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Sample records for grapes cabernet sauvignon

  1. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Shulgau; Vladislav Tritek; Alexander Gulyaev; Gulsim Adilgozhina; Talgat Nurgozhin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the benef...

  2. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  3. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Tiţa; Ciprian Tuşa; Axenia Rădulescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  5. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  8. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

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    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  9. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

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    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  11. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Plasmopara viticola infection of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on wine composition and flavor.

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    Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Deliere, Laurent; Crachereau, Jean Christophe; Davidou, Ludivine; Sauris, Pierre; Guilbault, Pascal; Darriet, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. We show that the organoleptic impact of P. viticola is more pronounced in Merlot wines compared to Cabernet Sauvignon ones. The highest levels of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (75.3ng/L) were found in old Merlot wines made with 20% infected berries, suggesting the incidence of berry quality on the ability of a wine to age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [The antioxidant activity of the products of processing of red grape of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidzba, A M; Kubyshkin, A V; Guguchkina, T I; Markosov, V A; Katsev, A M; Naumova, N V; Shramko, Yu I; Zaytsev, G P; Chernousova, I V; Ogay, Yu A; Fomochkina, I I

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data on the antioxidant activity of grape juice, grape concentrates and wine from grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Saperavi from Crimea and Krasnodar regions was presented. Flavonoids are presented in the form of glycosides of such anthocyanins as delphinidin, malvidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and also by quercetin and its glycoside, (+)-D-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Oligomeric procyanidins, which are condensed catechol units (2-6) soluble in water, are presented in significant amounts, and polymeric procyanidins with the amount catechin units greater than 7, insoluble in water, constituted the bulk of polyphenols od wine and concentrates from red grapes (no juice). Among non-flavonoid polyphenols hydroxybenzoic (gallic, syringic) and hydroxycinnamic (caftaric, cautaric) acids are identified, the relative content of which in the amount of polyphenols in the juice is maximum, and minimum is in concentrates. It was found that antioxidant activity for all products in standard Trolox method can be estimated by the equation: Y = 0.53627+0.1395X+0.080439X2-0.00064708X3, with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9952; where: Y--antioxidant activity, g/dm3 by Trolox method; X--mass concentration of phenolic substances on the Folin-Ciocalteu, g/dm3. The equation is valid for Y = 0.76-196.22; X = 1.0-82.67. The results of biological testing of wines Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi and polyphenol concentrates from grape on the biological model of bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 demonstrated the applicability of bioassay to assess the antioxidant activity, which correlates well with the polyphenols content and antioxidant activity by trolox method.

  14. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-09-17

    This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A) and 99% (film B) invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that (E)-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  15. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions

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    Di Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A and 99% (film B invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA revealed that (E-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  16. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

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    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  17. Isolation and identification of resveratrol-producing endophytes from wine grape Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Liu, Ya; Nan, Lijun; Liu, Junchao; Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Dianpeng; Han, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    Obtain endophyte strains with effective resveratrol production from superior grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon in Xinjiang and determine related taxonomic position of the strain. Seventy-three strains of endophytes, including 23 strains of bacteria, 14 ones of actinomycetes, 24 fungus and 12 yeasts, were isolated, respectively. The distribution law of endophytes was spring (30.14 %) = summer (30.14 %) < autumn (39.73 %) in different seasons, while the fruit (12.33 %) < leaf (20.55 %) < stem (32.88 %) < root (34.25 %) in different tissues and organs. From the 36 strains of endophytic fungi isolated, seven strains producing polyphenols were screened by ferric chloride-potassium ferricyanide color reaction. C2J6, stable genetic properties producing highly 1.48 mg L(-1) of resveratrol, was identified as Aspergillus niger by 26S rDNA-ITS sequence analysis after thin-layer chromatography sieve analysis, ultra violet wavelength scanning and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. There were the certain number and kinds of endophytes in the various tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon, which, to a certain extent, reflected the biological diversity of plant endophytes. The fact that the fungus C2J6 producing resveratrol in grape was acquired attested the special ability of the endophytes to produce the same or similar bioactive substances as the host plants.

  18. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

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    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  19. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

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    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  20. Detailed characterization of proanthocyanidins in skin, seeds, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

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    Hanlin, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Downey, Mark O

    2011-12-28

    The distribution of proanthocyanidin (PA) polymer lengths, proanthocyanidin concentration at each polymer length, and polymer composition were determined in the seed, skin, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in southeast Australia. PA was fractionated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and HPLC to report the degree of polymerization (DP), concentration, and composition at 11 DP values in seed and wine and 21 DP values in skin. In skin, the highest PA concentration was observed at a DP of 31 in Shiraz and 29 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing 15% of the total PA in both varieties. The distribution of seed PA had the highest concentration at a DP of 7 in Shiraz and 6 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 30% of the total PA. In the wine PA distribution, the highest concentration was observed at a DP of 11 in Shiraz and 9 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 26 and 32% of the distribution, respectively. A second peak in wine PA concentration was observed at the largest DP of 18 in Shiraz and 15 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 20% of the distribution. The composition in wine did not vary at different DP, but the proportion of epicatechin gallate varied in seed PA less than 4 DP. The proportion of epigallocatechin increased with increasing DP in skin PA. Wine PA had a DP range and composition similar to the distribution of skin PA between DP 4 and 18 suggesting that larger skin PAs are not extracted into wine. This study provides information that could be used to target the important PA fractions in grapes that need to be measured to understand (or predict) PA extraction into wine and eventual mouthfeel.

  1. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

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    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

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    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  3. Light quality affects flavonoid biosynthesis in young berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grape.

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    Koyama, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hiroko; Poudel, Puspa Raj; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is known to be sensitive to light environments, which reflects the possible role of these compounds for photoprotection in plants. Herein, the effects of UV and visible light on biosynthesis of flavonoids was investigated, i.e., proanthocyanidins (PAs) and flavonols, in young berry skins of a red-wine grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Shading with light-proof boxes from the flowering stage until 49 days after treatment (DAT) partially decreased PA concentrations, and completely decreased flavonol concentrations in the berry skins. Shading decreased the transcript abundance of a flavonol-related gene more remarkably than those of PA-related genes. In addition, light exclusion influenced the composition of PAs, such as the decrease in the proportion of trihydroxylated subunits and the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) within PAs. However, solar UV exclusion did not affect the concentration and composition of PAs, whereas this exclusion remarkably decreased the flavonol concentration. Consistently, UV exclusion did not influence the transcript levels of PA-related genes, whereas it dramatically decreased that of flavonol-related genes. These findings indicated a different light regulation of the biosynthesis of these flavonoids in young berry skins of wine grape. Visible light primarily induces biosynthesis of PAs and affects their composition, whereas UV light specifically induces biosynthesis of flavonols. Distinct roles of members of a MYB transcription factor family for light regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis were proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runze; He, Fei; Lan, Yibin; Xing, Ranran; Liu, Rui; Pan, Qiuhong; Wang, Jun; Duan, Changqing

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, L-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  6. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a preliminary study on the influence two rootstocks (110R, high vigor; 420A, low vigor) grafted to scion 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8, and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation – usual practice in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or till...

  7. Comparison of distinct transcriptional expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from east and west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Sun, Run-Ze; Duan, Chang-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Flavonoids make a very important contribution to the organoleptic qualities of grapes and wines. In this work these were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grown in Changli, Hebei Province in east China and Gaotai, Gansu Province in west China. These regions have distinctly different climates contributing to their different 'terroir'. RNA sequencing was performed to trace transcriptome changes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries at pea size, veraison and ripening, corresponding to E-L 31, 35 and 38. The accumulation of flavonols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins together with the expression of relevant genes were analyzed and compared between the two regions. The biosynthesis patterns were similar between two regions, but more flavonols, anthocyanins, and tri-hydroxylated flavonoids accumulated in grapes from Gaotai before berry harvest, possibly due to the higher transcript levels of the genes that encode biosynthetic enzymes and their potential candidate transcription factors. The lower levels of flavan-3-ols, mainly (-)-epigallocatechin, in the pre-veraison grapes from Changli, might be due to limited flow of carbon to the F3'5'H branch pathway, as the ratio of F3'5'H to F3'H was lower in these berries from Changli. It is suggested that the combination of climatic factors profoundly affect the flavonoid pathway in grapes from China, providing regionally specific metabolism patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any

  9. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

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    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  10. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  11. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

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    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  12. The effect of different position of grape clusters on the bearing shoot on production results of Cabernet Sauvignon clones

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    Čoloveić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the differences were examined between clones of Cabernet sauvignon (clones ISV-F-V5, ISV-F-V6 and R5, i.e. the difference between uvological properties of grape clusters and grape berries, based on the different positions on the bearing shoot. Tests were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture 'Radmilovac'. Standard ampelographic methods were used in numerous analyses of grape yield, as well as uvological properties of clones. All data were statistically analyzed and processed by the method of two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measuring of one factor (height and Tukey HSD test. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences between clones. The best results were achieved with grape clusters positioned in the base of bearing shoot. The first positioned grape clusters on the bearing shoot had the highest share in the total grape yield, the highest amount of sugar, and the highest positioned grape clusters had higher content of total acids. The differences determined between examined clones were in regard to productivity and quality of grapes which reflected also on production value.

  13. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  14. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yan-Lun; Liu, Min; Zhao, Hui; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2016-10-12

    The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC) and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX) activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  15. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes as a function of geospatial variability in a Napa Valley vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Angela; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Sue; Jenkins, Christopher; Plant, Richard; Smart, David

    2015-04-01

    A primary tenant of the concept of geoscience and wine is that elemental composition of soils may be reflected in the elemental profile of fruit and discerned in the organoleptic assessment of wine. The extremely varied soil composition at the vineyard level in the Napa Valley region of California provides an ideal setting to study elemental pattern correlations between grape berries and soil samples. In the Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon is a wine grape variety of substantial economic value. Elemental profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in function of origin will provide a better understanding of the relationship between elemental accumulation in berries and soil element composition. The aim of this study was to explore the geospatial variability of elemental patterns in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with respect to the soil elemental profiles at thirty-six geo-referenced vines in a 4 ha vineyard. Sixty-eight elements were determined via inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); this allowed for elemental profiling of both soil and berries at each sampling site. It was found that for the soil samples twenty-two elements contributed to a significant difference between sampling points, and thirty for the berries. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) showed that soil and berry elemental composition varied as a function of location in the vineyard. For the soil PCA, rare earth metals such as Dy, Ho, Ce, Er, Yb and Tm were driving separation towards the southern section of the vineyard while K, Ga, V, Al, Mg and P were correlated with the northern section. In the berry samples the Lanthanides, Gd, Pr, Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, also showed a higher influence in driving separation towards the southern section while Sr, Mo, Ba, Mg, P, K, Cd, Cu, B, Rb and Ti characterized the elemental profile of the northern part of the block. These findings showed that the rare earth metals, in particular Yb, Dy, Er and Ho, were the most distinguishing elemental

  16. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  18. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

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    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  19. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  20. Comparison on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cabernet sauvignon and merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-07-25

    The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA) and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  1. Condições meteorológicas e tipo de solo na composição da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' Weather and soil effects on the composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape

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    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das condições meteorológicas e do tipo de solo sobre características físico-químicas e compostos fenólicos da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo implantado em 2003, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103' e conduzido no sistema espaldeira. No vinhedo, foram selecionados dois solos: Cambissolo Háplico e Cambissolo Húmico. O efeito das condições meteorológicas (precipitação e temperatura mínima e máxima do ar foi avaliado nas safras 2008/2009, 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Foram determinados os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e o pH do mosto, bem como o índice de polifenóis totais e dos teores de antocianinas e de taninos da uva. Os fatores solo e as condições meteorológicas (safras foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2x3. Com exceção do teor de polifenóis totais, as condições meteorológicas e o tipo de solo afetam as características físico-químicas da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', com efeito mais pronunciado das condições meteorológicas do que do tipo de solo. Menores precipitações e maiores amplitudes térmicas favorecem o acúmulo de sólidos solúveis na uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Maiores precipitações favorecem o aumento da acidez do mosto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of weather and soil type on the physicochemical characteristics and phenolic compounds of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape (Vitis vinifera. The experiment was carried out in a vineyard established in 2003, grafted onto 'Paulsen 1103', and conducted in the cordon system. Two soils were selected in the vineyard: Typic Dystrudepts and Pachic Humudepts. The effect of weather (rainfall, and minimum and maximum temperature was evaluated in the seasons 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011. Soil physical and chemical properties, soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH of the

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cabernet sauvignon grape cells exposed to thermal stresses reveals alterations in sugar and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Iniga S; Pascovici, Dana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are a valuable fruit crop and wine production is a major industry. Global warming and expanded range of cultivation will expose grapes to more temperature stresses in future. Our study investigated protein level responses to abiotic stresses, with particular reference to proteomic changes induced by the impact of four different temperature stress regimes, including both hot and cold temperatures, on cultured grape cells. Cabernet Sauvignon cell suspension cultures grown at 26°C were subjected to 14 h of exposure to 34 and 42°C for heat stress, and 18 and 10°C for cold stress. Cells from the five temperatures were harvested in biological triplicates and label-free quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed. A total of 2042 non-redundant proteins were identified from the five temperature points. Fifty-five proteins were only detected in extreme heat stress conditions (42°C) and 53 proteins were only detected at extreme cold stress conditions (10°C). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of differentially expressed proteins provided insights into the metabolic pathways that are involved in temperature stress in grape cells. Sugar metabolism displayed switching between alternative and classical pathways during temperature stresses. Additionally, nine proteins involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were greatly increased in abundance at extreme cold stress, and were thus found to be cold-responsive proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000977 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000977). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lun Ju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  4. Effect of cluster sun exposure on chemical composition and technological properties of grapes and wine from cultivars Cabernet sauvignon and mavrud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambalov, V.; Rijchev, V.; Botyanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of direct solar radiation on grape clusters of cvs Cabernet sauvignon and Mavrid, formed under four different microclimatic conditions: Vo- control; V1 - clusters exposed naturally to direct sunlight; V2 - clusters formed under natural shading; V3 - clusters formed under artificial shading.The positive impact of direct solar radiation on the formation of wine structure, character and body indicated the primary role of agrotechnical practices for ensuring better sunlight exposure of clusters and microclimatic conditions to enable the production of good wine-making materials

  5. Associations between the sensory attributes and volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines and the volatile composition of the grapes used for their production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Ciarán G; Cox, Agnieszka; Williams, Emlyn R; Boss, Paul K

    2011-03-23

    The sensory properties of wine are influenced by the chemical composition of the grapes used to produce them. Identification of grape and wine chemical markers associated with the attributes perceived by the consumer of the wine will enable better prediction of the potential of a parcel of grapes to produce wine of a certain flavor. This study explores the relationships between Cabernet Sauvignon grape volatile composition and wine volatile profiles with the sensory properties of wines. Twenty grape samples were obtained from nine vineyard sites across three vintages and wines vinified from these parcels using controlled winemaking methods. The volatile composition of the grapes were analyzed by SBSE-GCMS, the wines were analyzed by SPME-GCMS, and these data sets were compared to that obtained from the sensory analysis of the wines. Statistical treatment of the data to account for vintage and region effects allowed underlying relationships to be seen between wine sensory attributes and wine or grape volatile components. The observed associations between grape or wine volatile compounds and wine sensory attributes has revealed target compounds and pathways whose levels may reflect the biochemical effects on grape composition by differing growth conditions during berry development and ripening. The compounds identified in this study may be useful grape or wine markers for potential wine sensory characteristics.

  6. Produtividade e qualidade da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'produzida sob cobertura de plástico em cultivo orgânico Productivity and quality of grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' produced in organic sistem under plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maria Detoni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. é utilizada na produção de vinhos finos, sendo muito cultivada no Sul do Brasil. Esta variedade é muito sensível à ocorrência de doenças, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de práticas culturais para diminuir a incidência das mesmas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivada sob cobertura de plástico em sistema de produção orgânico. O experimento foi realizado em um vinhedo localizado no município de Toledo, região oeste do Paraná, sendo as plantas conduzidas no sistema de espaldeira, com cobertura de plástico na linha de plantio. Foram determinados: teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, a acidez titulável (AT, pH, antocianinas totais, produtividade, número de cachos por planta e peso médio dos cachos. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no teor de SS (17,3 ºBrix, porém os frutos sob a cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores teores de AT e pH, 1,14 g 100 mL-1 de suco e 3,4, respectivamente, que aqueles colhidos de plantas sem cobertura de plástico, que apresentaram AT de 0,87 g 100 mL-1 de mosto e pH de 3,5. O maior teor de antocianinas totais foi verificado nas plantas fora da cobertura, com 22,8 mg L-1. Nas plantas protegidas, a produção foi maior (1769 g planta-1 do que nas plantas sem cobertura (492 g planta-1, que apresentaram elevado índice de doenças. Conclui-se, desta forma, que a cobertura de plástico viabiliza o cultivo da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' no sistema de produção orgânico, por proporcionar diminuição na incidência de doenças.The grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. it is used in fine wines production, being very cultivated in the South of Brazil. This variety is very sensitive of occurrence of diseases, being necessary the development of cultural practices to reduce the incidence of the same ones. The objective of this work was to evaluate the productivity and the

  7. Experimental study of physical and rheological properties of grape juice using different temperatures and concentrations. Part I: Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilhos, Maurício Bonatto Machado; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; de Carvalho, Gisandro Reis; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R 2 =0.99957 and relative error=7.77%). The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior (n<1). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations. The flow activation energy ranged from 28.87 (45.0Brix) to 38.05KJ/mol (37.0Brix) with a R 2 =0.9798 for both cases. Density and specific heat were influenced by both temperature and concentration; however, thermal conductivity was only influenced by concentration. The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates will be useful as wine chaptalization agent in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic compositions of grapes and wines from cultivar cAbernet Sauvignon produced in Chile and their relationship to commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Galvez, Andrés; Obreque-Slier, Elías; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2012-09-05

    The phenolic composition of wine depends on, among other factors, the grapes used to make it. In this sense, knowledge of the chemical composition of grapes and its association with the resulting wines is an important tool to determine if there is a relationship between the phenolic composition of grapes and the price that these wines obtain in the market. For this purpose, grape skins and seeds from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon from the central region of Chile, in 2009 and 2010 vintages from two ripening points, were subjected to chemical and phenolic analyses, as were the wines made from these grapes. Grapes and the corresponding wines from three retail price wine categories, U.S. $6-8, U.S. $28-30, and U.S. $150-160, were evaluated. No differences were found across the price categories in the chemical analysis of grapes. Berry skins and wines from the higher price categories presented a higher concentration only of total tannins, and the differences in their concentrations were only among the different fractions of proanthocyanidins in the skins, seeds, and wines; there were no differences in their proportions. A seasonal effect influenced the concentrations of certain compounds in grapes and led to a decrease in the concentration of total phenols, total tannins, and total anthocyanins between sampling dates as harvesting moved toward the common commercial grape harvest in Chilean viticulture.

  10. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  12. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  13. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  14. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories “stress responses,” “protein metabolism” and “secondary metabolism,” highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to “transport,” “hormone” and “cell wall” might contribute to the

  16. Dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy and cold hardiness influence grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) susceptibility to cold injury, which is a major cause of economic loss in high latitude growing regions. The objectives of this study were to compare dormancy and cold hardiness transitions in wine grape cultivars considered more (C...

  17. Phenolic Compounds from the Fermentation of Cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Berovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fermentation of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian coastal region was performed in Bücher-Vaslin roto tank vinificators. Six different areas, Prade, Kortina, Škocijan, Ankaran, Labor and Hrvatini, were selected for this study to investigate total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins and colour density, as well as pH, titratable acidity, sugar content and ethanol. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be in generally higher concentrations (up to 4240 mg/L in Cabernet Sauvignon. Prolongation of the fermentation phase with Merlot gave even reduced concentrations of anthocyanins, a phenomenon which was not observed in Cabernet Sauvignon. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was found in Merlot from the Kortina location (735 mg/L, and in Cabernet Sauvignon from the Labor location (998 mg/L. The highest concentration of tannins (1828 mg/L was found in the grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon from the Ankaran location, while in Merlot 1280 mg/L was detected in a sample from the Prade area. The tone of colour and its intensity reached full maturity in Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot from the Kortina location reached the highest colour density of 1.57, while in a sample of Cabernet Sauvignon from Hrvatini colour density was 2.89. Only small differences were detected in colour quality between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  18. Effect of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines of the north foot of Mt. Tianshan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Cheng, Guo; Duan, Liang-Liang; Jiang, Ren; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-15

    C6 and C9 volatiles, originated from fatty acids, are important volatiles for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines. This study evaluated the influence of different training systems including Modified Vertical Shoot Positioned, (M-VSP); Fan training system with two trunks (F-TT); Fan training system with multiple trunks (F-MT) on these volatiles and the long-chain fatty acids (>C12) of grape berries and wines in the northwest of China. The expression profiles of genes from associated metabolic pathway were also analyzed. F-MT training resulted in lower vine vigor, larger yield, higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in grapes and lower C6 esters in wines in comparison with M-VSP and F-TT. M-VSP and F-TT enhanced C6 volatiles in grape berries. The concentrations of C6 volatiles were positively correlated with the expression of VvLOXA and VvHPL1. The results expanded the knowledge of the influence of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles of grapes and wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tannin Composition of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot Grapes from the Bordeaux Area for Different Vintages (2006 to 2009 and Comparison to Tannin Profile of Five 2009 Vintage Mediterranean Grapes Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleopatra Chira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009. The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise. The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009 revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  20. Application of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to predict sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from grape chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Tomic, Oliver; Næs, Tormod; Jeffery, David W; Bastian, Susan E P; Boss, Paul K

    2018-08-01

    The current study determined the applicability of sequential and orthogonalised-partial least squares (SO-PLS) regression to relate Cabernet Sauvignon grape chemical composition to the sensory perception of the corresponding wines. Grape samples (n = 25) were harvested at a similar maturity and vinified identically in 2013. Twelve measures using various (bio)chemical methods were made on grapes. Wines were evaluated using descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 10) for sensory profiling. Data was analysed globally using SO-PLS for the entire sensory profiles (SO-PLS2), as well as for single sensory attributes (SO-PLS1). SO-PLS1 models were superior in validated explained variances than SO-PLS2. SO-PLS provided a structured approach in the selection of predictor chemical data sets that best contributed to the correlation of important sensory attributes. This new approach presents great potential for application in other explorative metabolomics studies of food and beverages to address factors such as quality and regional influences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  2. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  3. Metabolite and proteome changes during the ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties cultured in a nontraditional wine region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraige, Karina; González-Fernández, Raquel; Carrilho, Emanuel; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2015-01-15

    Grapevines are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of views in many countries, including Brazil, where the practice of vitiviniculture is being developed in different regions. We compared the anthocyanin concentration, the main organic acids and sugars, and the proteome profiles during berry ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from two distinct geographical sources in São Paulo State. The proteome was mapped by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially abundant proteins during the ripening process were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. An increase in sugar concentration and in anthocyanin content was observed, as well a decrease in the tartaric and malic acid concentration. A total of 128 spots varied with geographical origin, grape variety, and ripening stage, with 108 being identified. The identified proteins resulted in 80 gene products. A multivariate analysis of protein abundance clustered the samples according to grape variety, geographical origin, and stage of ripening, and showed the possibility of using proteomics to characterize three variables: variety, area where grown, and the ripening process. The changes observed during the ripening process corresponded to enzymes involved in sugar and organic acid metabolism. These results are in accordance with the metabolic profile reported for the process. Given the importance of discriminating grapes, thus making the adulteration of wines more difficult, in this paper we showed the possibility of differentiating varieties of grapes, geographical area of cultivation and stage of ripening by combining the results of differentially abundant protein determinations and multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

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    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  6. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

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    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  8. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  9. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

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    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  10. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  11. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

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    Jun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L. berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs. Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  12. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p < 0.05) in seed tannin extracts, whereas in skin tannin extracts, significant differences were observed for %G and %P (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that grape variety influenced neither astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  14. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Young Wines Made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grapes Treated by 24-Epibrassinolide

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    Fan Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS (Vitis vinifera L. were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz, and deionized water (control, at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  15. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  16. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  17. Produção e composição química da uva de videiras Cabernet Sauvignon submetidas à adubação nitrogenada Grapes yield and chemistry composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine with nitrogen fertilization

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    Gustavo Brunetto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A adubação nitrogenada em videiras é realizada para suprir a demanda da planta pelo nutriente. Porém, o nitrogênio (N deve ser usado com prudência porque afeta a produção e a composição química da uva e do seu mosto, nem sempre na mesma direção. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N na produção de uva, em seus componentes e na composição química do seu mosto. O experimento foi desenvolvido na safra 2004/05, em vinhedo de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, na área experimental da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, sobre NEOSSOLO LITÓLICO. Os tratamentos foram testemunha, 15, 30, 45 e 60kg ha-1 de N aplicados durante o ciclo vegetativo e produtivo. Na maturação, a uva foi colhida, e o seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: a produção por planta e por hectare, o comprimento e a largura de cachos e a massa de 100 bagas. Foram coletadas bagas de uva, sendo uma parte amassada, e no mosto foram determinados os sólidos solúveis totais, o pH, a acidez total, o ácido tartárico e málico, os polifenóis totais, as antocianinas e o N amoniacal. As bagas restantes foram trituradas, e foi analisado o total de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de uva de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon em solos com teores médios de matéria orgânica é máxima com a aplicação de doses de 15 e 30kg ha-1 de N. A aplicação de N aumenta os teores de N amoniacal no mosto, mas diminui as antocianinas, e aumenta a porcentagem de K nas bagas, o que interfere na cor dos vinhos tintos e na formação de precipitados.Fertilization of grapevines with N is generally accomplished to supply the demand for N. However N should be used with prudence because affect the yield and chemical composition of the grape and your must. The experiment was carried out in 2004/05, to evaluate the effect of N fertilization on the grape yield and on the chemical composition of the grape and must of Cabernet

  18. Cu, Zn and Mn uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine: effect of soil metal content and plant vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, María Paz

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of leaf thinning on micronutrient (Cu, Zn and Mn) uptake and distribution in grape tissues, in a 16 year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The analysis was carried out in two plots with differences in vigor (P1- high and P2-low) grown in calcareous soils. Vigour was analysed by the NDVI values. In each plot, two treatments (with and without leaf thinning after bloom) were applied. Total and the CaCl2-DTPA extractable fraction of these micronutrients were evaluated. Nutrient concentration in petiole were evaluated from veraison to harvest as well as the concentration of those elements in seeds and skins at ripening and in wines elaborated with grapes grown in each plot and treatment in 2013. Their relationships were evaluated. The soil extractable fraction did not give a good correlation with petiole concentrations. However, Mn in petiole was strongly correlated with soil total Mn. Cu and Zn had higher concentration at veraison than at harvest, while for Mn it was the opposite. Cu concentration in petiole and seeds was greater in the most vigorous plots, but there were not clear differences between treatments. Cu in seeds and skins correlated significantly but there was not correlation with Cu in petiole. Zn concentration in skins was quite similar in both plots, but with higher values in vines without leaf thinning. Zn concentrations in skins were correlated with Zn in petiole but no significant correlation was found with Zn in seeds. Higher concentrations were found in the no thinning treatment in skins. For Mn, petiole concentrations were greater in the high vigorous plot and in the leaf thinning treatment. However, petiole Zn concentrations were greater in the less vigorous plot and without clear effect of leaf thinning. Mn concentration in skins was greater in the less vigorous vines in both treatments and it was inversely correlated with Mn in seeds, but there were no significant correlation between them and Mn in petiole

  19. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovska Maja; Tomovska Elena; Bocevska Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA...

  20. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom

  1. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  2. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on polysaccharide and tannin content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Smith, Paul A; Hranilovic, Ana; Bindon, Keren A; Jeffery, David W

    2018-04-01

    A changing climate has led to winegrapes being harvested with increased sugar levels and at greater risk of berry shrivel. A suggested easy-to-adopt strategy to manage the associated rising wine alcohol levels is the pre-fermentative substitution of juice with either "green harvest wine" or water. Our study investigates the effects of this approach on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wine quality attributes. Wines were also made from fruit collected at consecutive earlier harvest time points to produce wines comparable in alcohol to the substituted wines. Tannin concentrations and colour did not change significantly in the wines with modified alcohol content even at higher juice substitution rates. Differences in polysaccharide and tannin composition indicated variability in extraction dynamics according to substitution rate and type of blending component. In scenarios where berry shrivel is inevitable, the incorporation of water in particular offers much promise as part of a strategy to manage wine alcohol content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These odorants are associated with “fruity'' and ''ripe fruit'' odor descriptors. Wine from flat land with higher OAVs of ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate seems to have more intense fruity aromas (pineapple, pear and banana), with floral notes. Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon wines, volatiles, terrains, Loess Plateau region, ...

  5. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Volatile compounds of young Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the flat and slope lands grown in Loess. Plateau region (China) were investigated in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...

  6. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrovska Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA. The established data were submitted to analysis of variance and principle component analysis in order to evaluate their potential for differentiation of wines according to variety and vintage. Vranec wines have shown distinctive characteristics, with the highest content of anthocyanins and values of colour intensity, % red and % dA, compared to the other two studied varieties. The content of petunidin-3-glucoside, peonindin-3-glucoside and anthocyanin acetates were established as possible markers for differentiation of Vranec wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. However, none of the assayed parameters could be used for differentiation of Cabernet Sauvignon from Merlot wines. It was observed that wine age limits successful classification of the wines by variety according to anthocyanins. The chromatic parameters allowed distinguishing of young (aged up to 1 year from old Vranec wines.

  7. Effect of pH on the copigmentation of anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon grape extracts with organic acids Efeito do pH na copigmentação de antocianinas do extrato de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon com ácidos orgânicos

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    Cony Gauche

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins show low-stability when exposed to different food processing conditions. Copigmentation is one of the main reactions contributing to the in vivo color responsible to the stability of anthocyanins. In the aim of holding the red color, copigmentation effect of organic acids (caffeic, ferulic, gallic and tannic acids combined with anthocyanins in crude Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract at pH values (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.3, 3.5, 3.7, 4.0, 4.5 was evaluated in this research. The maximum copigmentation effect, revealed by the hyperchromic and bathochromic shifts in anthocyanin maximum absorbance wavelength, was obtained at pH 3.3 with every acid used. Anthocyanin stability was followed by measuring the loss of color, thus it was possible to determine the protecting effects of these copigments. Tannic acid was the best copigment in our model system, giving half-life time of 2,585 h. We are suggesting the formation of pyranoanthocyanins by the reactions of anthocyanins with caffeic and ferulic acid, these substances could be avoiding the observation of the copigmentation effect. Addition of organic acids could improve the anthocyanin stability; though, more studies are needed to justify the lack of copigmenting effect observed with the caffeic and ferulic acids.Antocianinas apresentam baixa estabilidade frente aos fatores que afetam o processamento de alimentos. A copigmentação é uma das principais reações responsáveis pela estabilidade da coloração de antocianinas in vivo. Com objetivo de manter a coloração vermelha, a copigmentação das antocianinas do extrato bruto de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. com ácidos orgânicos (ácidos caféico, ferrúlico, gálico e tânico em diferentes valores de pH (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 3,3; 3,5; 3,7; 4,0; 4,5 foi avaliada neste estudo. O efeito máximo de copigmentação, revelado pelos deslocamentos hipercrômico e batocrômico, foi obtido em pH 3,3 para todos os

  8. Phenolic Content of Blends of Tempranillo with Graciano or Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Produced in Spain

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    María Monagas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Graciano (GRA, Spanish valuable variety of limited production in Mediterranean countries vs. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS, world-wide known French variety on the phenolic content [total polyphenols (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, catechins (CAT and proanthocyanidins (PRO] of Tempranillo wines (TEM-BASE, a largely cultivated Spanish variety was studied in blends prepared with 25 and 10 % of each variety after 4, 6, 9, 16.5 and 23 months of bottle ageing. Significant differences among wines (blends and base wine according to the »blend« factor were observed for CAT and TA. Besides, although the evolution trend during wine ageing of different families of phenolic compounds studied was similar in the blends and base wine, different blends presented a faster anthocyanin disappearance kinetics than the base wine, probably due to their higher CAT content, which may favour the progress of certain anthocyanin condensation reactions during ageing in the bottle. This effect was slightly more pronounced in the TEM-GRA blends than in the TEM-CS ones. A further study of the phenolic composition of the monovarietal wines used for blending, as well as of the grapes (skins and seeds from which these wines were elaborated, revealed that the blending effect on CAT could be associated with higher concentration of these compounds in Graciano and Cabernet Sauvignon grape seeds in comparison with Tempranillo. Finally, the findings of this work scientifically confirm that, in terms of the phenolic content, Graciano wines possess properties similar to Cabernet Sauvignon for blending with Tempranillo.

  9. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

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    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  10. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine grafted onto rootstocks during the autumn-winter season in southeastern Brazilian

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    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of grape (Vitis vinifera harvest from summer to winter through double pruning management has improved the fine wine quality in southern Brazil. High altitude, late cultivar and grafting combination all need to be investigated to optimize this new viticulture management. For this purpose, this study was carried out during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in a high altitude region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using eight grafting combinations for five year old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. The stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were not affected by rootstock type. The rootstocks IAC 766 and 101-14 induced, respectively, the highest and lowest vegetative vigor in Cabernet Sauvignon, as shown by leaf area and pruning weight. In the 2011 growing season, the leaf chlorophyll contents were increased in IAC 766, whereas vines grafted onto 101-14 accumulated more leaf starch, probably due to reduced vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, rootstocks K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 had the highest yield as compared to 1103P and 101-14. Berries from the grapevine with the highest yield did not differ in pH, total soluble solids and acidity. The rootstocks did not influence the anthocyanins and total phenols in both growing seasons. Quality parameters were better in the 2011 than in the 2012 growing season due to better climatic conditions, mainly less rainfall. The best performance of Cabernet Sauvignon was achieved when grafted onto K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 rootstocks.

  11. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma Del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeito do ácido tartárico nos valores de potássio, acidez titulável e pH durante a vinificação de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon Effect of tartaric acid upon potassium, total acidity and pH, during the vinification of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

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    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2008-11-01

    H values are usually made from grapes with high potassium values and can bring serious problems to the wine. This high potassium comes, usually, from mistakes with the vines management. While the right management has being tried, in the vineyard, and aiming to find a fast solution for the problem inside the winery a pilot scale fermentation was made with Cabernet Sauvignon. The must was submitted to three different treatments with tartaric acid: zero, 1gL-1 and 2gL-1,all in duplicate. The pattern of fermentation was the normal SO2, pectinolitic enzymes and yeasts addition to the musts; skins and seeds were removed from the must after 10 days of fermentation and malolactic fermentation occurred spontaneously. Potassium (by flame spectrometry, total acidity (by titulometry and pH (by pH meter were analyzed in the musts during fermentation and in the wines; skins and lees were digested previously the analysis. Values found, in the wines, for potassium (gL-1, total acidity (g% and pH were respectively: samples from zero tartaric acid 1,98, 0.61, 3,68; from 1gL-1:1,72, 0.70 e 3,63; from 2gL-1:1,41, 0,73 e 3,50. Values found in the skins and lees with the same treatments were, respectively: 24,91 and 69.30, 21,85 and 75.11, 16,20 and 85.38g kg-1 of the Dry Matter. The effect of tartaric acid addition was noted mainly in the lees (69.3, 75.11 and 85.38, in which the potassium found showed a close relationship with the acid added in the must. It should be noted, though, that this addition is just for the moment because the real correction should be made in the vineyard, as it is now.

  13. Avaliação da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of the cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the manufacture of red wine

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Sauvignon, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Brasil em 1921, mas foi somente a partir de 1980 que houve incremento de seu plantio na Serra Gaúcha. É uma cultivar destinada à elaboração de vinho tinto de guarda ou jovem. Devido a sua importância, conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para a elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1992. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Sauvignon tem cacho de tamanho médio de 149.3g/L e baga pequena de 1.40g. O mosto possui bom teor de açúcar e acidez titulável de 120meq/L, adequada para a produção de vinho tinto, o qual se caracteriza por apresentar teores elevados de álcoois superiores. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Cabernet Sauvignon se caracteriza pela cor vermelha relativamente intensa e com reflexos violáceos acentuados; pelo aroma típico que lembra pimentão-verde, que é sua característica varietal; e pelo corpo, estrutura e boa distinguibilidade.The Cabernet Sauvignon grape was developed in Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in Brazil in 1921, but its cultivation in the viticultural region of Serra Gaúcha only grew since 1980. It is used in the manufacture of aged or young red wines. Due to its importance, this work was carried out to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1992. The results showed that clusters of Cabernet Sauvignon are of medium size (149.3g and its berries are small (1.40g. The must have good sugar content with adequate titratable acidity (120meqL-1. The wine is characterized by high concentrations of higher alcohols; its predominant aroma is of bell pepper, which is a varietal characteristic. It has a

  14. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

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    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  15. New insight into the unresolved HPLC broad peak of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed polymeric tannins by combining CPC and Q-ToF approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Alessandra Paissoni, Maria; Jourdes, Michäel; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-05-30

    Polymeric tannins from grapes have always been reported as an unresolved broad peak in HPLC chromatograms, and this has severely limited their identification to date. This study aimed to disassemble this broad peak and explore the polymeric tannin molecules inside. By applying centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), an efficient separation approach was developed to split the broad peak of grape seed tannins into fractions. Then, the fractions were analyzed by Q-ToF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to determine the corresponding structures of the tannins. The results suggest that grape seed polymeric tannins were eluted consecutively according to their degree of polymerization (DP). Condensed tannins identified in wine grape seed have a range of DP and degree of galloylation (DG) up to 20 and 11, respectively. The molecular mass of the largest molecule detected was 6067. To our knowledge, this is the first report to offer an insight into the broad peak of polymeric tannins found with HPLC and to characterize the tannins with a DP up to 20 as shown by HRMS and MS/MS data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of choice of yeasts on volatile fermentation-derived compounds, colour and phenolics composition in Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez Rojas, Inmaculada; Smith, Paul A; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2012-12-01

    Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

  17. Counter-radiation efficacy of Enoviton granules produced from Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fartzov, K.; Hadjiski, L.; Aljakov, M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the accident in the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, a need arose for radionuclide decontamination means capable of being used for a prolonged period of time without any side-effects on the human body. The probability of contamination with radionuclides in such emergencies, combined with external radiation, makes it necessary for the protective agents used to have a favourable effect on the protective force of the organism. The phenol compounds, anthocyanins, are the major plant pigments and are present in considerable amounts in red grapes and wines. Under relevant conditions in plants, phenolics protect hereditary cell mechanisms from mutagenic agents, such as ionising irradiation and UV rays. This ability of plant phenolics directed us towards the creation and use of the anthocyanin preparation Enoviton as a radioprotective means in investigations with animals. The Enoviton preparation was made on the basis of an anthocyanin colouring substance derived from specially isolated and purified anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon wine. (Author)

  18. Influence of Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Must

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    Jan Mavri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of wine fermentation temperature and the amount of carbon dioxide present represent parameters that can be easily monitored and controlled. The influence of variation of the process temperature and the fluxes of additional inlet gaseous carbon dioxide in Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon grape must on the accumulation of biomass and production of metabolites was studied. All experiments with temperature and redox potential control on-line were performed in a 10-litre laboratory stirred tank reactor. Metabolites of Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation comprising higher alcohols (1-propanol, 2-butanol, isoamyl alcohol, as well as reducing sugars, were measured off-line by gas and high pressure liquid chromatography.

  19. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Counter-radiation efficacy of Enoviton granules produced from Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartzov, K. (National Wine Research and Control Inst., Sofia (Bulgaria)); Hadjiski, L.; Aljakov, M. (Sofia Medical Univ. (Bulgaria))

    1993-01-01

    Following the accident in the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, a need arose for radionuclide decontamination means capable of being used for a prolonged period of time without any side-effects on the human body. The probability of contamination with radionuclides in such emergencies, combined with external radiation, makes it necessary for the protective agents used to have a favourable effect on the protective force of the organism. The phenol compounds, anthocyanins, are the major plant pigments and are present in considerable amounts in red grapes and wines. Under relevant conditions in plants, phenolics protect hereditary cell mechanisms from mutagenic agents, such as ionising irradiation and UV rays. This ability of plant phenolics directed us towards the creation and use of the anthocyanin preparation Enoviton as a radioprotective means in investigations with animals. The Enoviton preparation was made on the basis of an anthocyanin colouring substance derived from specially isolated and purified anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon wine. (Author).

  1. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced in a subtropical climate for red winemaking. The experimental area was located in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in a pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning held in late winter during four crops (2003, 2004

  2. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 1. EFFECT ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPEVINE

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    ALBERTO MIELE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and environment can induce different responses to the grapevine physiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rootstock effect on the yield components of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapevine grown in the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 15 treatments, three replicates and ten vines per plot. The results show that all variables evaluated were significantly affected by the year and the rootstock. The CS/Solferino was among other combinations influenced by the year and had higher significant yield/ vine. Indeed, it was higher than that CS/Rupestris du Lot, CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/3309 C, CS/5BB K, CS/161- 49 C, CS/1103 P. and CS/Isabel. The number of clusters/bud, per burst bud and per vine and the weight of clusters were affected by the rootstock as well. Pruning weight/vine, yield/pruning weight, leaf area/vine, leaf area index and leaf area/fresh fruit weight are variables related to the physiology of grapevine which were also affected by the rootstock. In general, rootstocks had adapted well to the environment where the experiment was carried out, giving vigor and high yield to Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine, which means that they may be used by grape growers in this region. However, the choice of the right rootstock depends on various aspects, such as those related to the soil characteristics, climate conditions, grape varieties, and even clones, and production purposes.

  3. A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine 'Cabernet Sauvignon' allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrin Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed. Results The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32% were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome. Conclusion Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and

  4. Differentiation of the aromas of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using sensory and instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotseridis, Y; Razungles, A; Bertrand, A; Baumes, R

    2000-11-01

    The aromas of six Merlot and three Cabernet Sauvignon wines of the 1996 vintage from the Bordeaux region were evaluated by sensory analysis. A panel of selected enology students was trained to assess 20 attributes previously generated for these wines by enologists of Bordeaux. Using statistical methods, this 20-attribute list was reduced to a 12-attribute list. The aroma profiles of the wines of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon were very close. Differentiation of the wines of these two varieties was significant only for the caramel descriptor, which was rated higher in the Merlot wines. Gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) and GC/MS analyses were used to detect and identify the potent odorants with the caramel odor in the two most differentiated samples for this attribute, a Merlot wine and a Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Two odorant zones with this odor resulted in identification of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methylfuran-3(2H)-one (HEMF). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) method showed a higher dilution factor (FD) for HDMF in the Merlot wine extract than in the Cabernet Sauvignon extract. The HDMF levels determined in the wines studied using a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) method were consistent with the results found by sensory analysis and GC/O; i.e., higher HDMF levels were present in the Merlot wines than in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

  5. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  6. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  7. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  8. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  9. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon"

    OpenAIRE

    Miele,Alberto; Rizzon,Luiz Antenor; Giovannini,Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.L.; Spayed, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  11. Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Alberto; Rizzon, Luiz Antenor; Giovannini, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  12. Mesoporous materials as fining agents in variety Cabernet Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Georgiana-Diana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative oenological products and techniques constantly need to be optimized in order to produce high quality wines that are able to fulfill the demanding consumers, with a pleasant colour, astringency, bitterness and a balanced organoleptic profile. New mesoporous materials with viability and environmental safety characteristics, might be a feasible alternative to the use of bentonite, while nowadays in the winemaking there is a major challenge caused by wastes derivate mainly from wine clarification stages. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of conventional (bentonite and activated coal and alternative (MCM-41, SBA-15, KIT-6 fining agents on enological parameters, colour, as well as on the antioxidant activity of a Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Our results show that mesoporous materials, KIT-6 and SBA-15 (6 g/L present the highest reduction on antioxidant activity with 23.08% and 24.41%, while bentonite and activated coal (1.5 g/L reduced with 20.72%, respectively 33.18%. Cluster analysis performed with the values of antioxidant activity differentiated wines treated with activated carbon from other wines.

  13. Modeling cold curing of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J H; Meyer, M M; Yeo, K-H; Kirkpatrick, B C

    2011-12-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) of Vitis vinifera grapevines is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen with a wide plant host range. Exposure of X. fastidiosa-infected plant tissue to cold temperatures has been shown to be effective at eliminating the pathogen from some plant hosts such as grapevines. This "cold curing" phenomenon suggests itself as a potential method for disease management and perhaps control. We investigated cold therapy of PD-affected 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine. In the fall, inoculated plants and controls of each cultivar were transported to each of four field sites in California (Foresthill, McLaughlin, Hopland, and Davis) that differed in the magnitude of cold winter temperatures. A model for progression of the elimination of plant disease in relation to temperature was conceptualized to be a temperature-duration effect, where temperatures below a particular threshold kill X. fastidiosa with increasing efficacy as the temperature decreases to some value Noir and T(0) = 6°C, N(100) = 302 h, N(10) = 170 h, and K(x) = 0.41 for Cabernet Sauvignon. With the parameter estimates optimized by model calibration, the simulation model was effective at predicting cold curing in four locations during the experiment, although there were some differences between Hopland for Pinot Noir and Davis for Cabernet Sauvignon. Using historical temperature data, the model accurately predicted the known severity of PD in other grape-growing regions of California, suggesting that it may have utility in assessing the relative risk of developing PD in proposed new vineyard sites.

  14. Amino acids and volatile compounds in wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo varieties subjected to malolactic fermentation in barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orte, P; Peña, A; Pardo, I; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to compare the behaviour of industrial lactic bacteria and indigenous bacteria of the cellar when malolactic fermentation was carried out in barrels. The effects of these bacteria on the concentration of metabolised amino acids during malolactic fermentation and on the composition of volatile compounds both before and after malolactic fermentation are studied. The experiment was performed with wines of the Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. An analysis has been made of the easily extractable volatile compounds of the wood and the compounds from the grapes, and the action of the yeasts during the alcoholic fermentation. Acetoin and diacetyl decreased during the malolactic fermentation in barrels and the concentrations of furfural and its derivatives were up to 100 times higher in wines not subjected to malolactic fermentation. Most of the volatile phenols increased during the malolactic fermentation in wines of the Tempranillo variety, while only guaiacol (p < 0.05) and t-isoeugenol increased in the Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The decrease in amino acids during the malolactic fermentation depends much more on the variety than on the bacterial strain which carries out the malolactic fermentation.

  15. Water stress and ripeness effects on the volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverano, Inmaculada; Ubeda, Cristina; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Valdés, María Esperanza; Pastenes, Claudio; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2018-02-01

    Controlled water deficits affect grape berry physiology and the resulting wines, with volatile composition being the one of the affected parameters. However, there is a potential disconnect between aromatic maturity and sugar accumulation. Accordingly, the effects of three different water status levels over two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) and two different harvest dates on the aroma compounds from Cabernet Sauvignon wines were studied. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatoghraphy/mass spectrometry. Around 45 volatile compounds were determined in the wines and, among these, esters were affected the most, presenting lower concentrations when the most restrictive water treatment was applied in both years. By contrast, volatile acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest level of irrigation was applied. On the other hand, a delay in harvesting produced an increase in the total amount of volatile compounds in samples from the most restrictive water treatment. These results are coincident with a principal component analysis that indicated a great separation between years, deficit irrigation treatments and harvest dates. The results of the present study suggest that a low water supply had a negative effect on the aromatic potential of wines at a similar ripening stage. However, this effect could be countered by harvesting at a later date. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

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    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39 °S 71.17 °W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  17. Transcriptional expression of Stilbene synthase genes are regulated developmentally and differentially in response to powdery mildew in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ru; Ge, Hui; Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2012-12-01

    Stilbenic compounds are natural phytoalexins that have antimicrobial activities in plant defense against pathogens. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of stilbenic compounds. Grapevine genome contains a family of preliminarily annotated 35 STS genes, the regulation of each STS gene needs to be studied to define their roles. In this study, we selected eight STS genes, STS8, STS27/31, STS16/22, STS13/17/23, and applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to characterize their transcriptional expression profiles in leaf tissues upon infection by the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr. Their transcripts were also compared in young and old leaves as well as in the berry skin at five developmental stages in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and Vitis aestivalis 'Norton'. The results showed that transcripts of selected STS genes increased significantly in Cabernet Sauvignon leaves at 24 and 48 h post inoculation with PM spores and remained unchanged in Norton leaves in response to the PM infection. Transcripts of STS8, STS27/31 and STS13/17/23 were more abundant in the old leaves of Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon. STS genes showed lower expression levels in young leaves than in old leaves. Transcript levels of the eight STS genes increased drastically in the berry skin of Cabernet Sauvignon and Norton post véraison. In addition, the content of trans-resveratrol in the berry skin rapidly increased post véraison and reached the highest level at harvest. These assays demonstrated that individual STS genes are regulated differentially in response to PM infection and during development in the two grape varieties. The present study yields basic knowledge for further investigation of the regulation and function of each STS gene in grapevine and provides experimental evidences for the functional annotation of the STS gene family in the grapevine genome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  18. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content and colour of the Slovak cabernet sauvignon wines

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    Daniel Bajčan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time, they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Grapes and wine are a significant source of antioxidants in human nutrition. One of the most important group occuring in grapes and wines are polyphenols. Many of phenolic compounds have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant and antiradical activity. Therefore, it is important to know the content of polyphenols and their antioxidant effects in foods and beverages. Twenty-eight Cabernet Sauvignon wine samples, originated from different Slovak vineyard regions, were analyzed using spectrophotometry for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. Determined values of antioxidant activity in observed wines were within the interval 69.0 - 84.2% inhibition of DPPH (average value was 78.8% inhibition of DPPH and total polyphenol content ranged from 1,218 to 3,444 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 2,424 mg gallic acid.L-1. Determined total anthocyanin contents were from 68.6 to 430.7 mg.L-1 (average content was 220.6 mg.L-1 and values of wine colour density ranged from 0.756 to 2.782 (average value was 1.399. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results did not confirm any linear correlations between total polyphenol content, resp. total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The correlations between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, resp. the content of total anthocyanins and wine colour density were strong. The results confirmed very strong correlations between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant

  19. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  20. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  1. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliados a evolução da acidez titulável, pH, ácido tartárico e potássio imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva, na descuba e após a fermentação alcoólica, a fermentação malolática e a estabilização tartárica, totalizando análises em cinco fases da vinificação. Os resultados mostraram uma evolução diferente da acidez, avaliados através do pH, da acidez titulável, do ácido tartárico e do potássio, na vinificação em tinto da uva Isabel em relação à Cabernet Sauvignon e à Cabernet Franc, nas fases compreendidas entre o esmagamento da uva e a descuba. O vinho Isabel se caracterizou por apresentar teores mais elevados de acidez titulável e ácido tartárico e mais baixos de potássio e pH, em relação aos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc.

  2. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  3. Assessing the aromatic potential of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot musts used to produce rose wine by assaying the cysteinylated precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, M L; Tominaga, T; Dubourdieu, D

    2001-11-01

    The development of a method for assaying S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-L-cysteine, the cysteinylated precursor of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (P-3MH), in must has made it possible to study its impact on the aromatic potential of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties used to produce rose wines in Bordeaux. The original feature of this method is the purification of very small volumes of must (500 microL) containing P-3MH by affinity chromatography and gas-phase chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of the purified precursor in trimethylsilylated derivative form. Assays of the cysteinylated precursor in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes showed that it was mainly located in the grape skins (60%). Prolonged juice-skin contact increased the must's P-3MH content, and this phenomenon was more marked at higher temperatures. Assessment of the aromatic potential of must used to produce rose wines by chemical analysis of an S-cysteine conjugate is mentioned for the first time.

  4. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor; Miele Alberto

    2002-01-01

    A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera) da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinho...

  5. Phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines from R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Boros, Borbala; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dimovska, Violeta; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Wine quality largely depends on the phenolic compounds, which contribute to the wine colour, bitterness and astringency. Furthermore, phenolic compounds demonstrate the antioxidant potential of wines, which is mainly due to the flavonoids. In this study, phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vitis Vinifera red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon from three vintages, 2006, 2007 and 2008, produced in the Republic of Macedonia, have been evaluated. Separation of the in...

  6. Phenolic Composition, Colour and Antioxidant Activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Boros, Borbala; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Wine quality largely depends on the phenolic compounds, which contribute to the wine colour, bitterness and astringency. Furthermore, phenolic compounds demonstrate the antioxidant potential of wines, which is mainly due to the flavonoids. In this study, phenolic composition, colour and antioxidant activity of Vitis Vinifera red wines Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon from three vintages, 2006, 2007 and 2008, produced in the Republic of Macedonia, have been evaluated. Separation of the in...

  7. Yeast population dynamics during prefermentative cold soak of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Y Paola; Mestre, M Victoria; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Nally, María Cristina; Lerena, María Cecilia; Toro, María Eugenia; Vazquez, Fabio; Combina, Mariana

    2015-04-16

    Prefermentative cold soak is a widely used technique in red wine production, but the impact on the development of native yeast species is hardly described. The aim of this work was to analyse the dynamics and diversity of yeast populations during prefermentative cold soak in red wines. Three different temperatures (14 ± 1 °C; 8 ± 1 °C and 2.5 ± 1 °C) were used for prefermentative cold soak in Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grape musts. Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces populations during cold soak and alcoholic fermentation were analysed. In addition, the impact on chemical and sensory properties of the wines was examined. Yeast dynamics during prefermentative cold soak were temperature dependent. At 14 ± 1 °C, the total yeast population progressively increased throughout the cold soak period. Conversely, at 2.5 ± 1 °C, the yeast populations maintained stable during the same period. Prefermentative cold soak conducted at 14±1°C favoured development of Hanseniospora uvarum and Candida zemplinina, whereas cold soak conducted at 8 ± 1 °C favoured growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At 2.5 ± 1 °C, no changes in yeast species were recorded. Acidity and bitterness, two sensory descriptors, appear to be related to wines produced with prefermentative cold soak carried out at 14 ± 1 °C. This fact could be associated with the increase in non-Saccharomyces during the prefermentation stage. Our results emphasise the importance of the temperature as a determinant factor to allow an increase in non-Saccharomyces population during prefermentative cold soak and consequently to modify sensorial attributes of wines as well as their sensorial impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc wines: Anti-inflammatory activity in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Iglesias de Lacerda; Caillot, Adriana Rute Cordeiro; Palhares, Lais Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi

    2018-04-15

    The structural characterization of the polysaccharides and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of Cabernet Franc (WCF), Cabernet Sauvignon (WCS) and Sauvignon Blanc (WSB) wines were studied for the first time in this work. The polysaccharides of wines gave rise to three fractions of polysaccharides, namely (WCF) 0.16%, (WCS) 0.05% and (WSB) 0.02%; the highest one was chosen for isolation of polysaccharides (WCF). It was identified the presence of mannan, formed by a sequence of α-d-Manp (1 → 6)-linked and side chains O-2 substituted for α-d-mannan (1 → 2)-linked; type II arabinogalactan, formed by (1 → 3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1 → 6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains, and nonreducing end-units of arabinose 3-O-substituted; type I rhamnogalacturonan formed by repeating (1 → 4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-L-Rhap groups; and traces of type II rhamnogalacturonan. The polysaccharide mixture and isolated fractions inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and mediator (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Volatile Compounds of Young Wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay Varieties Grown in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwen Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the aroma components of wine produced in the Loess Plateau region of China, volatile compounds of young wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay varieties grown in the new ecological region were investigated for the first time in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by HS-SPME with GC-MS, a total of 45, 44 and 42 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of the three wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. According to their odor active values (OAVs, 18 volatile compounds were always present in the three wines at concentrations higher than their threshold values, but ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and isoamyl acetate were found to jointly contribute to 92.9%, 93.3%, and 98.7%, of the global aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. These odorants are associated with “fruity’’ and ‘‘ripe fruit’’ odor descriptors.

  10. Volatile compounds of young wines from cabernet sauvignon, cabernet gernischet and chardonnay varieties grown in the loess plateau region of china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bao; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2010-12-10

    In order to elucidate the aroma components of wine produced in the Loess Plateau region of China, volatile compounds of young wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay varieties grown in the new ecological region were investigated for the first time in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by HS-SPME with GC-MS, a total of 45, 44 and 42 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of the three wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. According to their odor active values (OAVs), 18 volatile compounds were always present in the three wines at concentrations higher than their threshold values, but ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and isoamyl acetate were found to jointly contribute to 92.9%, 93.3%, and 98.7%, of the global aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. These odorants are associated with "fruity'' and ''ripe fruit'' odor descriptors.

  11. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  12. Phenolic profile and free radical-scavenging activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different geographical origins from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Souquet, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    The phenolic profile, determined by the relative proportions of different phenolic compounds, is characteristic for each grape variety and its corresponding wine. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic and hydroxycinnamate acid, flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents and free radical-scavenging activity of single-cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) wines from selected Balkan vineyard regions by spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection. The contents of phenolic compounds varied depending on the agroclimatic factors and oenological practices of the vineyard region. The antioxidant activity of wine samples was estimated by their ability to scavenge the stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). All wines showed high DPPH-scavenging activity (70.03-83.53%, mean 73.76%). Significant correlations between catechin (R(2) = 0.8504) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.8488) concentrations and DPPH-scavenging ability of the wines were found. The concentrations of the main components catechin and quercetin can be used as biochemical markers for the authentication of red grape cultivars and their corresponding single-cultivar wines. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  13. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  14. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  15. The Impact of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Infection on the Grapevine's Physiological Response to Water Stress - Part 2 : Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edwards

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaeomoniella chlamydospora is a vascular pathogen that colonises the xylem tissues of the grapevine. It is associated with the diseases, esca and Petri disease, often considered to be ‘stress-related’ diseases. In glasshouse experiments using Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay, stomatal conductance was higher in infected plants, implying that infection interferes with stomatal control. In Cabernet Sauvignon, leaf water potentials were lower in infected plants subjected to water stress, indicating that infection made it more difficult for the vine to get water to the leaf. This was less apparent in Chardonnay. Clearly, infection alters the grapevine response to water stress and some cultivars are affected more than others.

  16. Sensory profiling and quality assessment of research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines; quality discrimination depends on greater differences in multiple modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Boss, Paul K; Bastian, Susan E P

    2018-04-01

    The sensory profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay research wines were determined and analysed together with wine quality scores of expert judges. Research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines from three and two vintages, respectively, were evaluated. Wines of both varieties were produced with grapes harvested from across South Australian wine making regions throughout 2013-2016 vintages. Wines within varieties were vinified identically across samples and also across vintages. Wines were profiled in triplicate using descriptive analysis with a panel of trained assessors (n=9-11) and graded for quality in triplicate by winemakers (n=6-9) using a sorting task based on similarity of quality and with the aid of definitions formed by the winemakers prior to sorting. The data sets were analysed using canonical variate analysis (CVA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). The scores from CVA and MDS per variety per vintage were analysed using Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Differences in Cabernet Sauvignon samples by provenance were determined, where associations with regions by sensory attributes were observed in all vintages. These wines were consistently sorted based on quality by the winemakers, evident from GPA. Chardonnay in comparison were poorly discriminated in both sensory profiles and quality. The combination of descriptive sensory analysis with sorting was complimentary to each other and was able to uncover additional information about the sensory properties of wines when the two methods were used in concert, such as balance and complexity. However the red wine variety had more intrinsic characteristics that lead to better discrimination based on sensory properties and hence quality than the white wine variety. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan

    2014-01-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  18. Isohydrodynamic behavior in deficit-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec and its relationship between yield and berry composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grapevines were irrigated at 70 or 23% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) throughout berry development over four growing seasons. Stomatal behavior was characterized by relating predawn leaf water potential and mid-morning stomatal conductance to mid-morning lea...

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPOUNDS IN THE AGING PROCESS OF THE DRĂGĂŞANI CABERNET SAUVIGNON WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of raw material on wine aging and determining of the optimal duration of wine aging in oak vessels and glass vessels. The potential quality of red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon Drăgăşani is highlighted more in the aging process to oak vessels and glass vessels.

  20. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W.

    2015-01-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm 2 .s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  3. Study of the contribution of massoia lactone to the aroma of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alexandre; Allamy, Lucile; Lavigne, Valérie; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively. In Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon musts marked by dried fruit flavors from overripe grapes, its concentration reached 68µg/L. In contrast, in wines marked by these flavors, it never exceeded 20µg/L. We show that (R)-C10 massoia lactone is reduced to (R)-δ-decalactone during alcoholic fermentation. In addition, we underline the contribution of temperature during the growing season on its level in old red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  6. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  7. Brotação e produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Pinot Noir' submetidas a diferentes concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada Shoot growth and production of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir grapevines sprayed with different concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Arduino Bettio Marodin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de frio invernal na videira produz efeitos adversos, como o atraso e desuniformidade de brotação das gemas, dificuldades de manejo fitossanitário, produção escalonada e de baixa qualidade. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Garibaldi, na região da Encosta Superior do Nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, com 640 metros de altitude, com objetivo de testar concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada de 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5% nas cultivares viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon e Pinot Noir. Os melhores resultados para brotação de gemas de vara foram de 1,75 e 2,0 % em 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Pinot Noir', respectivamente. Concentrações superiores a 1,5 % ocasionaram uniformidade de brotação, independentemente do ano. A maior produtividade foi obtida com cianamida.hidrogenada 2,0% nas duas cultivares, com elevação média de cinco ton/ha. Houve maior fertilidade nas gemas de vara do que em esporão. Os aspectos qualitativos das uvas não foram afetados pela cianamida hidrogenada, com exceção do peso médio dos cachos na 'Pinot Noir', na safra de 2004.The lack of chilling for grapevines produces adverse effects such as the delay and unevenness of budburst; difficulties for phytosanitary procedures, extension of the harvesting period and low fruit quality. The work was carried out close to Garibaldi, at an altitude of 640 meters in the region of "Encosta Superior" Northern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this work was to test concentrations of hydrogen Cyanamid varying from 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 ; 2,0 and 2.5% sprayed onto Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir cultivars. The best shoot growth results were obtained from sprays of 1.75% and 2.0% in Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir, respectively. Concentrations beyond to 1.5% promoted shoot growth uniformity, independent of the year. The highest productivity was obtained with 2.0% hydrogen Cyanamid in both cultivars, with an average increase of 5 ton/ha. There

  8. Modificação parcial do ambiente de cultivo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: efeito sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis Crop partially modified environment on different rootstocks of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine: effect on yield and sugar concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas regiões onde existe ocorrência de chuvas durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação dos frutos justifica-se a busca de alternativas de cultivo protegido de uvas para vinho visando atenuar esse impacto sobre a qualidade da produção. Um experimento com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e 'Ripária do Traviú',cultura videira foi conduzido em Jundiaí (SP, sob cultivo protegido (cobertura com plástico e laterais abertas, objetivando estudar as alterações microclimáticas ocorridas no ambiente de cultivo do vinhedo e avaliar o impacto dessa prática sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis, em relação ao cultivo em ambiente a céu aberto. A proteção por polietileno no cultivo da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' diminuiu o nível de radiação solar para 85,4% e aumentou as temperaturas máximas em 1,3 ºC. Nos ambientes analisados separadamente, as maiores produções por planta e teor de sólidos solúveis foram obtidas na 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' que superaram o 'Ripária do Traviú'. Na comparação entre os ambientes a céu aberto e parcialmente modificado não foram encontradas diferenças de produção, porém o teor de sólidos solúveis foi superior no ambiente a céu aberto.In the traditional regions of grape growers, where the incidence of rain is concentrated on the stage of fruit development and maturation, the search for improved crop management strategies is justified, aiming at attenuate the impact of it on yield quality. An experiment with grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" cultivated on rootstocks IAC 766, IAC 572 and Ripária do Traviú was carried out in Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, under plastic greenhouse. The search was focused on the microclimate modification in the environment of cultivated grapes from its conduction in partially modified crop cultivation environment (plastic cover with open sides, as well as evaluates the impact on

  9. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panprivech, Siriwan; Lerno, Larry A; Brenneman, Charles A; Block, David E; Oberholster, Anita

    2015-05-04

    The impact of increasing cold soak (CS) duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C) on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months' bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  11. Combination of RGB and Multispectral Imagery for Discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Salinas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  12. Combination of RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of cabernet sauvignon grapevine elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota; Sarria, Javier; Armada, Manuel

    2013-06-19

    This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Panprivech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of increasing cold soak (CS duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months’ bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  14. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon wines made in traditional and Ganimede fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bianxia; He, Fei; Yang, Lili; Chen, Feng; Reeves, Malcolm J; Li, Jingming

    2013-12-15

    Chemical profiles of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine made by two different winemaking techniques (traditional vinification and Ganimede method) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Particularly, effect of extraction on and subsequent stability of the phenolic compounds from the end of fermentation to bottling were investigated. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content was higher in the young wines produced in the Ganimede fermenter. The anthocyanin contents in these wines subsequently decreased significantly after two years of ageing. By contrast, the traditional vinification was slightly better than the Ganimede to yield the non-anthocyanin phenolics. This indicates that the Ganimede fermenter might be suitable for the production of brightly coloured red wines for early consumption, which could save time and labour cost for industrial production of highquality wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structures moléculaire et perception tannique des raisins et des vins (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot) du Bordelais

    OpenAIRE

    Chira, Kleopatra

    2009-01-01

    La connaissance de la composition phénolique du Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS) et du Merlot (M) dans la région vitivinicole du bordelais a un intérêt majeur pour définir la structure et la qualité tannique (astringence et amertume) des raisins et des vins. La composition en tanins et anthocyanes de raisins et de vins issus du Cabernet Sauvignon et du Merlot ainsi que leur perception tannique ont été recherchées. L’étude raisins a été réalisée pour cinq parcelles de la région bordelaise (Pauillac, Ma...

  16. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  17. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p < 0.05). Descriptive analyses revealed that 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole may contribute to the hay, dried herbs, and blackcurrant aromas reported in Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  18. Comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos Yield-related performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Petite Syrah on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia das Graças Silva Orlando

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah são destinadas à elaboração de vinhos tintos jovens ou de guarda bastante difundidas em diversas zonas vitivinícolas de todo o mundo. No Brasil, são utilizadas principalmente no Rio Grande do Sul e Vale do Rio São Francisco. Atualmente, produtores da região de Jundiaí, SP, têm demonstrado interesse na utilização de tais cultivares com intuito de obter vinhos de qualidade superior aos originários de cultivares americanas. Por isso, realizou-se o estudo do comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos, na região de Jundiaí, SP (23º06' S; 46º55' W, 715 m. Não houve influência dos diferentes porta-enxertos sobre o comportamento da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. O porta-enxerto IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' tendeu a conferir colheita tardia na cultivar Syrah. Os porta-enxertos IAC 572 'Jales' e IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' conferiram maior produção a cultivar Syrah. A cultivar Syrah apresentou-se como boa opção de plantio para obtenção de vinho de qualidade na região.Grapevines cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are largely used for high quality vine making all around the world. In Brazil they are concentrated moreover, at the Rio Grande do Sul state and in the São Francisco Valley. Producers from Jundiaí region (São Paulo state have been interested in such cultivars for improved quality vine making as they generally use american cultivars for that propose. Aiming study the performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Syrah, cultivated over different rootstocks an experiment was conducted in the region of Jundiaí (SP (23º06' S; 46º55' W, 715 m. Results showed that there wasn't influence of different rootstocks on the performance of both analyzed cultivars. It was observed a trend of the rootstock IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' to improve final yield of cv Syrah. The Rootstocks IAC 572 'Jales' and IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' combined to Syrah resulted in the highest yield in the

  19. Comportamento vegetativo e produtivo de videiras 'Cabernet sauvignon' cultivadas sob cobertura plástica Vegetative growth and yield of 'Cabernet sauvignon' grapevine under overhead plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cobertura plástica no cultivo de videira encontra-se em expansão no Rio Grande do Sul, por ser uma alternativa que visa a proteger as plantas da precipitação pluvial e do granizo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os impactos de uma cobertura plástica translúcida e impermeável sobre a fenologia, o crescimento (de ramos, folhas, cachos e bagas e a produtividade em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L., com cinco anos de idade, conduzidas em sistema 'Y', sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento, conduzido no município de Caxias do Sul-RS, seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, tendo os tratamentos sem e com cobertura plástica, com quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. As alterações microclimáticas impostas pela cobertura plástica não foram expressivas para alterar a fenologia da videira. As plantas cultivadas sob cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores valores de comprimento e massa fresca de ramos e de área, e massa seca foliar em comparação às plantas descobertas. O peso e o diâmetro de bagas foram superiores nas videiras cobertas apenas no início do ciclo e não diferiram próximo da colheita. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram afetadas pela cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica interferiu no crescimento vegetativo das plantas, mas não afetou a produção.There is an increasing adoption of overhead plastic covering for grapevines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, to protect the plants from rain and hail storms. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of overhead plastic covering with a translucent and water-proof plastic film on phenological, growth (of branch, leaves, clusters, and berries, and yield attributes of five years old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. on Paulsen 1103 rootstock raised as 'Y' management system. The experiment was carried out in Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, and followed a

  20. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  1. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin) during...

  2. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  3. Effect of micro-oxygenation on sensory characteristics and consumer preference of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Plumejeau, François; Maury, Chantal; Versari, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L(-1) month(-1) ), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L(-1) month(-1) dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. STUDIES REGARDING THE COLOR EVOLUTION DURING MATURATION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND PINOT NOIR WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Vişan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structure was analyzed by their concentration in condensed tannins, astringent tannins and tannin-polysaccharide complex. Analyzes have been carried out in the wine by UV-VIS spectrometry techniques. Total content of polyphenols have been determined by spectrophotometric technique (DO280. Tannins have been determined by the Ribereau-Gayon method (1996, tannin structure after Glories method (1978; anthocyanins were determined by the discoloration technique with SO2. The study on color of red wines analyzed during their evolution referred to the study of chromatic parameters, the content of anthocyanin monomers and polymers (Glories method. Our results showed a decrease of the percent of anthocyanin monomers accompanied by an increase the percent of polymers, in both wines, during their maturation.

  5. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of oxygen on volatile and sensory characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon during secondary shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Bo-Sik; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2011-11-09

    The oxidation of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during secondary shelf life was studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and sensory tests, with the support of multivariate statistical analyses such as OPLS-DA loading plot and PCA score plot. Four different oxidation conditions were established during a 1-week secondary shelf life. Samples collected on a regular basis were analyzed to determine the changes of volatile chemicals, with sensory characteristics evaluated through pattern recognition models. During secondary shelf life the separation among collected samples depended on the degree of oxidation in wine. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl decanoate, nonanoic acid, n-decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, 2-furancarboxylic acid, dodecanoic acid, and phenylacetaldehyde were determined to be associated with the oxidation of the wine. PCA sensory evaluation revealed that least oxidized wine and fresh wine was well-separated from more oxidized wines, demonstrating that sensory characteristics of less oxidized wines tend toward "fruity", "citrous", and "sweetness", while those of more oxidized wines are positively correlated with "animal", "bitterness", and "dairy". The study also demonstrates that OPLS-DA and PCA are very useful statistical tools for the understanding of wine oxidation.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  8. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of partial defoliation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon on the distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves in different positions on the shoot at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Partial defoliation (33% and 66%) resulted in a higher apparent photosynthetic effectivity for all the remaining leaves on the shoot. The pattern of distribution of photosynthetates would seem to stay the same between the defoliation treatments. The control vines were found to carry excess foliage. Optimal photosynthetic activity of all the leaves on the vine was therefore not reached

  9. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  10. Influence of closure, phenolic levels and microoxygenation on Cabernet Sauvignon wine composition after 5 years' bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guomin; Ugliano, Maurizio; Currie, Bruce; Vidal, Stéphane; Diéval, Jean-Baptiste; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Wine aging is generally limited by the amount of oxidation, which is dependent on the amount of oxygen entering via the closure. Cabernet Sauvignon wine is well known for its high concentration of tannin, making it an ideal red wine for aging. The impact of closure type after 5 years' bottle aging has been investigated on a 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, treated with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and micro-oxygenation (Mox). Two oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions (16 and 5 µg per day) into 375 mL bottles were obtained by using different synthetic stoppers. Color was evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry, carbonyls by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization, phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography and sulfur dioxide by the aspiration method. Closure type strongly influenced color parameters involving SO2 bleaching and some phenolics, particularly quercetin, were affected, but there was little effect on carbonyls other than acetaldehyde. PVPP treatment afforded wines with the lowest levels of phenolics and color density, but highest acetaldehyde. Few effects of Mox could be detected. Closure OTR strongly affects sulfur dioxide levels - the primary antioxidant in wine - in aged wine, but phenolic levels substantially alter the secondary reactions of oxidative aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Influence of yeast strain, canopy management, and site on the volatile composition and sensory attributes of cabernet sauvignon wines from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Anthony L; Boss, Paul K; Heymann, Hildegarde; Solomon, Peter S; Trengove, Robert D

    2011-04-13

    Understanding what factors are the major influences on wine composition will assist in the successful management of grape composition in the vineyard and/or variables in the winery to produce wines with specific sensory attributes. A recently developed analytical method [headspace solid-phase microextraction comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry] was employed to analyze over 350 volatile compounds in research scale wines and was combined with descriptive sensory analysis. Both compositional and sensory results showed significant differences among the wines, and in many cases, multiple factors influenced the abundance of wine volatile compounds. Site had the most significant influence on sensory scores and wine composition, followed by canopy management. Unexpectedly, yeast strain had no significant sensory effect despite the fact that a number of volatile compounds were significantly different in the wines made from different strains. PLS analysis, combining the sensory and chemical analyses, also supports the concept of volatile compound interactions contributing to the aroma characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

  12. Impact of extended maceration and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines: characterization of proanthocyanidin distribution, anthocyanin extraction, and chromatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Larsen, Richard C; Beaver, Christopher W; Mireles, Maria S; Keller, Markus; Riley, William R; Smithyman, Russell; Harbertson, James F

    2013-07-03

    The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ~73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution.

  13. Efeito de diferentes épocas de desfolha e de colheita na composição do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Effect of different defoliation and harvesting times in the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em Santana do Livramento. Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de épocas de desfolha e de colheita sobre a composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O experimento foi conduzido num fatoriat incompleto, com quatro épocas de desfolha e três épocas de colheita, realizadas em função de uma data ideal de colheita, totalizando onze tratamentos, com três repetições. A intensidade de desfolha foi de aproximadamente 25%. Os vinhos foram elaborados através de microvinificações. Os resultados mostraram que a época de desfolha não afetou de forma significativa a maioria das variáveis analisadas no vinho, à exceçao do álcool, açúcares redutores e extraio seco. A época de colheita, por outro lado, influiu significativamente na maior parte das variáveis, exceto na acidez total e na acidez volátil, o que sugere uma maior influência deste fator sobre a composição e qualidade do vinho.The fleld work was carried out in Santana do Livramento, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of defotiation and harvesting times on the physicchemical composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The experimental design was an incompletely factorial with four defotiation times and three harvesting limes at on ideal harvest date with a total of eleven treatments in three replicales. The defotiation intensity was about 25% and wines were elaborated in small volumes The results showed that the time of defotiation did not have significam effect on the majority of the variables anatyzed, exception on the alcohot, reducing sugars and dry extract. On the other hand, the harvesting time had a significant effect on almost ali variables, exception to the total and votatile acidities. These results suggests a greater influence of the harvesting time on the composition and quatity of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

  14. 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in grape berries and its dependence on genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Doyle, Carolyn L; Matthews, Mark A; Williams, Larry E; Ebeler, Susan E

    2010-12-01

    2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) contributes a bell pepper aroma to many grape cultivars and has a reported aroma threshold of ∼2 ng L(-1) in water. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) develop a procedure using headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME-GC-MS-SIM) for analysis of MIBP in grape berries, and (2) determine the location of MIBP biosynthesis in grapevines by approach grafting clusters of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Cabernet Sauvignon and Muscat blanc onto each other. The soluble solids and pH of the grape juice/homogenate matrix from different grape berry developmental stages influenced the method precision; therefore, quantification via the method of standard addition was used. Using our developed method, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of MIBP were 0.1 ng L(-1) and 2 ng L(-1), respectively, measured in a model juice and non-MIBP containing Chardonnay juice. Spiked recoveries averaged between 91% and 112% in Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir homogenates and the overall relative standard deviation was less than 10%. The method was used to analyze MIBP in 29 grape cultivars and in fruit from clusters grafted to Cabernet Sauvignon or Muscat vines. Quantifiable levels were found only in Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon blanc and Semillon, providing information on the genetic connection for the occurrence of MIBP in grapes. No MIBP was detected in the berries of Muscat blanc clusters grafted onto Cabernet Sauvignon vines when sampled at fruit maturity. MIBP was detected in all berries of Cabernet Sauvignon regardless the graft configuration. The data indicate that MIBP or its precursors originate in the berry and its formation depends upon grape genotype. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of aroma volatiles in commercial Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines using gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Ozan; Rouseff, June M; Rouseff, Russell L

    2006-05-31

    Seventy-four aroma active compounds were observed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced in California and Australia. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction and analyzed using time-intensity gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The most intense odorants were 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, octanal, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, beta-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethenyl-2-methoxy-phenol, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol. Aroma compounds were classified according to their aroma descriptor similarity and summed into nine distinct categories consisting of fruity, sulfury, caramel/cooked, spicy/peppery, floral, earthy, pungent/chemical, woody, and green/vegetative/fatty. Both Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines were characterized by high fruity, caramel, green, and earthy aroma totals. Although there were distinct quantitative differences between Merlot and Cabernet wines, the relative aroma category profiles of the four wines were similar. Of the 66 volatiles identified by GC-MS, 28 were esters and 19 were minor alcohols. Between 81 and 88% of the total MS total ion chromatogram peak areas from each wine type were produced from only eight compounds: ethanol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, diethyl succinate, and 2-phenylethanol. Merlot wines from both Australia and California contained 4-5 times more ethyl octanoate than Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the same sources.

  16. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  17. The Influence of Prefermentative Addition of Gallic Acid on the Phenolic Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid in Cabernet Sauvignon red winemaking was performed. The influence of gallic acid addition on wine phenolic composition, the ratio of copigmentation, and the color parameters were monitored throughout the winemaking process. The results showed that the prefermentative addition of gallic acid enhanced the extraction of total anthocyanins and the copigmentation effect, producing wines with more darkness, redness, yellowness, and saturation. Moreover, the addition of gallic acid contributed to the concentration of total phenolic acids. However, it had a negative effect on the concentrations of flavonols and flavan-3-ols in the final wines. Thus, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid at appropriate levels might be a promising enological technology to obtain wines with high color quality and aging potential. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves of different parts of the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Specific photosynthetic activity of the 14 CO 2 -treated leaves gradually decreased during the season. Photosynthetates were hoarded in the leaves at berry set, but were increasingly diverted to the bunches after that. The apical leaves displayed the highest photosynthesis. The leaves opposite and below the bunches accumulated very little photosynthetates, especially from veraison to ripeness. Redistribution of photosynthetates among the basal, middle and apical leaves was generally very restricted at all stages. Multidirectional distribution from the site of application of 14 CO 2 occurred at berry set stage, while from pea size to ripeness photosynthetates were mainly translocated basipetally. Highest accumulation in the bunches occurred at veraison, while the basal leaves were primarily used to nourish the bunch

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MINERAL NUTRITION AND LATE-SEASON BUNCH STEM NECROSIS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON (VITIS VINIFERA L.) GRAPEVINES

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    Late-season Bunch Stem Necrosis (BSN) is observed as a necrosis of the cluster stem (rachis) that leads to shriveling of berries on the affected portion of the cluster. Field experiments were conducted over three years at two vineyards in northern Virginia to examine relationships between specific nutrients and the incidence of BSN of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Nutrients, used alone or in combination, included nitrogen, magnesium, and calcium. During the 1997 and 1998 seasons at Leesbu...

  20. Model Validation for Estimating the Leaf Stomatal Conductance in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevines Validación de un modelo para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas en vides cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jara-Rojas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The coupled model of assimilation and stomatal conductance (A-g s was evaluated to estimate leaf stomatal conductance of a drip-irrigated vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the Pencahue Valley (35º22’ S, 71°47’ W, 150 m.a.s.l., Maule Region, Chile, during the 2003-2004 and the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Additionally, a calibration of the three parameters mesophyll conductance (g m, maximum specific humidity (Dmax and coupled factor (f0 was applied on vines growing in 35 L pots. An infrared gas analyzer was used to calibrate and evaluate the A-g s which allowed simultaneous measuring of the leaf net CO2 assimilation (A and stomatal conductance (g s in 2 to 3 h intervals of time. The calibration indicated that the g m,, Dmax and f0 values were 1.15 mm s-1, 52.31 g kg-1 and 0.90, respectively. The validation in the drip-irrigated vineyard indicated that the A-g s model was able to estimate the leaf stomatal conductance with a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.05 mol m-2 s-1, model efficiency of 61% and agreement index of 90%. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the A-g s model is affected considerably by the g m, Dmax and f0 parameterization.Validación de un modelo para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas en vides cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. El modelo acoplado de asimilación neta y conductancia estomática (A-g s fue evaluado para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas (g s de un viñedo regado por goteo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue (35º22’ S; 71º47’ O; 150 m.s.n.m., Región del Maule, Chile, durante las temporadas 2003-2004 y 2004-2005. Además, se realizó una calibración de la conductancia del mesófilo (g m, valor máximo de humedad específica a saturación (Dmax y el factor acoplado (f0 en vides creciendo en maceteros de 35 L. Para calibrar y evaluar el modelo A-g s se utilizó un analizador infrarrojo de gases, el cual permitió medir simult

  1. GC-MS metabolic profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars during grapevine berry development and network analysis reveals a stage- and cultivar-dependent connectivity of primary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Ruíz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    Information about the total chemical composition of primary metabolites during grape berry development is scarce, as are comparative studies trying to understand to what extent metabolite modifications differ between cultivars during ripening. Thus, correlating the metabolic profiles with the changes occurring in berry development and ripening processes is essential to progress in their comprehension as well in the development of new approaches to improve fruit attributes. Here, the developmental metabolic profiling analysis across six stages from flowering to fully mature berries of two cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, is reported at metabolite level. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted approach, 115 metabolites were identified and relative quantified in both cultivars. Sugars and amino acids levels show an opposite behaviour in both cultivars undergoing a highly coordinated shift of metabolite associated to primary metabolism during the stages involved in growth, development and ripening of berries. The changes are characteristic for each stage, the most pronounced ones occuring at fruit setting and pre-Veraison. They are associated to a reduction of the levels of metabolites present in the earlier corresponding stage, revealing a required catabolic activity of primary metabolites for grape berry developmental process. Network analysis revealed that the network connectivity of primary metabolites is stage- and cultivar-dependent, suggesting differences in metabolism regulation between both cultivars as the maturity process progresses. Furthermore, network analysis may represent an appropriate method to display the association between primary metabolites during berry developmental processes among different grapevine cultivars and for identifying potential biologically relevant metabolites.

  2. Influence of Freeze Concentration Technique on Aromatic and Phenolic Compounds, Color Attributes, and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Yan; Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yong; Wang, Fang; Li, Jing-Ming

    2017-06-02

    Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon ( Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content. This technique increased ester contents, as well as decreasing the amount of volatile acids. Higher alcohol contents were also increased, but within an acceptable content range. All taken into consideration, the freeze concentration treated wine showed better fragrance characters according to sensory evaluation. The non-anthocyanin composition was altered by this application, however, the difference disappeared after the aging process. Fortunately, sensory evaluation showed that the treated wine possessed better mouthfeel properties. Anthocyanin contents were enhanced, and effectively stabilized the fresh wine color attributes, resulting in an improvement in appearance of the treated wine. All results considered, it can be concluded that freeze concentration treatment could be a good choice to improve wine quality.

  3. Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR, a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  4. Effect of Robola and Cabernet Sauvignon extracts on platelet activating factor enzymes activity on U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, M N; Asimakopoulos, D; Antonopoulou, S; Demopoulos, C A; Fragopoulou, E

    2014-12-15

    A number of studies support the anti-atherogenic effect of wine compounds. The scope of this study was to examine the effect of a red (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS) and a white (Robola-R) wine, as well as resveratrol and quercetin, on the platelet activating factor (PAF) biosynthetic enzymes, acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF-AT) and DTT-insensitive CDP-choline 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT), and its main catabolic enzyme (PAF acetylhydrolase; PAF-AH), on U937 cells, in cell free and in intact cell experiments. In cell free experiments, phenolic compounds and wine extracts inhibited PAF biosynthetic enzymes, however in higher concentrations than intact cell experiments. In the latter cases, polar lipids of both wines inhibited in the same order of magnitude the action of lyso-PAF-AT and of PAF-CPT. The water fractions possessed a dual action, in lower concentrations they activated both enzymes, while in higher concentrations only inhibited PAF-CPT. All fractions either did not affect or slightly activated PAF-AH activity. In conclusion, wine compounds may exert their anti-inflammatory activity by reducing PAF levels through modulation of the PAF metabolic enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  6. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y...

  7. Influência da maceração carbônica e da irradiação ultravioleta nos níveis de trans-resveratrol em vinhos de uva cabernet sauvignon Influence of the carbonic maceration on the levels of trans-resveratrol in cabernet sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo moderado de vinho reduz significativamente os riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Este efeito é atribuído aos polifenóis presentes no vinho, em especial ao resveratrol (3,5,4'-triidroxiestilbeno, que é uma fitoalexina encontrada em várias partes da videira, principalmente na casca da uva, assim como em outras espécies de plantas. Uvas da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foram submetidas à irradiação com luz ultravioleta e maceração carbônica e após fermentadas. Procedeu-se à coleta de amostras durante todo o experimento, as quais foram posteriormente analisadas quanto ao teor de trans-resveratrol através da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que a evolução do conteúdo de trans-resveratrol foi ascendente durante as fases da fermentação. Diferenças ocorreram no final da fermentação, em que as amostras de vinhos com maceração carbônica apresentaram leve declínio, possivelmente pela atmosfera de CO2 na qual ficaram armazenadas, inibindo a formação do resveratrol. Ao final da fermentação principal a concentração de trans-resveratrol foi de 15 mg.L-1 em todos os tratamentos, chegando a 1,5 mg.L-1, em média, no final do período de estocagem.The moderate consumption of wine reduces the risks of heart diseases significantly. This effect is attributed to the polyphenols found in the wine, in special to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihidroxistilbene that it is a phytoalexin found in the various parts of the vine, including in the skin of the grape, as well as in other species of plants. Grapes of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon had been submitted to the irradiation with ultra-violet light and carbonic maceration and after fermented. It was proceeded all collection from samples during the experiment, which later had been analyzed how much to the concentration of trans-resveratrol using the Liquid Chromatography of High Efficiency. The of the content of trans-resveratrol was ascendent

  8. Condições meteorológicas e tipo de solo na composição da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das condições meteorológicas e do tipo de solo sobre características físico-químicas e compostos fenólicos da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo implantado em 2003, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103' e conduzido no sistema espaldeira. No vinhedo, foram selecionados dois solos: Cambissolo Háplico e Cambissolo Húmico. O efeito das condições meteorológicas (precipitação e temperatura mínima e máxima do ar foi avaliado nas safras 2008/2009, 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Foram determinados os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e o pH do mosto, bem como o índice de polifenóis totais e dos teores de antocianinas e de taninos da uva. Os fatores solo e as condições meteorológicas (safras foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2x3. Com exceção do teor de polifenóis totais, as condições meteorológicas e o tipo de solo afetam as características físico-químicas da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', com efeito mais pronunciado das condições meteorológicas do que do tipo de solo. Menores precipitações e maiores amplitudes térmicas favorecem o acúmulo de sólidos solúveis na uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Maiores precipitações favorecem o aumento da acidez do mosto.

  9. Risco de geada e duração dos subperíodos fenológicos da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' na região da Campanha

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    Gabriel F. Brixner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar os períodos com maior risco de formação de geada e avaliar as alterações quanto à duração do ciclo fenológico da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon', estimados com base na disponibilidade térmica de Alegrete, Bagé, Quaraí, São Gabriel, Santana do Livramento e Uruguaiana, localizados na região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram utilizados dados meteorológicos, como temperatura máxima e mínima do ar para o período de 1961 a 2010. Para determinar o risco de formação de geada foi considerada condição favorável a formação quando a temperatura mínima fosse menor ou igual a 3 °C. Para determinar o comportamento fenológico da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foi realizado o somatório de graus-dia abrangendo o período de 1/agosto a 10/outubro como início de brotação. Verifica-se que, no início de setembro, Uruguaiana e São Gabriel apresentam baixo risco de formação de geada, a nível de 0,05, enquanto para Alegrete, Bagé, Quaraí e Santana do Livramento para este nível a última data ocorre no início de outubro. Quanto aos subperíodos de desenvolvimento da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' é possível observar variações no número total de dias em relação às épocas de brotação, bem como entre os municípios da Campanha.

  10. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Asfaw; Hochberg, Uri; Sikron, Noga; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Ghan, Ryan; Plaschkes, Inbar; Batushansky, Albert; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Mattivi, Fulvio; Delledonne, Massimo; Pezzotti, Mario; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cramer, Grant R; Fait, Aaron

    2014-07-26

    Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3'5'H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3'5'H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between the central and specialized

  11. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical

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    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.

  12. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

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    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está o manejo do vinhedo, aliado a ajustes tecnológicos nas etapas de elaboração do vinho. Para tal, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0g hl-1, 10,0g hl-1, 20,0g hl-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, descuba, e após a fermentação malolática. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se análises sensoriais, em relação aos atributos ligados aos perfis olfativos e gustativos, com análise de oito descritores olfativos e nove descritores gustativos, além de um conceito geral. Assim, verificou-se que os taninos enológicos imprimiram algumas diferenças, principalmente no perfil aromático dos vinhos, que apresentaram acréscimo de qualidade quando tratados com os taninos enológicos. Da mesma maneira, houve superioridade olfativa e gustativa nos vinhos que receberam tratamentos com taninos na etapa de maceração.The objective of this research was to study the effect of enological tannins in the sensory composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The study was conducted in Bento Gonçalves, RS, with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, harvest 2004. This is a cultivar that stands out in importance in Brazil for the production of red wines. However, in some crops there are difficulties for a proper maturation, which hampers the development of wines with the sensory profile desired by consumers. Among the strategies to minimize this problem

  13. Disponibilidade hídrica, radiação solar e fotossíntese em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sob cultivo protegido Water supply, solar radiation and photosynthesis in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines under plastic covering

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    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' com lona plástica translúcida sobre a disponibilidade de luz e água, a concentração foliar de clorofila e a fotossíntese. As plantas com cinco anos de idade foram conduzidas em sistema 'Y' sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (plantas sem e com cobertura plástica e quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. A cobertura plástica reduziu o suprimento às plantas de radiações ultravioleta (UV, azul, verde, vermelho, vermelho distante e total (300-750 nm, bem como a disponibilidade hídrica nas camadas superficiais do solo (0-30 cm. As plantas cobertas apresentaram maior taxa fotossintética máxima e condutância estomática em relação às plantas descobertas. Os pontos de compensação e de saturação de luz, a eficiência quântica aparente, a respiração no escuro, a concentração foliar de clorofilas e o potencial hídrico foliar de base não foram influenciados pelo uso da cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica reduziu a radiação e a disponibilidade hídrica nas camadas superficiais do solo, porém favoreceu a assimilação foliar de CO2.The objective of this work was to assess the effects of translucent plastic overhead cover on light and water supply of vineyard and leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in grapevines. Five-year-old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grafted on Paulsen 1103 rootstock and raised as 'Y' management system were used. The experiment followed a randomized block design, with two treatments (uncovered and covered plants and four replicates of 15 plants (experimental unit. The plastic cover reduced the supply of ultraviolet (UV, blue, green, red, far red, and total (300-750 nm radiation to the plants, as well as the water availability at the superficial soil layers (0-30 cm. Covered plants had

  14. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  15. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Alberto Miele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  16. PRODUTIVIDADE E QUALIDADE DA 'CABERNET SAUVIGNON' SUSTENTADA EM ESPALDEIRA E MANJEDOURA NA FORMA DE Y

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    MÁRIO JOSÉ PEDRO JÚNIOR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A uva ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ utilizada para elaboração de vinho tem tido seu plantio incrementado na região vitivinícola de São Roque (SP, sendo o sistema de sustentação mais usual a espaldeira. Recentemente, foi introduzido o sistema de sustentação em manjedoura na forma de Y, portanto foi realizado experimento objetivando caracterizar a produção e as características químicas do mosto da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ sustentada em espaldeira e em Y. As avaliações foram feitas durante os anos agrícolas: 2010/2011, 2011/2012 e 2012/2013. As videiras sustentadas em Y apresentaram maiores médias de massa dos cachos e de produtividade quando comparadas às sustentadas em espaldeira. As médias de produtividade estimada variaram entre 9,89 e 13,64 t ha-1 para a espaldeira e entre 13,34 e 17,43 t ha-1 para a manjedoura na forma de Y. Em relação às características químicas do mosto (teor de sólidos solúveis, pH e acidez titulável, não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os sistemas de sustentação das videiras. As médias do teor de sólidos solúveis variaram entre 17,3 e 19,3°Brix, e a acidez titulável total, entre 98 e 143 meq.L-1 para os diferentes anos agrícolas avaliados.

  17. The combined effects of storage temperature and packaging on the sensory, chemical, and physical properties of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Buffon, Peter A; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-04-03

    A Californian Cabernet Sauvignon was stored for 6 months at three different constant temperatures to study the combined effects of storage temperature and packaging configuration. Glass bottles with natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw cap closure, as well as two Bag-in-Box treatments, were used in the experiment. A trained sensory panel was able to detect significant changes in aroma, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and color attributes among the samples, differences that were found also with various chemical and physical measurements (volatile profile, polyphenol pattern, enological parameters, color space). Additionally, two commonly used polyphenol assays were compared to each other in terms of their ability to detect the changes in the polyphenol profile. Generally, sample changes were more pronounced due to the different storage temperatures, with 30 sensory attributes differing significantly among the three different storage temperatures, while only 17 sensory attributes showed a significant packaging effect. With increasing storage temperature the packaging effect became more pronounced, resulting in the largest changes in the Bag-in-Box samples stored at the highest temperature of 40 °C. At the highest storage temperature, all wines showed oxidized characters, independent of the wine packaging configurations, but to a varying degree. Generally, wines that received highest oxygen amounts and storage temperatures were much lighter, less red, and more brown-yellow at the end of the 6-month storage period, compared to their counterparts stored at 10 °C. These changes in color and polyphenols, respectively, were also detected with the two spectrophotometric assays. With increasing storage temperature both assays measured reduced concentrations in total phenols and total anthocyanins, while total tannins, degree of ionized anthocyanins, and color density increased. Various volatile compounds differed significantly among the samples, with largest relative

  18. Production Charachteristics of Some Introduced Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić; Edi Maletić; Nikola Mirošević; Bernard Kozina; Jasmina Marić

    2000-01-01

    In order to expand the number of red grape cultivars suitable for Northern Dalmatia subregion experimental vineyard has been planted on the farm 'Bastica' PK Zadar. The large number of red grape cultivar has been introducted. Seven of them are spread in central and southern Italy (Montepulciano, Sangiovese, Malvasia nera di Lecce, Ciliegiolo, Aglianico, Cabernet sauvignon, Moscato rosa), which have similar ecological conditions as the area of Ravni Kotari. During the five years period agrobio...

  19. Histopathological study of response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and wood injury with and without inoculation by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

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    Jérôme POUZOULET

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch is one of the main causal agents of tracheomycosis in grapevine. We characterize how this fungus affects the response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and xylem-tissue wounding after six weeks post-treatment. A histological investigation shows that, in xylem tissue, cell-wall modifications in response to wounding are related to suberin deposits rather than to lignin-induced wall thickening. The xylem response does not appear to be disturbed by Pch infection. Therefore, cell-wall modification strongly inhibits the development of wound-closure tissue (WCT but does not prevent the differentiation of the necro-phylactic periderm. Hyphae localization in tissue surrounding the wound or inoculation sites indicates that Pch colonizes all cell types, such as vascular tissues, paratracheal parenchyma cells, fibers and rays. The results also suggest that efficient compartmentalization separating fascicular xylem portions is assured by thick suberized cell walls bordering the ray parenchyma.

  20. Impact of Clonal Variability on Phenolics and Radical Scavenging Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Study on the Recently Developed Merlot and Cabernet Franc Clones (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana; Natić, Maja; Gašić, Uroš; Jović, Sonja; Vujović, Dragan; Djordjević, Jelena Popović

    2016-01-01

    In this study, grapes and corresponding wines of Merlot /No 022, 025 and 029/ and Cabernet Franc /No 02, 010 and 012/ clones (recently developed) were evaluated regarding the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity, aiming to better understand their quality and market potential. The nineteen individual polyphenols were quantified in studied grape samples using UHPLC coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The mother grapes and wines were used as the relevant standards. In the grape, studied characteristics were monitored at three stages of berry development: green berry, véraison and mature berry. The mature grape of clones presented high values of total phenolics (3.81–10.89 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 frozen weight), anthocyanin content (359.00–1668.18 mg malvidin-3-O-glucoside kg-1 frozen weight) and the radical scavenging activity (41.37–80.48 mmol trolox equivalent kg-1 frozen weight) depending on the clone. Grapes and wines of Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 stood out with the highest values of all three parameters. Generally, the high correlation was observed between TPC and RSA values for green berries and mature grapes, as well as for wine samples. The most abundant phenolics in both Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes were gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin gallate, catechin gallate, and rutin. Catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin gallate, typical for the ripe grape of Merlot and Cabernet Franc clones, showed significant correlation with RSA values. Concentrations of individual polyphenols varied depending on the sample being studied and berry development stages. Merlot No 025 and Cabernet Franc No 010 grapes showed particularly interesting attributes for the production of high quality wines. PMID:27732619

  1. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

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    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  2. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

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    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  3. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  4. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disentangling dormancy and cold-hardiness in wine grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-hardiness of bud and cane tissue was monitored throughout para, endo and ecodormancy in field-grown vines using differential thermal analysis to generate lethal temperature exotherms (LTE). Deacclimation and re-acclimation rates were measured during ecodormancy to determine the depth of dorm...

  7. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  8. Aminoácidos livres e uréia durante a fermentação do mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon com diferentes leveduras

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    DUTRA Sandra Valduga

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de aminoácidos e uréia em mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon fermentado com diferentes leveduras, foram os principais objetivos desse trabalho. Cabernet Sauvignon foi utilizada por ser teoricamente uma cultivar com alto teor de prolina e baixo teor de arginina, em comparação com cultivares com alto teor e predominância de arginina. Os mostos foram coletados em Santana do Livramento, RS e transportados para a UFSM; lá foram dividos em dois lotes aos quais foram adicionados diferentes leveduras: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermol Bouquet e Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2056. A análise dos aminoácidos foi realizada utilizando um analizador de aminoácidos marca Hitachi L-8500 conforme SANDERS e OUGH (21. Uréia foi determinada de acordo com ALMY e OUGH (1 modificado por PEREIRA e DAUDT (19. O aminoácido encontrado no mosto, em maior quantidade foi a prolina (847mg/l seguido por arginina (235mg/l e alanina (87mg/l. A maioria dos aminoácidos (exceção de prolina foram consumidos pelas leveduras logo após o início da fermentação. A liberação máxima de uréia no meio coincidiu com o consumo máximo de arginina, que na fermentação com a levedura 2056 ocorreu à 19° Brix (2,7mg/l e com a levedura Fermol Bouquet ocorreu com o mosto a 15° Brix (4,1mg/l. O teor de prolina permaneceu elevado durante todo o processo fermentativo, confirmando a pouca preferência das leveduras por este aminoácido. Os aminoácidos arginina, treonina, serina, aspartato e isoleucina, podem ser considerados melhores fontes de nitrogênio para as leveduras.

  9. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  10. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M.; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C.; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore. PMID:19359488

  11. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Hochberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C. Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose, more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures.

  12. Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. The HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L(-1)) than EC1118 (390 g L(-1)) during alcoholic fermentation, but the concentration equalized during the aging period (424 and 417 g L(-1) respectively). All aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than the EC1118 wines by the panel of tasters after alcoholic fermentation. In general, the HPS wines showed better physicochemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all aging techniques contributed to improve wine quality, but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed the best wine to be obtained, because it depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids during Cabernet Sauvignon wine ageing based on a simultaneous analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; Lan, Yi-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xiang, Xiao-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids are the important flavour-related components in wines. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a method that could simultaneously analyse these compounds in wine based on silylation derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and apply this method to the investigation of the changes of these compounds and speculate upon their related influences on Cabernet Sauvignon wine flavour during wine ageing. This work presented a new approach for wine analysis and provided more information concerning red wine ageing. This method could simultaneously quantitatively analyse 2 monosaccharides, 8 organic acids and 13 amino acids in wine. A validation experiment showed good linearity, sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Multiple derivatives of five amino acids have been found but their effects on quantitative analysis were negligible, except for methionine. The evolution pattern of each category was different, and we speculated that the corresponding mechanisms involving microorganism activities, physical interactions and chemical reactions had a great correlation with red wine flavours during ageing. Simultaneously quantitative analysis of monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids in wine was feasible and reliable and this method has extensive application prospects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-10-14

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures.

  16. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions.

  17. Ácido abscísico e Etefom: influência sobre a maturação e qualidade das uvas Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peterson Pereira Gardin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se determinar os efeitos da aplicação exógena de ABA e ETEFOM sobre a maturação e a qualidade de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon. O presente trabalho foi realizado em um vinhedo, localizado na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Videira - SC, durante a safra de 2009/2010. Foram utilizadas as doses de 0; 20 e 40g i.a. 100L-1 de ácido abscísico (ABA e 0; 136,8 e 273,6g i.a. 100L-1 de ETEFOM, configurando um experimento fatorial 3x3. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no início da mudança de cor das bagas "veraison". As variáveis analisadas nas uvas foram teor de antocianinas, polifenóis totais, índice CIRG (índice de cor para uvas tintas, atividade antioxidante, sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix e acidez total titulável. Os resultados indicam melhoria na qualidade das uvas com o uso das combinações de ABA e ETEFOM, aumento do índice CIRG, polifenóis totais, antocianinas e açúcares.

  18. Front face fluorescence spectroscopy and visible spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics have the potential to characterise ripening of Cabernet Franc grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, Marine; Dufour, Eric; Bertrand, Dominique; Maury, Chantal; Seraphin, Denis; Jourjon, Frédérique

    2008-07-21

    The potential of front-face spectroscopy for grape ripening dates discrimination was investigated on Cabernet Franc grapes from three parcels located on the Loire Valley and for six ripening dates. The 18 batches were analysed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and visible spectroscopy. The excitation spectra (250-310nm, emission wavelength=350nm) were characterised by a shoulder at 280nm. Grapes spectra were classified by factorial discriminant analysis (FDA). Ripening dates were well predicted by fluorescence spectra: grapes before veraison were separated from grapes after veraison and almost every ripening date was identified. The common spectroscopic space obtained by CCSWA showed that wavelengths corresponding to anthocyanin absorption in the visible were correlated to fluorescence wavelengths around the starting and ending points of the shoulder (263 and at 292nm). Then, regression models were investigated to predict total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity, malvidin-3G, total anthocyanins and total phenolics content from visible and fluorescence spectra. To predict technological indicators (TSS and total acidity), the PLS model with visible spectra (RMSECV=0.82 degrees Brix or 0.96gL(-1) H(2)SO(4)) was better than those with fluorescence one (RMSECV=1.39 degrees Brix or 2.06gL(-1) H(2)SO(4)). For malvidin-3G and total anthocyanins, all R(c)(2) and R(cv)(2) were superior to 0.90 and RMSECV were low. Visible and fluorescence spectroscopies succeeded in predicting anthocyanin content. Concerning total phenolic, the best prediction was provided by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. Relações hídricas, rendimento e compostos fenólicos de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon em três tipos de solo

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    Geraldo Chavarria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a influência de três tipos de solo (Argissolo Bruno-acizentado, Planossolo Háplico e Neossolo Regolítico sobre aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da produção de uvas destinadas à vinificação. O experimento foi executado no ciclo 2008/2009, em vinhedo da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., no município de Bento Gonçalves, (RS. Avaliou-se a disponibilidade hídrica em base gravimétrica ao longo do período de maturação das uvas, o potencial da água na folha, parâmetros de crescimento vegetativo, componentes do rendimento e os compostos fenólicos no momento da colheita. Argissolos Bruno-acizentados propiciaram maior crescimento vegetativo, sobretudo em massa de ramos, comprimento de entrenós e área foliar, assim como, cachos com maior número de bagas. Planossolos Háplicos com maior disponibilidade hídrica proporcionaram maior produtividade das videiras. Neossolos Regolíticos levaram à menor disponibilidade hídrica, o que reflete em redução do potencial da água na folha. Nestas condições de restrição hídrica, as videiras tiveram menor crescimento e rendimento, como também, maiores teores de taninos e índice de polifenóis totais. Em geral, o Neossolo Regolítico pode ser considerado mais promissor para a obtenção de vinhos finos de qualidade.

  20. Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide Interacts with Light to Regulate Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yali; Yuan, Chunlong; Ruan, Shicheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei

    2018-01-09

    Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) are crucial factors that affect the quality of grapes and the making of wine, which were stimulated by various stimuli and environment factors (sugar, hormones, light, and temperature). The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) and light on the mechanism of anthocyanins and PAs accumulation in grape berries. Grape clusters were sprayed with EBR (0.4 mg/L) under light and darkness conditions (EBR + L, EBR + D), or sprayed with deionized water under light and darkness conditions as controls (L, D), at the onset of veraison. A large amount of anthocyanins accumulated in the grape skins and was measured under EBR + L and L treatments, whereas EBR + D and D treatments severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicated that EBR treatment could produce overlay effects under light, in comparison to that in dark. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that EBR application up-regulated the expression of genes ( VvCHI1 , VvCHS2 , VvCHS3 , VvDFR , VvLDOX , VvMYBA1 ) under light conditions. Under darkness conditions, only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to EBR. Furthermore, we also analyzed the expression levels of the BR-regulated transcription factor VvBZR1 (Brassinazole-resistant 1) and light-regulated transcription factor VvHY5 (Elongated hypocotyl 5). Our results suggested that EBR and light had synergistic effects on the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.

  1. Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide Interacts with Light to Regulate Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs are crucial factors that affect the quality of grapes and the making of wine, which were stimulated by various stimuli and environment factors (sugar, hormones, light, and temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR and light on the mechanism of anthocyanins and PAs accumulation in grape berries. Grape clusters were sprayed with EBR (0.4 mg/L under light and darkness conditions (EBR + L, EBR + D, or sprayed with deionized water under light and darkness conditions as controls (L, D, at the onset of veraison. A large amount of anthocyanins accumulated in the grape skins and was measured under EBR + L and L treatments, whereas EBR + D and D treatments severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicated that EBR treatment could produce overlay effects under light, in comparison to that in dark. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that EBR application up-regulated the expression of genes (VvCHI1, VvCHS2, VvCHS3, VvDFR, VvLDOX, VvMYBA1 under light conditions. Under darkness conditions, only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to EBR. Furthermore, we also analyzed the expression levels of the BR-regulated transcription factor VvBZR1 (Brassinazole-resistant 1 and light-regulated transcription factor VvHY5 (Elongated hypocotyl 5. Our results suggested that EBR and light had synergistic effects on the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.

  2. Tiamina e riboflavina: evolução com a maturação de Cabernet Sauvignon e comportamento durante a fermentação com diferentes níveis de anidrido sulfuroso adicionado Thiamine and riboflavin: evolution during ripening of Cabernet Sauvignon and during fermentation with different levels of so2 added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das vitaminas,tiamina (vitamina B1 e riboflavina (vitamina B2,durante a maturação de Vitis vinifera cultivar Cabemet Sauvignon e durante a fermentação do mosto, usando diferentes quantidades de SO2. Os valores mínimos encontrados para tiamina e riboflavina foram respectivamente (ug/100nd: 7,67 e 6,85 com 5,5 °Brix e os máximos foram, respectivamente, 19,35 (na colheita e 15,75 com 12,8 °Brix. A tiamina foi quase totalmente consumida antes da fermentação inicial, aparecendo novamente ao final da mesma. A riboflavina, ao contrário aumentou durante a fermentação. Ambas as vitaminas aumentaram durante a maturação de Cabemet Sauvignon, estando a tiamina presente em maior quantidade. O aumento das quantidades de SO2 adicionado ao mosto, afetou a tiamina numa proporção direta, mas não teve nenhum efeito sobre a riboflavina. A tiamina diminuiu durante a fermentação, ao mesmo tempo em que ocorreu um aumento da riboflavina.The aim of the work was to follow the behaviour of both vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, during ripening of Vitis vinifera Cabemet Sauvignon and during fermentation of the must using different amounts of SO2. Minimum values for thiamine and riboflavin were, respectivelly, (ug/100ml: 7.67 and 6.85 at 5.5 °Brix and the maximum values were, respectivelly, 19.35 (at harvest and 15.75 at 12.87 °Brix. Thiamine was almost completelly consumed before the start of fermentation showing up again at the end of the process; riboflavin, on the contrary, increased during fermentation. Both vitamins increased during ripening of Cabemet Sauvignon but -in grapes- the amount of thiamine was greater than riboflavin. Fermentation procedures, as increasing levels of SO2, affected thiamine in a direct proportion but did not have any effect upon riboflavin. Thiamine decreased during fermentation and riboflavin increased.

  3. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina

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    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Tillett, Richard L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Pezzotti, Mario

    2014-12-19

    Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berry color and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of this ripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages of ripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays. The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were a large number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abiotic stress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that there were statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved in ethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimal fruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade of ERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene, senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcript abundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin. A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berries revealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involving chemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcript abundance of genes involved in

  5. Cabernet Sauvignon ve Merlot Şarapların Resveratrol Düzeyleri ve Ekolojik Koşulların Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkıs Çaylak Adıgüzel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fitoaleksinler bitkilerde patojen enfeksiyonuna bir reaksiyon olarak veya çeşitli biyotik ve abiyotik tetikleyicilerin etkisi sonucu oluşan fenolik madde karakterli, düşük molekül ağırlıklı antimikrobiyal bileşiklerdir. Resveratrol (trans–3,5,4’-trihidroksistilben de bir fitoaleksin olup, asma (Vitis vinifera, yer fıstığı (Arachis hypogaea ve diğer pek çok bitki türünde yaprak veya diğer organlarda yüksek miktarlarda bulunabilmektedir. Resveratrol asmada gövde, sürgün ve yapraklar yanında, özellikle renkli çeşitlerin tane kabuğunda bol miktarda sentezlenebilmekte ve şarap yapımı sırasında şıraya, şıradan da şaraba geçmektedir. Son yıllarda resveratrolün antikanserojen özelliği ve antioksidan karakteri nedeniyle sağlık yararları üzerine yoğun araştırmalar yapılmakta ve günlük diyette alımı önerilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Ege, Marmara ve Trakya Bölgeleri’nde üretilen kimi bağlardan sağlanan Cabernet sauvignon ve Merlot siyah üzümlerinden üretilmiş şaraplarda bulunan resveratrol miktarları Yüksek Performanslı Sıvı Kromatografisi yöntemi kullanılarak belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar bölgelerin ekolojik koşulları açısından birbirleriyle karşılaştırılmış ve resveratrol miktarı ile bu parametreler arasındaki korelasyon araştırılmıştır. Resveratrol konsantrasyonunun üzüm çeşidi ve bölgelerin iklim şartlarına bağlı olarak farklılıklar gösterebileceği görülmüştür.

  6. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

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    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  7. Quantificação da área e do teor de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' mediante métodos não destrutivos Non-destructive quantification of area and chlorophyll content in the leaves of young 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines

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    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando a desenvolver métodos não destrutivos para estimar a área foliar e o conteúdo de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Para a estimativa da área foliar, foram tomadas medidas de comprimento da nervura principal e das duas maiores nervuras secundárias em folhas representando uma grande amplitude de áreas foliares, seguindo-se da leitura em um integrador de área foliar. Para a quantificação de clorofilas, folhas com tonalidades variando de verde-amareladas (folha clorótica a verde-escuras foram avaliadas individualmente com um medidor de clorofila (Minolta SPAD-502 e um colorímetro (Minolta CR-400, no espaço de cores L, C e hº, nas faces abaxial (inferior e adaxial (superior, seguido de quantificações destrutivas de clorofilas a, b e totais. A quantificação do comprimento da nervura principal proporcionou boa estimativa da área foliar, sendo que a soma do comprimento das duas nervuras secundárias, bem como do somatório destes comprimentos com o comprimento da nervura principal, resultou em aumento muito pequeno na capacidade de estimativa da área foliar. Os valores das leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, avaliados em ambas as faces das folhas, aumentaram com o incremento nos teores de clorofilas. Os modelos ajustados entre os teores de clorofilas e as leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro apresentaram valores de R² similares. Todavia, a medição da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, feita na face adaxial da folha, mostrou melhor estimativa do teor de clorofila, expresso em unidade de área (µg.cm-2 de folha.This work was carried out to develop non destructive methods to estimate the area and chlorophylls content in the leaves of young grapevines 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. For leaf area estimation, the lengths of main and two secondary leaf veins were measured, in leaves ranging from

  8. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

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    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI of a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the commune of Cauquenes, Maule Region in Chile, was estimated from digital images obtained with a commercial camera using two indirect methods: Leaf Area Gap and Brightness (LAGB and -Photogrammetric Leaf Area Quantification System (PLAQS. The latter requires deleafing of the grapevine. In a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, three points of vine vigor were selected: high, medium, and low for which horizontal and vertical images were obtained. Images were filtered with the Arc View GIS 3.1 program to provide only leaf images and corresponding pixel numbers. Image area and square meters per linear meter were calculated. The best models were selected from  three linear regression adjustments: i LAI of LAGB vertical images of with LAI of PLAQS, ii LAI of PLAQS horizontal images with and, iii LAI of both types of images with PLAQS. The parameters in all models were significant. Adjustment between the LAGB and PLAQS vertical images provides greater simplicity and easy calculation since it requires only a vertical image to estimate LAI. Images thus obtained can accurately estimate LAI in this type of cultivar.En un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en la comuna de Cauquenes, Región del Maule, se estimó el índice de área foliar (LAI mediante imagen digital obtenida de una cámara fotográfica comercial, a partir de dos métodos indirectos: Espacio y Brillo Área Foliar (LAGB y Sistema Cuantificador de Área Foliar por Fotogrametría (PLAQS. Este último, requiere el deshoje de la parra. En un mapa de índice vegetativo diferencial normalizado (NDVI, se seleccionaron tres puntos de vigor de las vides: alto, medio y bajo, en cada uno de los cuales se obtuvo una imagen horizontal y vertical. Las imágenes se filtraron con el programa Arc View GIS 3.1, dejando sólo las hojas y el número de píxeles correspondientes. Se

  9. Volatile components of grape pomaces from different cultivars of Sicilian Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, Giuseppe; Renda, Agatino; Amico, Vincenzo; Tringali, Corrado

    2008-01-01

    The volatile components of grape pomace coming from the processing of some of the most important varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in Sicily, namely Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese, Frappato and Cabernet Sauvignon, have been determined by gas-chromatography (GC) and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). According to the winemaking procedure that entails the removal of stalks before fermentation, two kinds of grape pomace are obtained. The first consists of skins, pulp residues and seeds, the proper grape pomace, which is partially used for grappa, a typical Italian spirit, and alcohol production, the second consists almost exclusively of stalks. On the whole, 38 components have been characterized in the samples of grape pomaces, with Frappato cv. showing the richest composition; instead, 88 components have been detected in the stalks of Frappato, Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. In order to make a comparison between the grape varieties easier, the volatile components detected in the two sets of samples (grape pomaces and stalks) have been grouped in different classes. Significant differences among varieties have been detected and statistical treatment of data is also reported. This study is part of a wider project aimed at the possible exploitation of the main agro-industrial by-products. At the same time it is one of the first reports on the volatile components of this waste material.

  10. A novel extracellular β-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii: yield prediction, evaluation and application for aroma enhancement of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Yan; Li, Jiming

    2012-08-01

    The production and application of novel β-glucosidase from Trichosporon asahii were studied. The β-glucosidase yield was improved by response surface methodology, and the optimal media constituents were determined to be dextrin 4.67% (w/v), yeast extract 2.99% (w/v), MgSO(4) 0.01% (w/v), and K(2) HPO(4) 0.02% (w/v). As a result, β-glucosidase production was enhanced from 123.72 to 215.66 U/L. The effects of different enological factors on the activity of β-glucosidases from T. asahii were investigated in comparison to commercial enzymes. β-Glucosidase from T. asahii was activated in the presence of sugars in the range from 10% to 40% (w/v), with the exception of glucose (slight inhibition), and retained higher relative activities than commercial enzymes under the same conditions. In addition, ethanol, in concentrations between 5% and 20% (v/v), also increased the β-glucosidase activity. Although the β-glucosidase activity decreased with decreasing pH, the residual activity of T. asahii was still above 50% at the average wine pH (pH 3.5). Due to these properties, extracellular β-glucosidase from T. asahii exhibited a better ability than commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing aromatic precursors that remained in young finished wine. The excellent performs of this β-glucosidase in wine aroma enhancement and sensory evaluation indicated that the β-glucosidase has a potential application to individuate suitable preparations that can complement and optimize grape or wine quality during the winemaking process or in the final wine. The present study demonstrated the usefulness of response surface methodology based on the central composite design for yield enhancement of β-glucosidase from T. asahii. The investigation of the primary characteristics of the enzyme and its application in young red wine suggested that the β-glucosidase from T. asahii can provide more impetus for aroma improvement in the future. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Response of grape cultivars to nitrogen and phosphorus grown with water harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.M.; Stroehlein, J.L.; Pessarakli, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two fertilizer studies were conducted on mature vineyards established with a water harvesting system on a White House sandy 10 am (fine, mixed, thermic, Ustollic Haplargid) soil at the University of Arizona Oracle Agricultural Center. In one study, two grape (Vitis viinifera L.) cultivars, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Sauvignon blanc', were treated with different levels of 15 N and P fertilizer and tested for tissue NO 3 -N and total-P content. In the second study, eleven grape varieties were treated with three levels of N. Tissue samples were analysed for total P and NO 3 -N content, and the ratio of petiole-P to leaf blade-P was determined. When sufficient quantities of both nutrients were provided, N and P interacted positively resulting in increased grape yields. The petiole-P to leaf blade-P ratio correctly monitored the P status of the vines. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

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    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  14. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

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    Hiba N. Rajha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 (642 samples. Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2 and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93. Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures(up to 25◦Caccompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value, induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production.

  16. A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2-furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, T; Blanchard, L; Darriet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-05-01

    The chemical compound 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM), with a strong roast coffee aroma, has been identified in sweet white wines made from the Petit manseng grape variety, and in certain red Bordeaux wines (made from the Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Cabernet sauvignon grape varieties). This was done by extracting specific volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The 2FM has also been found in toasted oak used in barrel-making. All the Petit manseng sweet white wines and some of the red Bordeaux wines analyzed contained between a few ng/L and several dozen ng/L of 2FM. Taking into account its very low perception threshold (0.4 ng/L in a model hydro alcoholic environment), 2FM could therefore contribute to the roast coffee aroma of certain wines.

  17. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard

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    Tomas Poblete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP and thermal infrared (TIR imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R2 increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE and standard error (SE decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  18. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  19. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  20. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemometric analysis for the detection of biogenic amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines: a comparative study between organic and nonorganic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, L; Saavedra, J; Martínez, C; Córdova, A; Ganga, M A

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the presence of biogenic amines (BAs) was correlated with the type of wine grape culture (traditional or organic) and their concentration in the different stages of winemaking (must, alcoholic fermentation [AF] and malolactic fermentation [MLF]). The formation of BA occurred mainly during MLF in which the percentages for putrescine, cadaverine, phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine were 100%, 70%, 13%, 61%, and 44% for the wines produced with traditional grapes and 100%, 94%, 25%, 88%, and 13% for the wines produced with organic grapes, respectively. In general, these latter wines exhibited a lower concentration of total amines. The principal component analysis and partial least-square discriminate analysis indicated that the generation of BA has a certain behavioral pattern in the wines analyzed, which is associated with the different stages of wine production and with the type of culture (traditional or organic) used in the wine grapes. Chemometrics tools can be useful as a method of characterization and classification in a global overview of the process variables involved in the development of toxic chemicals in foods, such as the production of BA in wine. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

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    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  3. ESTUDIO DE LA COMPOSICIÓN DE VINOS DE TEMPRANILLO Y CABERNET SAUVIGNON FERMENTADOS Y CONSERVADOS EN HORMIGÓN, ACERO INOXIDABLE Y BARRICAS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIDRÓ MONTANER, MARÍA JOSÉ

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The quality of one wine depends of many factors, soil, clime, kind of grape, the elaboration and breeding. The oxygen plays an important role in the polyphenolic and aromatic composition of the wines. This work has two objectives, first study and evaluation of the kind of deposit that we use during fermentation-maceration, with the conventional parameters even with polyphenolic and aromatic composition of the wines. In the other hand, we want to study and evaluate the influence of the...

  4. Supercritical extraction from vinification residues: fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and phenolic compounds in the oil seeds from different varieties of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, F; Bertussi, R A; Agostini, G; Atti Dos Santos, A C; Rossato, M; Vanderlinde, R

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  5. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  6. Changes in the volatile compound production of fermentations made from musts with increasing grape content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K

    2010-01-27

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice. Model must systems have proven to be ideal for studies into the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To clarify the contribution of grape juice to the production of wine volatiles, we have employed a model must system spiked with increasing amounts of grape juice (Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon). The resulting fermented wines were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and the data obtained grouped using ANOVA and cluster analyses to reveal those compounds that varied in concentration with reproducible trends relative to juice concentration. Such grouping highlights those compounds that are grape-dependent or for which production is modulated by grape composition. In some cases, increasing the proportion of grape juice in the fermentations stimulated the production of certain esters to levels between 2- and 140-fold higher than those seen in fermentations made with model grape juice media alone. The identification of the grape components responsible for the increased production of these wine volatiles will have implications for the impact of grape production and enology on wine flavor and aroma.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  8. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  9. Characterization of a Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 3',5'-O-methyltransferase showing strong preference for anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Martens, Stefan; Lund, Steven T

    2010-09-01

    At ripening initiation in red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries, the exocarp turns color from green to red and then to purple due to the accumulation and extent of methylation of anthocyanins. The accumulation of transcripts encoding an O-methyltransferase was recently shown to be closely correlated with the onset of ripening and the degree of blue/purple pigmentation in grapevine berries; however, the biochemical function of this gene has remained uncharacterized. In this study, an O-methyltransferase cDNA that showed a distinct expression pattern when compared to closely related sequences was expressed in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays were carried out with a broad array of anthocyanin and other flavonoid substrates. We demonstrate that this enzyme carries out 3',5'-O-methylation of anthocyanins and flavonol compounds in vitro, which are known to be present in grape berries, with a preference for glycosylated substrates. The highest relative specific activity for the enzyme was found with delphinidin 3-O-glucoside as substrate. The enzyme is not able to methylate flavan type skeletons with chiral centers, such as either catechins or dihydroquercetin. The enzyme showed negligible specific activity for caffeoyl-CoA, compared to flavonol and anthocyanin substrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the O-methyltransferase suggests that it may be a member of a distinct subclass of Type 2 bivalent metal-dependent S-adenosyl-methionine O-methyltransferases. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  11. Ethylene pre-harvest application in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ produced in the region of “Dom Pedrito” – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Jansen Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thus this work was to evaluate the use of ethylene application in pre-harvest grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar. Applying ethylene by spraying with ethylene solution in different periods with the following treatments; (T1 without application of ethylene; (T2 10 ppm of ethylene in the fruit only on the day of collection; (T3 two applications of 10 ppm ethylene (one day before harvest and once on the day of harvest and; (T4 three applications of 10 ppm ethylene (two days prior to harvest, one day prior to harvest and the other on the day of harvest. For each treatment were made four replications in the field, with 07 plants each. The physicochemical analyses in must and wine as pH, total soluble solids (TSS, expressed acidity malic acid, expressed as acid into lactic acid, total acid and ethanol were made by infrared spectrometry Fourier transform (FTIR. There were significant differences between treatments in physical and chemical composition of must and wine. These preliminary results suggest that ethylene pre-harvest application modify somehow the malic acid content, modifying the total acidity and pH of the must and wine in Cabernet Sauvignon, promoting a slight modification in the TSS and thus in ethanol.

  12. Fermentation-Guided Natural Products Isolation of a Grape Berry Triacylglyceride that Enhances Ethyl Ester Production

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    Christopher L. Blackford

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented. Non-targeted SPME-GCMS analyses of the wines showed that several medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters were more abundant in wines made by fermenting model musts spiked with certain fractions. Further fractionation of the non-polar fractions and fermentation of model must after addition of these fractions led to the identification of a mixture of polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that, when added to fermenting model must, increase the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters in wines. Dosage-response fermentation studies with commercially-available trilinolein revealed that the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters can be increased by the addition of this triacylglyceride to model musts. This work suggests that grape triacylglycerides can enhance the production of fermentation-derived ethyl esters and show that this fractionation method is effective in segregating precursors or factors involved in altering the concentration of fermentation volatiles.

  13. Classification of grape berries according to diameter and total soluble solids to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazine, glutathione, and hydroxycinnamate evolution during ripening of Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suklje, Katja; Lisjak, Klemen; Česnik, Helena Baša; Janeš, Lucija; Du Toit, Wessel; Coetzee, Zelmari; Vanzo, Andreja; Deloire, Alain

    2012-09-19

    Grape berries were classified according to diameter and total soluble solids (TSS) to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazines (MPs), glutathione (GSH), and hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) during the ripening of Sauvignon blanc. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified within leaf and lateral removal at the phenological stage berry of peppercorn size and no removal (control). In comparison to the control, the concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) was below the limit of detection in leaf removal 2 weeks before harvest. Leaf removal had no significant influence on GSH and HCAs in the grape juice at harvest. Berry diameter significantly influenced the concentration of IBMP in the grape juice and did not influence the concentration of GSH and HCAs. At harvest, the concentrations of IBMP in grape juices of similar TSS in the control were 12.6 and 5.2 ng/L in 15.5 and 13.5 mm berry diameter classes, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that berries of the same diameter were not at the same physiological ripening level (not the same TSS).

  14. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

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    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  15. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  16. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

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    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  17. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

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    Elisabeta I. Geana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine.

  18. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-17

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  19. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

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    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  1. Tiamina e riboflavina: evolução com a maturação de Cabernet Sauvignon e comportamento durante a fermentação com diferentes níveis de anidrido sulfuroso adicionado

    OpenAIRE

    Daudt,Carlos Eugenio; Parizzi,Luiz Eduardo

    1995-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das vitaminas,tiamina (vitamina B1) e riboflavina (vitamina B2),durante a maturação de Vitis vinifera cultivar Cabemet Sauvignon e durante a fermentação do mosto, usando diferentes quantidades de SO2. Os valores mínimos encontrados para tiamina e riboflavina foram respectivamente (ug/100nd): 7,67 e 6,85 com 5,5 °Brix e os máximos foram, respectivamente, 19,35 (na colheita) e 15,75 com 12,8 °Brix. A tiamina foi quase totalmente consumi...

  2. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  3. Pectic-β(1,4)-galactan, extensin and arabinogalactan–protein epitopes differentiate ripening stages in wine and table grape cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John P.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Willats, William G. T.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cell wall changes in ripening grapes (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to involve re-modelling of pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose networks. Newer experimental techniques, such as molecular probes specific for cell wall epitopes, have yet to be extensively used in grape studies. Limited general information is available on the cell wall properties that contribute to texture differences between wine and table grapes. This study evaluates whether profiling tools can detect cell wall changes in ripening grapes from commercial vineyards. Methods Standard sugar analysis and infra-red spectroscopy were used to examine the ripening stages (green, véraison and ripe) in grapes collected from Cabernet Sauvignon and Crimson Seedless vineyards. Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) analysis was performed on cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) and NaOH extracts of alcohol-insoluble residue sourced from each stage using sets of cell wall probes (mAbs and CBMs), and the datasets were analysed using multivariate software. Key Results The datasets obtained confirmed previous studies on cell wall changes known to occur during grape ripening. Probes for homogalacturonan (e.g. LM19) were enriched in the CDTA fractions of Crimson Seedless relative to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Probes for pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan (mAb LM5), extensin (mAb LM1) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs, mAb LM2) were strongly correlated with ripening. From green stage to véraison, a progressive reduction in pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan epitopes, present in both pectin-rich (CDTA) and hemicellulose-rich (NaOH) polymers, was observed. Ripening changes in AGP and extensin epitope abundance also were found during and after véraison. Conclusions Combinations of cell wall probes are able to define distinct ripening phases in grapes. Pectic-β-(1,4)-galactan epitopes decreased in abundance from green stage to véraison berries. From véraison there was an increase in abundance of

  4. Identification of a plastid-localized bifunctional nerolidol/linalool synthase in relation to linalool biosynthesis in young grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars ("Riesling", "Cabernet Sauvignon", "Gewurztraminer") with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  5. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  6. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Boss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  7. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

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    Camila M.P.B.S. de Ponzzes-Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  10. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Walteros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá. Since the beginning of veraison to maturity, every 15 days 20 berries were collected randomly to determine the behavior of the total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA and the technical maturity index (IMT. The results show that the SST, increased continuously as the berries ripen. Pruning mixed long and went from 12.5 to 21.2° Brix at harvest time. For its part, the ATT decreased with fruit development, the control (pruning cuts produced by ripening fruits with higher ATT in vintage was 7.6 g L-1. The IMT, increased significantly as a function of chronological time. Pruning cuts produced fruits with lower IMT, while pruning long had the highest value 3.40. Pruning long and mixed, to present appropriate values during ripening, provide a better quality of fruit for winemaking.

  11. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Koenig, Helmut [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Weinforschung; Wagner, Andreas [Weingut Wagner, Essenheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  12. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  13. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Fernández-Escudero, J.A. [Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon, Rueda (Spain); Barajas, E. [ITACYL, Valladolid (Spain); Medrano, G. [Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  14. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Plaza, C.; Saja, J.A. de; Fernández-Escudero, J.A.; Barajas, E.; Medrano, G.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  15. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  16. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas, I. de; Ponce, M.; Gargantini, R.; Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  17. Predicting the anthocyanin content of wine grapes by NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Fangfang; Ning, Jifeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Zhenwen; Yang, Shuqin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the capability of hyperspectral imaging in predicting anthocyanin content changes in wine grapes during ripening. One hundred twenty groups of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were collected periodically after veraison. The hyperspectral images were recorded by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm. The anthocyanin content was measured by the pH differential method. A quantitative model was developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR) or support vector regression (SVR) for calculating the anthocyanin content. The best model was obtained using SVR, yielding a coefficient of validation (P-R(2)) of 0.9414 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0046, higher than the PLSR model, which had a P-R(2) of 0.8407 and a RMSEP of 0.0129. Therefore, hyperspectral imaging can be a fast and non-destructive method for predicting the anthocyanin content of wine grapes during ripening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Light response and potential interacting proteins of a grape flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), a member of cytochrome P450 protein family, introduces B-ring hydroxyl group in the 3' position of the flavonoid. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a F3'H gene (VviF3'H), which contains an open reading frame of 1530 bp encoding a polypeptide of 509 amino acids, was cloned and characterized from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. VviF3'H showed high homology to known F3'H genes, especially F3'Hs from the V. vinifera reference genome (Pinot Noir) and lotus. Expression profiling analysis using real-time PCR revealed that VviF3'H was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues including berries, leaves, flowers, roots, stems and tendrils, suggesting its important physiological role in plant growth and development. Moreover, the transcript level of VviF3'H gene in grape berries was relatively higher at early developmental stages and gradually decreased during véraison, and then increased in the mature phase. In addition, the promoter of VviF3'H was isolated by using TAIL-PCR. Yeast one-hybrid screening of the Cabernet Sauvignon cDNA library and subsequent in vivo/vitro validations revealed the interaction between VviF3'H promoter and several transcription factors, including members of HD-Zip, NAC, MYB and EIN families. A transcriptional regulation mechanism of VviF3'H expression is proposed for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene expression analyses in individual grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries during ripening initiation reveal that pigmentation intensity is a valid indicator of developmental staging within the cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steven T; Peng, Fred Y; Nayar, Tarun; Reid, Karen E; Schlosser, James

    2008-10-01

    Asynchronous ripening of individual grape berries within clusters can lead to inconsistent organoleptic characteristics for wine making. Ripening initiation in grape berries is non-climacteric and not well understood at the molecular level. Evidence is lacking for a single master switch controlling this process, such as the established role for ethylene in climacteric fruit ripening. We used Affymetrix microarray analyses of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries sampled from two clusters at 50% ripening initiation. By delineating four developmental stages of ripening initiation, we demonstrate that pigmentation is a statistically significant indicator of transcriptional state during ripening initiation. We report on clustered gene expression patterns which were mined for genes annotated with signal transduction functions in order to advance regulatory network modeling of ripening initiation in grape berries. Abscisic acid has previously been demonstrated to be an important signaling component regulating ripening initiation in grapevine. We demonstrate via real-time RT-PCR analyses that up-regulation of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid gene family member, VvNCED2, in grape seed and pericarp and a putative ortholog to a reported abscisic acid receptor, VvGCR2, are correlated with ripening initiation. Our results suggest a role for these genes in abscisic acid signaling during ripening initiation.

  20. Quantitative prediction of cell wall polysaccharide composition in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and apple (Malus domestica) skins from acid hydrolysis monosaccharide profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-05-13

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol % xyloglucan, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up approximately 43-47% by weight of the skins (dry matter), the rest mainly being lignin. The predicted relative molar levels of the polysaccharide elements in the apple skins, which made up approximately 49-64% by weight of the skins (dry matter), appeared to be similar to those of the grape skins. The apple skins were estimated to be relatively richer than grape skins in arabinan, total levels 10-13 mol %, and relatively lower in mannan content, total levels contents of structural pectin elements in the plant cell wall substrates.

  1. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.

    2017-05-13

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  3. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  4. Recherche de mesures innovantes pour suivre la qualité du raisin de Cabernet Franc pendant sa maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moigne, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Wine professionals are interested in global methods to follow grape maturation in order to determine grape quality at harvest. Such methods could provide useful for the elaboration of quality wines. In such context, the main objective of this work was to investigate novel sensory and instrumental methods to follow overall maturation of Cabernet franc grapes. VisNIR spectroscopy and sensory analysis of grapes appeared the most promising methods of the wine industry to follow maturation. Nevert...

  5. Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method based on a core-shell column approach for the rapid determination of multiclass polyphenols in grape pomaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Antoniolli, Andrea; Bottini, Rubén

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and economically affordable reverse-phase chromatographic approach based on a core-shell column with high-performance liquid chromatography multi-wavelength detector (HPLC-MWD) is proposed for the quantification and quality control of multiclass polyphenols (PPs). The separation of 20 relevant polyphenols from grape pomace extracts (GPEs) was achieved in less than 12 min by using a Kinetex C18 column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 2.6 μm) with a gradient system of ultrapure water (0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile, a temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The maximum backpressure reached was 327 bar, meaning the developed method is adequate for standard HPLC instruments. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the determination of PPs in GPEs of different red grape varieties. Cabernet Sauvignon GPE showed the highest content of studied PPs (9804.2 μg g(-1)GPE) followed by Bonarda GPE (7302.0 μg g(-1)GPE). Besides the methodological development for a high throughput routine quality control of GPEs, this is the first report of PPs content for Bonarda and Aspirant Bouchet GPE, so the results add knowledge for these grape varieties cultivated in Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analytical and sensorial characterization of the aroma of wines produced with sour rotten grapes using GC-O and GC-MS: identification of key aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Campo, Eva; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2011-03-23

    In the present work, the aroma profiles of wines elaborated from sound and sour rot-infected grapes as raw material have been studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with the aim of determining the odor volatiles most likely associated with this disease. The effect of sour rot was tested in monovarietal wines produced with the Portuguese red grape variety Trincadeira and in blends of Cabernet Sauvignon and sour rotten Trincadeira grapes. Wines produced from damaged berries exhibited clear honey-like notes not evoked by healthy samples. Ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PAA), both exhibiting sweet honey-like aromas, emerged as key aroma compounds of sour rotten wines. Their levels were 1 order of magnitude above those found in controls and reached 304 and 1668 μg L(-1) of EPhA and PAA, respectively, well above the corresponding odor thresholds. Levels of γ-nonalactone also increased by a factor 3 in sour rot samples. Results also suggest that sour rot exerts a great effect on the secondary metabolism of yeast, decreasing the levels of volatiles related to fatty acids and amino acid synthesis. The highest levels of γ-decalactone of up to 405 μg L(-1) were also found in all of the samples, suggesting that this could be a relevant aroma compound in Trincadeira wine aroma.

  7. Changes in aromatic compounds of cabernet sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... stainless steel tanks after juice clarification. This type of container allows the winemaker to control the fermen- tation temperature and thus produce crisp white wines without any complication. However, it is worth noting that not all wines are suitable for aging in oak barrels because the oxygen could oxidize ...

  8. ALTERNATIVE OAK IN THE MATURATION OF WINES CABERNET SAUVIGNON

    OpenAIRE

    T. B. Hamm; R. A. G. Kohn; E. P. Pinto; L. Lucchetta; V. Manfroi; C. V. Rombaldi

    2014-01-01

    The wine maturation with classic oak is a practice used for a long time, but recently the alternative means (fragments) has been used for its lower cost and practicality. In this study, the alternative wooden barrel was evaluated sit tested two types of oak fragment (chip and cube) and two doses (1 and 2 g L-1). The variables analyzed were as physicochemical characteristics and sensory analysis. The wines showed positive characteristics in general quality, highlighting the conditions of body ...

  9. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... monovarietial wines, with volatiles being extracted by. SPME and being detected by gas .... tightly capped with a PTFE-silicon septum and heated at 40°C for. 30 min on a heating platform agitation at 400 ... inserted into the headspace, where extraction was allowed to occur for 30 min with continued heating ...

  10. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  11. Characterisation of seed oils from different grape cultivars grown in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xin; Zhu, Minghui; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Jinhong; Chen, Ziye; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-01-01

    To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian?grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars (Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88?77.12?%), sterols (227.99?338.83?mg/100?g oil) and tocotri...

  12. Ecofisiologia da videira (Vitis vinifera L.) sob cultivo protegido, variedades Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet sauvignon e Merlot

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Gabriella Vanderlinde

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais, Florianópolis, 2014. O Estado de Santa Catarina tem se destacado no cenário nacional pelo potencial na produção de vinhos finos de qualidade, em função da altitude. No entanto, algumas regiões de Santa Catarina, como o município em estudo, Rancho Queimado, apresentam elevada pluviosidade no período de maturação e colheita, além de riscos d...

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM RED GRAPE POMACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA FRUM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry generates a great amount of waste every year, thus its valorization is of most importance. This study uses red, fermented pomace from Cabernet Sauvignon and Feteasca Neagra cultivars. The phenolic compounds were extracted using four different extractions and the content of total polyphenols was determined using a spectrophotometrical method. Several phenolic compounds were analyzed using an HPLC method. The Cabernet Sauvignon pomace had the highest content of total polyphenols and total phenolic compounds analyzed and of quercetin, rutin, ferulic acid and resveratrol, while the Feteasca Neagra pomace had the highest content of gallic acid, syringic acid, cinamic acid and (+ - catechin. The caffeic acid and the chlorogenic acid were not found in any of the analyzed pomaces. These pomaces could be used in the food industry as functional ingredients.

  14. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-05-26

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  15. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  16. The transcription factor VvMYB5b contributes to the regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in developing grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent; Bogs, Jochen; Walker, Amanda R; Ferrier, Thilia; Decendit, Alain; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Robinson, Simon P; Barrieu, François

    2008-08-01

    Among the dramatic changes occurring during grape berry (Vitis vinifera) development, those affecting the flavonoid pathway have provoked a number of investigations in the last 10 years. In addition to producing several compounds involved in the protection of the berry and the dissemination of the seeds, final products of this pathway also play a critical role in berry and wine quality. In this article, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of VvMYB5b, a cDNA isolated from a grape berry (V. vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon') library. VvMYB5b encodes a protein belonging to the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors and displays significant similarity with VvMYB5a, another MYB factor recently shown to regulate flavonoid synthesis in grapevine. The ability of VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b to activate the grapevine promoters of several structural genes of the flavonoid pathway was confirmed by transient expression of the corresponding cDNAs in grape cells. Overexpression of VvMYB5b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leads to an up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway and results in the accumulation of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-derived compounds. The ability of VvMYB5b to regulate particularly the anthocyanin and the proanthocyanidin pathways is discussed in relation to other recently characterized MYB transcription factors in grapevine. Taken together, data presented in this article give insight into the transcriptional mechanisms associated with the regulation of the flavonoid pathway throughout grape berry development.

  17. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  18. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterisation of seed oils from different grape cultivars grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Zhu, Minghui; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Jinhong; Chen, Ziye; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-07-01

    To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars ( Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii ), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88-77.12 %), sterols (227.99-338.83 mg/100 g oil) and tocotrienols (320.08-679.24 mg/kg oil). Seed oil of V. amurensis exhibited the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acid, total tocotrienols, total tocols and DPPH· scavenging capacity. Seed oil of Carbernet Sauvignon had the highest contents of squalene, total sterols, total tocopherols and total phenolics. Principal component analysis five grape cultivars differentiated on the basis of bioactive components content and antioxidant properties.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  1. Recherches sur les marqueurs moléculaires de l’arôme de « fruits cuits » des raisins et des vins rouges issus des cépages Merlot et Cabernet-Sauvignon : Approches sensorielle, analytique et agronomique

    OpenAIRE

    Allamy , Lucile

    2015-01-01

    In the 2000s, aromas of dried fruits, referring to prune, fig or cooked peach are found more and more often in Bordeaux red wines. The markers responsible for these aromas related to the grape maturity are unknown. Firstly, we show that these shades, which were rarely encountered in wines from an appellation named A in this study, are now part of the distinctive aromas of these wines. However, the tasters that assimilate these characteristics to the distinctive aromas and the type of the appe...

  2. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno Physico-chemical composition of wine grapes berries in summer and winter growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.This work aimed to evaluate some ripening parameters of cultivars Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc submitted to the double-pruning management in Cordislândia, in the coffee region of the south of Minas Gerais State. Grapevines were cultivated in two different growing seasons, spring-summer from August to January and autumn-winter from January to July. Quality parameters such as berry transversal and longitudinal diameters, acidity, tartaric and malic acids, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, glucose, fructose and sucrose were evaluated. All cultivars showed higher pH, soluble solids

  3. Wine grape pomace flour improves blood pressure, fasting glucose and protein damage in humans: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Urquiaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a healthy diet with positive scientific evidence of preventing chronic diseases. Bioactive components support the healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet. Antioxidants and fiber, two components of the Mediterranean diet, are key functional nutrients for healthy eating and nutrition. Wine grape pomace is a rich source of these dietary constituents and may be beneficial for human health. Our hypothesis was that the intake of red wine grape pomace flour (WGPF prepared from red wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon variety reduced the metabolic syndrome in humans. To evaluate the effect of WGPF on components of metabolic syndrome we design a 16-week longitudinal intervention study. Thirty-eight males, 30-65 years of age, with at least one component of metabolic syndrome, were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 25 or the control group (n = 13. At lunch, the intervention group was given 20 g of WGPF per day, which contained 10 g of dietary fiber, 822 mg of polyphenols and an antioxidant capacity of 7258 ORAC units. Both groups were asked to maintain their regular eating habits and lifestyles. Clinical evaluation, anthropometric measurements and biochemical blood analyses were done at the beginning and the end of the study. RESULTS: WGPF intake significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as fasting glucose levels. Plasma γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol increased and carbonyl group in plasma protein decreased in WGPT group, significantly. No significant effect was observed for waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C in and between groups. The group-dependent magnitude of the differences between the baseline and final postprandial insulin values and γ-tocopherol concentrations was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of WGPF-rich in fiber and polyphenol antioxidants, as a food supplement in a

  4. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek) with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher) with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon). Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m). The percentage of productive shoots is more than...

  5. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  6. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  7. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  8. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  9. Berry composition and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec in response to water deficit severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water supply is a production tool used in arid climates to elicit desirable, water-deficit related changes in berry composition and yield; however, response to water deficit is known to vary by cultivar. The objectives of this research were to determine whether cultivars differed in their relations...

  10. Defining Efficient Deficit Irrigation for Winegrape Cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon under Semiarid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient deficit irrigation balances enhanced berry attributes with acceptable reduction in yield. The present study relates pre and post-veraison midday leaf water potential with the growth and composition of east and west-facing berries. Two deficit irrigation treatments were applied over four g...

  11. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of some herbicides on weeds and vines in mother plantation of Cabernet sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Prodanova-Marinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To maintain soil surface clean of weeds in the parent vineyard for producing cuttings for scions, the efficiency and selectivity of Gardoprim plus Gold (312.5 g/l s-metolachlor + 187.5 g/l terbuthylazine, Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l and Lumax 538 SC (375 g/l s-metolachlor + 125 g/l terbuthylazine + 337.5 g/l mesotrione at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da was studied. Lumax 538 SC, Wing P and Gardoprim Plus Gold controlling efficiently annual weeds established in parent vineyard, except Xanthium strumarium L.. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold showed long-term (90 days activity. Wing P activity decreases after the thirtieth day. The tested herbicides do not damage the buds and do not lead to a reduction of shoots developed from them. Lumax 538 SC and Gardoprim plus Gold at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da and Wing P at dose of 0.4 l/da do not inhibit the growth of shoots. The largest number of cuttings for scions were obtained after treatment with Lumax 538 SC.

  13. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  14. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  15. PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF WHOLE JUICE EXTRACTED FROM GRAPES IRRADIATED WITH ULTRAVIOLET C

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    TAÍSA CERATTI TREPTOW

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juice has been widely studied due to the presence of phenolic compounds and its beneficial effects on human health. Ultraviolet irradiation C (UV-C can increase the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and contribute to sensory acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of ultraviolet irradiation C (UV-C on ‘Trebbiano’, ‘Niagara Branca’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapes, as well as effect of the storage period. Juices were elaborated and evaluated for physicochemical analyses, and for the sensorial analysis in irradiated samples. In ‘Niagara Branca’ and ‘Trebbiano’ cultivars, storage and irradiation promoted few physicochemical alterations, and sensorially, irradiation reduced the intensity of flavor and color attributes. In juices from ‘Isabel’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ cultivars, the storage period led to the concentration of sugars and irradiation influenced physicochemical parameters and increased the intensity of aroma attribute at dose of 2 kJ m-2. Thus, UV-C irradiation contributes little for the improvement of white grape juices; however, it favors some sensory attributes in red grape juice, requiring further studies to elucidate the influence of UV-C irradiation on the phenolic and volatile composition of grape juice.

  16. Quantificação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato no processamento e conservação de vinhos de uvas viníferas e híbridas Quantification of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the processing and conservation of wines made of winegrapes and hybrid grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os folatos compõem uma classe de vitaminas redescoberta nas últimas décadas pela sua importante associação com diversas funções, nos vários processos metabólicos no organismo humano. As principais fontes descritas na literatura são os vegetais, os cereais e as leveduras. Objetivou-se quantificar o 5-metiltetrahidrofolato (5-metilTFH em vinhos durante o processamento e conservação. Foram coletadas amostras de vinhos tintos das variedades viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Pinot noir, e das não viníferas Isabel (tinta e Niágara (branca na colheita, no final da fermentação alcoólica, e maloláctica e seguindo-se aos 4, 7, 12 e 24 meses de conservação a partir do início da fermentação. A técnica de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE foi utilizada para a separação, identificação e quantificação. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de 5-metil-THF aumentaram consideravelmente durante a fermentação alcoólica e continuaram aumentando até o término da fermentação maloláctica. Os níveis mantiveram-se estáveis durante um período de 3 a 6 meses para o vinho branco e de 1 a 2 anos para os vinhos tintos, dependendo da variedade. Os vinhos tintos de viníferas se mostraram uma boa fonte de 5-metilTHF.Folates are a class of vitamins that have been rediscovered in recent decades because of their association with various metabolic processes in the human organism. The main sources of folates described the scientific literature are vegetables, cereals and yeasts. The purpose of this study was to quantify 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF in wines during wine production and aging. Red wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wine grape varieties, and from Isabel (red and Niagara (white non-wine grape varieties were analyzed. The samples were analyzed at the beginning of fermentation, at the end of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, and periodically at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months of

  17. Populational fluctuation of the grape rust mite in commercial vineyard in Candiota, Rio Grande do Sul State, with different sampling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira, Paulo Ricardo Ebert; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei; Botton, Marcos; Kohn, Rosete Aparecida Gottinari

    2011-01-01

    Nos vinhedos da Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, o ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira, Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa, 1905) (Acari: Eriophyidae), tem sido encontrado com frequência desde a safra 2004/2005 associado com sintomas de bronzeamento nas folhas. A flutuação populacional de C. vitis na cultivar 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi estudada em vinhedo comercial localizado em Candiota, RS, durante as safras agrícolas 2007/2008 (de novembro a junho) e 2008/2009 (de outubro a maio). A amostragem fo...

  18. Aroma modulation of Cabernet Gernischt dry red wine by optimal enzyme treatment strategy in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Xuan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    Cabernet Gernischt (CG) is a famous Chinese wine grape cultivar, the red wine of which is known for its green trait, especially when produced from grapes cultivated in regions with monsoon climate. To modify CG wine aroma, three enzyme preparations (H. uvarum extracellular enzyme, AR2000, and pectinase) were introduced in different winemaking stages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Free and bound aroma compounds in young wines were detected using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and aroma characteristics were quantified by trained panelists. Results showed that simultaneous inoculation of enzymes and yeasts improved wine aroma. Partial least-squares regression revealed that the green trait was due mainly to varietal compounds, especially C 6 compounds, and could be partly weakened by fermentative compounds. Moreover, H. uvarum enzyme treatments enriched the acid fruit note of CG wine by enhancing the synergistic effect of varietal volatiles and certain fermentative compounds, such as esters and phenylethyls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  20. Flutuação populacional do ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira em vinhedo comercial em Candiota, RS, com diferentes métodos de amostragem Populational fluctuation of the grape rust mite in commercial vineyard in Candiota, Rio Grande do Sul State, with different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Ebert Siqueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos vinhedos da Região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, o ácaro-da-ferrugem-da-videira, Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa, 1905 (Acari: Eriophyidae, tem sido encontrado com frequência desde a safra 2004/2005 associado com sintomas de bronzeamento nas folhas. A flutuação populacional de C. vitis na cultivar 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi estudada em vinhedo comercial localizado em Candiota, RS, durante as safras agrícolas 2007/2008 (de novembro a junho e 2008/2009 (de outubro a maio. A amostragem foi realizada nas folhas e através de armadilhas constituídas por fitas adesivas de dupla face instaladas nos ramos de produção. O pico populacional, na primeira safra, ocorreu em março de 2008 quando foram registrados 0,34 indivíduos por cm² da face abaxial das folhas medianas e 29,48 indivíduos por armadilhas. Na segunda safra, o pico populacional foi menos intenso e ocorreu em outubro de 2008, quando foram detectados 0,11 indivíduos por cm² da face abaxial das folhas medianas e 0,43 indivíduos por armadilhas. Foi detectado que o início do deslocamento de C. vitis para os locais de hibernação ocorre no verão, a partir de fevereiro. As armadilhas adesivas foram mais eficientes para identificar a presença de C. vitis no vinhedo do que a avaliação direta nas folhas. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada entre o número de C. vitis na face abaxial das folhas e o percentual de folhas com infestação.In the vineyards of the Region of the Campanha of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, the grape rust mite Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa, 1905 (Acari: Eriophyidae, has been found frequently since the 2004/2005 harvest associated with symptoms of tanning on the leaves. The fluctuation of C. vitis in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was studied in a commercial vineyard located in Candiota, RS, during the agricultural years 2007/2008 (November-June and 2008/2009 (October-May. The sampling was carried out on the leaves and by using traps constituted by double

  1. Indications of the prominent role of elemental sulfur in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol in Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Leandro Dias; Vannevel, Sebastian; Buica, Astrid; Callerot, Suzanne; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A; du Toit, Wessel J

    2017-08-01

    Elemental sulfur is a fungicide traditionally used to control Powdery Mildew in the production of grapes. The presence of sulfur residues in grape juice has been associated with increased production of hydrogen sulfide during fermentation, which could take part in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol. This work examines whether elemental sulfur additions to Sauvignon blanc juice can increase the levels of sought-after varietal thiols. Initial trials were performed in South Africa and indicated a positive impact of sulfur on the levels of thiols. Further experiments were then carried out with New Zealand Sauvignon blanc and confirmed a positive relationship between elemental sulfur additions and wine varietal thiols. The formation of hydrogen sulfide was observed when the addition of elemental sulfur was made to clarified juice, along with an increase in further reductive sulfur compounds. When the addition of sulfur was made to pressed juice, prior to clarification, the production of reductive sulfur compounds was drastically decreased. Some mechanistic considerations are also presented, involving the reduction of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Stability of Anthocyanins and Their Degradation Products from Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine under Gastrointestinal pH and Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Yuan, Chunlong; Wang, Hua; Han, Fuliang; Liu, Yangjie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Yang

    2018-02-07

    This study investigated the stability of wine anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal pH and temperature conditions, and further studied the evolution of anthocyanin degradation products through simulated digestive conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthocyanins' structure and their digestive stability. Results showed that a total of 22 anthocyanins were identified in wine and most of these anthocyanins remained stable under simulated gastric digestion process. However, a dramatic concentration decrease happened to these anthocyanins during simulated intestinal digestion. The stability of anthocyanins in digestive process appeared to be related to their structure. The methoxy group in the B-ring enhanced the stability of anthocyanins, whereas hydroxyl group resulted in a reduction of their stability. Acylation decreased the stability of malvidin 3- O -glucoside. Pyruvic acid conjugation enhanced the structural stability of pyranoanthocyanins, whereas acetaldehyde attachment weakened their stability. A commercial malvidin 3- O -glucoside standard was used to investigate anthocyanin degradation products under simulated digestion process, and syringic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid were confirmed to be the degradation products via anthocyanin chalcone conversion path. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and p -coumaric acid in wine experienced a significant concentration decrease during digestion process. However, wine model solution revealed that phenolic acids remained stable under gastrointestinal conditions, except gallic acid.

  3. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

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    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  4. Stability of Anthocyanins and Their Degradation Products from Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine under Gastrointestinal pH and Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the stability of wine anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal pH and temperature conditions, and further studied the evolution of anthocyanin degradation products through simulated digestive conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthocyanins’ structure and their digestive stability. Results showed that a total of 22 anthocyanins were identified in wine and most of these anthocyanins remained stable under simulated gastric digestion process. However, a dramatic concentration decrease happened to these anthocyanins during simulated intestinal digestion. The stability of anthocyanins in digestive process appeared to be related to their structure. The methoxy group in the B-ring enhanced the stability of anthocyanins, whereas hydroxyl group resulted in a reduction of their stability. Acylation decreased the stability of malvidin 3-O-glucoside. Pyruvic acid conjugation enhanced the structural stability of pyranoanthocyanins, whereas acetaldehyde attachment weakened their stability. A commercial malvidin 3-O-glucoside standard was used to investigate anthocyanin degradation products under simulated digestion process, and syringic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid were confirmed to be the degradation products via anthocyanin chalcone conversion path. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and p-coumaric acid in wine experienced a significant concentration decrease during digestion process. However, wine model solution revealed that phenolic acids remained stable under gastrointestinal conditions, except gallic acid.

  5. Interactive effects of deficit irrigation and berry exposure aspect on Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deficit irrigation is used to control vine vigor and enhance water use efficiency yet few studies have compared cultivar response to water deficit in a warm, arid climate with a high amount of solar radiation and measured the interactive effects of water deficit, cultivar and fruit canopy location. ...

  6. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  7. Toward the authentication of wines of Nemea denomination of origin through cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniolas, Stelios; Tsachaki, Maroussa; Bennett, Malcolm J; Tucker, Gregory A

    2008-09-10

    In the present study, we developed a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based assay as a first attempt to detect fraud in grapevine musts with a long-term objective to establish an analytical methodology to authenticate wines of Nemea denomination of origin (Agiorgitiko). The analytical assay makes use of a single nucleotide polymorphism that discriminates Agiorgitiko and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. The latter grape variety is one of the major adulterants for Nemea wines. Agiorgitiko grapevine must was spiked with Cabernet Sauvignon in several ratios (v/v) from 50 down to 10%, and the subsequent mixes were subjected to alcoholic microfermentation. DNA was extracted from all mixture samples up to the end of the fermentation process and was subjected to the CAPS assay. Both standard agarose gel and lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis illustrated the ability of the method to detect the presence of Cabernet Sauvignon down to 10% throughout the whole fermentation process.

  8. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Caracterização da fenologia e da demanda térmica das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ para a região norte do Paraná = Characterization of phenology and thermal demand for ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapevines in the northern region of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-07-01

    marked were used, all cultivated in pergola system, with 4.0 x 1.5-m spacing. The plants phenology evaluation began at the production pruning of 2004, compared to duration, in days, of each subperiod: pruning to bud swell; pruning to beginning of shot growth; pruning to visible cluster; pruning to flowering; pruning to early ripening and pruning to harvest. The thermal requirement was calculated using degree-days sum from pruning to harvest, and also for each subperiod, considering two base temperatures (10 and 12ºC, being chosen those with lowest standard error. Results show that subperiods duration for ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’grape was 9; 13; 17; 40; 98 and 132 days, and for ‘Tannat’ grape was 13; 15; 19; 41; 99 and 139 days, respectively. The base temperature of 10ºC was the most adequate for calculating the thermal requirement. To complete the cycle, the demand was 1,295.8 degree-days for ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and 1,375.5 degree-days for ‘Tannat’.

  10. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    , glycerol 9,3 g L-1, proline 669 mg L-1, anthocyanins 330 mg L-1, tannins 1.19 g L-1, color intensity 0.286, K 1,078 mg L-1, methanol 101.7 mg L-1, and summ of higher alcohols 450 mg L-1. The results found in the analysed wines showed similar results to parameters previously determined in Cabernet Franc wine from the same region elaborated from grapes cultivated in the pergola system. This makes evident that grapevines conducted in the lyre system are an alternative to produce quality red wine in the Serra Gaúcha region.

  12. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

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    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  13. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer”) with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes. PMID:25470020

  14. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Kari; Jacobson, Dan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  16. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  17. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  18. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  19. Water deficits accelerate ripening and induce changes in gene expression regulating flavonoid biosynthesis in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Matthews, Mark A; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Gambetta, Gregory A

    2007-12-01

    Water deficits consistently promote higher concentrations of anthocyanins in red winegrapes and their wines. However, controversy remains as to whether there is any direct effect on berry metabolism other than inhibition of growth. Early (ED) and late (LD) season water deficits, applied before or after the onset of ripening (veraison), were imposed on field grown Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon", and the responses of gene expression in the flavonoid pathway and their corresponding metabolites were determined. ED accelerated sugar accumulation and the onset of anthocyanin synthesis. Both ED and LD increased anthocyanin accumulation after veraison. Expression profiling revealed that the increased anthocyanin accumulation resulted from earlier and greater expression of the genes controlling flux through the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, including F3H, DFR, UFGT and GST. Increases in total anthocyanins resulted predominantly from an increase of 3'4'5'-hydroxylated forms through the differential regulation of F3'H and F3'5'H. There were limited effects on proanthocyanidin, other flavonols, and on expression of genes committed to their synthesis. These results demonstrate that manipulation of abiotic stress through applied water deficits not only modulates compositional changes during berry ripening, but also alters the timing of particular aspects of the ripening process.

  20. Roles of grape thaumatin-like protein and chitinase in white wine haze formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Matteo; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Neilson, Karlie A; Chan, Cherrine; Haynes, Paul A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Falconer, Robert J

    2011-01-26

    Grape chitinase was found to be the primary cause of heat-induced haze formation in white wines. Chitinase was the dominant protein in a haze induced by treating Sauvignon blanc wine at 30 °C for 22 h. In artificial wines and real wines, chitinase concentration was directly correlated to the turbidity of heat-induced haze formation (50 °C for 3 h). Sulfate was confirmed to have a role in haze formation, likely by converting soluble aggregates into larger visible haze particles. Thaumatin-like protein was detected in the insoluble fraction by SDS-PAGE analysis but had no measurable impact on turbidity. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the complex mixture of molecules in wine plays a role in thermal instability of wine proteins and contributes additional complexity to the wine haze phenomenon.

  1. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  2. Identification and Organoleptic Contribution of (Z)-1,5-Octadien-3-one to the Flavor of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon Musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamy, Lucile; Darriet, Philippe; Pons, Alexandre

    2017-03-08

    The main goal of this research was to identify key aroma compounds involved in the dried fruits (prune and dried fig) aroma of musts. An odoriferous zone (OZ) was detected by gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry (GC-O) and identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one (geranium). A quantitation method by SPME-GC-MS (CI, MeOH) was developed and validated for assaying this very fragrant ketone in musts for the first time (LOD, 0.15 ng/L; LOQ, 0.5 ng/L). Concentrations of (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one in musts marked by dried fruits flavors reached 90 ng/L, thus exceeding its detection threshold (D th = 9 ng/L). Moreover, sensory experiments showed that this compound contributes to the dried fig nuance at concentrations ranging from 64 to 96 ng/L. Above that level, it contributes to the geranium nuance of the must. Its affinity with sulfur dioxide was also established; 30 mg/L of sulfur dioxide causes a decrease of concentration of 60%.

  3. Cabernet Sauvignon ve Merlot Şarapların Resveratrol Düzeyleri ve Ekolojik Koşulların Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Belkıs Çaylak Adıgüzel; Nedim Çetinkaya; Ufuk Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Fitoaleksinler bitkilerde patojen enfeksiyonuna bir reaksiyon olarak veya çeşitli biyotik ve abiyotik tetikleyicilerin etkisi sonucu oluşan fenolik madde karakterli, düşük molekül ağırlıklı antimikrobiyal bileşiklerdir. Resveratrol (trans–3,5,4’-trihidroksistilben) de bir fitoaleksin olup, asma (Vitis vinifera), yer fıstığı (Arachis hypogaea) ve diğer pek çok bitki türünde yaprak veya diğer organlarda yüksek miktarlarda bulunabilmektedir. Resveratrol asmada gövde, sürgün ve yapraklar yanında,...

  4. Caracterização analítica e sensorial de vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de diferentes altitudes de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Leila Denise

    2007-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos. Antocianinas são corantes naturais que proporcionam cores atrativas e brilhantes à maioria das plantas, colorindo-as do vermelho vivo ao violeta. Estes pigmentos possuem propriedades benéficas reconhecidas, porém ainda são pouco utilizados na indústria de alimentícia devido à sua instabilidade frente às etapas de processamento de alimentos. A reação de...

  5. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  6. Classification of Argentinean Sauvignon blanc wines by UV spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana Mariela; Cantarelli, Miguel Ángel; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Marchevsky, Eduardo Jorge; Camiña, José Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Argentina is an important worldwide wine producer. In this country, there are several recognizable provinces that produce Sauvignon blanc wines: Neuquén, Río Negro, Mendoza, and San Juan. The analysis of the provenance of these white wines is complex and requires the use of expensive and time-consuming techniques. For this reason, this work discusses the determination of the provenance of Argentinean Sauvignon blanc wines by the use of UV spectroscopy and chemometric methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The proposed method requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. The results are in very good agreement with results based on the geographical origin of Sauvignon blanc wines. This manuscript describes a method to determine the geographical origin of Sauvignon wines from Argentina. The main advantage of this method is the use of nonexpensive techniques, such as UV-Vis spectroscopy. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  8. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  9. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  10. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  11. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  12. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  13. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  14. Variability in the Content of Trans-Resveratrol, Trans-ε-Viniferin and R2-Viniferin in Grape Cane of Seven Vitis vinifera L. Varieties during a Three-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Balík, Josef; Soural, Ivo; Sotolář, Radek

    2017-06-03

    Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014-2016) at six different places in South Moravia, Czech Republic were extracted, and the contents of trans -resveratrol, trans -ε-viniferin, and r2-viniferin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study included three blue grape varieties of Vitis vinifera L. (Cabernet Moravia, Blaufränkisch, and Piwi variety Laurot) and four white grape varieties (Chardonnay, Green Veltliner, Piwi variety Hibernal, and Piwi variety Malverina). From the viewpoint of producing extracts with high stilbenes content, the Hibernal variety is clearly the best. The mean amounts of the stilbenes for this variety at all localities and for all three years were 4.99 g/kg for trans -resveratrol, 3.24 g/kg for trans -ε-viniferin, and 1.73 g/kg for r2-viniferin. The influence of vintage, locality, and variety on the amounts of stilbenes was studied using PCA analysis. In contrast to expectations, there was no strong impact of locality on stilbenes content. The differences were varietal for most varieties, regardless of the area of cultivation. Laurot and Hibernal varieties did differ significantly in that respect, however, as they exhibited clear dependence on location.

  15. The effect of gibberellic acid on some photosynthetic products in the leaves of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kismali, I.; Kilinc, R.

    1976-01-01

    In the research work set up to examine the effect of giberellic acid on the some photosynthetic products formed in the leaves of cabernet souvignon grapes. A series of tests were performed by applying 0, 25, 50 ppm of giberellic acid to the leaves. The fractions of sugar, soluble amino acid and organic acid all labelled by C 14 O 2 , are determined by radioactivite counts and using the results obtained. The total amounts were calculated. The fresh weight of leaves subject to GA application increases considerably, on the other hand no significant effect of giberellic acid on the dry weight was detected. Increasing the amount of giberellic acid from 25 ppm to 50 ppm does not cause any change neither on fresh weight nor on dry weight of leaves. It is noted that the application of giberellic acid not change the amount of sugar present in the leaves, however, the amount of soluble amino acid decreases while the amount of organic acid increases. Still increasing the amount of giberellic acid has no effect on the amount of these fractions

  16. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  17. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  18. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  19. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  20. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  1. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin as...

  2. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  3. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan; Pereira Dachi Ângela; Nogueira Fernandes Elizeu; Lais Hamm Bruna; Corrêa de Almeida Fabiane; Moreira Silveira Jansen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control); T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant...

  4. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  5. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  6. Perceived minerality in sauvignon blanc wine: Chemical reality or cultural construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Wendy V; Valentin, Dominique; Breitmeyer, Jason; Peyron, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe; Sherlock, Robert; Robinson, Brett; Grose, Claire; Ballester, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived mineral character in wine and wine chemical composition. We investigated the sensory properties and chemical composition of sauvignon blanc wines from two major sauvignon-producing countries, New Zealand and France. Sensory experiments employing 16 wines (8 French, 8 New Zealand) were conducted in Marlborough, New Zealand and in three regions of France, namely Bordeaux, Burgundy, and the Sancerre/Loire region. Wine professionals (31 New Zealanders and 32 French professionals) sensorially characterised the 16 wines under three conditions, bouquet only (ortho-nasal olfaction), palate only (nose clip condition), and full tasting (global condition: ortho-nasal olfaction, retronasal olfaction, taste, trigeminal stimulation). Sensory data from the global condition only are reported in this article. Physical and chemical analyses conducted on all wines included wine standard parameters, elemental composition, volatile aroma composition, and measures of organic acids. Major results demonstrate that (i) on average French and New Zealand wines were perceived similarly in intensity of mineral character, although judgments to individual wines differed as a function of participant culture; (ii) French and NZ participants drew on different information to make their sensory judgments; and (iii) several aspects of wine composition associated positively with perception of mineral character while others associated negatively, the significant associations differing as a function of participant culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  8. Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, the haze-forming proteins of wine, accumulate during ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera) berries and drought stress does not affect the final levels per berry at maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, K F; Hayasaka, Y; McCarthy, M G; Waters, E J

    2000-05-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, which are pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, were the major soluble protein components of grapes from five cultivars of Vitis vinifera. This dominance of PR proteins was apparent at berry softening (véraison) and then throughout berry development for the Muscat of Alexandria, Sultana, and Shiraz cultivars and in the berries of the Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir cultivars examined at commercial maturity. The M(r) of the major thaumatin-like protein from Muscat of Alexandria grapes was 21 272, and those of the three major chitinases from this cultivar, ChitB, ChitC, and ChitD, were 25 588, 25 410, and 25 457, respectively. The vines in the study were irrigated and showed no obvious signs of disease. Shiraz vines that had not been irrigated throughout the season were clearly water stressed, but had levels of PR proteins in the berry similar to vines that had been fully irrigated. It appears that the production of PR proteins that cause protein instability in wines by grapes may be little influenced by environmental conditions.

  9. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  10. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  12. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  13. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  14. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  15. Volatile contents of grape marcs in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Luz; Malcata, F. Xavier; Revel, G. de

    1996-01-01

    The present study reports on the composition of volatiles of most grape marcs (bagaceiras) commercially available in Portugal. These spirits, which are a valuable by-product of the winemaking industry, are obtained via steam-distillation of grape pomace after storage under anaerobic conditions for a given period of time. An impetus for this research is the increasingly strict European legal standards pertaining to the levels of health hazard volatile compounds (e.g., methanol) and the lack of...

  16. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications such as nerve and eye problems, improving wound healing, preventing tooth decay, preventing cancer, an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), poor night vision, liver ...

  17. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  18. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  19. Monitoring the impact of an aspartic protease (MpAPr1) on grape proteins and wine properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Louwrens Wiid; Bely, Marina; Divol, Benoit

    2018-04-23

    The perception of haze in wine is brought about when pathogenesis-related proteins become unstable and aggregate, subsequently resulting in crosslinking until it develops into light-dispersing particles. Elimination of these proteins is usually achieved via bentonite fining, which, although effective, suffers from several drawbacks. The utilization of proteases has been proposed as an ideal alternative. In a previous study, an aspartic protease (MpAPr1) from the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima was purified and shown to be partially active against grape proteins in synthetic medium. In this study, the effects of pure MpAPr1 supplemented to Sauvignon Blanc juice on subsequent fermentation were investigated. The juice was incubated for 48 h and thereafter inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results revealed that the enzyme had no observable effects on fermentation performance and retained activity throughout. Protein degradation could be detected and resulted in a significant modification of the wine composition and an increase in the presence of certain volatile compounds, especially those linked to amino acid metabolism.

  20. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  1. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is prohibited...

  2. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop insurance provisions. The Table Grape Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  3. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by the...

  4. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the approval...

  5. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grape crop insurance provisions. 457.138 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance provisions. The grape crop insurance provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows: United...

  6. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  7. The natural product content of the selected Cabernet Franc wine samples originating from Serbia: a case study of phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejin, Boris; Stanimirovic, Bojana; Vujovic, Dragan; Popovic Djordjevic, Jelena; Velickovic, Milovan; Tesevic, Vele

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the content of selected phenolic natural products in the wine samples made of three new Serbian Cabernet Franc clones (Nos. 02, 010 and 012, respectively) and mother vine (used as the relevant standard) during the period 2008-2012. Compared with all other wine samples, the Cabernet Franc wine of the clone No. 010 was found to have the highest total content of polyphenolics (1.85 ± 0.02 g/L) and anthocyanins (178.55 ± 3.75 mg/L). In addition, its Folin-Ciocalteu index (36.86 ± 0.12) stood out among the examined samples. Finally, the same wine was enriched with ellagic and gallic acids (3.44 ± 0.29 and 27.46 ± 0.21 mg/L, respectively), catechin (135.16 ± 6.47 mg/L) and epicatechin (51.33 ± 2.33 mg/L), the natural products known to exert significant lipid-lowering effects. Taken all together, the clone No. 010 developed in Serbia may offer new Cabernet Franc wine with geographical indication.

  8. Grapes and Cardiovascular Disease1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of wine, grape products, and other foods containing polyphenols is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of wine consumption appear to be greater than other alcoholic beverages. Experimental studies indicate that grape polyphenols could reduce atherosclerosis by a number of mechanisms, including inhibition of oxidation of LDL and other favorable effects on cellular redox state, improvement of endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, inhibition of platelet aggregation, reducing inflammation, and activating novel proteins that prevent cell senescence, e.g. Sirtuin 1. Translational studies in humans support these beneficial effects. More clinical studies are needed to confirm these effects and formulate dietary guidelines. The available data, however, strongly support the recommendation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, including grapes, can decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625699

  9. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  10. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  11. QUALITATIVE PECULIARITIES OF THE FLAVOURED WINES AND OF THE VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, OBTAINED FROM THE SAUVIGNON BLANC VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the dynamics of the physical-chemical parameters of flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by the addition of hydroalcoholic macerates from plants to the Sauvignon Blanc wine variety, we analyzed certain physical and chemical characteristics (D 20 20, Alcool %, Total dry extract g/l, Free sugar g/l, Unreducing extract g /l, Total Acidity g/l C4H6O6, Free SO2 mg/l Total SO2 mg/l for 9 samples. Compared to the main wine parameters, the tested parameters had the following evolution: Alcoholic strength, Free sugar and Density increased in vermouth type wines, Total acidity decreased slightly in flavoured wines and more obvious in vermouth type wines. The total dry extract increased sharply in vermouth type wines and the unreducing extract decreased sharply in vermouth type wines. The amount of Free SO2 was higher in flavoured wines, but Total SO2 had lower values, both for flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, comparative to Sauvignon Blanc wine. Plants macerates added to the Sauvignon Blanc basic wine, influenced most of the physical-chemical parameters and provided new qualitative features to resulting beverages.

  12. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, Tom; Geuna, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...... potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown...

  13. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Burlakov M. M.; Rodionova L. Y.; Troshin L. P.; Chausov V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice var...

  14. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  15. Polyphenol metabolomics of twenty Italian red grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavaresco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Suspect screening analysis”method to study grape metabolomics, was performed. This method is a middle-way “targeted” and “untargeted”approach aiming at identifying the largest number of metabolites in grape samples. A new database of putative grape and wine metabolites (GrapeMetabolomics, which currently contains around 1,100 compounds, was constructed by CREA at Conegliano. By performing high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the grape extract in both positive and negative ionization mode, averaging 320-450 putative compounds are identified. Most of them are grape polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives. By performing PCA and Cluster Analysis the composition in anthocyanins and flavonols of 20 Italian red grape varieties, was studied.

  16. Recent applications of grape polyphenols in foods, beverages and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollücke, Andréa P B

    2010-06-01

    Grape polyphenols are associated with the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. The present review discusses the most abundant polyphenols in red grapes as well as the recent food and beverage products developed with these natural antioxidant substances. Grape phenolic concentration and composition depend on agro-geographic factors and processing conditions. In humans, grape polyphenols demonstrated effects such as maintenance of endothelial function, increase in antioxidant capacity and protection against LDL oxidation. Recent patents regarding grape polyphenols show a tendency to return to natural products with a minimum use of severe extraction processes and organic solvents. The new products tend to use grape juice and wine as raw materials and maximize their polyphenolic contents. Grape derived polyphenolic foods, beverages and supplements suit effectively the current demand for antioxidant substances of nutritional interest.

  17. Estabilidade de antocianinas extraídas de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) em solução tampão, bebida isotônica e iogurte

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Leila Denise

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos. Antocianinas são corantes naturais que proporcionam cores atrativas e brilhantes à maioria das plantas, colorindo-as do vermelho vivo ao violeta. Estes pigmentos possuem propriedades benéficas reconhecidas, porém ainda são pouco utilizados na indústria de alimentícia devido à sua instabilidade frente às etapas de processamento de alimentos. A reação de co...

  18. Action de la concentration de la solution nutritive sur quelques caracteristiques physiologiques et technologiques chez Vitis vinifera L.cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. II. Composition minerale des organes vegetatifs, du mout et du vin

    OpenAIRE

    Delas, J.; Pouget, R.

    1984-01-01

    Nous avons cherché à expliquer l’effet de la concentration de la solution nutritive sur le comportement de la vigne et la qualité de la récolte par l’étude de la composition minérale des feuilles, des bois de taille, des moûts et des vins provenant de plantes alimentées par 2 types de solution, l’une 2 fois plus concentrée que l’autre. Les différences de concentration entre les 2 solutions ont entraîné de profondes modifications de la teneur en N, P, K, Ca et Mg de la vigne, modifications...

  19. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  20. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  1. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  2. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  3. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to improve metabolite accumulation of grape cells by manipulating culture and environmental conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design and conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and light intensity.

  4. Composting winery waste: sludges and grape stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, E; Sort, X; Soliva, M; Trillas, I

    2004-11-01

    The composting of winery waste is an alternative to the traditional disposal of residues, and also involves a commitment to reducing the production of waste products. We studied two residues (sludge and grape stalks), mixed in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 sludge and grape stalks (v/v)), and we also examined the effects of grinding the grape stalks. Our results showed that composting the assayed materials was possible. Best results were obtained in the compost heap in which the residues were mixed in the proportion 1:2, and where the grape stalks had been previously ground. Optimum results required a moisture around 55% and a maximum temperature around 65 degrees C and an oxygen concentration not lower than 5-10%. The resulting compost had a high agronomic value and is particularly suitable for the soils of the vineyards which have a very low organic matter content. The compost can be reintroduced into the production system, thereby closing the residual material cycle.

  5. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp. is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  6. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellini, E.; Gilbert, M.T.P.; Geuna, F.; Fiorentino, G.; Hall, A.; Thomas-Oates, J.; Ashton, P.D.; Ashford, D.A.; Arthur, P.; Campos, P.F.; Kool, J.; Willerslev, E.; Collins, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce,

  7. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qian; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Yali

    2017-04-26

    Grape hyacinth ( Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  8. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  9. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  11. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  12. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  13. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Zuzana Barboráková; Soňa Felšöciová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice) of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine), and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol a...

  14. Use of gamma irradiation to stimulate growth of some grape varieties in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Nabulsi, I.

    1999-03-01

    Three rootstocks (R.99, Ruggeri 140, and 3309) and three varieties (Helwani, Cabernet and Ashlamich) of grapevine cultured on DSD1 medi, were irradiated with 0, 2, 5, and 7 Gy of gamma irradiation (Co 60 sources, 0.17 Gy/min). Ashlamich variety did not show any growth in all tested doses. Shoot length of all other varieties and rootstocks were increased at the 7 Gy dose compared to control except R.99. The root number was significantly increased of three rootstock with 5. Root length was significantly higher at doses 2, 5, and 7 Gy had the same effect on Helwani and Cabernet varieties. The number of Cabernet leaves exposed to 2 and 7 Gy was increased compared to control, whereas it was increased at 5 and 7 Gy on Helwani. The leaf area of Helwani and Cabernet was significantly reduced at 5 Gy dose. (authors)

  15. Thermal degradation of grape marc polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Katalin; Solá, Ruth; Cocero, María José; Mato, Rafael B

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds of wine making by-products are of interest in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Extraction of antioxidants under mild conditions is time-consuming, giving ground to the development of intensification processes where the operation at high temperature may deteriorate extract quality. This study examined thermal degradation of grape marc and its filtered extract (80, 100 and 150°C). The decrease in anthocyanin content was modelled under non-isothermal conditions by first order kinetics, using the Arrhenius equation. Simulated degradation under isothermal heating showed that the grape marc is more sensitive by one order of magnitude to heat than the filtered extract. This tendency was also confirmed by analyses of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It is suggested that an optimal combination of temperature, treatment time and also raw material environment could be found in process intensification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ~400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV, at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of >1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above.

  17. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  18. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for market as natural grapes by performing all the normal cultural practices, but not using any inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth regulators...

  19. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  20. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  1. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  2. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  3. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  4. Overcoming grape growers’ pesticide lock-in

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline UGAGLIA (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Bernard DEL’HOMME (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Maryline FILIPPI (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB)

    2011-01-01

    An evolutionary framework is used here to study the issue of pesticide reduction in vineyards. After analyzing grape growers’ pesticide lock-in we show that, although Integrated Pest Management (IPM) could reduce pesticide use significantly, the lack of specific implementation know-how hampers its diffusion. Consequently, once the features of technological change for IPM have been scrutinized, we adopt a case analysis approach in which environmental regulation is envisaged as one possible way...

  5. [Micronutrient composition of grape growing in Dagestan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmulaeva, Z K; Magadova, S A

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient content in Pearl Zala, Pearl Saba, Creamy, and Amber Muscat varieties of grape has been determined. The ultimate analysis has been made by the atomic-absorption flame photometry; ascorbic acid has been determined by the titrometric analysis; rutin, niacin, and carotene have been studied by the colorimetric method. It has been found that the content of potassium (2673.8 mg/kg), calcium (349.0 mg/kg), iron (35.9 mg/kg), silicon (611.3 mg/kg), manganese (0.89 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearl Zala grapes, while the content of zinc (0.31 mg/kg), nicotinic acid (10.9 mg/dm3) and carotene (0,33 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearls Saba. Amber Muscat grape has been found to have the highest concentration of sodium (151.4 mg/kg), phosphorus (466.8 mg/kg), magnesium (221.6 mg/kg), aluminum (68.5 mg/kg), cobalt (0.120 mg/kg) and copper (1.91 mg/kg) in comparison with other grape varieties. It has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and rutin differ 1.5-1.6 fold, of magnesium, iron, silicon and potassium--1.7-1.8 fold, of calcium and phosphorus--2.2-2.5 fold, carotene--4.1 times, aluminum, sodium and nicotinic acid--4.7-5.5 fold, cobalt and copper--8.6-8.7 fold, zinc and manganese--10.3-22.2 fold.

  6. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of grape berries at various stages of development using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musingarabwi, Davirai M; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Young, Philip R; Eyéghè-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc grape berries. FT-NIR and ATR FT-MIR spectroscopy, coupled with spectral preprocessing and multivariate data analysis (MVDA), provided reliable methods to qualitatively assess berry samples at five distinct developmental stages: green, pre-véraison, véraison, post-véraison and ripe (harvest), without any prior metabolite extraction. Compared to NIR spectra, MIR spectra provided more reliable discrimination between the berry samples from the different developmental stages. Interestingly, ATR FT-MIR spectra from fresh homogenized berry samples proved more discriminatory than spectra from frozen homogenized berry samples. Different developmental stages were discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In order to generate partial least squares (PLS) models from the MIR/NIR spectral datasets; the major sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (malic acid, succinic acid and tartaric acid) were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference dataset. PLS regression was used to develop calibration models to predict the concentration of the major sugars and organic acids in the berry samples from different developmental stages. Our data show that infrared (IR) spectroscopy could provide a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to the chromatographic analysis of the sugar and organic acid composition of grape berries at various developmental stages, using small sample volumes and requiring limited sample preparation. This provides scope and support for the possible development of hand-held devices to assess quality parameters in field-settings in real-time and non-destructively using IR technologies. Copyright

  8. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been developed for the determination of Fe3+ at pH 5.0. The emission wavelength of the grape skin sensor occurs at 680 nm and the excitation wavelength at 421 nm. The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of ...

  10. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  11. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  12. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wildfrost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify th...

  13. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: gupta@grapes.tifr.res.in. MS received 11 October 2012; revised 11 April 2013; accepted 17 April 2013. Abstract. The GRAPES-3 experiment at Ooty contains a large-area (560 m2) tracking muon detector.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against. Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry ...

  15. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of anthocyanin with the metal ions. Anthocyanin, the main pigment in the grape skin, has been found fluorescence sensing material. The sensor based on the grape skin exhibited a calibration response for Fe3+ in two concentration ...

  16. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  17. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  18. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  19. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  20. Severe immediate allergic reactions to grapes: part of a lipid transfer protein-associated clinical syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Rigby, Neil R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; van Ree, Ronald; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grape allergy is considered rare; grape lipid transfer protein (LTP; Vit v 1), an endochitinase and a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) have been reported as grape allergens. A considerable number of patients have referred to our department for severe reactions to grapes, and several IgE

  1. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  2. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  3. Production of white wine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on grape pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Macedo, S.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Teixeira, J. A.; Oliveira, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    White wine was produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on grape pomace, by natural adsorption. The support, the main solid waste from the wine industry, consisted of the skins, seeds and stems. Immobilization was tested using different media, namely complex culture medium, raw grape must and diluted grape must. Grape pomace was revealed to be an appropriate support for yeast cell immobilization. Moreover, grape must was shown to be the most suitable medium as immobilized c...

  4. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  5. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  6. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  7. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  8. Pesticide residues in grapes from integrated production of the Slovene origin The CORRECTED TITLE is: Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik , Helena; Gregorčič , Ana; Čuš , Franc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. The paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring in 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) of the 2006 vintage from the vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them, 20 were allowed in IPM in ...

  9. Persistence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, Raminderjit Singh

    2010-03-01

    Following four foliar applications of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on grapes @ 175 and 350 g/ha, resulting in active applications of trifloxystrobin @ 43.75 and 87.5 g a.i./ha and that of tebuconazole @ 87.5 and 175 g a.i./ha, the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 7.76 and 15.53 mg/kg, respectively, at single and double the application rates. These residue levels dissipated to >85% after 10 days of its application at both the dosages. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were observed to be 13.84 and 26.55 mg/kg at single and double the application rate, respectively. These residue levels dissipated to >90% after 10 days of application at both the dosages. The half-life (t(1/2)) periods of trifloxystrobin on grape leaves were observed to be 2.92 and 3.48 days at single and double application rates, respectively, whereas these values were 2.68 and 3.96 days for tebuconazole. Ripe grape berries and soil samples collected at harvest which happened to be 34 days after the last application, did not show the presence of residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  11. PTR-MS in enology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaler, Renate; Araghipour, Nooshin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Via, Josef Dalla; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2007-10-01

    The present communication deals with the improvement of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) wine headspace analyses. In contrast to previous PTR-MS investigations of wine, where wine headspace was ionized by protonated ethanol clusters, the headspace was diluted by a factor of 1:40 with N2 and ionized by H3O+ ions. This method is better suited for routine applications than the previously reported method since it is simpler, faster, and the mass spectra obtained are less complex. A test wine was mixed with ethanol and with water to yield ethanol contents ranging from 10 to 15% (v/v) and these mixtures were analyzed to assess whether any quantitative differences in the composition of volatiles were detectable. The data showed no impact of the ethanol content on the wine headspace composition. The new method was applied to eight different wine samples produced from two different grape varieties: Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon. Each variety was grown in two different locations in South Tyrol (Northern Italy) and harvested at two different dates. Quantitative (but not qualitative) differences in PTR-MS spectra between the two wine varieties were observed. Using principal component analysis of selected m/z signals differentiation between Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon samples was achievable.

  12. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

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    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  13. Heterogeneity in Red Wine Polyphenolic Contents Differentially Influences Alzheimer's Disease-type Neuropathology and Cognitive Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lap; Chen, Ling Hong; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Wei; Talcott, Stephen T.; Ono, Kenjiro; Teplow, David; Humala, Nelson; Cheng, Alice; Percival, Susan S.; Ferruzzi, Mario; Janle, Elsa; Dickstein, Dara L.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2009-01-01

    We recently found that moderate consumption of two unrelated red wines generate from different grape species, a Cabernet Sauvignon and a muscadine wine that are characterized by distinct component composition of polyphenolic compounds, significantly attenuated the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type brain pathology and memory deterioration in a transgenic AD mouse model. Interestingly, our evidence suggests that the two red wines attenuated AD phenotypes through independent mechanisms. In particular, we previously found that treatment with Cabernet Sauvignon reduced the generation of AD-type amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. In contrast, evidence from our present study suggests that muscadine treatment attenuates Aβ neuropathology and Aβ-related cognitive deterioration in Tg2576 mice by interfering with the oligomerization of Aβ molecules to soluble high-molecular-weight Aβ oligomer species that are responsible for initiating a cascade of cellular events resulting in cognitive decline. Collectively, our observations suggest that distinct polyphenolic compounds from red wines may be bioavailable at the organism level and beneficially modulate AD phenotypes through multiple Aβ-related mechanisms. Results from these studies suggest the possibility of developing a “combination” of dietary polyphenolic compounds for AD prevention and/or therapy by modulating multiple Aβ-related mechanisms. PMID:19158422

  14. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three....... Intake of the experimental diet significantly reduced plasma vitamin C and plasma AAS in both groups. This effect was most pronounced in the particular week with no grape-skin extract addition. We speculate that grape-skin extract may have a sparing effect on vitamin C. The effects of the experimental...

  15. A summary of recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 experiment is a combination of a high density extensive air shower (EAS array of nearly 400 plastic scintillator detectors, and a large 560 m2 area tracking muon telescope with an energy threshold Eμ >1 GeV. GRAPES-3 has been operating continuously in Ooty, India since 2000. By accurately correcting for the effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature, the muon telescope provides a high precision directional survey of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR intensity. This telescope has been used to observe the acceleration of muons during thunderstorm events. The recent discovery of a transient weakening of the Earth's magnetic shield through the detection of a GCR burst was the highlight of the GRAPES-3 results. We have an ongoing major expansion activity to further enhance the capability of the GRAPES-3 muon telescope by doubling its area.

  16. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  17. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2009-03-08

    * and Dan Xiao*. College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. (Received March 8, 2009; revised October 17, 2009). ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been ...

  18. Economic characteristics of grape production in South Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in Serbia has a long tradition. Serbia has great potentials for the production of grape and wine, but they are at a low level of utilization. Grape production in Serbia takes place on only 25,000 ha with an average annual production of 285,571 t of grapes with variations according to year. The vineyards and wine production are in a significant decline, while the main bearers of production are small family households or individual producers. The research presented in this paper is the economic characteristics of grapes production in the region of South Banat, Vršac wine-growing region, which occupies 81.2% of the total vineyard area in this part of AP Vojvodina.

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  20. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  1. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  3. Cellulose and hemicelluloses recovery from grape stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigno, Giorgia; Pizzorno, Tiziana; De Faveri, Dante Marco

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two mild chemical fractionation procedures were compared to separate and recover lignocellulosic components from grape stalks. The first method consisted of mild acid hydrolysis for hemicelluloses separation, followed by an alkaline/oxidative step for lignin solubilization, while in the second method the acid hydrolysis was preceded by an alkali steeping phase. Influence of the length of the first step of both methods (from 2 to 24 h) on monosaccharides and cellulose yields was investigated. The first method allowed a higher sugar recovery for longer times, and a slightly lower amount of cellulose. Cellulose residues from both the methods were comparable for cellulose content and thermal profile (studied by differential scanning calorimetry). Acid hydrolysis of the first step was carried out also in autoclave, showing that xylan degradation could be described by a first order kinetics where at higher temperature the presence of a fast reaction and a slow reacting fraction must be accounted for.

  4. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  5. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  7. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk.

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGYCOMPOTE WITH GRAPES FROM THE SHF EMF

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Achmedov; A. F. Demirova; M. M. Achmedova; T. N. Daudova

    2013-01-01

    The experimental results warming of canned "compote grapes" in an electromagnetic microwave field. Some new modes of heat sterilization using preheating of the grapes in the microwave EMF.Revealed that the use of pre-microwave heating of berries in the banks before pouring syrup saves heat, shortening heat sterilization regimes compote over 30% and the quality of the finished product.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGYCOMPOTE WITH GRAPES FROM THE SHF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Achmedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results warming of canned "compote grapes" in an electromagnetic microwave field. Some new modes of heat sterilization using preheating of the grapes in the microwave EMF.Revealed that the use of pre-microwave heating of berries in the banks before pouring syrup saves heat, shortening heat sterilization regimes compote over 30% and the quality of the finished product.

  10. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Garavaglia; Melissa M. Markoski; Aline Oliveira; Aline Marcadenti

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These...

  11. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  12. Bioactive compounds of juices from two Brazilian grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Kelly; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Furlan, Cibele Priscila Busch; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases owing to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS-Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and phenolic profile (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection--HPLC-DAD-FLD) were determined. BRS-Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential, than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, HPLC-DAD-FLD showed a higher total phenolic content in BRS-Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. The present results show BRS-Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Ocular promoting activity of grape polyphenols-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sithranga Boopathy; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2017-03-01

    The eye is a sensitive organ with complex optical system involves in the perception of light. Although it has several protective mechanisms by itself, various physiological and metabolic disorders are detrimental to the proper functioning of the visual system. Grape juice has long been used worldwide for its potent medicinal values including ocular promotion. Bioactivities of grape products are highly attributed to the presence of health promoting phytochemicals in them. Some phytochemicals present in the grape juice have been involved in the maintenance of intra-ocular pressure, regulation of glucose metabolisms and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the system. Particularly, the grape derived phytochemicals involve in minimizing various eye defects such as macular degradation, uvea, cataract formation, red eye, diabetic retinopathy and so on. However, only limited number of studies has been conducted so far focusing the ocular promoting activity of grape polyphenols. In this review, we discuss the role of grape polyphenols in ocular promotion relating their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-aging, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-02

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  16. Stereoselective degradation of flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hua, Xiude; Yang, Yu; Yin, Wei; Tian, Mingming; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Minghua

    2015-03-01

    The stereoselective dissipation of flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape had been studied. A simple and sensitive method for determination of flutriafol and tebuconazole enantiomers in grape was developed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) column. The limits of quantification for flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape were 0.033 and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The dissipations of flutriafol and tebuconazole stereoisomers in grape followed first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.93). The stereoisomers of flutriafol and tebuconazole were enantioselectively degraded in grape, and tebuconazole was more enantioselective than flutriafol. The half-life of (-)-tebuconazole was 5.2 days and shorter than (+)-tebuconazole with half-life of 6.4 days. The (-)-flutriafol was also preferentially degraded in grape, the half-lives of which were 6.59 and 6.98 days for (-) and (+)-flutriafol, respectively. The enantiomeric ratio value of the two fungicides was nearly 1.0 at the 1st day and increased to 1.143 for flutriafol and 2.015 for tebuconazole at the 28th day. The stereoselective dissipations could provide a reference to fully evaluate the risks of two important chiral triazole fungicides.

  17. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  18. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... production history shows the majority of the grapes produced in the production area are shipped prior to July... for notifications under the U.S.- Chile Free Trade Agreement, the embassies of Argentina, Brazil...

  19. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohidul Hasan; Hanhong Bae

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a...

  20. Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc: Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilbett Briones-Labarca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has shown to have an effect of enhancing some properties without detrimental effects on important quality characteristics, such as colour, pH, and turbidity. This suggests that this technique can be used as an alternative to the existing methods used in wine industry processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HHP on aroma compounds and also sensory and quality properties of young white wine. HHP treatment did not influence physicochemical parameters, total phenols, and flavonoid contents of white wine; however, the results from analysis of wine indicate that there was a great variation in the concentration of free and total sulphur dioxide (SO2 values and antioxidant capacity of white wine after HHP application. The sensory attributes, such as taste, odour, and overall quality, were not affected by HHP processing at 300 MPa. The chromatic characteristics changed slightly after applying HHP, but these changes could not be visually perceived because they were less than 5%. The use of this technique has the potential to decrease the amount of SO2 added to raw grapes thus maintaining the same properties found in untreated wine. This study provided valuable insights into the biochemical and sensory composition of commercial white wine and how this might change during HHP processing.

  1. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentatio