating and entropy change. A LiCoO 2 /C battery at various discharge rates was investigated. The temperature profile from simulation had similar tendency with experiment. The temperature profile was decomposed with contributions of each heat sources and was presented at several discharge rates. It was found that the contribution of heat source due to joule heating was significant at a high discharge rate, whereas that due to entropy change was dominant at a low discharge rate. Also the effect of cooling condition and the LiNiCoMnO 2 /C battery were analyzed for the purpose of temperature reduction.

  15. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  16. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg −1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li + ) window at current density of 100 mAg −1 , respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg −1 ) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg −1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  17. A review of laser electrode processing for development and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm

    2018-02-01

    Laser processes for cutting, annealing, structuring, and printing of battery materials have a great potential in order to minimize the fabrication costs and to increase the electrochemical performance and operational lifetime of lithium-ion cells. Hereby, a broad range of applications can be covered such as micro-batteries, mobile applications, electric vehicles, and stand-alone electric energy storage devices. Cost-efficient nanosecond (ns)-laser cutting of electrodes was one of the first laser technologies which were successfully transferred to industrial high-energy battery production. A defined thermal impact can be useful in electrode manufacturing which was demonstrated by laser annealing of thin-film electrodes for adjusting of battery active crystalline phases or by laser-based drying of composite thick-film electrodes for high-energy batteries. Ultrafast or ns-laser direct structuring or printing of electrode materials is a rather new technical approach in order to realize three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures. Three-dimensional electrode configurations lead to a better electrochemical performance in comparison to conventional 2D one, due to an increased active surface area, reduced mechanical tensions during electrochemical cycling, and an overall reduced cell impedance. Furthermore, it was shown that for thick-film composite electrodes an increase of electrolyte wetting could be achieved by introducing 3D micro-/nano-structures. Laser structuring can turn electrodes into superwicking. This has a positive impact regarding an increased battery lifetime and a reliable battery production. Finally, laser processes can be up-scaled in order to transfer the 3D battery concept to high-energy and high-power lithium-ion cells.

  18. Lithium-ion battery models: a comparative study and a model-based powerline communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saidani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, various Lithium-ion (Li-ion battery models are evaluated according to their accuracy, complexity and physical interpretability. An initial classification into physical, empirical and abstract models is introduced. Also known as white, black and grey boxes, respectively, the nature and characteristics of these model types are compared. Since the Li-ion battery cell is a thermo-electro-chemical system, the models are either in the thermal or in the electrochemical state-space. Physical models attempt to capture key features of the physical process inside the cell. Empirical models describe the system with empirical parameters offering poor analytical, whereas abstract models provide an alternative representation. In addition, a model selection guideline is proposed based on applications and design requirements. A complex model with a detailed analytical insight is of use for battery designers but impractical for real-time applications and in situ diagnosis. In automotive applications, an abstract model reproducing the battery behavior in an equivalent but more practical form, mainly as an equivalent circuit diagram, is recommended for the purpose of battery management. As a general rule, a trade-off should be reached between the high fidelity and the computational feasibility. Especially if the model is embedded in a real-time monitoring unit such as a microprocessor or a FPGA, the calculation time and memory requirements rise dramatically with a higher number of parameters. Moreover, examples of equivalent circuit models of Lithium-ion batteries are covered. Equivalent circuit topologies are introduced and compared according to the previously introduced criteria. An experimental sequence to model a 20 Ah cell is presented and the results are used for the purposes of powerline communication.

  19. Mesoporous wormholelike carbon with controllable nanostructure for lithium ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Xinxi; Li, Zhenghui; Zhang, Guoqing; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wormholelike carbon (WMC) with controllable nanostructure is prepared by sol–gel method. • The reversible capacity of WMC is much higher than that of many other reported nanocarbons. • The effect of pore diameter on Li storage capacity is investigated. - Abstract: A class of mesoporous wormholelike carbon (WMC) with controllable nanostructure was prepared by sol–gel method and then used as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries. Based on the experimental results, it is found that the nanostructure of the as-prepared WMC plays an important role in the electrochemical performances. A suitable mesopore size is necessary for a high performance carbon-based anode material since it can not only guarantee effective mass transport channels but also provide large surface area. As a result, F30 with a mesopore size of 4.4 nm coupled with high surface area of 1077 m 2 g −1 shows a reversible capacity of 630 mAh g −1 , much higher than commercial graphite and many other reported nanocarbons

  20. Influence of surface functional groups on lithium ion intercalation of carbon cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Xia, Wei; Klink, Stefan; La Mantia, Fabio; Muhler, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Commercial carbon cloth made of PAN-based carbon fibres was used as free-standing anode for lithium intercalation. The role of surface functional groups on the specific irreversible charge loss and reversible charge during the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions into carbon cloth has been investigated. Oxygen groups have been introduced by nitric acid vapour treatment and subsequently gradually removed by thermal treatment at different temperatures in He or H 2 atmosphere as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear correlation between the amount of surface-bound oxygen groups and the irreversible specific charge was observed. Three irreversible processes were distinguished during the first cathodic scan: (i) reduction of oxygen groups, (ii) formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and (iii) presumably exfoliation. The latter one was only observed for samples with low surface oxygen concentration, and its contribution to the irreversible capacity was small due to the low graphitization degree of the samples. An increased specific reversible charge upon increasing the amount of oxygen-containing groups was observed with the main improvement above 1.5 V.

  1. Influence of H2 reduction on lignin-based hard carbon performance in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Zhen-zhen; Yu, Bao-jun; Wang, Cheng-yang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Lignin as a by-product of fuel alcohol industry is used to prepare hard carbon materials by acetone extraction, stabilization in N 2 at 300 °C, carbonization in N 2 and subsequent H 2 reduction at 800 °C. The effect of H 2 reduction after carbonization process on the performances of the prepared samples is systematically studied and a simple mechanism is proposed. Excitingly, it is demonstrated that the process of H 2 reduction has a favorable influence on both structures and electrochemical performances of pyrolysis sample and an obvious improvement of capacity performance is obtained with reduction treatment. A first discharge/ charge capacity of 882.2/550.5 mA h g −1 (coulombic efficiency (CE) of 62.4%) is achieved at 0.1 C (1C = 372 mA g −1 ), and even after 200 cycles at 2 C a charge capacity of 228.8 mA h g −1 (about 92.8% retention ratio) remains and CE is above 99% during cycles for H 2 reduced sample. The fabulous electrochemical performance could be attributed to high purity of acetone-extracted lignin, low surface oxygen-containing functional groups and relatively high graphitization degree of reduction sample. In a word, both the simple pyrolysis process and excellent electrochemical performance make lignin-based hard carbon a promising anode material for high-capacity and high-stability lithium ion batteries (LIBs)

  2. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Tao; Li, Na; Li, Qianwen; Xing, Zheng; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ▪. Highlights: ► We demonstrate the in situ template synthesis of hollow carbon octahedra. ► The shell thickness of hollow carbon octahedra is only 2.5 nm. ► Morphology transformation could be realized by extending of reaction time. ► The hollow structures show reversible capacity as 353 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: Hollow carbon octahedra with an average size of 300 nm and a shell thickness of 2.5 nm were prepared by a reaction starting from ferrocene and Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 ·4H 2 O at 700 °C for 10 h. They became compressed and turned into deflated balloon-like octahedra when the reaction time was increased to 16 h. It was proposed that the gas pressure generated during the reaction process induced the transformation from broken carbon hollow octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed octahedra. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the as-obtained carbon products possess a graphitic structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that they have low crystallinity. Their application as an electrode shows reversible capacity of 353 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles in the charge/discharge experiments of secondary lithium ion batteries.

  3. Anode Design Based on Microscale Porous Scaffolds for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Choi, Hyelim; Nam, Kyungju; Lee, Sukyung; Um, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyungbae; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub; Choe, Heeman

    2017-06-01

    Considering the increasing demands for advanced power sources, present-day lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) must provide a higher energy and power density and better cycling stability than conventional LIBs. This study suggests a promising electrode design solution to this problem using Cu, Co, and Ti scaffolds with a microscale porous structure synthesized via freeze-casting. Co3O4 and TiO2 layers are uniformly formed on the Co and Ti scaffolds, respectively, through a simple thermal heat-treatment process, and a SnO2 layer is formed on the Cu scaffold through electroless plating and thermal oxidation. This paper characterizes and evaluates the physical and electrochemical properties of the proposed electrodes using scanning electron microscopy, four-point probe and coin-cell tests to confirm the feasibility of their potential use in LIBs.

  4. Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqi, Shi; Jian, Gao; Yue, Liu; Yan, Zhao; Qu, Wu; Wangwei, Ju; Chuying, Ouyang; Ruijuan, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372228 and 11234013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), and Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900).

  5. Shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator with improved thermal and electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkwon; Lee, Won-Yeol; Kim, Ki Jae; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun

    2016-02-01

    A shutdown-functionalized nonwoven separator (SFNS) with improved thermal and electrochemical stabilities is prepared by a simple dip coating method for use in lithium-ion battery (LiB) applications. The SFNS shows thermal stability at 200 °C, while providing shutdown functionality at approximately 140 °C, similar to commercial porous polyethylene separators. The surface-coated polymer prevents leakage current problems and in addition, shows air permeability values similar to that of bare nonwoven separators, while maintaining a thickness of about 20 μm, which is a desired attribute of effective separators for LiBs. The SFNS also shows increased electrolyte uptake and higher conductivity, compared to a bare polyethylene separator. Therefore, a cell with the SFNS exhibits higher discharge capacity and better cycle property than that with a porous polyethylene separator. These results suggest that SFNS is an effective separator for high-performance LiBs.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of a Photopatternable Lithium-Ion Conducting Solid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Christopher S; Lau, Jonathan; Hur, Janet; Smith, Leland; Wang, Chunlei; Dunn, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    One of the important considerations for the development of on-chip batteries is the need to photopattern the solid electrolyte directly on electrodes. Herein, the photopatterning of a lithium-ion conducting solid electrolyte is demonstrated by modifying a well-known negative photoresist, SU-8, with LiClO 4 . The resulting material exhibits a room temperature ionic conductivity of 52 µS cm -1 with a wide electrochemical window (>5 V). Half-cell galvanostatic testing of 3 µm thin films spin-coated on amorphous silicon validates its use for on-chip energy-storage applications. The modified SU-8 possesses excellent mechanical integrity, is thermally stable up to 250 °C, and can be photopatterned with micrometer-scale resolution. These results present a promising direction for the integration of electrochemical energy storage in microelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Preparation and application of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lin; Lv, Ruitao; Kang, Feiyu; Gan, Lin; Shen, Wanci

    CNTs with bamboo-like structure (B-CNTs) has been prepared via a CVD process with novel carbon precursor. The potential application of B-CNTs as electric conductive additive and anode materials for lithium ion batteries was explored. The EIS spectra prove that it is better electric conductive additive than multiwalled CNTs and traditional carbon black (CB). The electric resistance of the electrode is decreased around 20 Ω when B-CNTs is used instead of CB. The cycle stability is also enhanced. However, the test cell with B-CNTs as anode material shows low reversible capacity of 135 mAh g -1 and very low initial cycle efficiency of 17.3%, which indicates that so-prepared B-CNTs is not suitable for anode material.

  8. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  9. Direct measurement of lithium transport in graphite electrodes using neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owejan, Jon P.; Gagliardo, Jeffrey J.; Harris, Stephen J.; Wang, Howard; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatiotemporal measurements of lithium through the electrode thickness were quantified with high resolution neutron imaging. ► A nonuniform lithium distribution was observed early in the first intercalation cycle but relaxed as the electrode filled with lithium. ► Through-plane transport resistance in the bulk of the graphite composite electrode was measured. ► The distribution of lost capacity associated with trapped lithium was quantified and linked to regions with low intercalation rates. - Abstract: Lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes is widely studied, but few direct in situ diagnostic methods exist. Such diagnostic methods are desired to probe the influence of factors such as charge rate, electrode structure and solid electrolyte interphase layer transport resistance as they relate to lithium-ion battery performance and durability. In this work, we present a continuous measurement of through-plane lithium distributions in a composite graphite/lithium metal electrochemical cell. Capacity change in a thick graphite electrode was measured during several charge/discharge cycles with high resolution (14 μm) neutron imaging. A custom test fixture and a method for quantifying lithium are described. The measured lithium distribution within the graphite electrode is given as a function of state of charge. Bulk transport resistance is considered by comparing intercalation rates through the thickness of the electrode near the separator and current collector. The residual lithium content associated with irreversible capacity loss that results from cycling is also measured.

  10. Adsorption of single Li and the formation of small Li clusters on graphene for the anode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, W T; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Singh, David J

    2013-08-28

    We analyzed the adsorption of Li on graphene in the context of anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using first-principles methods including van der Waals interactions. We found that although Li can reside on the surface of defect-free graphene under favorable conditions, the binding is much weaker than to graphite and the concentration on a graphene surface is not higher than in graphite. At low concentration, Li ions spread out on graphene because of Coulomb repulsion. With increased Li content, we found that small Li clusters can be formed on graphene. Although this result suggests that graphene nanosheets can conceivably have a higher ultimate Li capacity than graphite, it should be noted that such nanoclusters can potentially nucleate Li dendrites, leading to failure. The implications for nanostructured carbon anodes in batteries are discussed.

  11. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-05-26

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  12. Suppressing propylene carbonate decomposition by coating graphite electrode foil with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.P.; Fu, L.J.; Zhang, T.; Wu, Y.P.; Takamura, T.; Wu, H.Q.; Holze, R.

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to suppress the decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) by coating graphite electrode foil with a layer of silver. Results from electrochemical impedance measurements show that the Ag-coated graphite electrode presents lower charge transfer resistance and faster diffusion of lithium ions in comparison with the virginal one. Cyclic voltammograms and discharge-charge measurements suggest that the decomposition of propylene carbonate and co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions are prevented, and lithium ions can reversibly intercalate into and deintercalate from the Ag-coated graphite electrode. These results indicate that Ag-coating is a good way to improve the electrochemical performance of graphitic carbon in PC-based electrolyte solutions

  13. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  15. Lithium ion battery peformance of silicon nanowires with carbon skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Timothy D; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chongmin; Korgel, Brian A

    2014-01-28

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g(-1) for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g(-1) when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  16. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  17. Lithium-Ion Battery Cycling for Magnetism Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyun; Luo, Xi; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Lifang; Khalid, Bilal; Gong, Jianghong; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-13

    Magnetization and electric-field coupling is fundamentally interesting and important. Specifically, current- or voltage-driven magnetization switching at room temperature is highly desirable from scientific and technological viewpoints. Herein, we demonstrate that magnetization can be controlled via the discharge-charge cycling of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) with rationally designed electrode nanomaterials. Reversible manipulation of magnetism over 3 orders of magnitude was achieved by controlling the lithiation/delithiation of a nanoscale α-Fe2O3-based electrode. The process was completed rapidly under room-temperature conditions. Our results indicate that in addition to energy storage LIBs, which have been under continuous development for several decades, provide exciting opportunities for the multireversible magnetization of magnetic fields.

  18. Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Tsuda, H.; Sasao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li - current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li - current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li - upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions

  19. Use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B.; Patterson, D.; Camilleri, S.

    An account is given of the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack used in the Northern Territory University's solar car, Fuji Xerox Desert Rose, which competed in the 1999 World Solar Challenge (WSC). The reasons for the choice of Li-ion batteries over silver-zinc batteries are outlined, and the construction techniques used, the management of the batteries, and the battery protection boards are described. Data from both pre-race trialling and race telemetry, and an analysis of both the coulombic and the energy efficiencies of the battery are presented. It is concluded that Li-ion batteries show a real advantage over other commercially available batteries for traction applications of this kind.

  20. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  1. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  2. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO 3 /C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g −1 . •Co, Li 2 CO 3 , Li 2 O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO 3 . -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , SrCO 3 , BaCO 3 , K 2 CO 3 , CoCO 3 ) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO 3 is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g −1 . The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO 3 is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO 3 and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li 2 CO 3 , and then partial Li 2 CO 3 is further reduced into carbon (C 0 ), low-valence carbon (C 2+ ), and Li 2 O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO 3 and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO 3 /Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO 3 , ball-milled CoCO 3 and ball-milled CoCO 3 /C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity

  3. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  4. Running Test of VVVF Inverter Type Railcar Using Lithium Ion Battery

    OpenAIRE

    OGIHARA, Takashi; YAMANAKA, Shigenobu

    2009-01-01

    Lithium ion battery was applied to the running of VVVF inverter type railcar. 15kWh of Mn type lithium ion battery was used. The relation between running time and voltage, current and integrating watt was investigated. The running test was also carried out using VVVF inverter type railcar to investigate charge performance due to regenerative energy. Lithium ion battery module was quickly charged for three times at rate of 4.68C by regenerative braking system. It was estimated that the effect ...

  5. Suggested Operation Grid-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  6. Operation of Grid -Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System for Primary Frequency Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    there are worldwide demonstration projects where energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries are evaluated for such applications, the field experience is still very limited. In consequence, at present there are no very clear requirements on how the Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems should...... be operated while providing frequency regulation service and how the system has to re-establish its SOC once the frequency event has passed. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effect on the lifetime of the Lithium-ion batteries energy storage system of various strategies for re...

  7. Synthesis of bismuth sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composites and their electrochemical properties for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhou, Chengkun; Huang, Lei; Wang, Xiwen; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Bi 2 S 3 /reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal route and exhibited an extraordinary capacity of 1073.1 mAh g −1 with excellent cycling stability and high rate capability as anode material of lithium ion battery. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the introduction of RGO sheets that not only buffer the large volume changes during the alloy/dealloy reaction of Li and Bi, but also provide a highly conductive network for rapid electron transport in electrode during electrochemical reaction. -- Highlights: •Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composites were in situ prepared by one-pot hydrothermal route. •The Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles are homogeneous dispersion on the RGO sheets. •Bi 2 S 3 /RGO exhibits excellent cycling stability and high rate capability. •This work will also of interest for supercapacitor and solar cells. -- Abstract: A simple one-pot hydrothermal route was developed to synthesize bismuth sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composites (Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composites) in this work. The morphology and crystalline structure of the obtained products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that graphite oxide (GO) sheets were in situ reduced to a certain extent. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation indicated that the Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles, with a size of 80–100 nm in length, are anchored on RGO sheets. Electrochemical tests show the Bi 2 S 3 /RGO composite exhibits an extraordinary capacity of 1073.1 mAh g −1 with excellent cycling stability and high rate capability compared to pure Bi 2 S 3 particles prepared by a similar route in the absence of GO. The enhancement in the electrochemical performance could be attributed to the introduction of RGO sheets

  8. A reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Quan; Wang, Zili; Ren, Yi; Sun, Bo; Yang, Dezhen; Feng, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    With the rapid development of lithium-ion battery technology in the electric vehicle (EV) industry, the lifetime of the battery cell increases substantially; however, the reliability of the battery pack is still inadequate. Because of the complexity of the battery pack, a reliability design method for a lithium-ion battery pack considering the thermal disequilibrium is proposed in this paper based on cell redundancy. Based on this method, a three-dimensional electric-thermal-flow-coupled model, a stochastic degradation model of cells under field dynamic conditions and a multi-state system reliability model of a battery pack are established. The relationships between the multi-physics coupling model, the degradation model and the system reliability model are first constructed to analyze the reliability of the battery pack and followed by analysis examples with different redundancy strategies. By comparing the reliability of battery packs of different redundant cell numbers and configurations, several conclusions for the redundancy strategy are obtained. More notably, the reliability does not monotonically increase with the number of redundant cells for the thermal disequilibrium effects. In this work, the reliability of a 6 × 5 parallel-series configuration is the optimal system structure. In addition, the effect of the cell arrangement and cooling conditions are investigated.

  9. Influence of water contamination and conductive additives on the intercalation of lithium into graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, F.; Rykart, B.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Spahr, M.E.; Monnier, A. [Timcal AG, Sins (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The irreversible charge loss in the first cycle of lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed as a function of water contamination of the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the improvement of the electrode cycle life due to conductive additives to graphite is demonstrated. (author) 5 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Surface chemistry and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase on silicon nanowire lithium-ion battery anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Candace K.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have the potential to perform as anodes for lithium-ion batteries with a much higher energy density than graphite. However, there has been little work in understanding the surface chemistry of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on silicon due to the reduction of the electrolyte. Given that a good, passivating SEI layer plays such a crucial role in graphite anodes, we have characterized the surface composition and morphology of the SEI formed on the SiNWs using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have found that the SEI is composed of reduction products similar to that found on graphite electrodes, with Li2CO3 as an important component. Combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the results were used to determine the optimal cycling parameters for good cycling. The role of the native SiO2 as well as the effect of the surface area of the SiNWs on reactivity with the electrolyte were also addressed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Layered double hydroxides for preparing CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as anodes of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xu; Ma, Jingjing; Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Yang, Xia, E-mail: xiayang2@swu.edu.cn

    2017-06-15

    In the field of lithium-ion batteries, CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as an anode material has attracted a wide attention because it inherited the splendid electrochemical performances of Mn and Co-based metal oxides. Compared to graphite, Co-based oxides have a higher capacity which is about twice of the graphite. Moreover, Mn-based oxides have lower operating voltages and manganese exists abundantly in nature. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), similar with brucite structure, were used as precursor for CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in this work. Under high temperature process, the LDHs decomposed to CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles behaved good electrochemical performance with the discharge and charge capacity of 733 mAh g{sup -1} and 721 mAh g{sup -1} at current density of 200 mA g{sup -1} after 100 cycles. This method for preparing CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is easy, which may provide a way for synthesis of other bimetallic oxides and anodes of lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Layered double hydroxides were employed as precursors to synthesize CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The CoMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles behaved good electrochemical performance. • This study provides a guideline for preparing bimetallic oxides.

  12. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  13. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  14. Evaluation of different methods for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches are presen......The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches...... are presented for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc current pulses are the most used ones; each of these approaches has its own advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this paper is to investigate which of the most encountered impedance measurement...... approaches is the most suitable for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing....

  15. In Situ Monitoring of Temperature inside Lithium-Ion Batteries by Flexible Micro Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA, notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  16. A Phase I Program to Improve Low Temperature Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are attractive candidates for use as power sources in aerospace applications because they have high specific energy ( up to 200 Wh/kg)...

  17. Nano-Composite Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Microbatteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TPL Inc. proposes to develop a novel, high performance, nanostructured cathode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. The proposed approach will modify lithium...

  18. Novel Anodes for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TIAX proposes to develop as a novel negative electrode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This material will fill the gap between the...

  19. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  20. Non-Flammable, High Voltage Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrolyte will be demonstrated for lithium ion batteries with increased range of charge and discharge voltages and with improved fire safety. Experimental...

  1. Remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As lithium-ion batteries are an efficient energy storage mechanism, their use in vehicles is increasing to support electrification : to meet increasing average mileage and decreasing greenhouse gas emission standards. Principles of environmentalism :...

  2. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  3. High power and high energy lithium-ion batteries for under-water applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitzendanner, R.; Puglia, F.; Martin, C.; Carmen, D.; Jones, E.; Eaves, S.

    Lithium-ion batteries have demonstrated excellent energy density, reliability, and life in commercial applications. Several new Navy and undersea applications are emerging that need the high energy density and high power capabilities that the lithium-ion technology offers. Such applications have historically utilized silver-zinc technology for their power source. However, life cycle costs, maintenance and logistics issues, and wet-life limitations are true detriments in these applications. Lithium-ion technology has demonstrated the energy and power density of silver-zinc, but with much improved cycle life, shelf life, and low maintenance properties. For these reasons, and others, many under water applications are looking to lithium-ion to provide the performance of the silver-zinc system, but at a greatly reduced life-cycle cost.

  4. Mechanism of the entire overdischarge process and overdischarge-induced internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries connected in series are prone to be overdischarged. Overdischarge results in various side effects, such as capacity degradation and internal short circuit (ISCr). However, most of previous research on the overdischarge of a cell was terminated when the cell voltage dropped to 0 V, leaving the further impacts of overdischarge unclear. This paper investigates the entire overdischarge process of large-format lithium-ion batteries by discharging the cell to −100% state of charge (SOC). A significant voltage platform is observed at approximately −12% SOC, and ISCr is detected after the cell is overdischarged when passing the platform. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the overdischarge-induced ISCr is caused by Cu deposition on electrodes, suggesting possible Cu collector dissolution at the voltage platform near −12% SOC. A prognostic/mechanistic model considering ISCr is used to evaluate the resistance of ISCr (RISCr), the value of which decreases sharply at the beginning of ISCr formation. Inducing the ISCr by overdischarge is effective and well controlled without any mechanical deformation or the use of a foreign substance. PMID:27444934

  5. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  6. Solvent effect on the extraction and transport of lithium ions by polyethylene glycols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D; Sharma, U

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of lithium picrate, 2,4-dinitrophenolate and 2-nitrophenolate and their transport through membranes by di-, tri- and tetraethylene glycols as carriers are studied. Organic solvents considered as extractants and liquid membranes in terms of lithium ions extraction and transfer are arranged in the following series: methylene chloride ≥ dichloroethane ≥ chloroform ≥ carbon tetrachloride. Diethylene glycol proved the most effective solvent for lithium ions extraction and transport [ru

  7. Development of an aluminum-laminated lithium-ion battery for hybrid electric vehicle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, K. [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-1-1 Ohmikacho, Hitachi, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Koishikawa, Y.; Yagi, Y.; Horiba, T. [Hitachi Vehicle Energy, Ltd., 2200 Oka, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0297 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    We have developed a lithium ion cell using an aluminum-laminated sheet casing for its container, and we estimated the reliability of the heat-sealing for the casing and the life characteristic for the cell. The tensile strength of the heat-sealed margin soaked in electrolyte solvent was found to fade in proportion to square root of the soaking time. The weight loss of dummy cells was in proportion to the storage time, which implies that the solvent molecules diffuse through the aluminum-laminated sheet, namely in the layer of polypropylene resin which heat-sealed the cell. The specific energy for the prototype cell with capacity of 2 Ah was 57 Wh kg{sup -1}, which was 30% higher than that of our previous cylindrical can-type cell with capacity of 3.6 Ah. The specific power was 3800 W kg{sup -1} at 25 C, which was 25% higher than that of our previous cell. These results indicate that the mass reduction by introducing the aluminum-laminated casing enhanced the specific energy and power effectively without any loss of reliability or life characteristics. (author)

  8. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  9. All-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries - paving the way to large-scale production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Joscha; Günther, Till; Knoche, Thomas; Vieider, Christoph; Köhler, Larissa; Just, Alexander; Keller, Marlou; Passerini, Stefano; Reinhart, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    Challenges and requirements for the large-scale production of all-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries are herein evaluated via workshops with experts from renowned research institutes, material suppliers, and automotive manufacturers. Aiming to bridge the gap between materials research and industrial mass production, possible solutions for the production chains of sulfide and oxide based all-solid-state batteries from electrode fabrication to cell assembly and quality control are presented. Based on these findings, a detailed comparison of the production processes for a sulfide based all-solid-state battery with conventional lithium-ion cell production is given, showing that processes for composite electrode fabrication can be adapted with some effort, while the fabrication of the solid electrolyte separator layer and the integration of a lithium metal anode will require completely new processes. This work identifies the major steps towards mass production of all-solid-state batteries, giving insight into promising manufacturing technologies and helping stakeholders, such as machine engineering, cell producers, and original equipment manufacturers, to plan the next steps towards safer batteries with increased storage capacity.

  10. Carbon-graphite component for an electrochemical cell and method for making the component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R.C. Jr.

    1987-06-02

    A method is described for making a carbon-graphite component suited for use in an electrochemical cell, comprising: forming a precursor sheet structure consisting essentially of a mixture of cellulose fibers, purified graphite particles and a carbonizable, thermosetting resin wherein the cellulose fibers support and position the purified graphite particles; heating the sheet structure to a first temperature range to carbonize the cellulose fibers and thermosetting resin wherein the carbonized resin bonds the carbonized cellulose fibers and graphite particles together; and heating the sheet structure to a second, higher temperature range to graphitize the carbonized cellulose fibers and resin.

  11. Enhanced separator properties by thermal curing of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate-based gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Man; Poliquit, Beta Zenia; Lee, Young-Gi; Won, Jeongha; Ko, Jang Myoun; Cho, Won Il

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PEGDA-based gel polymer electrolytes are synthesized on separator via thermal polymerization of PEGDA with a thermal initiator and a LiPF 6 -/EC/DMC solution. • The nonwoven PVdF separator shows good absorption of gel polymer electrolytes due to high porosity and good compatibility with the precursor solution. • The inclusion of the PEGDA-based gel polymer electrolytes prolongs the cycle life through a better capacity retention ratio in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Porous polyethylene (PE) or nonwoven poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) separator-supported gel polymer electrolytes are realized by thermal polymerization of a precursor solution consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) and an electrolyte solution (1 M LiPF 6 in an equal-volume mixture of ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate). The polymerization conditions are optimized to include a PEGDA content of 3 wt.% in the precursor solution and subsequent heat treatment at 80 °C for 10 min. Even though the gelled PEGDA electrolyte has a lower ionic conductivity than the electrolyte solution, a Li x CoO 2 /graphite full-cell that has a gel electrolyte with optimized PEGDA content on the PVdF separator achieves a battery performance superior to the one with PE. The best battery performances achieved are a high discharge capacity (116 mAh g −1 ), a good high-rate capability (95 mAh g −1 at 5.0 C-rate), and a high capacity retention ratio (90%) after the 100th cycle. This enhancement is due to the incorporation of a polar electrolyte solution that is entrapped by the polar PEGDA matrix within the nonwoven PVdF separator, which is a more suitable host that is able to well absorb and preserve the gel electrolyte

  12. Simulation of lithium ion battery replacement in a battery pack for application in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, M.; Kong, Q. H.; McGrory, J.; Fowler, M.

    2017-05-01

    The design and optimization of the battery pack in an electric vehicle (EV) is essential for continued integration of EVs into the global market. Reconfigurable battery packs are of significant interest lately as they allow for damaged cells to be removed from the circuit, limiting their impact on the entire pack. This paper provides a simulation framework that models a battery pack and examines the effect of replacing damaged cells with new ones. The cells within the battery pack vary stochastically and the performance of the entire pack is evaluated under different conditions. The results show that by changing out cells in the battery pack, the state of health of the pack can be consistently maintained above a certain threshold value selected by the user. In situations where the cells are checked for replacement at discrete intervals, referred to as maintenance event intervals, it is found that the length of the interval is dependent on the mean time to failure of the individual cells. The simulation framework as well as the results from this paper can be utilized to better optimize lithium ion battery pack design in EVs and make long term deployment of EVs more economically feasible.

  13. Reprint of 'Suppressing propylene carbonate decomposition by coating graphite electrode foil with silver'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.P.; Fu, L.J.; Zhang, T.; Takamura, T.; Wu, H.Q. [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Y.P. [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institut fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Holze, R. [Institut fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2007-12-20

    A method has been developed to suppress the decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) by coating graphite electrode foil with a layer of silver. Results from electrochemical impedance measurements show that the Ag-coated graphite electrode presents lower charge transfer resistance and faster diffusion of lithium ions in comparison with the virginal one. Cyclic voltammograms and discharge-charge measurements suggest that the decomposition of propylene carbonate and co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions are prevented, and lithium ions can reversibly intercalate into and deintercalate from the Ag-coated graphite electrode. These results indicate that Ag-coating is a good way to improve the electrochemical performance of graphitic carbon in PC-based electrolyte solutions. (author)

  14. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-04-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g-1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances.

  15. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  16. A Crossed Pack-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Quasi-Resonant LC Converter with Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Equalization Control for Series-connected Lithium-Ion Battery Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Yunlong; Zhang, Chenghui; Cui, Naxin

    2015-01-01

    and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Furthermore, an adaptive fuzzy logic control (AFLC) algorithm is employed to online regulate the equalization period according to the voltage difference between cells and the cell voltage, not only greatly abbreviating the balancing time but also effectively preventing over......The equalization speed, efficiency, and control are the key issues of battery equalization. This paper proposes a crossed pack-to-cell equalizer based on quasi-resonant LC converter (QRLCC). The battery string is divided into M modules, and each module consists of N series-connected cells...

  17. Performance evaluation of a non-woven lithium ion battery separator prepared through a paper-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosong

    2014-06-01

    Porous separator functions to electrically insulate the negative and positive electrodes yet communicate lithium ions between the two electrodes when infiltrated with a liquid electrolyte. The separator must fulfill numerous requirements (e.g. permeability, wettability, and thermal stability) in order to optimize the abuse tolerance and electrochemical performance of a battery. Non-woven mat separators have advantages such as high porosity and heat resistance. However, their applications in lithium ion batteries are very limited as their inadequate pore structures could cause accelerated battery performance degradation and even internal short. This work features the development of thermally stable non-woven composite separators using a low cost paper-making process. The composite separators offer significantly improved thermal dimensional stability and exhibit superior wettability by the liquid electrolyte compared to a conventional polypropylene separator. The open porous structures of the non-woven composite separators also resulted in high effective ionic conductivities. The electrochemical performance of the composite separators was tested in coin cells. Stable cycle performances and improved rate capabilities have been observed for the coin cells with these composite separators.

  18. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  19. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shui, J.L.; Zhang, S.L.; Wei, X.; Xiang, Y.J.; Xie, S.; Zhu, C.F.; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship

  20. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Shui, J.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xiang, Y.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhu, C.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-05

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship.

  1. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  2. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Cheng, Pengle

    2017-01-01

    Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC) is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic–plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM) model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM) model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis. PMID:28746390

  3. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    Full Text Available Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic-plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis.

  4. Complementary Strategies Toward the Aqueous Processing of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4Lithium-Ion Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Matthias; Bresser, Dominic; Diemant, Thomas; Carvalho, Diogo Vieira; Kim, Guk-Tae; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-02-09

    Increasing the environmental benignity of lithium-ion batteries is one of the greatest challenges for their large-scale deployment. Toward this end, we present herein a strategy to enable the aqueous processing of high-voltage LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) cathodes, which are considered highly, if not the most, promising for the realization of cobalt-free next-generation lithium-ion cathodes. Combining the addition of phosphoric acid with the cross-linking of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by means of citric acid, aqueously processed electrodes with excellent performance are produced. The combined approach offers synergistic benefits, resulting in stable cycling performance and excellent coulombic efficiency (98.96 %) in lithium-metal cells. Remarkably, this approach can be easily incorporated into standard electrode preparation processes with no additional processing step. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Prelithiated silicon nanowires as an anode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; McDowell, Matthew T; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Lithium ion irradiation of standard and oxygenated silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Candelori, A; Bisello, D; Giubilato, P; Kaminski, A; Litovchenko, A P; Lozano, A; Petrie, J R; Rando, R; Ullán, M; Wyss, J

    2004-01-01

    The next generation silicon detectors for future very high luminosity colliders or a possible LHC upgrade scenario will require radiation- hard detectors for fluences up to 10/sup 16/ 1-MeV equivalent neutrons/cm/sup 2/. These high fluences present strong constraints because long irradiation times are required at the currently available proton irradiation facilities. Energetic (58 MeV) lithium ions present a non-ionizing energy loss approximately=27.3 times higher than 27 MeV protons, and could consequently be a new promising radiation source for investigating the radiation hardness of silicon detectors up to very high particle fluences. Starting from this premise, we have investigated the degradation, as measured by the leakage current density increase and depletion voltage variations in the short and long-term characteristics, induced by 58 MeV Li ions in state-of-the-art silicon diodes processed by two different manufacturers on standard and oxygenated silicon substrates. Finally, the correlation between t...

  7. LEVIS lithium ion source experiments on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Lopez, M.; Clark, B.F.; Schroeder, J.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Carlson, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    PBFA-II is a pulsed power generator designed to apply up to a 25 MV, 20 ns pulse to a focusing 15 cm-radius Applied-B ion diode for inertial confinement fusion applications. Several different approaches have been pursued to produce a high-purity (> 90%), high-current density (5--10 kA/cm 2 ) singly ionized lithium ion source for acceleration in this diode. In addition to having high source purity, such a source should be active, i.e. the ions should be produced before the power pulse arrives, to provide better electrical coupling from the accelerator to the diode. In the LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source) process, energy from two lasers impinges on a thin (500 nm) lithium or lithium-bearing film on an insulating substrate. The authors will discuss a new series of LEVIS experiments, with a number of improvements: (1) the laser distribution cone was redesigned, resulting in a more uniform illumination of the 4 cm-tall Li-producing surface; (2) the anode surface is being slow-heated to 120--150 C to help drive off contaminants; and (3) they have expanded the number of source and beam diagnostics

  8. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  9. Reutilization of the expired tetracycline for lithium ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongying; Dai, Zhipeng; Liu, Xianxi; Yao, Yuan; Liao, Qishu; Yu, Chengyi; Li, Dongdong

    2018-02-24

    Waste antibiotics into the natural environment are the large challenges to the environmental protection and the human health, and the unreasonable disposal of the expired antibiotics is a major pollution source. Herein, to achieve the innocent treatment and the resource recovery, the expired tetracycline was tried to be reutilized as the electrode active material in lithium ion battery (LIB) for the first time. The micro-structure and element component of the expired tetracycline were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the corresponding electrochemical performances were also investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). To be satisfactory, the expired-tetracycline-based electrode delivered the initial specific discharge capacity of 371.6mAh/g and the reversible specific capacity of 304.1mAh/g after 200cycles. The decent results will not only offer an effective strategy to recycle the expired tetracycline, but also shed a new light on the cyclic economy and the sustainable development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian

    2011-08-23

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out of them, either the cathode or the anode needs to be prelithiated. Here, we present a method for prelithiating a silicon nanowire (SiNW) anode by a facile self-discharge mechanism. Through a time dependence study, we found that 20 min of prelithiation loads ∼50% of the full capacity into the SiNWs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the nanostructure of SiNWs is maintained after prelithiation. We constructed a full battery using our prelithiated SiNW anode with a sulfur cathode. Our work provides a protocol for pairing lithium-free electrodes to make the next-generation high-energy LIB. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Optimization of Layered Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Julien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a survey of the literature on recent progress in lithium-ion batteries, with the active sub-micron-sized particles of the positive electrode chosen in the family of lamellar compounds LiMO2, where M stands for a mixture of Ni, Mn, Co elements, and in the family of yLi2MnO3•(1 − yLiNi½Mn½O2 layered-layered integrated materials. The structural, physical, and chemical properties of these cathode elements are reported and discussed as a function of all the synthesis parameters, which include the choice of the precursors and of the chelating agent, and as a function of the relative concentrations of the M cations and composition y. Their electrochemical properties are also reported and discussed to determine the optimum compositions in order to obtain the best electrochemical performance while maintaining the structural integrity of the electrode lattice during cycling.

  12. Investigating and Optimizing Interfacial Properties of Electrode Materials for Lithium-ion and Sodium-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Judith Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The current commercial lithium ion battery utilizes “host-guest” electrodes that allow for the intercalation of lithium between the crystal lattice of the anode and cathode materials. The lithium ions are transported through the electrolyte medium during the charge/discharge process, Given their success, lithium ion batteries have now penetrated the electric vehicle market and large scale grid storage, which require batteries with much higher energy densities. To meet this demand, alternative...

  13. Bioinspired, Spine-Like, Flexible, Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guoyu; Zhu, Bin; Liao, Xiangbiao; Zhai, Haowei; Srinivasan, Arvind; Fritz, Nathan Joseph; Cheng, Qian; Ning, Mingqiang; Qie, Boyu; Li, Yi; Yuan, Songliu; Zhu, Jia; Chen, Xi; Yang, Yuan

    2018-01-31

    The rapid development of flexible and wearable electronics proposes the persistent requirements of high-performance flexible batteries. Much progress has been achieved recently, but how to obtain remarkable flexibility and high energy density simultaneously remains a great challenge. Here, a facile and scalable approach to fabricate spine-like flexible lithium-ion batteries is reported. A thick, rigid segment to store energy through winding the electrodes corresponds to the vertebra of animals, while a thin, unwound, and flexible part acts as marrow to interconnect all vertebra-like stacks together, providing excellent flexibility for the whole battery. As the volume of the rigid electrode part is significantly larger than the flexible interconnection, the energy density of such a flexible battery can be over 85% of that in conventional packing. A nonoptimized flexible cell with an energy density of 242 Wh L -1 is demonstrated with packaging considered, which is 86.1% of a standard prismatic cell using the same components. The cell also successfully survives a harsh dynamic mechanical load test due to this rational bioinspired design. Mechanical simulation results uncover the underlying mechanism: the maximum strain in the reported design (≈0.08%) is markedly smaller than traditional stacked cells (≈1.1%). This new approach offers great promise for applications in flexible devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF 6 electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF 6 salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature

  15. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  16. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  17. Cryogenic plasma-processed silicon microspikes as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion-batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joe; Luais, Erwann; Wolfman, Jérôme; Tillocher, Thomas; Dussart, Rémi; Tran-Van, Francois; Ghamouss, Fouad

    2017-10-01

    Micro- or nano-structuring is essential in order to use Si as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. In the present study, we attempted to use Si wafers with a spiky microstructure (SMS), the so-called black-Si, prepared by a cryogenic reactive ion etching process with an SF6/O2 gas mixture, for Li half-cells. The SMS with various sizes of spikes from 2.0 μm (height) × 0.2 μm (width) to 21 μm × 1.0 μm was etched by varying the SF6/O2 gas flow ratio. An anode of SMS of 11 μm-height in average showed stable charge/discharge capacity and Coulombic efficiency higher than 99% for more than 300 cycles, causing no destruction to any part of the Si wafer. The spiky structure turned columnar after cycles, suggesting graded lithiation levels along the length. The present results suggest a strategy to utilize a wafer-based Si material for an anode of a lithium ion battery durable against repetitive lithiation/delithiation cycles.

  18. Electrochemical properties of Super P carbon black as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanamuthu, RM.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel attempt of Super P carbon black as an anode active material for lithium-ion batteries. → The first discharge capacity was approximately 1256 mAh g -1 and at the end of 20th cycling the capacity was 610 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C rate. → Coulombic efficiency of Super P carbon black electrode was maintained about 84% at the end of cycling. - Abstract: A new approach to investigate upon the electrochemical properties of Super P carbon black anode material is attempted and compared with conventional mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers (MPCFs) anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The prepared Super P carbon black electrodes are characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The assembled 2032-type coin cells are electrochemically characterized by ac impedance spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric methods. The electrochemical performance of charge and discharge was analyzed using a battery cycler at 0.1 C rate and cut-off potentials of 1.20 and 0.01 V vs. Li/Li + . The electrochemical test illustrates that the discharge capacity corresponding to Li intercalation into the Super P carbon black electrode is higher and coulombic efficiency is maintained approximately 84% at the end of the 20th cycling at room temperature.

  19. Bio-synthesis participated mechanism of mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite microspheres for lithium ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; He, W.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    -assembly mechanisms of iron phosphate by means of the Langmuir biosorption isotherms of the yeast biomass in iron ion solution and by applying the model of heterogeneous nucleation of iron phosphate in yeast cell. The MP-LFP/C-NC-MS show a uniform size distribution (4.76 μm), high tap density (1.74 g cm-3) and large...... specific surface area (203 m2 g-1). The microsphere is composed of densely aggregated nanoparticles and interconnected nanopores. The open mesoporous structure allows lithium ions easily to penetrate into the spheres, while a thorough coating of the biocarbon network on the surface of the LiFePO4...... nanoparticles facilitates lithium ion and electron diffusion. The MP-LFP/C-NC-MS have high discharge capacity of about 158.5 mA h g−1 at the current density of 0.1 C, discharge capacity of 122 mA h g−1 at 10 C, and high capacity retention rate. Therefore the mesoporous microspheres are an ideal type of cathode...

  20. 3D Printing of Flexible Electrodes Towards Wearable Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi-bo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to fabricate flexible free-standing electrodes with textile structure for lithium-ion batteries was provided by applying extrusion-based three-dimensional (3D printing technology. Meanwhile, highly concentrated poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF is used as viscosity modifier, carbon nanotube (CNT as conducting additive, and lithium iron phosphate (LFP or lithium titanium oxide (LTO as cathode or anode active materials respectively to develop printable inks with obvious shear-thinning behavior, and with the apparent viscosity and storage modulus platform value of over 105Pa·s, which is beneficial to the printability and enable complex 3D structures solidification. The electrochemical test shows that both printed electrodes have similar charge and discharge specific capacities under current density of 50mA·g-1. To explore the feasibility of the printed electrodes, a pouch cell with as-printed LFP and LTO electrode as cathode and anode respectively is assembled. The pouch cell without deformation delivers discharge specific capacities of approximately 108mAh·g-1, and there is a tiny increase in discharge specific capacities of around 111mAh·g-1 for bended pouch cell.