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Sample records for grapefruit juice powder

  1. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... in the finished food. The grapefruit pulp, grapefruit oil, and grapefuit essence (components derived... paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Grapefruit juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat... sirup, dextrose, glucose sirup, and fructose. Sweeteners defined in part 168 of this chapter shall be as...

  2. Grapefruit

    ... seed extract is processed from grapefruit seeds and pulp obtained as a byproduct from grapefruit juice production. ... higher than usual risk for developing breast cancer. Diseases of the heart muscle: Consuming grapefruit juice might ...

  3. 6'7'-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect.

    Kakar, Shefali M; Paine, Mary F; Stewart, Paul W; Watkins, Paul B

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice "serum" and in whole grapefruit juice were measured by HPLC and their identities confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five healthy volunteers were given a single tablet of felodipine (10 mg) with whole grapefruit juice, orange juice-containing serum, or plain orange juice (control). The pharmacokinetic outcomes of felodipine were evaluated by noncompartmental methods. The effects of serum and purified DHB (at the same concentrations as those measured in the orange juice-containing serum used in the clinical study) were compared, in vitro, with regard to (1) the reversible and mechanism-based inhibition of the catalytic activity of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4 and (2) the time-dependent loss of immunoreactive CYP3A4 protein in modified Caco-2 cells. The concentration of DHB in serum was comparable to that measured in whole grapefruit juice (38 micromol/L versus 43 micromol/L), and the concentrations of other known furanocoumarins were well below the lowest published concentration required to inhibit catalytic activity by 50%. Relative to plain orange juice, orange juice-containing serum significantly increased the median felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.9-fold (P =.04) and increased the maximum concentration by 1.7-fold (P =.01). In vitro, serum and purified DHB had similar inhibitory effects toward CYP3A4 activity with respect to both reversible inhibition (95% confidence interval, 85% +/- 5.7% and 75% +/- 4.5%, respectively) and mechanism-based inhibition after a 15-minute preincubation (95% confidence interval, 79

  4. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    2012-08-27

    ... standards in order to encourage uniformity and consistency in commercial practices.'' AMS is committed to... Grapefruit Juice. The petitioner requested the removal of the maximum limit for ``free and suspended pulp... concentrate, grapefruit juice, and frozen concentrated grapefruit juice establish limits for maximum free and...

  5. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  6. Effect of grapefruit juice or cimetidine coadministration on albendazole bioavailability

    Nagy, J.; Schipper, H. G.; Koopmans, R. P.; Butter, J. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coadministering albendazole (10 mg/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered

  7. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  8. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine, increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids. Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food–drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice

  9. Intestinal first pass metabolism of midazolam in liver cirrhosis --effect of grapefruit juice

    Andersen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Natalie; Larsen, Niels-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4 in the intestinal wall leading to a reduced intestinal first pass metabolism and thereby an increased oral bioavailability of certain drugs. For example, it has been shown that the oral bioavailability of midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, increased by 52% in healthy...... subjects after ingestion of grapefruit juice. However, this interaction has not been studied in patients with impaired liver function. Accordingly, the effect of grapefruit juice on the AUC of midazolam and the metabolite alpha-hydroxymidazolam was studied in patients with cirrhosis of the liver....

  10. Changes in flavonoid content of grapefruit juice caused by thermal treatment and storage

    Igual Ramo, Marta; García Martínez, Eva María; Camacho Vidal, Mª Mar; Martínez Navarrete, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The effect of conventional and microwave pasteurization on the main flavonoids present in grapefruit juice and their stability throughout 2 months of refrigerated and frozen storage was evaluated. Individual flavonoids were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that naringin, narirutin, quercetin and naringenin were the most abundant flavonoids in grapefruit juice. In general, although every pasteurization treatment caused a significant reduction in the content of all the studied flavonoids, t...

  11. Quantitation of Rotundone in Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) Peel and Juice by Stable Isotope Dilution Assay.

    Nakanishi, Akira; Fukushima, Yusuke; Miyazawa, Norio; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Maeda, Tomoko; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko

    2017-06-21

    Aroma extract dilution analyses of the aromas of peels and juices of white and pink grapefruits revealed that rotundone, responsible for peppery, spicy, and woody odors, was detected for the first time at high flavor dilution factors of 256-1024. In both juices, rotundone was detected at the highest flavor dilution factor of 1024. Rotundone in grapefruits was quantitated by a stable isotope dilution assay with a newly synthesized deuterium-labeled internal standard, rotundone-d 2,3 : its levels were 2180 and 1920 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit peels and 29.6 and 49.8 ng/kg in white and pink grapefruit juices, respectively. On the basis of these results, sensory analysis was performed to assess the effects of rotundone on a white grapefruit juice aroma reconstitute. This sensory analysis revealed that rotundone does not impart a woody odor or affect any of the existing attributes, but increases various attributes, thus confirming that rotundone is indispensable for the aroma of grapefruit juice.

  12. Rapid Quantitation of Furanocoumarins and Flavonoids in Grapefruit Juice using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Vandermolen, Karen M; Cech, Nadja B; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-01-01

    Grapefruit juice can increase or decrease the systemic exposure of myriad oral medications, leading to untoward effects or reduced efficacy. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been established as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, while flavonoids have been implicated as inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated absorptive uptake in the intestine. The potential for drug interactions with a food product necessitates an understanding of the expected concentrations of a suite of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive compounds. Develop methods for the rapid quantitation of two furanocoumarins (bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin) and four flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, narirutin and hesperidin) in five grapefruit juice products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Grapefruit juice products were extracted with ethyl acetate; the concentrated extract was analysed by UPLC using acetonitrile:water gradients and a C18 -column. Analytes were detected using a photodiode array detector, set at 250 nm (furanocoumarins) and 310 nm (flavonoids). Intraday and interday precision and accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Rapid (0.999. Considerable between-juice variation in the concentrations of these compounds was observed, and the quantities measured were in agreement with the concentrations published in HPLC studies. These analytical methods provide an expedient means to quantitate key furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice and other foods used in dietary substance-drug interaction studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Medicinal importance of grapefruit juice and its interaction with various drugs

    Imam Sardar Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grapefruit juice is consumed widely in today's health conscious world as a protector against cardiovascular diseases and cancers. It has however, been found to be an inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P – 450 3A4 system, which is responsible for the first pass metabolism of many drugs. The P – glycoprotein pump, found in the brush border of the intestinal wall which transports many of these cytochrome P – 450 3A4 substrates, has also been implicated to be inhibited by grapefruit juice. By inhibiting these enzyme systems, grapefruit juice alters the pharmacokinetics of a variety of medications, leading to elevation of their serum concentrations. Most notable are its effects on the calcium channel antagonist and the statin group of drugs. In the case of many drugs, the increased serum concentration has been found to be associated with increased frequency of dose dependent adverse effects. In this review, we have discussed the phytochemistry of grapefruit juice, the various drugs involved in the drug – grapefruit juice eraction with their mechanisms of action and have presented the clinical implications of these interactions.

  14. Rapid Quantitation of Furanocoumarins and Flavonoids in Grapefruit Juice using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography

    VanderMolen, Karen M.; Cech, Nadja B.; Paine, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Grapefruit juice can increase or decrease the systemic exposure of myriad oral medications, leading to untoward effects or reduced efficacy. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been established as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, while flavonoids have been implicated as inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated absorptive uptake in the intestine. The potential for drug interactions with a food product necessitates an understanding of the expected concentrations of a suite of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive compounds. Objective Develop methods for the rapid quantitation of two furanocoumarins (bergamottin and 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin) and four flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, narirutin, and hesperidin) in five grapefruit juice products using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Methodology Grapefruit juice products were extracted with ethyl acetate; the concentrated extract was analyzed by UPLC using acetonitrile:water gradients and a C18 column. Analytes were detected using a photodiode array detector, set at 250 nm (furanocoumarins) and 310 nm (flavonoids). Intraday and interday precision and accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Results Rapid (flavonoids. R2 values for the calibration curves of all analytes were >0.999. Considerable between-juice variation in the concentrations of these compounds was observed, and the quantities measured were in agreement with the concentrations published in HPLC studies. Conclusion These analytical methods provide an expedient means to quantitate key furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice and other foods used in dietary substance-drug interaction studies. PMID:23780830

  15. Does a kampo medicine containing schisandra fruit affect pharmacokinetics of nifedipine like grapefruit juice?

    Makino, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Fumika; Mizukami, Hajime

    2006-10-01

    Herb-drug interaction has attracted attention as medicinal topics recently. However, the drug information is sometimes confusing. Previous in vitro studies revealed that schisandra fruit had strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and claimed the possibilities of its herb-drug interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of schisandra fruit and shoseiryuto, an herbal formula in Japanese traditional kampo medicine containing eight herbal medicines including schisandra fruit, on rat CYP3A activity in vitro, and the effect of shoseiryuto on pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, in comparison with those of grapefruit juice, a well-characterized natural CYP3A inhibitor. Shoseiryuto and its herbal constituents, schisandra fruit, ephedra herb and cinnamon bark exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect of CYP3A. Although shoseiryuto inhibited rat CYP3A activity in vitro with a degree comparable to grapefruit juice, shoseiryuto did not significantly affect a plasma concentration profile of nifedipine in rats as grapefruit juice did. These results indicate that in vivo experiments using the extract of herbal medicine prepared with the same dosage form as patients take are necessary to provide proper information about herb-drug interaction.

  16. Grapefruit juice intake does not enhance but rather protects against aflatoxin B1-induced liver DNA damage through a reduction in hepatic CYP3A activity.

    Miyata, Masaaki; Takano, Hiroki; Guo, Lian Q; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2004-02-01

    Influence of grapefruit juice intake on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver DNA damage was examined using a Comet assay in F344 rats given 5 mg/kg AFB1 by gavage. Rats allowed free access to grapefruit juice for 5 days prior to AFB1 administration resulted in clearly reduced DNA damage in liver, to 65% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. Furthermore, rats treated with grapefruit juice extract (100 mg/kg per os) for 5 days prior to AFB1 treatment also reduced the DNA damage to 74% of the level in rats that did not receive grapefruit juice. No significant differences in the portal blood and liver concentrations of AFB1 were observed between grapefruit juice intake rats and the controls. In an Ames assay with AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, lower numbers of revertant colonies were detected with hepatic microsomes prepared from rats administered grapefruit juice, compared with those from control rats. Microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was also lower with rats given grapefruit juice than with control rats. Immunoblot analyses showed a significant decrease in hepatic CYP3A content, but not CYP1A and CYP2C content, in microsomes of grapefruit juice-treated rats than in non-treated rats. No significant difference in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione content was observed in the two groups. GSTA5 protein was not detected in hepatic cytosol of the two groups. In microsomal systems, grapefruit juice extract inhibited AFB1-induced mutagenesis in the presence of a microsomal activation system from livers of humans as well as rats. These results suggest that grapefruit juice intake suppresses AFB1-induced liver DNA damage through inactivation of the metabolic activation potency for AFB1 in rat liver.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic properties of grapefruit (Citrus paradisii and shaddock (Citrus maxima juices and inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapefruit (Citrus paradisii and shaddock (Citrus maxima juices are used in folk medicine for the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism of action by which they exert their therapeutic action is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grapefruit and shaddock juices on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE activity in vitro and the hypocholesterolemic properties of the juices in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Grapefruit juice had higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than shaddock juice, while both juices inhibited ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of the juices to rats fed a high-cholesterol diet caused a significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels and an increase in high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol levels. The inhibition of ACE activity in vitro and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect of the juices could explain the use of the juices in the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory evaluation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi juice and seed extract on bacteria isolated from urine and catheter

    Michael Oluwole Osungunna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The in vivo use of grapefruit seed in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs has been reported but the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Aims: Evaluate the anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory activities of grapefruit seed extract and juice as their possible mechanisms of action. Methods: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/mL as well as 10.3 and 5.15 mg/mL of grapefruit seed extract and juice respectively were evaluated for modulatory activity of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid against one hundred and twenty seven bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine (MSU (100, catheter-stream urine (CSU (14 and catheter tips (CT (13 using the agar dilution method. Anti-adhesion activity of grapefruit seed extract and juice at sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 1.03 mg/mL respectively was evaluated against twenty three (23 moderately adherent bacterial isolates from MSU (10, CSU (7 and CT (6 using the tissue culture plate method. Results: The results revealed that grapefruit juice (5.15 mg/mL showed more effect on nalidixic acid activity than seed extract (2.5 mg/mL. Grapefruit juice showed more anti-adhesion activity than grapefruit seed extract at the concentration tested. Conclusions: The study concluded that grapefruit seed extract and juice had anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory effects on bacteria associated with UTIs.

  19. In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?

    Brill, Shlomo; Zimmermann, Christian; Berger, Karin; Drewe, Juergen; Gutmann, Heike

    2009-03-01

    Interactions of acutely administered grapefruit juice (GFJ) with cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function are well established. In this study, we investigated in vitro the effect of repeated administration of GFJ and its major constituents (the flavonoid naringin, its aglycone naringenin and the furanocoumarin bergamottin) on mRNA expression of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in LS180 cells. Since the bergamottin content is higher in the peel than in the fruit, we compared GFJ containing peel (GFJP+) with juice without any peel extract (GFJP-). GFJP- (1%) showed no significant effect on MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression, whereas 1% GFJP+ increased expression of MDR1 3.7-fold (Pextract may have a lower potential for interactions with CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein.

  20. Characterization of the most odor-active volatiles in fresh, hand-squeezed juice of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden).

    Buettner, A; Schieberle, P

    1999-12-01

    By application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract prepared from fresh grapefruit juice, 37 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-256 and subsequently identified. Among them the highest odor activities (FD factors) were determined for ethyl butanoate, p-1-menthene-8-thiol, (Z)-3-hexenal, 4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentane-2-one, 1-heptene-3-one, and wine lactone. Besides the 5 last mentioned compounds, a total of 13 further odorants were identified for the first time as flavor constituents of grapefruit. The data confirmed results of the literature on the significant contribution of 1-p-menthene-8-thiol in grapefruit aroma but clearly showed that a certain number of further odorants are necessary to elicit the typical grapefruit flavor.

  1. Further characterization of a furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice on drug disposition: studies with cyclosporine.

    Paine, Mary F; Widmer, Wilbur W; Pusek, Susan N; Beavers, Kimberly L; Criss, Anne B; Snyder, Jennifer; Watkins, Paul B

    2008-04-01

    We previously established furanocoumarins as mediators of the interaction between grapefruit juice (GFJ) and the model CYP3A4 substrate felodipine in healthy volunteers using a GFJ devoid of furanocoumarins. It remains unclear whether furanocoumarins mediate drug-GFJ interactions involving CYP3A4 substrates that are also P-glycoprotein substrates. The effects of furanocoumarin-free GFJ on drug disposition were further characterized by using the dual CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporine. By randomized crossover design, 18 healthy volunteers received cyclosporine (5 mg/kg) with 240 mL orange juice (control), GFJ, or furanocoumarin-free GFJ. Blood was collected over 24 h. Juice treatments were separated by > or = 1 wk. The effects of diluted extracts of each juice and of purified furanocoumarins on [3H]cyclosporine translocation in Caco-2 cells were then compared. The median (range) dose-corrected cyclosporine area under the curve and the maximum concentration with GFJ (P or = 0.50), were significantly higher than those with orange juice [15.6 (6.7-33.5) compared with 11.3 (4.8-22.0) x 10(-3) h/L and 3.0 (1.6-5.8) compared with 2.4 (1.1-3.1) mL(-1), respectively]. The median time to reach maximum concentration and terminal elimination half-life were not significantly different between the juices (2-3 and 7-8 h, respectively; P > or = 0.08). Relative to vehicle, the GFJ extract, orange juice extract, and purified furanocoumarins partially increased apical-to-basolateral and decreased basolateral-to-apical [3H]cyclosporine translocation in Caco-2 cells, whereas the furanocoumarin-free GFJ extract had negligible effects. Reanalysis of the clinical juices identified polymethoxyflavones as candidate P-glycoprotein inhibitors in orange juice but not in GFJ. Furanocoumarins mediate, at least partially, the cyclosporine-GFJ interaction in vivo. A plausible mechanism involves the combined inhibition of enteric CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

  2. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  3. Anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory evaluation of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice and seed extract on bacteria isolated from urine and catheter

    Michael Oluwole Osungunna; Grace O. Onawunmi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The in vivo use of grapefruit seed in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) has been reported but the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Aims: Evaluate the anti-adhesion and antibiotic modulatory activities of grapefruit seed extract and juice as their possible mechanisms of action. Methods: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mg/mL as well as 10.3 and 5.15 mg/mL of grapefruit seed extract and juice respectively were evaluated for modulatory activit...

  4. Effect of diclofenac, disulfiram, itraconazole, grapefruit juice and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of quinidine

    Damkier, Per; Hansen, Lone L; Brøsen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Aims In vitro studies suggest that the oxidation of quinidine to 3-hydroxyquinidine is a specific marker reaction for CYP3A4 activity. To assess the possible use of this reaction as an in vivo marker of CYP3A4 activity, we studied the involvement of cytochromes CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in the in vivo oxidative metabolism of quinidine. Methods An open study of 30 healthy young male volunteers was performed. The pharmacokinetics of a 200 mg single oral dose of quinidine was studied before and during daily administration of 100 mg diclofenac, a CYP2C9 substrate (n=6); 200 mg disulfiram, an inhibitor of CYP2E1 (n=6); 100 mg itraconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (n=6); 250 ml single strength grapefruit juice twice daily, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (n=6); 250 mg of erythromycin 4 times daily, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (n=6). Probes of other enzyme activities, caffeine (CYP1A2), sparteine (CYP2D6), mephenytoin (CYP2C19), tolbutamide (CYP2C9) and cortisol (CYP3A4) were also studied. Results Concomitant administration of diclofenac reduced the partial clearance of quinidine by N-oxidation by 27%, while no effect was found for other pharmacokinetic parameters of quinidine. Concomitant administration of disulfiram did not alter any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of quinidine. Concomitant administration of itraconazole reduced quinidine total clearance, partial clearance by 3-hydroxylation and partial clearance by N-oxidation by 61, 84 and 73%, respectively. The renal clerance was reduced by 60% and the elimination half-life increased by 35%. Concomitant administration of grapefruit juice reduced the total clearance of quinidine and its partial clearance by 3-hydroxylation and N-oxidation by 15, 19 and 27%, respectively. The elimination half-life of quinidine was increased by 19%. The caffeine metabolic index was reduced by 25%. Concomitant administration of erythromycin reduced the total clearance of quinidine and its partial clearance by 3-hydroxylation and N-oxidation by 34, 50

  5. Inhibition selectivity of grapefruit juice components on human cytochromes P450.

    Tassaneeyakul, W; Guo, L Q; Fukuda, K; Ohta, T; Yamazoe, Y

    2000-06-15

    Five compounds including furanocoumarin monomers (bergamottin, 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB)), furanocoumarin dimers (4-¿¿6-hydroxy-71-¿(1-hydroxy-1-methyl)ethyl-4-methyl-6-(7-oxo-7H- furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenyl]oxy]-3,7-dimethyl- 2-octenyl]oxy]-7H-furo[3,2-g]¿1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-1) and 4-¿¿6-hydroxy-7¿¿4-methyl-1-(1-methylethenyl)-6-(7-oxo-7H-furo¿3, 2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenylŏxy-3, 7-dimethyl-2-octenylŏxy-7H-furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-4)), and a sesquiterpene nootkatone have been isolated from grapefruit juice and screened for their inhibitory effects toward human cytochrome P450 (P450) forms using selective substrate probes. Addition of ethyl acetate extract of grapefruit juice into an incubation mixture resulted in decreased activities of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6. All four furanocoumarins clearly inhibited CYP3A4-catalyzed nifedipine oxidation in concentration- and time-dependent manners, suggesting that these compounds are mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4. Of the furanocoumarins investigated, furanocoumarin dimers, GF-I-1 and GF-I-4, were the most potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal rate of inactivation (K(I)) values for bergamottin, DHB, GF-I-1, and GF-I-4 were calculated, respectively, as 40.00, 5. 56, 0.31, and 0.13 microM, whereas similar values were observed on their inactivation rate constant at infinite concentration of inhibitor (k(inact), 0.05-0.08 min(-1)). Apparent selectivity toward CYP3A4 does occur with the furanocoumarin dimers. In contrast, bergamottin showed rather stronger inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 than on CYP3A4. DHB inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activities at nearly equivalent potencies. Among P450 forms investigated, CYP2E1 was the least sensitive to the inhibitory effect of furanocoumarin components. A sesquiterpene nootkatone has no significant effect on P450 activities investigated except for CYP2A6 and CYP2C19

  6. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  7. Furocoumarins from grapefruit juice and their effect on human CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1 isoenzymes.

    Girennavar, Basavaraj; Poulose, Shibu M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Bhat, Narayan G; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2006-04-15

    Bioactive compounds present in grapefruit juice are known to increase the bioavailability of certain medications by acting as potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors. An efficient technique has been developed for isolation and purification of three furocoumarins. The isolated compounds have been tested for the inhibition of human CYP 1B1 isoform using specific substrates. Grapefruit juice was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the dried extract was loaded onto silica gel column chromatography. Further, column fractions were subjected to preparative HPLC to obtain three compounds. The purity of these compounds was analyzed by HPLC and structures were determined by NMR studies. The identified compounds, bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), and paradisin-A, were tested for their inhibitory effects on hydroxylase and O-dealkylase activities of human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP 3A4 and CYP 1B1. Paradisin-A was found to be a potent CYP 3A4 inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.2 microM followed by DHB and bergamottin. All three compounds showed a substantial inhibitory effect on CYP 3A4 below 10 microM. Inhibitory effects on CYP 1B1 exhibited a greater variation due to the specificity of substrates. Paradisin A showed an IC50 of 3.56+/-0.12 microM for the ethoxy resorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity and 33.56+/-0.72 microM for the benzyloxy resorufin (BROD). DHB and bergamottin showed considerable variations for EROD and BROD activities with an IC50 of 7.17 microM and 13.86 microM, respectively.

  8. Effect of grapefruit juice and food on the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone in healthy Chinese volunteers: a diet-drug interaction study.

    Hu, Jinqing; Shang, Dewei; Xu, Xinwen; He, Xiuling; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhanzhang; Qiu, Chang; Deng, Shuhua; Lu, Haoyang; Zhu, Xiuqing; Huang, Wencan; Wen, Yuguan

    2016-01-01

    1. Ingestion of grapefruit juice and food could be factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone, a promising drug for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 2. A randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy Chinese male volunteers who were randomized to one of the three treatments: pirfenidone tablets (0.4 g) were orally administered to fasted or fed subjects, or with grapefruit juice. The washout period was 7 d. 3. Significantly reduced maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, 5.0 5 ± 1.39 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)), modestly affected area-under-the-plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 12 h post dosing (AUC0-12 h, 21.8 9 ± 6.47 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) and delayed time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were observed in fed group compared with fasted group. Similar effects on Cmax (5.8 2 ± 1.23 versus 10.9 0 ± 2.94 mg·L(- 1)) and AUC0-12 h (modest but not statistically significant, 24.4 4 ± 7.40 versus 26.1 6 ± 7.32 mg·h·L(- 1)) were observed for grapefruit juice compared to fasted subjects. 4. Co-administration of pirfenidone with grapefruit juice resulted in modestly reduced overall oral absorption and significantly reduced peak concentrations compared to fasting, which was similar to effect of food ingestion. No adverse events were observed in the study, but relatively dramatic reduction of peak concentrations should raise concerns for clinical efficacy and safety.

  9. Grapefruit juice and its constituents augment colchicine intestinal absorption: potential hazardous interaction and the role of p-glycoprotein.

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the potential interaction between grapefruit juice (GFJ) and the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine, a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate. Colchicine intestinal epithelial transport was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers in both AP-BL and BL-AP directions, in the absence/presence of known P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and quinidine). The concentration-dependent effects of GFJ and its major constituents (6'-7'-dihydroxybergamottin, naringin and naringenin) on colchicine Caco-2 mucosal secretion were examined. The effect of GFJ on colchicine intestinal-permeability was then investigated in-situ in the rat perfusion model, in both jejunum and ileum. Colchicine exhibited 20-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion, which was reduced by verapamil/quinidine. Colchicine AP-BL permeability was increased and BL-AP was decreased by GFJ in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) values of 0.75% and 0.46% respectively), suggesting inhibition of efflux transport, rather than metabolizing enzyme. Similar effects obtained following pre-experiment incubation with GFJ, even though the juice was not present throughout the transepithelial study. 6'-7'-Dihydroxybergamottin, naringin and naringenin displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on colchicine BL-AP secretion (IC(50) values of 90, 592 and 11.6 microM respectively). Ten percent GFJ doubled colchicine rat in-situ ileal permeability, and increased 1.5-fold jejunal permeability. The data suggest that GFJ may augment colchicine oral bioavailability. Due to colchicine narrow therapeutic-index and severely toxic side-effects, awareness of this interaction is prudent.

  10. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet.

  11. Co-treatment with grapefruit juice inhibits while chronic administration activates intestinal P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux.

    Panchagnula, R; Bansal, T; Varma, M V S; Kaul, C L

    2005-12-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux is recognized as a significant biochemical barrier affecting oral absorption for a number of drugs. Various conflicting reports have been published regarding the effects of grapefruit juice (GFJ) on P-gp-mediated drug efflux, in which GFJ has been shown both to inhibit and activate it. Hence, the present study adopted a two-way approach, involving both co-treatment and chronic administration. Bi-directional transport of paclitaxel (PCL) was carried out in the absence and presence of GFJ extract, in rat everted ileum sac. Further, the effect of chronic administration of GFJ to rats was characterized by permeability studies with indinavir (INDI). Co-treatment of GFJ extract at 100% concentration reduced the asymmetric transport of PCL (efflux ratio = 20.8) by increasing absorptive (A --> B) transport by 921% and reducing secretory (B --> A) transport by 41%. Further, GFJ showed a concentration dependent effect on PCL permeability. Imipramine, a passive permeability marker with absorptive permeability of 15.33 +/- 4.26 x 10(-6) cm/s showed no asymmetric transport and also no significant (P extract inhibited P-gp-mediated efflux in co-treatment, whereas chronic administration led to increased levels of P-gp expression, thus having a profound effect on intestinal absorption and GFJ-drug interactions in vivo.

  12. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa)

    Jana Šic Žlabur; Nadica Dobričević; Stjepan Pliestić; Ante Galić; Daniela Patricia Bilić; Sandra Voća

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant...

  13. Stable isotope-labelled intravenous microdose for absolute bioavailability and effect of grapefruit juice on ibrutinib in healthy adults.

    de Vries, Ronald; Smit, Johan W; Hellemans, Peter; Jiao, James; Murphy, Joseph; Skee, Donna; Snoeys, Jan; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Vliegen, Maarten; de Zwart, Loeckie; Mannaert, Erik; de Jong, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Ibrutinib, an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, is used in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ibrutinib undergoes extensive rapid oxidative metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 3A both at the level of first pass and clearance, which might result in low oral bioavailability. The present study was designed to investigate the absolute bioavailability (F) of ibrutinib in the fasting and fed state and assess the effect of grapefruit juice (GFJ) on the systemic exposure of ibrutinib in order to determine the fraction escaping the gut (Fg ) and the fraction escaping hepatic extraction (Fh ) in the fed state. All participants received treatment A [560 mg oral ibrutinib, under fasting conditions], B (560 mg PO ibrutinib, fed, administered after drinking glucose drink) and C (140 mg oral ibrutinib, fed, with intake of GFJ before dosing). A single intravenous (i.v.) dose of 100 μg (13) C6 -ibrutinib was administered 2 h after each oral dose. The estimated 'F' for treatments A, B and C was 3.9%, 8.4% and 15.9%, respectively. Fg and Fh in the fed state were 47.0% and 15.9%, respectively. Adverse events were mild to moderate in severity (Grade 1-2) and resolved without sequelae by the end of the study. The absolute oral bioavailability of ibrutinib was low, ranging from 3.9% in the fasting state to 8.4% when administered 30 min before a standard breakfast without GFJ and 15.9% with GFJ. Ibrutinib was well tolerated following a single oral and i.v. dose, under both fasted and fed conditions and regardless of GFJ intake status. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Stable isotope‐labelled intravenous microdose for absolute bioavailability and effect of grapefruit juice on ibrutinib in healthy adults

    Smit, Johan W.; Hellemans, Peter; Jiao, James; Murphy, Joseph; Skee, Donna; Snoeys, Jan; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Vliegen, Maarten; de Zwart, Loeckie; Mannaert, Erik; de Jong, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aims Ibrutinib, an inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, is used in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ibrutinib undergoes extensive rapid oxidative metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 3A both at the level of first pass and clearance, which might result in low oral bioavailability. The present study was designed to investigate the absolute bioavailability (F) of ibrutinib in the fasting and fed state and assess the effect of grapefruit juice (GFJ) on the systemic exposure of ibrutinib in order to determine the fraction escaping the gut (Fg) and the fraction escaping hepatic extraction (Fh) in the fed state. Methods All participants received treatment A [560 mg oral ibrutinib, under fasting conditions], B (560 mg PO ibrutinib, fed, administered after drinking glucose drink) and C (140 mg oral ibrutinib, fed, with intake of GFJ before dosing). A single intravenous (i.v.) dose of 100 μg 13C6‐ibrutinib was administered 2 h after each oral dose. Results The estimated ‘F’ for treatments A, B and C was 3.9%, 8.4% and 15.9%, respectively. Fg and Fh in the fed state were 47.0% and 15.9%, respectively. Adverse events were mild to moderate in severity (Grade 1–2) and resolved without sequelae by the end of the study. Conclusion The absolute oral bioavailability of ibrutinib was low, ranging from 3.9% in the fasting state to 8.4% when administered 30 min before a standard breakfast without GFJ and 15.9% with GFJ. Ibrutinib was well tolerated following a single oral and i.v. dose, under both fasted and fed conditions and regardless of GFJ intake status. PMID:26382728

  15. A combination of grapefruit seed extract and concentrated cranberry juice as a potential antimicrobial preservative for the improvement of microbiological stability of hypromellose gel.

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Keraitė, Rasa; Masteiková, Ruta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Savickas, Arūnas

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous hypromellose gels are not microbiologically stable - they show signs of microorganism growth during storage. To extend the shelf-life of the gels, antimicrobial preservatives are needed. Some substances of plant origin are known for their antimicrobial properties, and thus they may be used as an alternative to synthetic preservatives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological stability of aqueous hypromellose gel and the effectiveness of natural substances - grapefruit seed extract (GSE), concentrated cranberry juice, and a combination thereof - on the antimicrobial protection of the gel. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of GSE and cranberry juice showed that their antimicrobial effects differed. Both cranberry juice and GSE inhibited the growth of the standard gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the effect of GSE was significantly stronger. Candida albicans was sensitive only to GSE. For this reason, in order to affect all the microorganisms studied, either a combination of 0.7% GSE and 10% cranberry juice, or 5% GSE alone may be used. The combination of GSE and cranberry juice was effective only in acidic medium (pH being 2.5-5), while the antimicrobial effect of GSE was not dependent on the pH value.

  16. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa

    Jana Šic Žlabur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  17. Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa).

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Bilić, Daniela Patricia; Voća, Sandra

    2017-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound.

  18. Stability of cashew apple juice in powder dehydrated in spouted bed

    Sanyelle L. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the stability of cashew apple juice in powder, dehydrated in spouted bed and stored in two vacuum-sealed packages (laminated and plastic for a period of 60 days. The parameters evaluated in this study were ascorbic acid, carotenoids, moisture, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility and rehydration. Decreases in the contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids were observed after 60 days. Moisture content remained practically unchanged during storage, and water activity showed a rising trend in the plastic package. In both packages, the powder showed low hygroscopicity and high caking formation. The solubility in both packages was higher than 90% and the time of rehydration of cashew apple juice in powder in the plastic package increased during storage. Cashew apple juice in powder stored in laminated package preserved better its physical and physico-chemical properties.

  19. Microdosing clinical study: pharmacokinetic, pharmacogenomic (SLCO2B1), and interaction (grapefruit juice) profiles of celiprolol following the oral microdose and therapeutic dose.

    Ieiri, Ichiro; Doi, Yohei; Maeda, Kazuya; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Kimura, Miyuki; Hirota, Takeshi; Chiyoda, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Mayuko; Irie, Shin; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    The authors evaluated the contribution of the SLCO2B1 polymorphism to the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol at a microdose (MD) and therapeutic dose (TD) and compared pharmacokinetic proportionality between the 2 dose forms in 30 SLCO2B1 genotype-matched healthy volunteers. Three drugs (celiprolol, fexofenadine, and atenolol) were orally administered as a cassette dosing following the MD (totally 97.5 µg) and then a TD (100 mg) of celiprolol, with and without grapefruit juice. The mean AUC(0-24) of celiprolol was lower in SLCO2B1*3/*3 individuals (775 ng·h/mL) than in *1/*3 (1097 ng·h/mL) and *1/*1 (1547 ng·h/mL) individuals following the TD, and this was confirmed in population pharmacokinetic analysis with statistical significances; however, SLCO2B1 genotype-dependent differences disappeared following the MD. Dose-normalized AUC of celiprolol at the MD was much lower than that at the TD, explained by the saturation of the efflux transporter. Thus, the effect of SLCO2B1 polymorphism on the AUC of celiprolol clearly observed only at the TD may be due to the saturation of the efflux transport systems.

  20. Is the clinical relevance of drug-food and drug-herb interactions limited to grapefruit juice and Saint-John's Wort?

    Mouly, Stéphane; Lloret-Linares, Célia; Sellier, Pierre-Olivier; Sene, Damien; Bergmann, J-F

    2017-04-01

    An interaction of drug with food, herbs, and dietary supplements is usually the consequence of a physical, chemical or physiologic relationship between a drug and a product consumed as food, nutritional supplement or over-the-counter medicinal plant. The current educational review aims at reminding to the prescribing physicians that the most clinically relevant drug-food interactions may not be strictly limited to those with grapefruit juice and with the Saint John's Wort herbal extract and may be responsible for changes in drug plasma concentrations, which in turn decrease efficacy or led to sometimes life-threatening toxicity. Common situations handled in clinical practice such as aging, concomitant medications, transplant recipients, patients with cancer, malnutrition, HIV infection and those receiving enteral or parenteral feeding may be at increased risk of drug-food or drug-herb interactions. Medications with narrow therapeutic index or potential life-threatening toxicity, e.g., the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesics, cardiovascular medications, warfarin, anticancer drugs and immunosuppressants may be at risk of significant drug-food interactions to occur. Despite the fact that considerable effort has been achieved to increase patient' and doctor's information and ability to anticipate their occurrence and consequences in clinical practice, a thorough and detailed health history and dietary recall are essential for identifying potential problems in order to optimize patient prescriptions and drug dosing on an individual basis as well as to increase the treatment risk/benefit ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations.

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2017-01-17

    Among popular crops, plum ( Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Anna Michalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L. has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor” juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  3. Predictive performance of three practical approaches for grapefruit juice-induced 2-fold or greater increases in AUC of concomitantly administered drugs.

    Takahashi, M; Onozawa, S; Ogawa, R; Uesawa, Y; Echizen, H

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacists have a challenging task when answering patients' question about whether they can take specific drugs with grapefruit juice (GFJ) without risk of drug interaction. To identify the most practicable method for predicting clinically relevant changes in plasma concentrations of orally administered drugs caused by the ingestion of GFJ, we compared the predictive performance of three methods using data obtained from the literature. We undertook a systematic search of drug interactions associated with GFJ using MEDLINE and the Metabolism & Transport Drug Interaction Database (DIDB version 4.0). We considered an elevation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of 2 or greater relative to the control value [AUC ratio (AUCR) ≥ 2.0] as a clinically significant interaction. The data from 74 drugs (194 data sets) were analysed. When the reported information of CYP3A involvement in the metabolism of a drug of interest was adopted as a predictive criterion for GFJ-drug interaction, the performance assessed by positive predictive value (PPV) was low (0.26), but that assessed by negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity was high (1.00 for both). When the reported oral bioavailability of ≤ 0.1 was used as a criterion, the PPV improved to 0.50 with an acceptable NPV of 0.81, but sensitivity was reduced to 0.21. When the reported AUCR was ≥ 10 after co-administration of a typical CYP3A inhibitor, the corresponding values were 0.64, 0.79 and 0.19, respectively. We consider that an oral bioavailability of ≤ 0.1 or an AUCR of ≥ 10 caused by a CYP3A inhibitor of a drug of interest may be a practical prediction criterion for avoiding significant interactions with GFJ. Information about the involvement of CYP3A in their metabolism should also be taken into account for drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Production of grape juice powder obtained by freeze-drying after concentration by reverse osmosis

    Poliana Deyse Gurak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the freeze-drying process for obtaining grape juice powder by reverse osmosis using 50% grape juice pre-concentrated (28.5 °Brix and 50% hydrocolloids (37.5% maltodextrin and 12.5% arabic gum. The morphology of the glassy food showed the absence of crystalline structure, which was the amorphous wall that protected the contents of the powder. The samples were stored in clear and dark containers at room temperature, evaluated for their physical (X-ray diffraction for 65 days and chemical (polyphenol content stability for 120 days. During the storage time in plastic vessels, samples remained physically stable (amorphous and the phenolic concentration was constant, indicating the potentiality of this technique to obtain a stable product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the freeze-drying process promoted the encapsulation of concentrated grape juice increasing its stability and shelf life, as well as proving to be an applicable process to food industry

  5. Decolorization of turbid sugar juice from sugar factory using waste powdered carbon

    Aljohani, Hind; Ahmed, Youssef; El-Shafey, Ola; El-Shafey, Shaymaa; Fouad, Rasha; Shoueir, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Waste management of powdered activated carbon from cyclone of some sugar factories was used for decolorization of sugar mud juice (SMJ) in this study. The presence of powdered activated carbon waste (PACW) was admitted again for their use in SMJ decolorization. The determined specific surface area are typically S BET = 613.887 m2/g and the pore distribution lies in mesoporous domain. Color removal (CR%) and decolorization capacity (DC) of the characterized PACW are similar to those of decolorants used at this time for sugar refining. The CR% with PACW reached 81.03% at pH7.0 and dosed in the amount 0.5 g/50 ml of SMJ. There are two acceptable mechanisms illustrates the attachments between phenols and carboxylate ions. In this paper, we put a simple and rapid dark liquid decolorization by controlling rejected carbon waste, which will be useful for treatment of dark liquid sugar.

  6. Grapefruit Pamplemousse

    Catharine Savage Brosman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tossing a grapefruit in the air to catch it, as I skippast squash and eggplants to my shopping cart,I can imagine juggling two or three—just possible, perhaps—or five or six: why not,since it’s a fantasy? Or holding like a godone golden planet, as I swing, beneath a tentof stars, from a trapeze, then pitch the orb,a flaming meteorite, in softball fashionto another acrobat below. Or even, most amazing,tightrope-walking, with a grapefruitin each hand as balance, and the crowd in silence,breathl...

  7. Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients.

    Bailey, D G; Dresser, G K; Kreeft, J H; Munoz, C; Freeman, D J; Bend, J R

    2000-11-01

    To determine whether unprocessed grapefruit can cause a drug interaction, whether the active ingredients are naturally occurring, and whether specific furanocoumarins or flavonoids are involved. The oral pharmacokinetics of felodipine and its dehydrofelodipine metabolite were determined after administration of felodipine 10 mg extended-release tablet with 250 mL commercial grapefruit juice, homogenized grapefruit segments, or extract of segment-free parts equivalent to one unprocessed fruit or water in a randomized four-way crossover study. Inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 by furanocoumarins (bergamottin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin) and flavonoids (naringenin optical isomers) was determined. Furanocoumarin and naringenin precursor (naringin) concentrations were measured in each grapefruit treatment. Felodipine AUC with commercial grapefruit juice, grapefruit segments, or grapefruit extract was on average 3-fold higher than that with water. Felodipine peak concentration was higher, but the half-life was unchanged. The dehydrofelodipine/felodipine AUC ratio was reduced. The furanocoumarins produced mechanism-based and competitive inhibition of CYP3A4. Bergamottin was the most potent mechanism-based inhibitor. Naringenin isomers produced only competitive inhibition. Bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and naringin concentrations varied among grapefruit treatments but were sufficient to inhibit markedly in vitro CYP3A4 activity. Unprocessed grapefruit can cause a drug interaction with felodipine. The active ingredients are naturally occurring in the grapefruit. Bergamottin is likely important in drug interactions with commercial grapefruit juice. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin and naringin may be more important in grapefruit segments because they are present in higher concentrations. Any therapeutic concern for a drug interaction with commercial grapefruit juice should now be extended to include whole fruit and possibly confectioneries made

  8. Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad) phytochemicals composition is modulated by household processing techniques.

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Balasubramaniam, V M; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-09-01

    Grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macfad) contain several phytochemicals known to have health maintaining properties. Due to the consumer's interest in obtaining high levels of these phytochemicals, it is important to understand the changes in their levels by common household processing techniques. Therefore, mature Texas "Rio Red" grapefruits were processed by some of the common household processing practices such as blending, juicing, and hand squeezing techniques and analyzed for their phytochemical content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results suggest that grapefruit juice processed by blending had significantly (P levels of flavonoids (narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, didymin, and poncirin) and limonin compared to juicing and hand squeezing. No significant variation in their content was noticed in the juice processed by juicing and hand squeezing. Ascorbic acid and citric acid were significantly (P processed by juicing and blending, respectively. Furthermore, hand squeezed fruit juice had significantly higher contents of dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) than juice processed by juicing and blending. Bergamottin and 5-methoxy-7 gernoxycoumarin (5-M-7-GC) were significantly higher in blended juice compared to juicing and hand squeezing. Therefore, consuming grapefruit juice processed by blending may provide higher levels of health beneficial phytochemicals such as naringin, narirutin, and poncirin. In contrast, juice processed by hand squeezing and juicing provides lower levels of limonin, bergamottin, and 5-M-7-GC. These results suggest that, processing techniques significantly influence the levels of phytochemicals and blending is a better technique for obtaining higher levels of health beneficial phytochemicals from grapefruits. Practical Application:  Blending, squeezing, and juicing are common household processing techniques used for obtaining fresh grapefruit juice. Understanding the levels of health beneficial phytochemicals

  9. Hidden sources of grapefruit in beverages: potential interactions with immunosuppressant medications.

    Auten, Ashley A; Beauchamp, Lauren N; Joshua Taylor; Hardinger, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    The interaction between grapefruit-containing beverages and immunosuppressants is not well defined in the literature. This study was conducted to investigate possible sources of grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract in common US-manufactured beverages. The goal was to identify those products that might serve as hidden sources of dietary grapefruit intake, increasing a transplant patient's risk for drug interactions. A careful review of the ingredients of the 3 largest US beverage manufacturer's product lines was conducted through manufacturer correspondence, product labeling examination, and online nutrition database research. Focus was placed on citrus-flavored soft drinks, teas, and juice products and their impact on a patient's immunosuppressant regimens. Twenty-three beverages were identified that contained grapefruit. Five did not contain the word "grapefruit" in the product name. In addition to the confirmed grapefruit-containing products, 17 products were identified as possibly containing grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract. A greater emphasis should be placed upon properly educating patients regarding hidden sources of grapefruit in popular US beverages and the potential for food-drug interactions.

  10. Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel.

    Wangensteen, H; Molden, E; Christensen, H; Malterud, K E

    2003-02-01

    The oral availability of many drugs metabolised by the enzyme cytochrome P(450) 3A4 (CYP3A4) is increased if co-administered with grapefruit juice. Extracts from grapefruit peel have also demonstrated inhibitory activity and, during commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, inhibitory components might be squeezed into the juice from the peel. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to identify CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel. Grapefruit peel was extracted with diethyl ether, and the extract was further fractionated by normal-phase chromatography. Fractions demonstrating significant CYP3A4 inhibitory activity, as measured by the relative reduction in N-demethylation of diltiazem in transfected human liver epithelial cells, were subsequently separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Constituents of the fractions and isolated compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of diltiazem and N-demethyl-diltiazem was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the identified components in grapefruit peel, only epoxybergamottin demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of diltiazem. The IC(50) value was calculated to be 4.2+/-1.1 micro M. Coumarins without the furan ring and flavonoids isolated from grapefruit peel did not interfere with the metabolism of diltiazem. The results indicated the presence of other CYP3A4 inhibitors in grapefruit peel, but these agents were lost during the purification process excluding their identification. The furanocoumarin epoxybergamottin, present in grapefruit peel, is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. In commercial manufacturing of grapefruit juice, epoxybergamottin is possibly distributed into the juice. During manufacturing, however, epoxybergamottin may be hydrolysed to 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, which has been suggested as an important CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit juice.

  11. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  12. Irradiation and fumigation effects on flavor, aroma and composition of grapefruit products

    Moshonas, M.G.; Shaw, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Effects were evaluated on grapefruit treated to meet quarantine restrictions against Caribbean fruit fly infestation. Differences were found in flavor of fresh sections, fresh juice, and aroma of peel oil when obtained from fruit irradiated with x-rays, as compared with products from nonirradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in all pasteurized juices from fruit irradiated at 5-60 krad. Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in juice from most irradiated fruit. Flavor differences were found in fresh and pasteurized juice from fruit treated with methyl bromide, and in pasteurized juice from fruit treated with ethylene dibromide. Aroma differences were found in peel oil from fruit treated with phosphine. (author)

  13. [Freeze drying process optimization of ginger juice-adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing and stability of freeze-dried ginger juice powder].

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Guo, Feng-Qian; Zang, Chen; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Bao-Xian

    2018-02-01

    Ginger juice, a commonly used adjuvant for Chinese materia medica, is applied in processing of multiple Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Because of the raw materials and preparation process of ginger juice, it is difficult to be preserved for a long time, and the dosage of ginger juice in the processing can not be determined base on its content of main compositions. Ginger juice from different sources is hard to achieve consistent effect during the processing of traditional Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Based on the previous studies, the freeze drying of ginger juice under different shelf temperatures and vacuum degrees were studied, and the optimized freeze drying condition of ginger juice was determined. The content determination method for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shagaol in ginger juice and redissolved ginger juice was established. The content changes of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-gingerol, 6-shagaol, volatile oil and total phenol were studied through the drying process and 30 days preservation period. The results showed that the freeze drying time of ginger juice was shortened after process optimization; the compositions basically remained unchanged after freeze drying, and there was no significant changes in the total phenol content and gingerol content, but the volatile oil content was significantly decreased( P <0.05). Within 30 days, the contents of gingerol, total phenol, and volatile oil were on the decline as a whole. This study has preliminarily proved the feasibility of freeze-drying process of ginger juice as an adjuvant for Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Influence of pre- and post-harvest factors and processing on the levels of furocoumarins in grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macfed.).

    Girennavar, B; Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-11-15

    The changes in the levels of three furocoumarins such as dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), paradisin A and bergamottin in Rio Red and Marsh White cultivars of grapefruits were monitored from November to May. The levels of DHB and bergamottin in both varieties of grapefruits decreased as the season progressed except for the bergamottin in Marsh White grapefruit. Influence of growing location, processing and storage on the levels of these compounds were also evaluated. Among the varieties the highest levels of DHB (2.266μg/ml) and bergamottin (2.411μg/ml) were found in Flame grapefruit grown in Florida. The highest level of paradisin A was found in Rio Red grapefruit grown in California and the lowest levels were observed in Rio Red grapefruit grown organically in Texas. Hand squeezed juice contained 1.98, 1.06 and 3.03-fold more DHB, paradisin A and bergamottin, respectively as compared to processed juice. The levels of furocoumarins showed a decreasing trend in all the juices with progress of storage. Levels of furocoumarins were more in cartons container than the cans and cardboard container juices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Postharvest storage quality of grapefruit placed in polyethylene bags with or without micro-perforation

    Washed ‘Marsh’ white grapefruit were placed in polyethylene (PE) bags (1 mil) with or without micro-perforation holes (representing 0.002% of the bag surface) and evaluated for juice quality, firmness, and the development of decay and disorders during storage for 30, 60, or 90 days at 50oF. Each tre...

  16. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  17. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

    Mary M. Murphy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods: The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results: Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789, 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001 and magnesium (P<0.05 below the estimated average requirement (EAR compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05. Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]. Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (P<0.05, However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion: Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality

  18. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  19. Pomegranate juice does not affect the disposition of simvastatin in healthy subjects.

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shim, Eon-Jeong; Kim, Hyunmi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook; Shon, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo investigations reported controversial results for the inhibitory potential of pomegranate on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice on the disposition of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, and simvastatin acid, its active metabolite, compared with grapefruit juice in healthy subjects. A single oral pharmacokinetic study of 40 mg simvastatin was conducted as a three-way crossover (control, pomegranate, and grapefruit juices) in 12 healthy male subjects. The subjects took pomegranate or grapefruit juice three times per day for 3 days (900 mL/day) and on the third day, the pharmacokinetic study was executed. Blood samples were collected to 24 h post-dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were compared among the study periods. In the period of grapefruit juice, the mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin [the geometric mean ratio (90 % CI) 15.6 (11.6-21.0) and 9.1 (6.0-13.7)] were increased significantly when compared with the control period, whereas they were not significantly different in the period of pomegranate juice [C max and AUCinf 1.20 (0.89-1.62) and 1.29 (0.85-1.94)]. The mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin acid were increased significantly after intake of grapefruit juice, but not pomegranate juice. These results suggest that pomegranate juice affects little on the disposition of simvastatin in humans. Pomegranate juice does not seem to have a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 activity.

  20. EVALUACIÓN DEL USO DE ENZIMAS Y FILTRACIÓN POR GRAVEDAD PARA LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE UNA MEZCLA DILUIDA DE PULPA DE FRUTOS DE CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE, JUGOS DE NARANJA Y TORONJA EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ENZYMES AND GRAVITY FILTRATION FOR CLARIFICATION OF DILUTED MIXTURE OF CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE FRUITS PULP, ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT JUICES

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela los frutos de cactus (Opuntia boldinguii son de escasa utilidad comercial. Para su aprovechamiento se evaluó el efecto del uso combinado de enzimas fibrolíticas y filtración por gravedad en la clarificación de una mezcla diluida de pulpa de frutos de cactus, jugos de naranja y toronja. Se compararon los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado de las mezclas hidrolizada y sin hidrolizar mediante la prueba t de Welch. La concentración óptima de enzimas fue 0,76% (v/v. La hidrólisis enzimática previa a la pasteurización no afectó el color de la mezcla. Durante los ensayos de pasteurización (62 ± 1 ºC por 30 min hubo grandes cambios de coloración, solo en la mezcla hidrolizada, por degradación de las betalaínas y la adición de ácido ascórbico (0,5% p/v permitió preservar el color. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado (PIn Venezuela the fruits of cactus (Opuntia boldinguii are of scarce commercial usefulness. For its utilization the effect of combined use of fibrolytic enzymes and gravity filtration for clarification of diluted mixture of cactus fruits pulp, orange and grapefruit juices was evaluated. The values of filtered-flow curves of hydrolyzed and not hydrolyzed mixtures were compared by means of Welch’s t-test. The optimal enzymes concentration was 0.76% (v/v. The prior enzymatic hydrolysis to the pasteurization does not affect the color of the mixture. During the pasteurization assays (62 ± 1 ºC for 30 min there were large changes of coloring, only in the hydrolyzed mixture, by betalains degradation and the addition of ascorbic acid (0.5% w/v permitted to preserve the color. There were highly significant differences between the filtered-flow curves values (P<0.01. The filtered-flow of the hydrolyzed mixture elapsed 110 min (0.159 mL·min-1 was greater to the not hydrolyzed mixture (control flow to the 8 min (0.100 mL·min-1. The juice production

  1. Postharvest quality of GA-treated Florida grapefruit after gamma irradiation with TBZ and storage

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Macf.), harvested from gibberellic acid (GA) treated trees were irradiated at 0.3 or 0.6 kGy, and evaluated for quality after treatment and simulated commercial storage. The peel of GA-treated fruit retained green color and the fruit were firmer than control fruit after treatment. A condition, not observed before with grapefruit, was described and termed ‘spongy fruit’, which increased as irradiation dosage increased. The incidence of fruit peel pitting after five weeks' storage increased from < 2% to 11% and 25% as irradiation dose increased from 0 to 0.3 and 0.6 kGy. The majority of pitting at 0.3 kGy was slight and would not have an affect on U.S. #1 Grade for grapefruit. Incidence of decay (mostly green mold) was reduced with thiabendazole (TBZ), and mean decay among all treatments was < 1%. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity and the resulting ratio was not affected by GA or irradiation. There was a general decline in the sensory preference for juice flavor, and pulp flavor and texture as irradiation dose increased. We conclude that GA-treated grapefruit will tolerate irradiation dosage of 0.3 kGy without serious damage; however, at dosage of 0.6 kGy, serious peel damage detrimental to fruit quality will likely develop during storage. (author)

  2. Effects of vegetable juice powder concentration and storage time on some chemical and sensory quality attributes of uncured, emulsified cooked sausages.

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-06-01

    Uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products can be manufactured with vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus, resulting in quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The 1st objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of emulsified-frankfurter-style-cooked (EFSC) sausages over a 90-d storage period. The 2nd objective was to compare residual nitrate and nitrite content resulting from different processing treatments and the 3rd objective was to assess sensory properties of finished products. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation (TBARS) between any TRTs and C or over time were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) for CIE L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed that TRTs 2, 4, and C were redder than TRTs 1 and 3 at day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings for cured aroma, cured color, cured flavor, uniform color, and firmness determined that all but TRT 1 were similar to C. These results indicate a longer incubation time (120 compared with 30 min) was found more critical than VJP level (0.20% or 0.40%) to result in products comparable to a sodium nitrite-added control.

  3. Pasteurization of grapefruit juice using a centrifugal ultraviolet light irradiator

    The pharmaceutical industry uses UV irradiators to inactivate viruses in liquids without heat. The penetration depth of UV in some liquids, such as serum plasma, can be short. To overcome this, very thin films may be produced by centrifugal force, small diameter tubing, or other means. Many liquid f...

  4. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  5. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    Culea, M.

    2007-01-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices

  6. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of grapefruit flavanones in beagles

    Mata Bilbao, María de Lourdes; Andrés Lacueva, Ma. Cristina; Roura Carvajal, Elena; Jáuregui Pallarés, Olga; Escribano Ferrer, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela Raventós, Rosa Ma.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites n...

  7. Grapefruit and its biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive properties.

    Cristóbal-Luna, José Melesio; Álvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mcfad) is a perenifolium tree 5-6 m high with a fruit of about 15 cm in diameter, protected by the peel we can find about 11-14 segments (carpels), each of which is surrounded by a membrane and each containing the juice sacs, as well as the seeds. The fruit is made up of numerous compounds, and is known to have nutritive value because of the presence of various vitamins and minerals, among other chemicals. The fruit is also used in the field of gastronomy. Information has been accumulated regarding the participation of the fruit structures in a variety of biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive effects, surely related with the presence of the numerous chemicals that have been determined to constitute the fruit. Such studies have been carried out in different in vitro and in vivo experimental models, and in a few human assays. The information published so far has shown interesting results, therefore, the aims of the present review are to initially examine the main characteristics of the fruit, followed by systematization of the acquired knowledge concerning the biomedical, antigenotoxic and chemopreventive effects produced by the three main structures of the fruit: peel, seed, and pulp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. fruit juice

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  9. Physicochemical properties, nutritional value and techno-functional properties of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana) waste powder concise title: Composition of goldenberry juice waste.

    Mokhtar, Sayed M; Swailam, Hesham M; Embaby, Hassan El-Sayed

    2018-05-15

    Goldenberry waste powder, contained 5.87% moisture, 15.89% protein, 13.72% fat, 3.52% ash, 16.74% dietary fiber and 61% carbohydrates. Potassium (560 mg/100 g) was the predominant element followed by sodium (170 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (130 mg/100 g). Amino acid analysis gave high levels of cystine/methionine, histidine and tyrosine/phenylalanine. Goldenberry waste powder had good levels of the techno-functional properties including water absorption index, swelling index, foaming capacity and stability (3.38 g/g, 5.24 ml/g, 4.09 and 72.0%, respectively). Fatty acids profile showed that linoleic acid was the predominant fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Iodine value (109.5 g/100 g of oil), acid value (2.36 mg KOH/g of oil), saponification value (183.8 mg KOH/g of oil), peroxide value (8.2 meq/kg of oil) and refractive index (1.4735) were comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Goldenberry waste oil exhibited absorbance in the UV range at 100-400 nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of sulfur volatiles in canned orange juices lacking orange flavor.

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Smoot, John M; Rouseff, Russell

    2007-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to understand why some canned orange juices are not perceived as orange juice. Sensory flavor profile data indicated that the primary odor (orthonasal) attributes were tropical fruit/grapefruit, cooked/caramel, musty, and medicine. By comparison fresh-squeezed juice lacked these odor attributes. GC-O analysis found 43 odor-active components in canned juices. Eight of these aroma volatiles were sulfur based. Four of the 12 most intense aroma peaks were sulfur compounds that included methanethiol, 1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and dimethyl trisulfide. The other most intense odorants included 7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene (myrcene), octanal, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (homofuraneol), (E)-non-2-enal, (E,E)-deca-2,4-dienal, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), and alpha-sinensal. Odorants probably responsible for the undesirable sensory attributes included grapefruit (1-p-menth-1-ene-8-thiol), cooked [2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), and 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional)], musty [7-methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene and (E)-non-2-enal], and medicine (2-methoxyphenol). The canned juices also lacked several aldehydes and esters normally found in fresh orange juice.

  11. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  12. The growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in fruit juices and its survival following elevated temperature treatments.

    Walker, Michelle; Phillips, Carol A

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the growth of Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum in orange juice over a temperature range from 4 to 40 degrees C and its ability to multiply in tomato, grapefruit, apple, pineapple and cranberry juices at 30 and 35 degrees C. Survival after 10 min exposure to 50, 60, 70, 80, 85, 90 and 95 degrees C in culture medium and in orange juice was also assessed. In orange juice the organism was able to multiply by 2 logs at temperatures from 4 to 35 degrees C and survived for up to 52 days. However, at 40 degrees C viable counts were reduced after 6 days and no viable cells isolated after 17 days. The optimum growth temperature in orange juice over 6 days was 25 degrees C but over 4 days it was 35 degrees C. The growth of P. cyclohexanicum was monitored in tomato, grapefruit, cranberry, pineapple and apple juices at 30 and 35 degrees C over 29 days. Cranberry, grapefruit and apple juice did not support the growth of P. cyclohexanicum. At 30 degrees C no viable cells were detected after 8 days in cranberry juice or after 22 days in grapefruit juice while at 35 degrees C no viable cells were detected after 5 and 15 days, respectively. However, in apple juice, although a 5 log reduction occurred, viable cells could be detected after 29 days. P. cyclohexanicum was able to multiply in both tomato and pineapple juices. In tomato juice, there was a 2 log increase in viable counts after 8 days at 30 degrees C but no increase at 35 degrees C, while in pineapple juice there was a 1 log increase in numbers over 29 days with no significant difference between numbers of viable cells present at 30 and 35 degrees C. The organism survived at 50 degrees C for 10 min in culture medium without a significant loss of viability while similar treatment at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C resulted in approximately a 3-4 log reduction, with no viable cells detected after treatment at 85 or 90 or 95 degrees C but, when pre-treated at intermediate temperatures before exposure to higher

  13. Effects of the gastric juice injection pattern and contraction frequency on the digestibility of casein powder suspensions in an in vitro dynamic rat stomach made with a 3D printed model.

    Zhang, Xiaoai; Liao, Zhenkai; Wu, Peng; Chen, Liding; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2018-04-01

    Previously, we have prepared a version of the dynamic in vitro rat stomach system (DIVRS-II or Biomimic Rat II). It was constructed and tested by showing similar digestive behaviors with those occurred in vivo. In the present work, a 3D-printed plastic mold was employed to create highly repeatable silicone rat stomach model. It has been seen to have shortened the time to handcraft a model like that used in DIVRS-II. The maximum mechanical force of the current stomach model generated by rolling extrusion is found to be more stable probably due to the more uniform wall thickness of the new model. Then the effects of the simulated gastric secretion patterns and contraction frequency of the system on the in vitro digestibility of casein powder suspensions were investigated. The results have shown that the location of the gastric secretion injection has an impact on experimental digestibility. The position of rolling-extrusion area, established at the central part of glandular portion (stomach B), displayed the highest digestibility compared to that at the other locations. Furthermore, the extent of digestion was positively correlated with the contraction frequency of the model stomach system, with the maximum frequency of 12cpm giving the highest digestibility. This highest digestibility is almost the same as the average value found in vivo. The better digestive performance produced by optimizing the gastric secretion pattern and contraction frequency may be both resulted from the improved mixing efficiency of the food matrix with digestive juice. This study shows that it is possible to achieve what in vivo in a simulated digestion device, which may be used for future food and nutrition studies in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder and incubation time on color, residual nitrate and nitrite, pigment, pH, and trained sensory attributes of ready-to-eat uncured ham.

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-08-01

    Vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus have been identified as necessary ingredients for the manufacture of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products with quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation time (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of ham over a 90-d storage period, compare residual nitrate and nitrite content, and determine if differences exist in sensory properties of finished products. Four ham treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.35% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.35% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between TRTs and C for CIE L*, a*, b*, and cured color measured by reflectance ratio. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) for combined TRTs and C revealed little change over time while the C had less (P 0.05) were reported for cured pigment concentration between TRTs and C. Trained sensory panel intensity ratings for ham and vegetable aroma, and flavor, color, and firmness showed that a high concentration (0.35%) of VJP resulted in the highest scores for undesirable vegetable aroma and flavor. Treatment combinations with a low concentration (0.20%) of VJP were comparable to the C for all sensory attributes.

  15. Biosynthesis of Silver and Gold Crystals Using Grapefruit Extract

    Chen Long

    2016-01-01

    crystals is discussed, indicating that the soluble biomolecules such as protein(s and vitamin C in grapefruit extract may play a crucial role in defining the morphology and/or crystal phase of silver and gold crystals.

  16. Biosynthesis of Silver and Gold Crystals Using Grapefruit Extract

    Chen Long; Wang Jianli; Wang Hongfeng; Qi Zhaopeng; Zheng Yuchuan; Wang Junbo; Pan Le; Chang Guanru; Yang Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, biological synthesis of silver and gold crystals using grapefruit extract is reported. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with grapefruit extract, the formation of stable silver and gold particles at high concentrations is observed to occur. The silver particles formed are quasi-spherical or irregular with sizes ranging from several hundred nanometers to several microns. The gold quasi-spheres with holes on surfaces and with diameters rangi...

  17. Photosynthesis, respiration and translocation in green fruit of normal and mutant grapefruit

    Koch, K.E.; Yen, C.R.; Avigne, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Gas exchange, 14 CO 2 fixation/and subsequent photosynthate translocation were followed during a 24h light/dark period in green grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) detached after 2.5 mo. growth. Fruit photosynthesis could account for net fixation of less than 1% of the daily dry weight increase recorded for fruit at this stage of development, but a comparison of light/dark CO 2 exchange indicated that as much as 27% of this daily gain was maintained by refixation of respiratory CO 2 during daylight hours. Approximately 10% of photosynthates labeled in the outer peel (flavedo) were translocated to segment epidermis and juice vesicles of normal fruit during 1 + 23h pulse-chase experiments. This process typically continues for 4 to 5 days and refixation products would presumably follow the same path. In a low-acid mutant believed to differ only in acid/sugar ratio of juice vesicles, however, inward translocation of 14 C-photosynthates from flavedo was restricted primarily to the inner peel (albedo)

  18. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  19. Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent celiprolol.

    Lilja, Jari J; Juntti-Patinen, Laura; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-03-01

    Grapefruit juice was recently found to decrease plasma concentrations of the beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent celiprolol. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol in healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover study with 2 phases and a washout of 2 weeks, 10 healthy volunteers ingested either 200 mL normal-strength orange juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On the morning of day 3, 1 hour after ingestion of 200 mL orange juice or water, each subject ingested 100 mg celiprolol with either 200 mL orange juice or water. In addition, 200 mL orange juice or water was ingested at 4, 10, 22, and 27 hours after celiprolol intake. The concentrations of celiprolol in plasma and its excretion into urine were measured up to 33 hours after its dosing. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were recorded up to 10 hours. Orange juice reduced the mean peak plasma concentration of celiprolol by 89% (P orange juice. Orange juice reduced the urinary excretion of celiprolol by 77% (P Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of celiprolol, but the mechanism of this interaction remains to be resolved. For example, modulation of intestinal pH and of function of transporters implicated in the absorption of celiprolol may be involved. Because of the great extent of the orange juice-celiprolol interaction and a wide use of orange juice, this interaction is likely to have clinical importance in some patients, although hemodynamic consequences were not seen in young healthy subjects.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis), and...

  1. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column (2...

  2. [Effect of fruit and vegetable juices on the changes in the production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in human gastric juice].

    Ilńitskiĭ, A P; Iurchenko, V A

    1993-01-01

    The study was made of the effect of apple, grapefruit, orange and beet juices on in vitro formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from sodium nitrite and amidopirin in human gastric juice (GJ). Experimental samples of GJ from outpatients attending the outpatient department of the AMS Cancer Research Center were used. The patients had various forms of gastritis and gastric cancer. It was found that fruit and beet juices may inhibit or enhance NDMA formation depending on the GJ composition, pH in particular. In acid medium (pH-1.3-3.4) there was a trend to inhibition of NDMA synthesis, while in neutral and alkaline (pH = 7.4-8.5) medium NDMA synthesis is activated. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Exploring Oven-drying Technique in Producing Pineapple Powder

    Cyril John A. Domingo; Wilma M. De Vera; Raquel C. Pambid

    2017-01-01

    Pineapple puree and juice of 11 to 12 °Brix were used to obtain pineapple powder using oven-drying technique. Addition of maltodextrin in treatments 2 and 4 yielded good quality powder, however addition of sugar and maltodextrin in treatments 1 and 3 resulted to sticky product which was processed to pineapple leather. Treatment 2 composed of pineapple puree and maltodextrin resulted to significantly higher powder recovery compared with treatment 4 which composed of pineapple juice...

  4. Coffee inhibition of CYP3A4 in vitro was not translated to a grapefruit-like pharmacokinetic interaction clinically.

    Dresser, George K; Urquhart, Brad L; Proniuk, Julianne; Tieu, Alvin; Freeman, David J; Arnold, John Malcolm; Bailey, David G

    2017-10-01

    Grapefruit can augment oral medication bioavailability through irreversible (mechanism-based) inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4. Supplementary data from our recent coffee-drug interaction clinical study showed some subjects had higher area under the plasma drug concentration - time curve (AUC) and plasma peak drug concentration (Cmax) of the CYP3A4 probe felodipine compared to aqueous control. It was hypothesized that coffee might interact like grapefruit in responsive individuals. Beans from six geographical locations were consistently brewed into coffee that was separated chromatographically to a methanolic fraction for in vitro inhibition testing of CYP3A4 metabolism of felodipine at 1% coffee strength. The effect of simultaneous incubation and 10-min preincubation with coffee fractions determined whether coffee had direct and mechanism-based inhibitory activity. A subsequent five-way randomized balanced controlled crossover clinical study evaluated the clinical pharmacokinetic interaction with single-dose felodipine. Grapefruit juice, water, or three of the in vitro tested coffees were ingested at 300 mL alone 1 h before and then with felodipine. In vitro, all six coffees decreased felodipine metabolism for both simultaneous and preincubation exposure compared to corresponding control. Five coffees demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition. Grapefruit increased felodipine AUC 0-8 (25 vs. 13 ng.h/mL, P coffees caused no change in these parameters compared to water. Despite high in vitro potency of CYP3A4 inhibition, the coffees did not cause a clinical pharmacokinetic interaction possibly from insufficient amount of inhibitor(s) in coffee reaching intestinal CYP3A4 during the absorption phase of felodipine. The results of this study highlight the need for follow-up clinical testing when in vitro results indicate the possibility of an interaction. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British

  5. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption

    Saeed, Asma, E-mail: asmadr@wol.net.pk [Environmental Biotechnology Group, Biotechnology and Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Sharif, Mehwish [School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Muhammad [Environmental Biotechnology Group, Biotechnology and Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation {>=}0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g{sup -1}. The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  6. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption

    Saeed, Asma; Sharif, Mehwish; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation ≥0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g -1 . The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  7. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption.

    Saeed, Asma; Sharif, Mehwish; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-07-15

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation > or = 0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g(-1). The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Grapefruit Derived Flavonoid Naringin Improves Ketoacidosis and Lipid Peroxidation in Type 1 Diabetes Rat Model.

    Alfred N Murunga

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic effects of grapefruit juice are well known but the effects of naringin, its main flavonoid on glucose intolerance and metabolic complications in type 1 diabetes are not known.To investigate the effects of naringin on glucose intolerance, oxidative stress and ketonemia in type 1 diabetic rats.Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 5 groups (n = 7 were orally treated daily with 3.0 ml/kg body weight (BW/day of distilled water (group 1 or 50 mg/kg BW of naringin (groups 2 and 4, respectively. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of 60 mg/kg BW of streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Group 3 was further treated with subcutaneous insulin (4.0 IU/kg BW twice daily, respectively.Stretozotocin (STZ only-treated groups exhibited hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, glucose intolerance, low fasting plasma insulin and reduced hepatic glycogen content compared to the control group. Furthermore they had significantly elevated Malondialdehyde (MDA, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, anion gap and significantly reduced blood pH and plasma bicarbonate compared to the control group. Naringin treatment significantly improved Fasting Plasma Insulin (FPI, hepatic glycogen content, malondialdehyde, β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, bicarbonate, blood pH and anion gap but not Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG compared to the STZ only-treated group.Naringin is not hypoglycemic but ameliorates ketoacidosis and oxidative stress. Naringin supplements could therefore mitigate complications of diabetic ketoacidosis.

  9. Absorption and pharmacokinetics of grapefruit flavanones in beagles.

    Mata-Bilbao, Maria de Lourdes; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Roura, Elena; Jáuregui, Olga; Escribano, Elvira; Torre, Celina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2007-07-01

    The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of three different grapefruit flavanone forms in dog plasma and demonstrated their absorption after an oral intake of a grapefruit extract; pharmacokinetic parameters of these forms were also determined. Ten healthy beagles were administered 70 mg citrus flavonoids as a grapefruit extract contained in capsules, while two additional dogs were used as controls and given an excipient. The grapefruit flavanone naringin, along with its metabolites naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, was detected in dog plasma. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Naringin reached its maximun plasma concentration at around 80 min, whereas naringenin and naringenin glucuronide reached their maximun plasma concentrations at around 20 and 30 min, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations of naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide (medians and ranges) were 0.24 (0.05-2.08), 0.021 (0.001-0.3) and 0.09 (0.034-0.12) micromol/l, respectively. The areas under the curves were 23.16 l (14.04-70.62) min x micromol/for nariningin, 1.78 (0.09-4.95) min x micromol/l for naringenin and 22.5 (2.74-99.23) min x micromol/l for naringenin glucuronide. The median and range values for mean residence time were 3.3 (1.5-9.3), 2.8 (0.8-11.2) and 8.0 (2.3-13.1) h for naringin, naringenin and naringenin glucuronide, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate the absorption of grapefruit flavanones via the presence of their metabolites in plasma, thus making an important contribution to the field since the biological activities ascribed to these compounds rely on their specific forms of absorption.

  10. Antioxidant activity and antiaging gel formulation grapefruit peel (Citrus maxima Merr.) ethanolic extract

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Febrika, Nilsya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to conduct the antioxidant activity test of grapefruit peel ethanolic extracts and gel formulation. Grapefruit (Citrus maxima Merr.) is a plant of the Rutaceae family, which has been known to contain ph enolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins). Grapefruit skin was very thick (>30% of the total weight of the fr uit) and always considered as waste that has not been utiliz ed properly....

  11. Pasteurization of citrus juices with ohmic heating to preserve the carotenoid profile

    Achir , Nawel; Dhuique-Mayer , Claudie; Hadjal , Thiziri; Madani , Khodir; Pain , Jean-Pierre; Dornier , Manuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This study was carried out to assess, for the first time, the effect of ohmic heating on the carotenoid profile of two citrus fruit juices: grapefruit and blood orange. Two heat treatments were designed to obtain pasteurization values of 50 and 150 min (Tref= 70°C and z-value=10°C) with ohmic heating as compared to conventional heating. The results showed that xanthophyll losses could reach 70% for epoxyxanthophylls (cis-violaxanthin and cis-antheraxanthin) and 40% for...

  12. 100% citrus juice: Nutritional contribution, dietary benefits, and association with anthropometric measures.

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Valim, M Filomena

    2017-01-02

    Citrus juices such as 100% orange (OJ) and grapefruit juice (GJ) are commonly consumed throughout the world. This review examines the contributions of OJ and GJ to nutrient intake, diet quality, and fruit intake, and supports citrus juices as nutrient-dense beverages. This review also explores the research examining associations between OJ and GJ intake and anthropometric measures. Citrus juices are excellent sources of vitamin C and contribute other key nutrients such as potassium, folate, magnesium, and vitamin A. OJ intake has been associated with better diet quality in children and adults. OJ intake has not been associated with adverse effects on weight or other body measures in observational studies in children and adults. In adults, some observational studies report more favorable body mass index or body measure parameters in OJ consumers compared to nonconsumers. Intervention studies in adults report no negative impacts of OJ or GJ consumption on anthropometric measures, although these measures were typically not the primary outcomes examined in the studies. Moderate consumption of citrus juices may provide meaningful nutritional and dietary benefits and do not appear to negatively impact body weight, body composition, or other anthropometric measures in children and adults.

  13. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effects of γ-irradiation on β-pinene content and germination in grapefruit

    Uchiyama, Sadao; Kawamura, Yoko; Saito, Yukio; Nagashima, Kimiyo.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on β-pinene content and germination in grapefruit were investigated in order to develop a method to identify γ-irradiated grapefruit. β-Pinene is a component of essential oil in grapefruit and was reported to be susceptible to γ-irradiation. However, it was not degraded by irradiation (30 to 200 krad) in this experiment. When grapefruit irradiated at 50 krad were stored at 10degC for 2 months, no change of β-pinene content was found. β-Pinene itself was also stable to γ-irradiation at 1 Mrad. Thus, identification of irradiated grapefruit from the amount of β-pinene was impossible. On the other hand, the effect of γ-irradiation on radicle elongation was small but that on plumule expansion was so large as to prevent shooting in grapefruit irradiated even at 30 krad. Therefore it should be possible to identify γ-irradiated grapefruit by a germination method. (author)

  15. Bioactive Flavonoids, Antioxidant Behaviour, and Cytoprotective Effects of Dried Grapefruit Peels (Citrus paradisi Macf.)

    Castro-Vazquez, Lucia; Alañón, María Elena; Rodríguez-Robledo, Virginia; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad; Hermosín-Gutierrez, Isidro; Díaz-Maroto, María Consuelo; Jordán, Joaquín; Galindo, María Francisca; Arroyo-Jiménez, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) is an important cultivar of the Citrus genus which contains a number of nutrients beneficial to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and in vitro cytoprotective effect of processed white and pink peels after oven-drying (45°C–60°C) and freeze-drying treatments. Comparison with fresh grapefruit peels was also assessed. Significant increases in DPPH, FRAPS, and ABTS values were observed in dried grapefruit peel samples in comparison with fresh peels, indicating the suitability of the treatments for use as tools to greatly enhance the antioxidant potential of these natural byproducts. A total of thirteen flavonoids were quantified in grapefruit peel extracts by HPLC-MS/MS. It was found that naringin, followed by isonaringin, was the main flavonoid occurring in fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried grapefruit peels. In vivo assay revealed that fresh and oven-dried grapefruit peel extracts (45°C) exerted a strong cytoprotective effect on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations ranging within 0.1–0.25 mg/mL. Our data suggest that grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) peel has considerable potential as a source of natural bioactive flavonoids with outstanding antioxidant activity which can be used as agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:26904169

  16. Composition of apple juice.

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  17. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    2010-01-01

    ... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...

  18. Prunus fruit juices

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  19. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V).

  20. Effects of powdered versus liquid barium on the viscosity of fluids used in modified swallow studies

    Baron, J.; Alexander, T.

    2003-01-01

    To determine if the viscosity of thickened juice mixtures used in modified barium swallow studies significantly changes with the addition of powdered barium. We also describe a test formulation created using liquid barium, which has a negligible effect on juice viscosity. The viscosities of water and standardized honey- and nectar-consistency juices mixed with different amounts of powdered barium were measured by timing the laminar flow of a given initial hydrostatic head of fluid under gravity though an orifice of fixed diameter. Standardized juices were then mixed with a liquid formulation of barium and with measured quantities of water to produce viscosities that more closely equated with those of the standardized juices. With the addition of powdered barium, viscosity increased in all fluids, most markedly with the nectar-consistency juice. Liquid barium formulations maintained the viscosities of the original thickened juices. Rendering juices radio-opaque with barium powder results in dramatic increases in the viscosity of the resulting mixture and compromises diagnostic accuracy. Liquid barium preparations have the advantage that they can be rapidly and accurately dispensed by syringe, and their use does not significantly increase the viscosity of the preparation. (author)

  1. Effects of powdered versus liquid barium on the viscosity of fluids used in modified swallow studies

    Baron, J.; Alexander, T. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Radiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    To determine if the viscosity of thickened juice mixtures used in modified barium swallow studies significantly changes with the addition of powdered barium. We also describe a test formulation created using liquid barium, which has a negligible effect on juice viscosity. The viscosities of water and standardized honey- and nectar-consistency juices mixed with different amounts of powdered barium were measured by timing the laminar flow of a given initial hydrostatic head of fluid under gravity though an orifice of fixed diameter. Standardized juices were then mixed with a liquid formulation of barium and with measured quantities of water to produce viscosities that more closely equated with those of the standardized juices. With the addition of powdered barium, viscosity increased in all fluids, most markedly with the nectar-consistency juice. Liquid barium formulations maintained the viscosities of the original thickened juices. Rendering juices radio-opaque with barium powder results in dramatic increases in the viscosity of the resulting mixture and compromises diagnostic accuracy. Liquid barium preparations have the advantage that they can be rapidly and accurately dispensed by syringe, and their use does not significantly increase the viscosity of the preparation. (author)

  2. Red Mexican grapefruit: a novel source for bioactive limonoids and their antioxidant activity.

    Mandadi, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Bhat, Narayan G; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2007-01-01

    Citrus limonoids have shown to inhibit the growth of cancer in colon, lung, mouth, stomach and breast in animal and cell culture studies. For the first time in the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate antioxidant fractions and five limonoids from red Mexican grapefruit seeds. Defatted seed powder was successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH) and MeOH/water and the extracts were concentrated under vacuum. Radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content were also measured for comparison with the antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum method for the above extracts. Acetone and MeOH extracts, respectively, showed the highest (85.7%) and lowest (53.3%) radical scavenging activity, at 500 ppm. The total phenolic contents were found to be highest in the acetone extract (15.94%) followed by the MeOH extract (5.92%), ethyl acetate extract (5.54%) and water extract (5.26%). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts as equivalents to ascorbic acid (micromol/g of the extract) was in the order, EtOAc extract > acetone extract > water extract > methanol extract. Furthermore, the EtOAC and acetone extracts were loaded onto silica gel columns to obtain four limonoid aglycons. MeOH fraction was loaded onto a dowex-50 and sepabeads resin column to obtain a limonoid glucoside. The purity of the isolated five compounds was analyzed by HPLC using a C18 column and UV detection at 210 nm. Finally, the structures of the compounds were identified as obacunone, nomilin, limonin, deacetylnomilin (DAN) and limonin-17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG) using 1H and 13C NMR studies.

  3. Exploring Oven-drying Technique in Producing Pineapple Powder

    Cyril John A. Domingo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple puree and juice of 11 to 12 °Brix were used to obtain pineapple powder using oven-drying technique. Addition of maltodextrin in treatments 2 and 4 yielded good quality powder, however addition of sugar and maltodextrin in treatments 1 and 3 resulted to sticky product which was processed to pineapple leather. Treatment 2 composed of pineapple puree and maltodextrin resulted to significantly higher powder recovery compared with treatment 4 which composed of pineapple juice and maltodextrin. The solubility of pineapple powder improved as maltodextrin concentration is increased from 40.00 % to 60.00 %.Addition of maltodextrin also reduced stickiness of the final product. An instant pineapple powder of 5.47 and 5.33 % moisture content could be produced by oven-drying.This level of moisture content will prohibit bacterial growth in the pineapple powder but may have mold or yeast growth with increase storage period at environments with high humidity. Molds were observed on the 17th day at 89.00 % relative humidity as exhibited by the moisture sorption isotherm data. This suggests that appropriate packaging with moisture barrier is recommended for pineapple powder. This study showedthat by using appropriate ratio of juice, puree, and maltodextrin and appropriate oven drying conditions, a good oven-dried pineapple powder could be obtained.

  4. Hydrocarbons by fermenting the juice of the Jerusalem artichoke

    Joud, F R

    1976-02-13

    The artichoke juice containing nonfermentable insulins is acidified to pH 3- and heated at 95/sup 0/ for 30 to 40 minutes to hydrolyze the insulins into fermentable sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. The ethanol is dried and reacted with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to form C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ which is treated at 300/sup 0/ under pressure with a powdered Ni catalyst to form alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

  5. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Kowalska, Karolina; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2012-04-11

    The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit) and the interaction between these two dietary factors. When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.

  6. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Jurgoński Adam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet, the addition of dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract (diets without or with 0.3% of an extract from hard parts of grapefruit and the interaction between these two dietary factors. Results When compared to the control sucrose-containing diet, the diet enriched with inulin led to typical changes within the caecum, the main part of hindgut fermentation in rats, such as acidification of the digesta, support of bifidobacteria growth and increase of propionate and butyrate production. The dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract without inulin increased the bulk and pH value of caecal digesta, whereas short-chain fatty acid concentration and the bifidobacteria population were lowered compared to the extract-free diets. Simultaneous dietary addition of both tested components decreased slightly the pH value and increased somewhat the bifidobacteria number and the propionate concentration, however to the level observed with the control sucrose-containing diet. With regard to blood lipids, dietary grapefruit flavonoid extract decreased the triglyceride concentration regardless of the dietary carbohydrate type. Conclusion Inulin does not provide any additional benefit to the blood lipid profile caused by the dietary application of grapefruit flavonoid extract and it does not counteract clearly detrimental effects of the extract in the hindgut. Adding grapefruit extract to the diet must be performed with caution due to possible adverse hindgut responses with overdoses.

  7. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  8. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  9. Effect of Citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.

    Díaz-Juárez, J A; Tenorio-López, F A; Zarco-Olvera, G; Valle-Mondragón, L Del; Torres-Narváez, J C; Pastelín-Hernández, G

    2009-07-01

    Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. In the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of Citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. In both models, Citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compared with control values (60 +/- 15 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) vs 100 +/- 10 x 10(7) dyn s cm(-5) and 90 mmHg vs 130 +/- 15 mmHg, respectively). These decreases in coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure were blocked when isolated and perfused hearts and mongrel dogs were pre-treated with L-NAME. In humans, Citrus paradisi juice decreased diastolic arterial pressure and systolic arterial pressure both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Citrus paradisi juice produced a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure when compared with Citrus sinensis juice, cow milk and a vitamin C-supplemented beverage. However, more detailed studies are required to isolate, purify and evaluate the chemical compounds responsible for this pharmacological effect and to clarify its possible role for treating hypertension. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.

    von Woedtke, T; Schlüter, B; Pflegel, P; Lindequist, U; Jülich, W D

    1999-06-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present.

  11. (YSZ) powders

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  12. Amelioration of irradiation injury to Florida grapefruit by pretreatment with vapor heat or fungicides

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Grapefruit shipped to certain markets must be certified free of Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) infestation. Low-dose irradiation is effective for the control of CFF by sterilization. This treatment is expected to be approved for industry usage in the near future. 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was treated with vapor heat (2 hours at 38 degrees C), and fungicidal treatments of thiabendazole (TBZ) (4 gm.L-1) and TBZ (1 gm.L-1) plus imazalil (1 gm.L-1) prior to irradiation at 0.5 or 1.0 kGy. Vapor heat reduced the severity and incidence of peel injury by approximately 50% without adversely affecting other quality attributes. The fungicide did not reduce peel injury. The use of vapor heat before low-dose irradiation quarantine treatment of grapefruit may ameliorate or eliminate peel injury caused by irradiation

  13. Comparison of blueberry powder produced via foam-mat freeze-drying versus spray-drying: evaluation of foam and powder properties.

    Darniadi, Sandi; Ho, Peter; Murray, Brent S

    2018-03-01

    Blueberry juice powder was developed via foam-mat freeze-drying (FMFD) and spray-drying (SD) via addition of maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein isolate (WPI) at weight ratios of MD/WPI = 0.4 to 3.2 (with a fixed solids content of 5 wt% for FMFD and 10 wt% for SD). Feed rates of 180 and 360 mL h -1 were tested in SD. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the drying methods and carrier agents on the physical properties of the corresponding blueberry powders and reconstituted products. Ratios of MD/WPI = 0.4, 1.0 and 1.6 produced highly stable foams most suitable for FMFD. FMFD gave high yields and low bulk density powders with flake-like particles of large size that were also dark purple with high red values. SD gave low powder recoveries. The powders had higher bulk density and faster rehydration times, consisting of smooth, spherical and smaller particles than in FMFD powders. The SD powders were bright purple but less red than FMFD powders. Solubility was greater than 95% for both FMFD and SD powders. The FMFD method is a feasible method of producing blueberry juice powder and gives products retaining more characteristics of the original juice than SD. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Tracing phenolic compounds through manufacturing of edible films from orange and grapefruit peels

    Hernández-Carrillo, J.G.; Valdez-Fragoso, A.; Welti-Chanes, J.; Mújica-Paz, H.

    2015-01-01

    Edible films naturally rich in phenolic compounds were prepared from orange and grapefruit peels. Free and total polyphenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau method and flavonoids were identified and quantified by HPLC in the manufacturing processes of films. Films from grapefruit and orange peel had 24.95 and 28.18 mg GAE/g (Gallic Acid Equivalents/g), respectively, retaining more than 50% of total phenolics from the raw material. Hesperidin (33.39 mg/g) was the main flavonoid in orange p...

  15. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed.

  16. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  17. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  18. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  19. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  20. Internationalization of Boost Juice to Malaysia

    Jane L. Menzies; Stuart C. Orr

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the process that the Australian juice retail chain, Boost Juice, has used to internationalize to Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to demonstrate good practice in regard to internationalization. The case provides the background of the juice bar industry in Malaysia and determines that it is an attractive market for new start-up juice bars. An analysis of Boost Juice's capability determined that the company utilized the skills of its staff, product innovations, b...

  1. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2013-12-11

    Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than α-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake.

  2. Powder diffraction

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  3. Powder diffraction

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  4. Powder diffractometry

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens

    Anastrepha serpentina, known as the zapote fly or serpentine fruit fly, is occasionally captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Lists of host plants for this species include several species of citrus, such as oranges and grapefruit. Current regulatory procedures require quarantines and treatme...

  6. Highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.

    Furusawa, Mai; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Noma, Yoshiaki; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2005-11-01

    Nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. A sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae Chlorella species and fungi such as Mucor species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.

  7. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  8. “Gold” Pressed Essential Oil: An Essay on the Volatile Fragment from Citrus Juice Industry By-Products Chemistry and Bioactivity

    V. N. Kapsaski-Kanelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present essay explores the potentials of Citrus juice industry’s by-products as alternative bioactive natural products resources. Four crude Cold Pressed Essential Oils (CPEOs, derived from orange, lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin, were studied. All CPEOs were subjected to water distillation, in order to obtain the volatile fragment, which was further fractionated with respect to distillation period in two parts, concluding to eight samples. These samples along with the four original CPEOs were assessed in relation to their phytochemical content and their repellent and larvicidal properties against Asian Tiger Mosquito. The volatiles recovery rates ranged from 74% to 88% of the CPEO. Limonene presented a significant increase in all samples ranging from 8% to 52% of the respective CPEO’s content and peaked in mandarin’s 2nd volatile fragment which comprised 97% of the essential oil. The refinement process presented clear impacts on both bioassays: a significant increase in larvicidal potency was observed, annotated best by the improvement by 1100% and 1300% of the grapefruit volatile fractions; repellence testing provided only one significant result, the decrease of landings by 50% as a response to mandarin’s second volatile fraction. The applied methodology thus may be considered for the improvement of Citrus juice industry’s by-products chemistry and bioactivity.

  9. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  10. Grapefruit extract activity in the control of rose powdery mildew and black spot.

    Wojdyła, A T

    2001-01-01

    Efficacy of grapefruit extract (a.i. of Biosept 33 SL) in the control of Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae and Diplocarpon rosae on roses was investigated during 1998-1999. The extract was applied as plant spray in concentrations from 0.017 to 0.099%. First treatment of rose shrubs was done when visible disease symptoms occurred on leaves and spraying was repeated 3 (in plastic tunnel) or 10-times (in the field) at weekly intervals. In the second experiment roses with visible powdery mildew symptoms were sprayed once with grapefruit extract. Leaves were sampled one or 7 days after the extract application and germination of spores of S. pannosa var. rosae on potato dextrose agar was evaluated. In the next experiment roses grown under plastic tunnel were sprayed once with the tested preparation. After 24 hours leaves were collected and appearance of fungal hyphae and spores of S. pannosa var. rosae was studied in scanning electron microscope. In the control of S. pannosa var. rosae grapefruit extract at conc. 0.066% was as effective as triforine (standard) applied at 0.027%. Reduction of concentration resulted in the decreased efficacy of the tested preparation. Spores of S. pannosa var. rosae collected one day after grapefruit extract application germinated in about 5%. Analyses of spore vitality 6 days letter showed that only about 15% of conidia could germinated on PDA agar. In contrary, spores from untreated leaves germinated in about 95%. Scanning electrone microscope analysis of leaves taken from plants protected with grapefruit extract showed that most of hyphae were separated from leaf surface. Almost all hyphae and spores were degenerated. In the control of D. rosae the preparation in all tested concentrations gave satisfactory results but was less effective than triforine.

  11. Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem e da concentração de agente carreador sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do suco de açaí em pó Influence of drying air temperature and carrier agent concentration on the physicochemical properties of açai juice powder

    Renata Valeriano Tonon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da temperatura do ar de secagem e da concentração de agente carreador sobre as propriedades físico-químicas do suco de açaí em pó produzido por spray drying foi avaliada. O processo foi realizado em um mini spray dryer de bancada e maltodextrina 10DE foi utilizada como agente carreador. A temperatura do ar de secagem variou de 138 a 202 °C e a concentração de maltodextrina variou de 10 a 30%. As características analisadas foram: umidade, higroscopicidade, retenção de antocianinas, cor, distribuição do tamanho de partículas e morfologia. O aumento da temperatura resultou em partículas maiores, menos úmidas, mais higroscópicas e com menor retenção de antocianinas, além de provocar uma diminuição do parâmetro de cor L* e do ângulo de tom H*. O aumento na concentração de maltodextrina resultou em partículas maiores e menos higroscópicas, com maior luminosidade (L*, menores valores de C* e maiores valores de H*. Em relação à morfologia, o aumento da temperatura levou à formação de uma maior quantidade de partículas com superfície lisa, fato atribuído à maior transferência de calor e, consequentemente, à formação mais rápida de uma membrana ao redor da gota atomizada.The objective of this work was to study the influence of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration on the physicochemical properties of açai juice powder produced by spray drying. The process was carried out in a mini spray dryer and the maltodextrin 10DE was used as carrier agent. Inlet air temperature varied from 138 to 202 °C and maltodextrin concentration varied from 10 to 30%. The characteristics analyzed were: moisture content, hygroscopicity, anthocyanin retention, color, particle size distribution, and morphology. The increase in the temperature resulted in particles with larger size, less moisture content, more hygroscopy and with lower anthocyanin retention, besides promoting a reduction in the color

  12. Powder technology

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  13. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  14. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  15. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    The fruit juice market is growing for several years, and will be continuing to expand, ... Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels ... using the strategic SWOT (strong and weak points, opportunities and threats) ...

  16. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  17. JUICE space mission to Jupiter

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the giant gaseous planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of the Solar System and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars. Moreover, Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites - three of which are believed to harbour internal oceans - are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. JUICE spacecraft will carry the most powerful remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ paylo...

  18. UV-blocking potential of oils and juices.

    Gause, S; Chauhan, A

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreens are commonly used to protect the body from damage caused by UV light. Some components of organic sunscreens have been shown to pass through the skin during wear which could raise toxicity concerns for these compounds. This study explores the potential for oils and fruit and vegetable juices to be substitutes for these compounds. The absorptivity of various oils (canola oil, citronella oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soya bean oil, vitamin E, as well as aloe vera) and fruit and vegetable juices (acerola, beet, grape, orange carrot, purple carrot and raspberry) was measured in vitro. The mean absorptivity was compared with FDA-approved UV absorbers to gauge the potential of the natural products. The most promising candidates were incorporated into formulations, and the UV transmittance of a 20-μm-thick film of the formulation was measured. The formulations were also imaged by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorptivity of oils was at least two orders of magnitude lower compared to the commercial UV blockers. The fruit juice powders were more effective at UV blocking but still showed an order of magnitude lower absorptivity compared to commercial UV blockers. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient to obtain a significant UV protection. Formulations containing 50wt% purple carrot showed good UV-blocking capabilities and represent a promising ingredient for sunscreen and cosmetic applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products.

  20. Somatic hybridization in Citrus: navel orange (C. sinensis Osb.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.).

    Ohgawara, T; Kobayashi, S; Ishii, S; Yoshinaga, K; Oiyama, I

    1989-11-01

    Protoplasts of navel orange, isolated from embryogenic nucellar cell suspension culture, were fused with protoplasts of grapefruit isolated from leaf tissue. The fusion products were cultured in the hormone-free medium containing 0.6 M sucrose. Under the culture conditions, somatic embryogenesis of navel orange protoplasts was suppressed, while cell division of grapefruit mesophyll protoplasts was not induced. Six embryoids were obtained and three lines regenerated to complete plants through embryogenesis. Two of the regenerated lines exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics of the parents in the leaf shape. Chromosome counts showed that these regenerated plants had expected 36 chromosomes (2n=2x=18 for each parent). The rDNA analysis using biotin-labeled rRNA probes confirmed the presence of genomes from both parents in these plants. This somatic hybridization system would be useful for the practical Citrus breeding.

  1. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit.

  2. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  3. Apple scab control with grapefruit seed extract: no alternative to chemical fungicides

    Spitaler, Renate; Marschall, Klaus; Zidorn, Christian; Kelderer, Markus; Zelger, Roland; Stuppner, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    The growth inhibiting effect of four commercially available grapefruit seed extracts on the causal organism of apple scab Venturia inaequalis was tested. Germination of the conidia of Venturia inaequalis was pronouncedly inhibited by all tested extracts. The commercial products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. All samples contained at least one preserving agent. These substances were identified as either benzethonium chloride,...

  4. Effect of ethylene on naringin, narirutin and nootkatone accumulation in grapefruit.

    Puig, D G; Pérez, M L; Fuster, M D; Ortuño, A; Sabater, F; Porras, I; Lidón, A G; Del Río, J A

    1995-06-01

    This paper studies the effect of different concentrations of ethephon on the levels of the sesquiterpene, nootkatone, and of the flavanones, naringin and narirutin, in grapefruit fruits. The results show that nootkatone synthesis and/or accumulation was stimulated by all the concentrations of ethephon assayed, while the levels of naringin and narirutin in the rind diminished. These results open up new perspectives concerning the possible regulation of the secondary metabolism of the plants.

  5. Comparative studies of cutins from lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) after TFA hydrolysis.

    Hernández Velasco, Brenda Liliana; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Cortez Sotelo, Pedro Iván; Méndez-Méndez, Juan Vicente; Berdeja Martínez, Blanca Margarita; Gómez-Patiño, Mayra Beatriz

    2017-12-01

    Grapefruit and lime cutins were analyzed and compared in order to obtain information about their cutin architecture. This was performed using a sequential hydrolysis, first with trifluoroacetic acid to remove most of the polysaccharides present in the cutins, followed by an alkaline hydrolysis in order to obtain the main aliphatic compounds. Analysis by CPMAS 13 C NMR and ATR FT-IR of the cutins after 2.0 M TFA revealed that grapefruit cutin has independent aliphatic and polysaccharide domains while in the lime cutin these components could be homogeneously distributed. These observations were in agreement with an AFM analysis of the cutins obtained in the hydrolysis reactions. The main aliphatic compounds were detected and characterized as 16-hydroxy-10-oxo-hexadecanoic acid and 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. These were present in grapefruit cutin at 35.80% and 21.86% and in lime cutin at 20.44% and 40.36% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Volatile constituents of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and pummelo (Citrus grandis) peel essential oils from Kenya.

    Njoroge, Simon Muhoho; Koaze, Hiroshi; Karanja, Paul Nyota; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2005-12-14

    The volatile constituents of cold-pressed peel essential oils of redblush grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen forma Redblush) and pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) from the same locality in Kenya were determined by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 and 52 compounds, amounting to 97.9 and 98.8% of the two oils, respectively, were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3 and 97.5% in the oils, respectively, with limonene (91.1 and 94.8%), alpha-terpinene (1.3 and 1.8%), and alpha-pinene (0.5%) as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in each oil. The notable compounds were beta-caryophyllene, alpha-cubebene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 and 2.0% of the redblush grapefruit and pummelo oils, respectively, out of which carbonyl compounds (2.0 and 1.3%), alcohols (1.4 and 0.3%), and esters (0.7 and 0.4%) were the major groups. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were the main constituents (0.1-0.5%). Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the redblush grapefruit but were absent from the pummelo oil. Nootkatone, alpha- and beta-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in both oils.

  7. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  8. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or with...

  9. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  11. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.

  12. Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model.

    Boshtam, Maryam; Asgary, Sedigheh; Moshtaghian, Jamal; Naderi, Gholamali; Jafari-Dinani, Narges

    2013-11-01

    The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet. Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups) received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control). Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits' aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied. Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0), only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7) and peel (8.6 ± 7.1) (P = 0.008). The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01); peel (0.0 ± 0.00)] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4) (P lime peel is more effective than lime juice.

  13. Study of the microencapsulation of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice.

    Dib Taxi, C M A; de Menezes, H C; Santos, A B; Grosso, C R F

    2003-01-01

    The camu-camu, like many other Amazonian fruits, shows an excellent potential for use due to its high vitamin C content, and the use of these natural resources could result in greater development of the Amazonian region. Few studies have been conducted with this fruit, and such studies are necessary in order to develop the required technology to allow for its utilization, thus avoiding or at least decreasing wastage of such a rich raw material. The principle objective of this study was to develop a process for the microencapsulation of camu-camu juice, optimizing the operational conditions. The processing conditions consisted of blanching at a temperature of 95 +/- 2 degrees C for 2 min, followed by cooling in an ice bath and juice extraction using a brush type depulper. The juice was dried with gum arabic or malt dextrin in a mini-spray dryer using an air entry temperature of between 100-160 degrees C and wall material concentration varying between 5-35%, in accordance with a factorial experimental design. Both the air entry temperature and the amount of wall material, plus the interaction between the two, gave significant positive effects at the level of 5% probability on the yield of juice powder. The optimum conditions for juice yield and vitamin C retention were established as 15% wall material and an air entry temperature of 150 degrees C.

  14. [Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast--like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds].

    Krajewska-Kułak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed.

  15. Det globale marked for juice

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  16. Foundations of powder metallurgy

    Libenson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to physicochemical foundations and technology of metal powders, moulding and sintering of bars, made of them or their mixtures with nonmetal powders. Data on he design of basic equipment used in the processes of powder metallurgy and its servicing are presented. General requirements of safety engineering when fabricating metal powders and products of them are mentioned

  17. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... traditional juices consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. Amoin Georgette ... Baobab fruit juice and Roselle calices juices exhibited the highest ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their ..... by liquid carbon dioxide.

  18. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  19. Gamma irradiation followed by cold storage as a quarantine treatment for Florida grapefruit infested with Caribbean fruit fly

    Von Windeguth, D.L.; Gould, W.P.

    1990-01-01

    'Marsh' white grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Macf.). infested with eggs and larvae of Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) were subjected to ionizing radiation at several low doses followed by cold (1.1°C) storage for 0 to 8 days. Data analyses indicated that an irradiation dose of 50 Gray followed by 5 days of cold storage will give in excess of probit 9 level of quarantine security. A test involving more than 100,000 insects infesting grapefruit confirmed the efficacy of this treatment

  20. Analysis of ethylene biosynthesis and perception during postharvest cold storage of Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruits.

    Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Grapefruits are among the citrus species more sensitive to cold and develop chilling injury symptoms during prolonged postharvest storage at temperatures lower than 8 ℃-10 ℃. The plant hormone ethylene has been described either to protect or potentiate chilling injury development in citrus whereas little is known about transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and response during cold storage and how the hormone is regulating its own perception and signaling cascade. Then, the objective of the present study was to explore the transcriptional changes in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis, receptors and response genes during cold storage of the white Marsh and the red Star Ruby grapefruits. The effect of the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-MCP, was evaluated to investigate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of the genes of its own biosynthesis and perception pathway. Ethylene production was very low at the harvest time in fruits of both varieties and experienced only minor changes during storage. By contrast, inhibition of ethylene perception by 1-MCP markedly induced ethylene production, and this increase was highly stimulated during shelf-life at 20 ℃, as well as transcription of ACS and ACO. These results support the auto-inhibitory regulation of ethylene in grapefruits, which acts mainly at the transcriptional level of ACS and ACO genes. Moreover, ethylene receptor1 and ethylene receptor3 were induced by cold while no clear role of ethylene was observed in the induction of ethylene receptors. However, ethylene appears to be implicated in the transcriptional regulation of ERFs both under cold storage and shelf-life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Helichrysum and Grapefruit Extracts Boost Weight Loss in Overweight Rats Reducing Inflammation.

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Haslberger, Alexander; Aumueller, Eva; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in overweight insulin-resistant rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in two groups: control group (n=8) and high-fat sucrose (HFS) group (n=30). After 22 days of ad libitum water and food access, the rats fed HFS diet changed to standard diet and were reassigned into three groups (n=10 each group): nonsupplemented, helichrysum extract (2 g/kg bw), and grapefruit extract (1 g/kg bw) administered for 5 weeks. Rats supplemented with both extracts gained less body weight during the 5-week period of treatment, showed lower serum insulin levels and liver TBARS levels. Leptin/adiponectin ratio, as an indicator of IR, was lower in both extract-administered groups. These results were accompanied by a reduction in TNFα gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa, and TLR2 expression in intestinal mucosa. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts might be used as complement hypocaloric diets in weight loss treatment. Both extracts helped to reduce weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and IR, improved inflammation markers, and decreased the HFS diet-induced oxidative stress in insulin-resistant rats.

  2. Effects of Different Irrigation Programs on Fruit, Trunk Growth Rates, Quality and Yield of Grapefruit Trees

    KANBER, Rıza; KÖKSAL, Harun; YAZAR, Attila; ÖZEKİCİ, Bülent; ÖNDER, Sermet

    1999-01-01

    Long-term field experiments were carried out between 1985 and 1988 to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals and pan coefficients on the fruit and trunk growth rates and yield of mature grapefruit trees grown in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey in a medium-light textured soil. Two different irrigation intervals (I 1 =15 and I 2 =25 days), and pan coefficients (k 1 =0.60 and k 2 =1.00) were used. Higher evapotranspiration values were obtained from the treatments with ...

  3. Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Kowalska, Karolina; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to verify that the concomitant presence of grapefruit flavonoid extract with inulin in a Western-type diet may provide synergistic effects to the hindgut metabolism, as well as blood lipid and mineral profiles. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups and fed for 28 days with diets rich in fat, cholesterol and protein. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied to assess the effects of inulin (v. sucrose, 5% of the diet), th...

  4. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting...

  5. Effect of blueberry juice on clearance of buspirone and flurbiprofen in human volunteers

    Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Harmatz, Jerold S; Cancalon, Paul F; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Aim The present study evaluated the possibility of drug interactions involving blueberry juice (BBJ) and substrate drugs whose clearance is dependent on cytochromes P4503A (CYP3A) and P4502C9 (CYP2C9). Methods A 50:50 mixture of lowbush and highbush BBJ was evaluated in vitro as an inhibitor of CYP3A activity (hydroxylation of triazolam and dealkylation of buspirone) and of CYP2C9 activity (flurbiprofen hydroxylation) using human liver microsomes. In clinical studies, clearance of oral buspirone and oral flurbiprofen was studied in healthy volunteers with and without co-treatment with BBJ. Results BBJ inhibited CYP3A and CYP2C9 activity in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of less than 2%, but without evidence of mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition. Grapefruit juice (GFJ) also inhibited CYP3A activity, but inhibitory potency was increased by pre-incubation, consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. In clinical studies, GFJ significantly increased area under the plasma concentration−time curve (AUC) for the CYP3A substrate buspirone. The geometric mean ratio (GMR = AUC with GFJ divided by AUC with water) was 2.12. In contrast, the effect of BBJ (GMR = 1.39) was not significant. In the study of flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 substrate), the positive control inhibitor fluconazole significantly increased flurbiprofen AUC (GMR = 1.71), but BBJ had no significant effect (GMR = 1.03). Conclusion The increased buspirone AUC associated with BBJ is quantitatively small and could have occurred by chance. BBJ has no effect on flurbiprofen AUC. The studies provide no evidence for concern about clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions of BBJ with substrate drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2C9. PMID:22943633

  6. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice I,b-uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ores and suggested flowsheet

    EL-Sayed, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking safaga phosphate and qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (U o 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  7. Uranium extraction from ores with lemon juice; II,b. uranium recovery from pregnant lemon juice liquors obtained by attacking phosphate ore and suggested flowsheet

    Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to recover uranium from the pregnant liquors obtained by attacking Safaga phosphate and Qatrani phosphatic sandstone ore materials with lemon juice, methylation for acidic fraction-salt separation has been carried out. Afterwards, separation of uranium from the associated calcium (mainly present in lemon juice liquors as citrate) has been performed by making-use of the wide difference in their water solubility. The solutions containing the separated uranium were then subjected to evaporation till dryness whereby the precipitated uranyl citrate was calcined at 500 degree C to obtain the yellow orange oxide powder (UO 3 ). On the basis of one ton ore treatment, a flowsheet for uranium recovery from the two ore materials has been suggested

  8. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  9. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining essential composition and quality factors of... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  10. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  11. Qualidade pós-colheita de pomelos (Citrus paradisi Macf. produzidos em plantações iniciais no estado do Ceará, Brasil Postharvest quality of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. produced from initial plantings in Ceará state, Brazil

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O estado do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil, vem ganhando atenção como o mais emergente Estado produtor de frutos no país. Citros, incluindo pomelos, tradicionalmente cultivados no sul, vem sendo plantados no Estado. No entanto, ainda não existem informações sobre qualidade de pomelos cultivados localmente. Este estudo objetivou examinar a qualidade pós-colheita de pomelos 'Star Ruby' e 'Ruby Red' quanto ao tamanho e forma, coloração da polpa, espessura da casca, rendimento do suco, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, pH, relação SS/AT e níveis de ácido ascórbico na colheita e após 15 dias de armazenamento. Um segundo lote de frutos foi examinado quanto a perda de massa e coloração externa. Os resultados sugerem que os pomelos apresentam bom tamanho e forma, com coloração externa alaranjada e interna avermelhada e espessura da casca apropriada. Frutos apresentaram um bom rendimento de suco, rico em ácido ascórbico, e com valores de SS, AT e pH comparáveis aos reportados para frutos cultivados em áreas tradicionais do país. A relação SS/AT encontra-se acima do mínimo necessário para um bom sabor. A coloração da casca variou de amarelado a alaranjado. Perda de massa aumentou, enquanto o ângulo de cor hue decresceu, seguindo o mesmo padrão para as duas variedades.Ceará state, northeast Brazil, is gaining attention as the most significant emerging fruit production region in the country. Citrus, including grapefruit, traditionally cultivated in the south, was recently implanted. However, data on postharvest quality of grapefruit grown under local conditions are nonexistent. A study was designed to examine postharvest quality of locally grown 'Star Ruby' and 'Ruby Red' grapefruits. Fruits were assessed for size and shape, pulp color, peel thickness, juice content, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH, SS/TA ratio, and ascorbic acid at harvest and at the fifteenth day of storage. A second set of fruits

  12. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Thian, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology

  13. Botanical insecticides in controlling Kelly's citrus thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on organic grapefruits.

    Vassiliou, V A

    2011-12-01

    Kelly's citrus thrips, Pezothrips kellyanus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was first recorded in Cyprus in 1996 and became an economic citrus pest. In Cyprus, Kelly's citrus thrips larvae cause feeding damage mainly on immature lemon and grapefruit fruits. Use of botanical insecticides is considered an alternative tool compared with synthetic chemicals, in offering solutions for healthy and sustainable citrus production. During 2008-2010, the efficacy of the botanical insecticides azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W and Oikos 10 EC), garlic extract (Alsa), and pyrethrins (Vioryl 5%SC) was evaluated in field trials against Kelly's citrus thrips larval stage I and II aiming at controlling the pest's population and damage to organic grapefruit fruits. In each of the trial years treatments with pyrethrins and azadirachtin (Neemex 0.3%W/W) were the most effective against Kelly's citrus thrips compared with the untreated control (for 2008: P extract showed the lowest effect from all the botanicals used compared with the untreated control.

  14. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Tan, Y.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y. [Forming Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore); Lee, M.W. [Food Innovation and Resource Centre, Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore); Thian, E.S., E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  16. Rootstock effects on fruit quality among 'Ray Ruby' grapefruit trees grown in the Indian River district of Florida

    The objective of this experiment was to compare fruit quality parameters of ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit grown on seven rootstocks. Four recent releases from the USDA rootstock breeding program, US-852, US-897, US-942 and US-812 (all Citrus reticulata x P. trifoliata hybrids), X639 (C. reticulata x P. tri...

  17. 78 FR 24329 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    2013-04-25

    ... the marketing order now in effect, orange and grapefruit handlers are subject to assessments. Funds to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 906 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0038... Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the...

  18. Combined osmodehydration and high pressure processing on the enzyme stability and antioxidant capacity of a grapefruit jam

    A combined osmodehydration process and high pressure treatment (OD-HHP) was developed for grapefruit jam preservation. The inactivation kinetics of pectinmethylesterase (PME) and peroxidase (POD) in the osmodehydrated (OD) jam treated by combined thermal (45-75°C) and high pressure (550–700 MPa) pro...

  19. Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet. METHODS: Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control. Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits’ aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied. RESULTS: Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0, only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7 and peel (8.6 ± 7.1 (P = 0.008. The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01; peel (0.0 ± 0.00] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4 (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.   Keywords: Animal, Atherosclerosis, Atherogenic Diet, Fatty Streak, Intervention, Lime    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  20. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  1. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be added...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards for...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  5. Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice

    Hounhouigan, M.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple processing plays an important role in juice preservation. Because the quality of the pineapple juice is affected by the processing technology applied, the effects of pasteurization and other preservation methods on the overall juice quality were discussed. During juice processing,

  6. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification

    Tapati Bhanja Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103 using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL, maximum clarity (%T660nm = 97.0% of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 ºC in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  7. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification.

    Dey, Tapati Bhanja; Banerjee, Rintu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi) peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103) using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF) process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL) and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL), maximum clarity (%T(660 nm) = 97.0%) of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 °C in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  8. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  9. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.

    Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2009-06-01

    Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

  11. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF YELLOW MOMBIN (Spondias mombin L. ATOMIZED POWDER

    LUÍS GOMES DE MOURA NETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration is an important alternative to making the most of the use the surplus of production and take advantage of the seasonality of tropical fruits. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical composition of the yellow mombin pulp ( Spondia mombin L. powder, obtained by spray drying, and evaluate its sensory acceptance in the form of reconstituted juice. The physicochemical analyzes of the yellow mombin powder were: pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and moisture, with all results in accordance with the current legislation. The addition of maltodextrin in the process reduced the sensory analysis values (color, appearance, and taste. The tested formulations, (powders with 25 and 27.05% maltodextrin preserved, and even favored the aroma. These formulations had the following values (7.66 and 7.68 higher than the val- ues found for integral juice (6.60.

  12. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  13. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown.

  14. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to which...

  15. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  16. Stability of micronutrients and phytochemicals of grapefruit jam as affected by the obtention process.

    Igual, M; García-Martínez, E; Camacho, M M; Martínez-Navarrete, N

    2016-04-01

    Fruits are widely revered for their micronutrient properties. They serve as a primary source of vitamins and minerals as well as of natural phytonutrients with antioxidant properties. Jam constitutes an interesting way to preserve fruit. Traditionally, this product is obtained by intense heat treatment that may cause irreversible loss of these bioactive compounds responsible for the health-related properties of fruits. In this work, different grapefruit jams obtained by conventional, osmotic dehydration (OD) without thermal treatment and/or microwave (MW) techniques were compared in terms of their vitamin, organic acid and phytochemical content and their stability through three months of storage. If compared with heating, osmotic treatments lead to a greater loss of organic acids and vitamin C during both processing and storage. MW treatments permit jam to be obtained which has a similar nutritional and functional value than that obtained when using a conventional heating method, but in a much shorter time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Growth and sporulation of some pathogenic fungi in the presence of grapefruit extract.

    Orlikowski, Leszek B; Skrzypczak, Cz; Jaworska-Marosz, A

    2002-01-01

    Development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis, F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, Botrytis cinerea and B. elliptica in the presence of grapefruit extract (GE) was evaluated. Amendment of potato-dextrose agar with 40 micrograms of GE/cm3 inhibited linear growth of tested species at least in 50%. Addition of 40 micrograms of GE/cm3 of medium inhibited spore germination of F. oxysporum f.sp. cyclaminis about 34% whereas germ tube growth was suppressed in 87%. In case of Botrytis species, B. cinerea spores were more susceptible on GE than B. elliptica. They did not germinate, however, at 200 micrograms of GE/cm3. Drenching of peat, artificially infested with F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, with GE at conc. 165 micrograms/cm3 resulted in drastical decrease of colony forming unit numbers and this suppressive effect was observed at least 35 days.

  18. Antibacterial properties of grapefruit seed extract against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae.

    Semprini, P; Langella, V; Pasini, B; Falda, M T; Calvarese, S

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) either from marketed products or provided by an apiculturist were analysed to verify their inhibition activity, in particular against Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae, responsible for American foulbrood. The bactericide capacity of GSE has been measured in Bacillus subtilis BGA, Bacillus cereus 11778, Bacillus cereus K250 and Micrococcus luteus 9341a; these bacteria are normally used in the laboratory to study inhibitors. The results showed that not all GSE have the same inhibitory activity and two of those analysed do not inhibit the five bacteria used. Considering that 19 samples inhibited American foulbrood bacillus, the authors conclude that the use of a natural product (such as GSE) to control this important disease of bees, can be used as a substitute for chemotherapeutic products, after appropriate expedients.

  19. Response of foster grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. to organic and inorganic fertilization in central Sudan

    Abdalla A.M. Elhassan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of Foster grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. to organic and inorganic fertilization in Sennar area (13°37′N–33°37′E representing central Sudan, was studied for two successive seasons (2003/2004 and 2004/2005. Urea, sheep manure and terra-sorb (as foliar at the rates of 2.17 kg/tree/year, 20 kg/tree/year and 200 ml/100 L water, respectively, and their combinations were applied to 18 years old trees to determine their effects on fruit yield and quality. The layout was a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Results indicated that all treatments significantly increased average yield over control with inconsistent effects on fruit quality parameters. Trees received urea at the rate of 2.17 kg/tree/year, yielded thick peel fruits of reduced vitamin C. Sheep manure at the rate of 20 kg/tree/year resulted in dark green fruits of thick peel. The foliar treated trees at the rate of 200 ml/100 L water gave little thick peel fruits of lower total soluble solids, low % titrable acidity and low vitamin C. The best fruits reflected by color, thinner peel, high % TSS and high vitamin C were obtained from urea + sheep manure treatment. Application of urea with foliar gave green large fruits. Small fruits of intensive green color on surface and low titrable acidity were recorded by combination of sheep manure and foliar. Application of the three fertilizers together gave fruits of dark green color on surface and thick peel. Therefore, application of 2.17 kg urea + 20 kg sheep manure/tree/year is recommended to Foster grapefruit trees in Sennar area and areas of similar environmental conditions.

  20. Assessment of the viability of using saline reclaimed water in grapefruit in medium to long term

    Cristina Romero-Trigueros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus trees are strongly affected by salinity, especially in countries where irrigation is required as a semi-arid Mediterranean agronomic region. The aims of the study were i to identify the best reliable plant-based water status indicator for field grown grapefruit trees irrigated with saline reclaimed water during five years of cultivation by measuring seasonal changes in physiological parameters (i.e. gas exchange and stem water potential measurements, leaf structural traits (i.e. leaf chlorophyll content, area-based leaf nitrogen and area-based dry mass, phytotoxic elements and yield; ii to estimate phytotoxicity thresholds at leaf level. Our results showed that the chlorophyll content was the parameter with the highest number of measures with significant differences (p≤0.05, ANOVA between trees irrigated with reclaimed water and control trees throughout growing stages. Moreover, Chl a increased linearly with area-based leaf nitrogen (R2=0.63; p<0.001 and area-based dry mass (R2=0.64; p<0.001. We also determined the salt-induced phytotoxicity thresholds at which a reduction in yields occurs; these levels were Na: 0.1 g/100 g, Cl: 0.6 g/100 gand B: 100 ppm. In conclusion, we revealed the importance of leaf chlorophyll measurements as a significance diagnostic indicator of salt stress on field grown grapefruit trees. This parameter was also related to plant-based water status indicators such as stem water potential, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis. Additionally, a salt accumulation potential at leaf level was shown, leading to possible risk in crop sustainability in the medium to long term.

  1. Properties of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein isolated from 'Oroblanco' grapefruit.

    D'hallewin, Guy; Schirra, Mario; Powell, Ann L. T.; Greve, L. Carl; Labavitch, John M.

    2004-03-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) was extracted from 'Oroblanco' grapefruit type (triploid pummelo-grapefruit) albedo tissue, purified and partially characterized. Extraction was carried out at 4 degrees C with a high ionic strength extraction buffer. After dialysis and concentration by ultrafiltration the extract was chromatographed on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The PGIP activity was bound by the lectin and then eluted using 250 mM alpha-methyl mannopyranoside, resulting in a 17-fold purification of the PGIP and demonstrating its glycoprotein nature. The anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography steps that followed gave a PGIP that was 857-fold purified relative to the initial tissue extract, and having a 44 kDa molecular weight, as estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. PGIP inhibition activity was tested with endo-polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) produced by Penicillium italicum and Botrytis cinerea. The radial diffusion and reducing sugar assays showed that P. italicum and B. cinerea endo-PGs were affected by PGIP, whereas no endo-PG activity was detected in the culture filtrate of P. digitatum. In vitro tests revealed that PGIP inhibited P. italicum and B. cinerea growth. By contrast, the influence of PGIP on P. digitatum, growth was negligible, perhaps because this fungus does not produce endo-PG. Following heating for 10 min at 65 degrees C the inhibitory activity of PGIP was reduced by 43%. PGIP activity decreased further as heating temperature increased, and was completely suppressed after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min.

  2. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  3. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  4. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... food. The lemon oil and lemon essence (derived from lemons) content may be adjusted in accordance with... juice, as defined in this paragraph, may be preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration...

  5. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Bittman, Mark E.; Callahan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  7. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children

    Bittman, Mark E. [Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Department of Radiology, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Callahan, Michael J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. (orig.)

  8. SAF line powder operations

    Frederickson, J.R.; Horgos, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    An automated nuclear fuel fabrication line is being designed for installation in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) near Richland, Washington. The fabrication line will consist of seven major process systems: Receiving and Powder Preparation; Powder Conditioning; Pressing and Boat Loading; Debinding, Sintering, and Property Adjustment; Boat Transport; Pellet Inspection and Finishing; and Pin Operations. Fuel powder processing through pellet pressing will be discussed in this paper

  9. Two layer powder pressing

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  10. Operation whey powder

    Brunner, E.

    1987-01-01

    The odyssey of the contaminated whey powder finally has come to an end, and the 5000 tonnes of whey now are designated for decontamination by means of an ion exchange technique. The article throws light upon the political and economic reasons that sent the whey powder off on a chaotic journey. It is worth mentioning in this context that the natural radioactivity of inorganic fertilizers is much higher than that of the whey powder in question. (HP) [de

  11. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  12. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  13. Spray Drying of Spinach Juice: Characterization, Chemical Composition, and Storage.

    Çalışkan Koç, Gülşah; Nur Dirim, Safiye

    2017-12-01

    The 1st aim of this study is to determine the influence of inlet and outlet air temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of obtained powders from spinach juice (SJ) with 3.2 ± 0.2 °Brix (°Bx). Second, the effect of 3 different drying agents (maltodextrin, whey powder, and gum Arabic) on the same properties was investigated for the selected inlet/outlet temperatures (160/100 °C) which gives the minimum moisture content and water activity values. For this purpose, the total soluble solid content of SJ was adjusted to 5.0 ± 0.2 °Bx with different drying agents. Finally, the effects of different storage conditions (4, 20, and 30 °C) on the physical and chemical properties of spinach powders (SPs) produced at selected conditions were examined. A pilot scale spray dryer was used at 3 different inlet/outlet air temperatures (160 to 200 °C/80 to 100 °C) where the outlet air temperature was controlled by regulating the feed flow rate. Results showed that the moisture content, water activity, browning index, total chlorophyll, and total phenolic contents of the SP significantly decreased and pH and total color change of the SP significantly increased by the addition of different drying agents (P < 0.05). In addition, the changes in the above-mentioned properties were determined during the storage period, at 3 different temperatures. It was also observed that the vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds retention showed first-order degradation kinetic with activation energy of 32.6840, 10.2736, 27.7031, and 28.2634 kJ/K.mol, respectively. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Ethanol extract grapefruit peel ( Citrus maxima Murr.) gel formulations with gelling agent durian seed gum and carboxy methyl cellulose

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Nerdy

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the best gel formula of grapefruit ethanol extracts (Citrus maxima Murr.) with gelling agent combination durian seed gum and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). Durian seed gum was isolated with centrifuge and then combined with CMC-Na in five formulas. Evaluation material of topical gel that is its homogeneity, pH, stability testing, and irritation of the volunteers. All formula gel preparations its ...

  17. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels.

    Diab, Kawthar Ae

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl). Their cytotoxic and mitogenic proliferation activities were also studied in human leukemia HL60 cells and mouse splenocytes by CCK8 assay. In addition, genotoxic/ antigenotoxic activity was explored in mouse splenocytes using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) assay. Lemon peels had the highest of TPC followed by grapefruit and mandarin. In contrast, mandarin peels contained the highest of TFC followed by lemon and grapefruit peels. Among the extracts, lemon peel possessed the strongest antioxidant activity as indicated by the highest DPPH radical scavenging, the lowest effective concentration 50% (EC50= 42.97 ?g extract/ mL), and the highest Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC=0.157). Mandarin peel exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 77.8 ?g/mL) against HL60 cells, whereas grapefruit and lemon peels were ineffective antileukemia. Further, citrus peels possessed immunostimulation activity via augmentation of proliferation of mouse splenocytes (Tlymphocytes). Citrus extracts exerted noncytotoxic, and antigenotoxic activities through remarkable reduction of CAs induced by cisplatin in mouse splenocytes for 24 h. The phytochemical constituents of the citrus peels may exert biological activities including anticancer, immunostimulation and antigenotoxic potential.

  18. Modulation of hyperglycemia and TNFα-mediated inflammation by helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in diabetic db/db mice.

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Haslberger, Alexander G; Aumueller, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    Type-2 diabetes is associated with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation accompanied by an increased production of adipokines/cytokines by obese adipose tissue. The search for new antidiabetic drugs with different mechanisms of action, such as insulin sensitizers, insulin secretagogues and α-glucosidase inhibitors, has directed the focus on the potential use of flavonoids in the management of type-2 diabetes. Thirty six diabetic male C57BL/6J db/db mice were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned into four experimental groups: non-treated control, (n = 8); acarbose (5 mg per kg bw, n = 8); helichrysum (1 g per kg bw, n = 10) and grapefruit (0.5 g per kg bw, n = 10) for 6 weeks. The mRNA expression in pancreas, liver and epididymal adipose tissue was determined by RT-PCR. DNA methylation was quantified in epididymal fat using pyrosequencing. Mice supplemented with helichrysum and grapefruit extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels (p helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improved hyperglycemia through the regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver and reduction of the expression of proinflammatory genes in the liver and visceral fat. The hypermethylation of TNFα in adipose tissue may contribute to reduce the inflammation associated with diabetes and obesity.

  19. The Influence of Different Interstock Lengths of Minneola Tanjelo on Photosynthetic Parameters and Fruit Yield of Star Ruby Grapefruit

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Minneola Tangelo hybrid, a cross of grapefruit and mandarin (Duncan grapefruit x Dancy mandarin, used as interstock to Star Ruby grapefruit with different lengths. Effects of different interstock lengths on fruit yield and quality, plant development and photosynthetic parameters were investigated. According to the results, different interstock lengths significantly affected fruit yield and size. The highest fruit yield was determined in T-M20-S whereas the lowest was on T-M5-S. The highest fruit size were determined in Star Ruby fruits on T-M5-S and T-M40-S whereas the lowest on T-M20-S and T-S (control. T-M40-S and T-M20-S treatments markedly reduced stem diameter and tree canopy in comparison to other treatments and control. Usage of different interstock lengths did not significantly affected some of fruit quality traits, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rate, leaf water usage efficiency and leaf chlorophyll concentration. In regards to seasonal changes, net photosynthetic rate were higher in spring and summer seasons then winter and fall seasons.

  20. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  1. A Phase 1 Pharmacokinetic Study of Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release Capsules Following Oral Administration with Orange Juice, Water, or Omeprazole in Cystinosis.

    Armas, Danielle; Holt, Robert J; Confer, Nils F; Checani, Gregg C; Obaidi, Mohammad; Xie, Yuli; Brannagan, Meg

    2018-02-01

    Cystinosis is a rare, metabolic, autosomal recessive, genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an accumulation of cystine in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine bitartrate (CB) is a cystine-depleting aminothiol agent approved in the United States and Europe in immediate-release and delayed-release (DR) formulations for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. It is recommended that CBDR be administered with fruit juice (except grapefruit juice) for maximum absorption. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that inhibits gastric acid secretion and, theoretically, may cause the premature release of cysteamine by increasing intragastric pH, thereby affecting the PK of CBDR. This open-label, three-period, randomized study in healthy adult subjects was designed primarily to compare the pharmacokinetics of CBDR capsules after a single oral dose administered with orange juice, water, or multiple oral doses of omeprazole with water at steady state. A total of 32 subjects were randomly assigned to receive study agents in one of two treatment sequences. All subjects completed the study and baseline characteristics of the overall population and the two treatment sequence populations were similar. Peak mean plasma cysteamine concentrations following co-administration of CBDR capsules with orange juice (1892 ng/mL) were higher compared with co-administration with water (1663 ng/mL) or omeprazole 20 mg and water (1712 ng/mL). Mean time to peak plasma concentration was shorter with omeprazole co-administration (2.5 h) compared with orange juice (3.5 h) or water (3.0 h). Statistical comparisons between treatment groups indicated that exposure as assessed by AUC 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max were all within the 80-125% bioequivalence ranges for all comparisons. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate DR capsules are not significantly impacted by co-administration with orange juice

  2. Sintered aluminium powders

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  3. Vascular and Nutrigenomic effects of a long-term grapefruit juice consumption: a controlled randomized cross-over study in post-menopausal women

    Habauzit, Veronique; Milenkovic, Dragan; Verny, Marie-Anne; Boby, Céline; Mazur, André; Dubray, Claude; Morand, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of some flavonoid rich foods has been shown to induce improvements in several intermediate markers of cardiovascular risk. Citrus fruits constitute a food source rich in a particular class of flavonoids, that of flavanones. Based on recent epidemiological data as well as on a large number of pre-clinical studies, citrus flavanones may exhibit interesting cardioprotective properties. However clinical evidences accounting for a benefit in consuming dietary flavanones to improve ...

  4. Development and characterization of a new encapsulating agent from orange juice by-products.

    Kaderides, Kyriakos; Goula, Athanasia M

    2017-10-01

    The replacement of maltodextrins as carriers for the spray drying of sticky and sugar based bioactives is an important development for the food industry. In this work, orange juice industry by-product was used to obtain a high dietary fiber powder to be used as carrier material. This powder was characterized with respect to its physical and chemical properties related to the process of encapsulation by spray drying. Adsorption isotherms of orange waste powder were determined at 30, 45, and 60°C. The data were fitted to several models including two-parameter (BET, Halsey, Smith, and Oswin), three-parameter (GAB), and four-parameter (Peleg) relationships. The GAB model best fitted the experimental data. The isosteric heat of sorption was determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperatures (T g ) of orange waste powder conditioned at various water activities were determined and a strong plasticizing effect of water on T g was found. These data were satisfactory correlated by the Gordon and Taylor model. The critical water activity and moisture content for the orange waste powder were 0.82 and 0.18g water/g solids, respectively, at a storage temperature of 25°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Maltodextrin and Spray Drying Process Conditions on Sugarcane Juice Powder Quality / Influencia de la Maltodextrina y Condiciones del Proceso de Secado por Aspersión en la Calidad del Polvo de Jugo de Caña Panelera

    Esteban Largo Ávila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Food powder liquid extracts obtained from fruits andvegetables can be manufactured using spray drying technologieswhile maintaining the quality attributes that are required by theindustrial sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectof maltodextrin and spray drying process conditions on sugarcanejuice powder. A central composite design was used with a responsesurface analysis of four factors: (A maltodextrin (10-20%, (Binlet air temperature (130-150 °C, (C outlet air temperature (75-85 °C and (D atomization speed (22,000–26,000 rpm. Moisture,hygroscopicity, solubility, effective recovery and formation ofdeposits on the walls presented significant differences (P<0.05with respect to all factors, while, for water activity, no statisticaldifferences were observed. The optimization of the factors foundfor the drying operating conditions were: (A 20%, (B 130 °C, (C75 °C and (D 22,000 rpm, respectively. / Resumen. Polvos alimentarios de extractos líquidos obtenidos apartir de frutas y vegetales pueden ser manufacturados usandotecnologías de secado por aspersión y mantener los atributosde calidad requeridos en el sector industrial. El objetivo de esteestudio fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de maltodextrina y lascondiciones de procesamiento por secado por aspersión en laobtención de polvo de jugo de caña. Un diseño central compuestoy análisis mediante superficies de respuesta con cuatro factoresestadísticos fue establecido: (A maltodextrina (10-20%, (Btemperatura del aire de secado a la entrada (130-150 °C, (Ctemperatura del aire a la salida (75-85 °C y (D velocidad deldisco atomizador (22.000–26.000 rpm. Los resultados mostraronque las variables contenido de humedad del producto, solubilidad,recuperación efectiva y formación de depósitos de sólidos en lapared del secador son estadísticamente significativos (P<0,05 conrespecto a los factores estudiados, mientras que la actividad deagua del producto

  6. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  7. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    This survey aimed to evaluate knowledge and safe usage of jungle juice on patients in ... patterns and safety measures employed during use of jungle juice among ... Regarding the specific antidote for severe local anesthetic toxicity and its ...

  8. Measurement of loose powder density

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  9. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  10. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice

    Haixia Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in ‘Fuji’ apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning. The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o-diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  11. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  12. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  13. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  14. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of...

  15. Stable-isotope composition of the water of apple juice

    Bricout, Jacques; Merlivat, Liliane

    1973-01-01

    By deuterium and oxygen 18 analysis, it was shown that apples' water is enriched in heavier isotopes as compared to rain water. The isotopic composition of the water of reconstituted apple juice is closed to the isotopic content of the rain water used for dilution. Thus, deuterium and oxyden 18 analysis allows a good analytical distinction between natural apple juice and reconstituted juices [fr

  16. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (Pcholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  17. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice

    Grønborg, Mads; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Kristiansen, Troels Zakarias

    2004-01-01

    Proteomic technologies provide an excellent means for analysis of body fluids for cataloging protein constituents and identifying biomarkers for early detection of cancers. The biomarkers currently available for pancreatic cancer, such as CA19-9, lack adequate sensitivity and specificity...... contributing to late diagnosis of this deadly disease. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive characterization of the "pancreatic juice proteome" in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreatic juice was first fractionated by 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequently analyzed by liquid...... in this study could be directly assessed for their potential as biomarkers for pancreatic cancer by quantitative proteomics methods or immunoassays....

  18. An Exposed-Core Grapefruit Fibers Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor

    Xianchao Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of air hole coating and analyte filling in microstructured optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors, we designed an exposed-core grapefruit fiber (EC-GFs-based SPR sensor. The exposed section of the EC-GF is coated with a SPR, supporting thin silver film, which can sense the analyte in the external environment. The asymmetrically coated fiber can support two separate resonance peaks (x- and y-polarized peaks with orthogonal polarizations and x-polarized peak, providing a much higher peak loss than y-polarized, also the x-polarized peak has higher wavelength and amplitude sensitivities. A large analyte refractive index (RI range from 1.33 to 1.42 is calculated to investigate the sensing performance of the sensor, and an extremely high wavelength sensitivity of 13,500 nm/refractive index unit (RIU is obtained. The silver layer thickness, which may affect the sensing performance, is also discussed. This work can provide a reference for developing a high sensitivity, real-time, fast-response, and distributed SPR RI sensor.

  19. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy.

    Brandin, Helena; Myrberg, Olle; Rundlöf, Torgny; Arvidsson, Ann-Kristin; Brenning, Gunilla

    2007-06-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of a GSE product for 3 days. The female patient experienced a minor subcutaneous haematoma 3 days later, and her international normalised ratio (INR) value was 7.9. This was reported to the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) as a spontaneous post-marketing report concerning adverse drug reactions/interactions. The composition of the GSE products was determined by proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The inhibitory effect of the GSE products on the cytochrome P450 enzymes was tested in an in vitro baculosome assay. The NMR analysis showed that all three investigated GSE products contained the synthetic preservative benzethonium chloride (BTC) in addition to glycerol and water. No authentic GSE extract was found in any of the three GSE products analysed. Furthermore, BTC was found to be a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. Our results suggest that BTC in the GSE products is responsible for the increase in the INR value in a patient on warfarin treatment.

  1. Effect of hot water and gamma radiation on postharvest decay of grapefruit

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    'Marsh' seedless white Florida grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were inoculated after harvest with a spore suspension of green mold (Penicillium digitatum Sacc.) and treated by immersion in hot water (50°C for 5 min) or irradiation with gamma rays (250 Gy) from a Cobalt-60 source or a combination of the two treatments. Fruit were wrapped individually with shrink film after hot water treatment and before irradiation and were stored with wrapped control fruit at 24°C for 9 days. Fruit treated with hot water developed less green mold rot than untreated fruit, even when treatment was delayed for 72 hr after inoculation. Fruit irradiated after a delay of 2 hr, but not 24-72 hr, after inoculation developed less rot than untreated fruit. Development of green mold rot was not significantly different in fruit treated with both hot water and irradiation than with hot water alone. No visible injury or off-flavors were detected in any of the fruit. (author)

  2. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  3. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  4. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  5. Don't Take This with That!

    Full Text Available ... receives no benefit. Grapefruit can also interfere with enzymes that break down drugs in your digestive system. ... cross between tangerines and grapefruit) affect the same enzyme as grapefruit juice, so avoid these fruits as ...

  6. Don't Take This with That!

    Full Text Available ... of problems. How it does or doesn’t work Depending on the active ingredient, grapefruit can reduce ... and tangelos (a cross between tangerines and grapefruit) affect the same enzyme as grapefruit juice, so avoid ...

  7. Characteristics of Inconel Powders for Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristics and behaviors of virgin and recycled Inconel powder for powder-bed additive manufacturing (AM were studied using different powder characterization techniques. The results revealed that the particle size distribution (PSD for the selective laser melting (SLM process is typically in the range from 15 μm to 63 μm. The flow rate of virgin Inconel powder is around 28 s·(50 g−1. In addition, the packing density was found to be 60%. The rheological test results indicate that the virgin powder has reasonably good flowability compared with the recycled powder. The inter-relation between the powder characteristics is discussed herein. A propeller was successfully printed using the powder. The results suggest that Inconel powder is suitable for AM and can be a good reference for researchers who attempt to produce AM powders.

  8. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  9. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  10. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  11. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  12. Quality of jinchen orange juice treated with irradiation and pasteurization

    Qiao Yu; Cheng Wei; Wang Shaohua; Xiong Guangquan; Liao Li; Chen Xueling; Fan Gang; Pan Siyi

    2010-01-01

    Jinchen orange juice was treated by pasteurization and irradiation (1.4, 2.8 and 5.6 kGy) to study the effects of sterilization methods on quality of orange juice. The volatile compounds were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction method combined with GC-MS. The juice color, pH and Vc content were determined, and sensory evaluation of the juice were evaluated. The results showed a total of 54, 47, 57, 55, 53 kinds of compounds were detected in fresh juice, pasteurized juice and 3 irradiated juices, respectively. The irradiated juices had bigger peak area of volatile compounds than pasteurized juice,and the biggest peak area was found in 2.8 kGy irradiation sample. β - myrcene, D - limonene and γ-terpinene, which were the characteristic aroma compounds in orange juice, were detected a higher level in irradiation sample than pasteurization. Vc content and aroma decreased after all treatments. The sample after 1.4 kGy treatment showed highest score in sensory evaluation. It was concluded that low dose irradiation could be used in sterilization processing of orange juice. (authors)

  13. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    2010-04-01

    ...). The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  14. Natural pomegranate juice reduces inflammation, muscle damage ...

    Ammar Achraf

    Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of natural pomegranate juice (POMj) rich in ... POMj rich in polyphe- nols seems to have a power anti-inflammatory effect and to be an effective treatment for patients who ... cellular transcription factors such as the nuclear factor NF-kB. (NF-kB), tumor ...

  15. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  16. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Improvement of the half-embryo test for detection of gamma-irradiated grapefruit and its application to irradiated oranges and lemons

    Kawamura, Y.; Uchiyama, S.; Saito, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The duration of the half-embryo test used for identification of gamma-irradiated grapefruit was shortened by increasing germination temperature to 35 degrees C. Maximum shooting percentages were reached within 3 days. Gibberellin application reduced the required incubation time to 2 days. Half-embryos extracted from irradiated orange and lemon gave similar results to those of grapefruit. This half-embryo test is proposed as an identification method for irradiated citrus. Assessment can be made after 3 to 4 days when shooting percentage is greater than 50%

  18. Quantification of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid, a new natural colon cancer chemopreventive agent, by HPLC-DAD in grapefruit skin extract.

    Genovese, S; Epifano, F; Carlucci, G; Marcotullio, M C; Curini, M; Locatelli, M

    2010-10-10

    Oxyprenylated natural products (isopentenyloxy-, geranyloxy- and the less spread farnesyloxy-compounds and their biosynthetic derivatives) represent a family of secondary metabolites that have been consider for years merely as biosynthetic intermediates of the most abundant C-prenylated derivatives. Many of the isolated oxyprenylated natural products were shown to exert in vitro and in vivo remarkable anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. 4'-Geranyloxyferulic acid [3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans-propenoic] has been discovered as a valuable chemopreventive agent of several types of cancer. After development of a high yield and "eco-friendly" synthetic scheme of this secondary metabolite, starting from cheap and non-toxic reagents and substrates, we developed a new HPLC-DAD method for its quantification in grapefruit skin extract. A preliminary study on C18 column showed the separation between GOFA and boropinic acid (having the same core but with an isopentenyloxy side chain), used as internal standard. The tested column were thermostated at 28+/-1 degrees C and the separation was achieved in gradient condition at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with a starting mobile phase of H(2)O:methanol (40:60, v/v, 1% formic acid). The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) was 0.5 microg/mL and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) was 1 microg/mL. Matrix-matched standard curves showed linearity up to 75 microg/mL. In the analytical range the precision (RSD%) values were extract of grapefruit. In conclusion, this method showed LOQ values able to selective quantification of this analyte in grapefruit skin extract.

  19. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  20. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Oxidative Stability and Quality Properties of Cured Chicken Breast.

    Kang, Su-Tae; Son, Hee-Kyoung; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Yang-Il; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidative and functional effects of a curing agent containing grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on the quality and storage characteristics of chicken breast. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of GSE were 45.06 mg/g and 36.06 mg/g, respectively. The IC 50 value of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydroxyl scavenging of GSE was 333.33 μg/mL. The chicken breast comprised six groups: no-treatment (N), 0.2% ascorbic acid + 70 ppm sodium nitrite (C), 0.05% GSE (G0.05), 0.1% GSE (G0.1), 0.3% GSE (G0.3), and 0.5% GSE (G0.5). The pH and cooking loss of cured chicken breast decreased with increasing GSE levels, and the water holding capacity increased with increasing GSE levels. The hardness and chewiness of GSE-treated chicken breast were higher than those of N and C. Hunter's L and a color values increased significantly after GSE addition. Moreover, 0.1% GSE (G0.1) increased the flavor and total acceptability scores. The 2-thiobarbituric acid and volatile basic nitrogen values of the 0.5% GSE group decreased significantly compared with those of C group. Total microbial counts of GSE-treated chicken breast were higher than those of C, but that lower than those of N. Adding GSE to chicken breast delayed lipid peroxidation and had antimicrobial effects during cold storage. GSE improved shelf life and palatability; therefore, it could be used as a natural antioxidant and functional curing agent ingredient in meat products.

  2. Weighing fluidized powder

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  3. Baking Powder Wars

    Civitello, Linda

    2017-01-01

    How did a mid-nineteenth century American invention, baking powder, replace yeast as a leavening agent and create a culinary revolution as profound as the use of yeast thousands of years ago?The approach was two-pronged and gendered: business archives, U.S. government records and lawsuits revealed how baking powder was created, marketed, and regulated. Women’s diaries and cookbooks—personal, corporate, community, ethnic—from the eighteenth century to internet blogs showed the use women made o...

  4. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  6. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    Nagaraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.

  7. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  8. Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts.

    Bekiroglu, Somer; Myrberg, Olle; Ostman, Kristina; Ek, Marianne; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Rundlöf, Torgny; Hakkarainen, Birgit

    2008-08-05

    A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600MHz BB probe and CryoProbe, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.

  9. Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract.

    Ganzera, Markus; Aberham, Anita; Stuppner, Hermann

    2006-05-31

    Grapefruit seed extracts are used in cosmetics, food supplements, and pesticides because of their antimicrobial properties, but suspicions about the true nature of the active compounds arose when synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium chloride were found in commercial products. The HPLC method presented herein allows the quality assessment (qualitative and quantitative) of these products for the first time. On the basis of a standard mixture of 18 preservatives most relevant for food and grapefruit products, a method was developed allowing the baseline separation of all compounds within 40 min. Optimum results were obtained with a C-8 stationary phase and a solvent system comprising aqueous trifluoroacetic acid, acetonitrile, and 2-propanol. The assay was fully validated and shown to be sensitive (LOD or = 96.1%), repeatable (sigma(rel) < or = 3.5%), precise (intra-day variation < or = 4.5%, interday variation < or = 4.1%), and rugged. Without any modifications the method could be adopted for LC-MS experiments, where the compounds of interest were directly assignable in positive ESI mode. The quantitative results of several products for ecofarming confirmed previous studies, as seven out of nine specimens were adulterated with preservatives in varying composition. The samples either contained benzethonium chloride (2.5-176.9 mg/mL) or benzalkonium chloride (138.2-236.3 mg/mL), together with smaller amounts of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid.

  10. Yield, Esterification Degree and Molecular Weight Evaluation of Pectins Isolated from Orange and Grapefruit Peels under Different Conditions

    Sayah, Mohamed Yassine; Chabir, Rachida; Benyahia, Hamid; Rodi Kandri, Youssef; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Touzani, Hanan; Errachidi, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Orange (Citrus sinensis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradise) peels were used as a source of pectin, which was extracted under different conditions. The peels are used under two states: fresh and residual (after essential oil extraction). Organic acid (citric acid) and mineral acid (sulfuric acid) were used in the pectin extraction. The aim of this study is the evaluation the effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield, degree of esterification “DE” and on molecular weight “Mw”. Results showed that the pectin yield was higher using the residual peels. Moreover, both peels allow the obtainment of a high methoxyl pectin with DE >50%. The molecular weight was calculated using Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation which describes its relationship with intrinsic viscosity. This later was determined using four equations; Huggins equation, kramer, Schulz-Blaschke and Martin equation. The molecular weight varied from 1.538 x1005 to 2.47x1005 g/mol for grapefruit pectin and from 1.639 x1005 to 2.471 x1005 g/mol for orange pectin. PMID:27644093

  11. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: I. An in vitro agar assay.

    Reagor, Lee; Gusman, Jean; McCoy, Lana; Carino, Edith; Heggers, John P

    2002-06-01

    Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) Citricidal has, in recent reports, been reported to be successful in combating a variety of common infectious agents. In our study, drops of concentrated grapefruit-seed extract were tested for antibacterial properties against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Sixty-seven (67) distinct biotypes were tested for their susceptibilities to the GSE as well as to 5 other topical antibacterials (Silvadene, Sulfamylon, Bactroban, Nitrofurazone, and Silvadene, Nystatin). Wells were punched into Mueller-Hinton agar plates, which were then inoculated with the organism to be tested; each well was then inoculated with one of the antibacterial agents. After an overnight incubation period, the plates were checked for zones of bacterial susceptibility around the individual wells, with a measured susceptibility zone diameter of 10 mm or more considered a positive result. The GSE was consistently antibacterial against all of the biotypes tested, with susceptibility zone diameters equal to or greater than 15 mm in each case. Our preliminary data thus suggest an antibacterial characteristic to GSE that is comparable to that of proven topical antibacterials. Although the GSE appeared to have a somewhat greater inhibitory effect on gram-positive organisms than on gram-negative organisms, its comparative effectiveness against a wide range of bacterial biotypes is significant.

  12. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  13. Powder neutron diffractometers

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  14. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  15. Laser cladding with powder

    Schneider, M.F.; Schneider, Marcel Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is directed to laser cladding with powder and a CO2 laser as heat source. The laser beam intensity profile turned out to be an important pa6 Summary rameter in laser cladding. A numerical model was developed that allows the prediction of the surface temperature distribution that is

  16. Statement on ‘toothkind’ juice drinks

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    or sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with an equivalent number of servings of „toothkind‟ juice drink. In the context of the claim, „reduction of tooth demineralisation‟ has a similar meaning to „maintenance of tooth mineralisation‟. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011....... consumption of a beverage is an appropriate measure of the potential of beverages for demineralisation of dental enamel. „Toothkind‟ drinks have little or no potential for enamel demineralisation by this process, while typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages do have the potential for demineralisation...... of dental enamel. However, the beneficial effect (reducing net tooth demineralisation) of replacing typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages with „toothkind‟ juice drinks was only shown to occur at a frequency of consumption of typical sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages of 7 times daily...

  17. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of limonoids and flavanois in seeds of grapefruits, other citrus species, and dietary supplements

    A selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-didode array detector-quadrapole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS) method has been developed to screen grapefruit seeds, and other citrus seed samples for limonoid aglycones, limonoid acids, limonoid glucosides and flavonoid...

  18. Effect of irradiation and blanching on the quality of juices of Spuriopinella bracycarpar during storage

    Oh, D.H.; Ham, S.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, B.K.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    The research was investigated to determine the effect of irradiation or blanching either alone or in combination on the shelf-life of juices of Spuriopinella bracycarpar during storages. The juices was made from fresh or blanced Spuriopinella bracycarpar and gamma irradiated at the doses (0.5 kGy to 5 kGy). Microbial growth, color change, vitamin C, and sensory evaluation were evaluated during storage at 4 and 25℃. Blanched juices had little effect on the inhibition of microbial growth compared to that of fresh juices. However, significant reduction of microbial counts was observed in the 0.5 kGy irradiation of both juices and inhibition efficiency was greatly increased when irradiated juices was stored at 4℃ rather than at room temperature. Fresh juices without irradiation were little different from the irradiated fresh juices until 20d storage on color change because the juices was rapidly browned immediately after getting the juices from extractor, but blanched juices showed more bright and clear color than that of fresh juices. However, irradiated blanched juices showed greatly reduced the L, a, and b value compared to the non-irradiated blanched juices during storage. The loss of vitamin C from non-irradiated fresh juices was increased during storage and the irradiated fresh juices had little effect on the vitamin C change compared to the non-irradiated fresh juices. However, blanched juices showed less reduction of vitamin C than fresh juices and the irradiated blanched juices had little difference on the vitamin C change compared to the non-irradiated blanched juices, and both treatment showed less vitamin C loss at 4℃ storage. Fresh juces showed more strong grass flavor and biterness than blanched juices and irradiated fresh juices showed little difference on brightness, grass flavor, bitterness, freshness and acceptability, but irradiated blanched juices had better sensory evaluation on grass flavor, bitterness, freshness, and acceptability than non

  19. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  20. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  1. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Rajendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  2. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  3. Method to blend separator powders

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  4. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  5. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  6. STUDY ON THE ACCEPTABILITY OF YOGHURT WITH CARROT JUICE

    Ana LEAHU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the results of a study regarding the evaluation of the sensory characteristics and consumers’ acceptance of unsweetened yoghurt with carrot juice. The yoghurts were obtained considering three carrot juice levels (10%, 20% and 30%, respectively and two starter cultures. Carrot yoghurt was prepared in the laboratory by adding carrot juice to milk and inoculated with a 3% yoghurt culture. The effects of the carrot juice on the sensory quality and consumers’ aceptance of the yoghurt samples were determined. The data obtained on various parameters were statistically analyzed.

  7. The effect of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection on the proteomic profiles and nutritional status of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) plants.

    Nwugo, Chika C; Lin, Hong; Duan, Yongping; Civerolo, Edwin L

    2013-04-11

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is an associated causal agent of the disease. To better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to Las, 2-DE and mass spectrometry analyses, as well as ICP spectroscopy analysis were employed to elucidate the global protein expression profiles and nutrient concentrations in leaves of Las-infected grapefruit plants at pre-symptomatic or symptomatic stages for HLB. This study identified 123 protein spots out of 191 spots that showed significant changes in the leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection and all identified spots matched to 69 unique proteins/peptides. A down-regulation of 56 proteins including those associated with photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and metabolism was correlated with significant reductions in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in leaves of grapefruit plants in response to Las infection, particularly in symptomatic plants. Oxygen-evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins, a PSI 9 kDa protein, and a Btf3-like protein were among a small group of proteins that were down-regulated in both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants in response to Las infection. Furthermore, a Las-mediated up-regulation of 13 grapefruit proteins was detected, which included Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, chitinases, lectin-related proteins, miraculin-like proteins, peroxiredoxins and a CAP 160 protein. Interestingly, a Las-mediated up-regulation of granule-bound starch synthase was correlated with an increase in the K concentrations of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic plants. This study constitutes the first attempt to characterize the interrelationships between protein expression and nutritional status of Las-infected pre-symptomatic or symptomatic grapefruit plants and sheds light on the physiological and molecular

  8. Efficacy of a grapefruit extract on head lice: a clinical trial.

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars

  9. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  10. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  11. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Dispersing powders in liquids

    Nelson, RD

    1988-01-01

    This book provides powder technologists with laboratory procedures for selecting dispersing agents and preparing stable dispersions that can then be used in particle size characterization instruments. Its broader goal is to introduce industrial chemists and engineers to the phenomena, terminology, physical principles, and chemical considerations involved in preparing and handling dispersions on a commercial scale. The book introduces novices to: - industrial problems due to improper degree of dispersion; - the nomenclature used in describing particles; - the basic physica

  13. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  14. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  15. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel.

    Kang, H J; Chawla, S P; Jo, C; Kwon, J H; Byun, M W

    2006-03-01

    The suitability of citrus peels, generated as a by-product of the juice industry, as a source of antioxidants was investigated. Citrus peel powder was prepared by lyophilizing 70% ethanol extract from citrus peels. Extraction was carried out at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 72 h. The extract was subjected to gamma-irradiation treatment (20 kGy). The aqueous solutions of citrus peel powder were examined for color characteristics and antioxidant potential in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities. There were significant changes in Hunter color values due to irradiation. The a*- and b*-values decreased due to radiation treatment. DPPH radical scavenging, beta-carotene bleaching and nitrite scavenging activities were not affected by irradiation treatment. Nitrite scavenging activity was the highest in the extract at pH 1.2 followed by pH 4.2 and 6.0. These functional properties of the aqueous solution were found to be stable in heat treatment. It could significantly improve oxidative stability of lipids in fish meat system. Based on these results there may be opportunities to use citrus peel powder as a functional component in the food processing industry with gamma irradiation treatment improving its color characteristics without adversely influencing the functional properties.

  16. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  17. Cranberry juice for urinary tract infection in children

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2012-01-01

    Question Several children in my clinic are recovering from urinary tract infections (UTI). A mother of one of the children asked me if I recommended cranberry juice for children to prevent future episodes of UTI. She was given cranberry juice after she suffered from a UTI several months ago.

  18. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  19. Anti-Oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces ...

    Conclusion: Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly decreased oxidative damage thereby making a positive impact on yeast development. Key words: Pomegranate juice, SDS-PAGE, fatty acid, vitamin.

  20. Vitamin C stability in pineapple, guava and baobab juices under ...

    MASAMBA

    associated with many health benefits such as promoting health cell ... such as juices are processed to ensure availability even when they are not in ... as fruit juices to extend the shelf life. The use of .... results show that vitamin C was highly retained in freezing .... College of Agriculture for providing funding for the work.

  1. Antifungal effects of sisal leaf juice on Lasiodiplodia theobromae ...

    Among the nine varieties, the inhibition effects of hybrid 76416 and Agave americana were the best with absolute inhibition of all the leaf juice treatments against the mycelial growth, followed by Agave Amaniensis, Agave virdis, Agave angustifolia and Hybrid 11648. The inhibitory effect of some fresh juices would be cut ...

  2. Cottage processing of cashew apple juice in Nigeria: physico ...

    Some manually operated equipment were employed for cottage processing of cashew apples into juice. These include an extractor, mixer pasteuriser and a bottling machine. The apples were preheated with steam for 10, 20 and 30 minutes before juice extraction. The average capacity and efficiency of the extractor were ...

  3. Quality of physalis (Physalis pubescenss L.) juice packaged in glass ...

    The objective of our study was to prepare a new processed pasteurized Physalis juice and to study the effects of storage and packaging on its nutritional properties. The pulp was yellowish or orange with a yield of 64%. The fresh juice had a light sweet and acidic taste (pH 3.5). The titratable acidity was 1.43%, polyphenols ...

  4. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  5. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    2013-08-01

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  6. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    2013-08-02

    ... Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year reviews... determines that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would...), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1105-1106 (Review). By order of...

  7. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  8. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  9. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  10. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  11. Chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed extract grafted onto cellulose fibers by a non-toxic procedure.

    Alonso, Diana; Gimeno, Miquel; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José D; Shirai, Keiko

    2010-04-19

    A novel non-toxic procedure is described for the grafting of chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed oil extract onto cellulose. The cellulose was previously UV-irradiated and then functionalized from an aqueous emulsion of the chitosan with the essential oil. The novel materials are readily attained with durable fragrance and enhanced antimicrobial properties. The incorporation of chitosan as determined from the elemental analyses data was 16.08+/-0.29 mg/g of sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) provided further evidence for the successful attachment of chitosan microcapsules containing the essential oil to the treated cellulose fibers. The materials thus produced displayed 100% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis up to 48 h of incubation. Inhibition of bacteria by the essential oil was also evaluated at several concentrations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Modeling of lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices].

    Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation.

  13. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  14. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Angela; Cestone, Enza; Caturla, Nuria; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study. Results Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the

  15. Cecal parameters of rats fed diets containing grapefruit polyphenols and inulin as single supplements or in a combination.

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Estrella, Isabel

    2006-09-01

    We compared the effects of grapefruit flavonoids and inulin, as single dietary components or in a combination, on cecal fermentation in rats adapted to a semipurified diet. The experimental diets contained 0.3% flavonoid extract and 5% or 10% inulin and a combination of both supplements. The large bowel metabolism assessment was based on cecal parameters: bulk effect, pH, microbial enzymes activity, and short-chain fatty acid production. Both supplements induced significant enlargement of the cecal digesta weight. Acidification of cecal digesta was more pronounced, with a higher inulin addition to the diet. Cecal pH was the highest with the flavonoid-rich diets and lowest in the case of a simultaneous addition of flavonoids and a high content of inulin. The flavonoid extract applied as a single dietary supplement was observed to decrease the activity of bacterial beta-glucosidase and beta- and alpha-galactosidases in the cecal digesta. In contrast, addition of the grapefruit extract to inulin-containing diets increased the activity of alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase. Great accumulation of cecal digesta in rats consuming the flavonoid-diet caused a considerable increase in the short-chain fatty acid pool, mainly acetic acid. Inulin added to the diet decreased the excessive enlargement of digesta caused by dietary flavonoids. Dietary addition of inulin to the flavonoid-diet also normalized hydration of cecal digesta and significantly decreased the pH of digesta. The presence of polyphenols in the inulin-containing diets did not change total short-chain fatty acid production in the cecum of rats. Our results suggested that simultaneous intake of inulin and polyphenols can decrease the detrimental effects of the latter on cecal fermentation.

  16. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi polyphenols

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective: We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis and grapefruit (C. paradisi in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design: A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis, and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method were measured in the main study. Results: Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions: The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place

  17. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Diffraction. Powder, amorphous, liquid

    Sosnowska, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a unique tool to observe all possible diffraction effects appearing in crystal. High-resolution neutron diffractometers have to be used in this study. Analysis of the magnetic structure of polycrystalline materials requires the use of high-resolution neutron diffraction in the range of large interplanar distances. As distinguished from the double axis diffractometers (DAS), which show high resolution only at small interplanar distances, TOF (time-of-flight) diffractometry offers the best resolution at large interplanar distances. (K.A.)

  19. LARC powder prepreg system

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Thermoplastic prepregs of LARC-TPI have been produced in a fluidized bed unit on spread continuous fiber tows. The powders are melted on the fibers by radiant heating to adhere the polymer to the fiber. This process produces tow prepreg uniformly without imposing severe stress on the fibers or requiring long high temperature residence times for the polymer. Unit design theory and operating correlations have been developed to provide the basis for scale up to commercial operation. Special features of the operation are the pneumatic tow spreader, fluidized bed and resin feed systems.

  20. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    during cold storage (haze formation) is assumed to be due to protein–phenol interactions. Our results suggest that proteins play a decisive role in the formation of immediate turbidity in cherry juice, and point to that pectin may contribute to turbidity development during cold storage of cherry juice...

  1. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-01-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the sensory analyses

  2. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  4. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  5. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF APPLE JUICE ENRICHED BY HERBAL EXTRACTS

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal phytochemicals have recently become an attractive subject for scientists in many different research areas. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid content of apple juice enriched by water herbal extracts. Secondary was to evaluate sensory characteristic of enriched apple juice. It was found that applications of water herbal extracts to apple juice increase antioxidant activities, and also total polyphenol and flavonoid content with compare to pure apple juice. The highest biological activities were detected in apple juice with addition of lemon balm (14.42 mg TEAC/L; 84.38 mg TEAC/L; 50.88 mg GAE/L; 36.26 μg QE/L, oregano (14.92 mg TEAC/L; 79.97 mg TEAC/L; 50.51 mg GAE/L; 31.02 μg QE/L and salvia (8.40 mg TEAC/L; 30.40 mg TEAC/L; 23.33 mg GAE/L; 27.67 μg QE/L water extract. Sensorial analysis of samples showed, that enriched juices had better properties for evaluators with compared to pure juice. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of medicinal herbs in food industry, because plant bioactive compounds can play an important role in preventing cardiovascular diseases, cancers and reduction inflammatory action.

  6. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  7. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  8. Stability of unpasteurized and refrigerated orange juice

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The stability of orange juice obtained from a small extractor and stored in a polyethylene bottle was assessed under isothermal and non-isothermal storage conditions at 4, 8 and 12ºC for 72 hours. pH, titratable acidity and Brix did not alter significantly during the 72 hours storage. Microbiological analysis showed high initial count for moulds and yeasts that increased in the juice stored for 72h under the non-isothermal conditions with temperature abuse (12��C/4h. Date of the sensory evaluation showed a small reduction in product acceptance in this condition. The juice, in the recommended validity period (48h, presented losses of less than 20% of the initial ascorbic acid content regardless of the treatment. However, after this time, the degradation became accentuated reaching, at 72h storage, retentions of 72 to 85%.Desenvolvimento microbiano, ação enzimática e reações químicas influenciam a qualidade de suco de laranja natural não-pasteurizado, podendo comprometer características sensoriais e provocar perdas nutricionais. A estabilidade do suco, obtido em extrator de pequeno porte e acondicionado em embalagem de polietileno, foi avaliada em condições isotérmicas e não-isotérmicas de armazenamento em temperaturas entre 4 e 12ºC por 72h. Valores de pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais não se alteraram significativamente ao longo do armazenamento em todas as condições. Resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram alta contagem inicial de bolores e leveduras, que aumentaram no suco armazenado por 72h na condição não isotérmica onde houve abuso de temperatura (12ºC por 4h. Os testes sensoriais mostraram uma pequena redução na aceitação do produto nessa mesma condição. Constatou-se que o suco, no período preconizado como prazo de validade (48h, apresentou perdas inferiores a 20% do teor inicial de ácido ascórbico, independentemente do tratamento. A partir deste momento, a degradação se

  9. Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Limonoids and Flavonoids in Seeds of Grapefruits, Other Citrus Species, and Dietary Supplements.

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Gafner, Stefan; Manthey, John A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-01

    A selective UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS method was developed to screen grapefruit seeds, and the seeds of other Citrus species for limonoid aglycones, acids, glucosides, and flavonoids. These classes of compounds were identified in positive and negative ion modes over a mass-to-charge range from 100-1500. Accurate mass values, elution times, and fragmentation patterns obtained by QToF-mass spectrometry were used to identify or tentatively characterize the compounds detected in the sample of this study. Limonin was the major limonoid in most of the seeds of Citrus species, followed by nomilin. This analytical method was successfully applied for the analysis of commercial extracts and dietary supplements claiming to contain grapefruit seed extract, or extracts made from the seed and other fruit parts such as the peel or pulp. Many commercial products contained large numbers of flavonoids, indicating the use of peel, pulp, or seed coat. This method also permitted detection of synthetic preservatives such as benzethonium chloride, methylparaben, and triclosan in commercial grapefruit seed extract products. Out of the 17 commercial products analyzed, two contained the synthetic antimicrobial agent benzethonium chloride. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Adukwu, E C; Allen, S C H; Phillips, C A

    2012-11-01

    To determine the sensitivity of five strains of Staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (EOs) and to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit EOs. Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. All of the strains tested were susceptible to lemongrass, grapefruit, bergamot and lime EOs with zones of inhibition varying from 2·85 to 8·60 cm although they were resistant to lemon EO. Lemongrass EO inhibited biofilm formation at 0·125% (v/v) as measured by colorimetric assay and at 0·25% (v/v) no metabolic activity was observed as determined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction. Grapefruit EO did not show any anti-biofilm activity. Following exposure to lemongrass EO extensive disruption to Staph. aureus biofilms was shown under scanning electron microscopy. In comparison to the other EOs tested, lemongrass exhibited the most effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. The effect of lemongrass EO highlights its potential against antibiotic resistant Staph. aureus in the healthcare environment. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  13. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  14. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  15. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  16. Superconductors by powder metallurgy techniques

    Pickus, M.R.; Wang, J.L.F.

    1976-05-01

    Fabrication methods for Nb 3 Sn type compounds are described. Information is included on the Bell Telephone process, the General Electric tape process, superconductor stability, the bronze process, powder metallurgy multifilamentary tapes and wires, and current assessment of powder metallurgy superconducting wire

  17. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Landers, Timothy F; Dent, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (pnitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  18. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Timothy F Landers

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001. While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  19. Light extinction in metallic powder beds: Correlation with powder structure

    Rombouts, M.; Froyen, L.; Gusarov, A.V.; Bentefour, E.H.; Glorieux, C.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical correlation between the effective extinction coefficient, the specific surface area, and the chord length distribution of powder beds is verified experimentally. The investigated powder beds consist of metallic particles of several tens of microns. The effective extinction coefficients are measured by a light-transmission technique at a wavelength of 540 nm. The powder structure is characterized by a quantitative image analysis of powder bed cross sections resulting in two-point correlation functions and chord length distributions. The specific surface area of the powders is estimated by laser-diffraction particle-size analysis and by the two-point correlation function. The theoretically predicted tendency of increasing extinction coefficient with specific surface area per unit void volume is confirmed by the experiments. However, a significant quantitative discrepancy is found for several powders. No clear correlation of the extinction coefficient with the powder material and particle size, and morphology is revealed, which is in line with the assumption of geometrical optics

  20. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  1. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  2. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  3. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  4. comparative in vitro antioxidant properties of water juice from ...

    JUICE FROM SELECTED AFRICAN FRUITS CONSUMED IN ... from African star apple (Chrysophyllumafricanum) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) were significantly (p<0.05) higher .... the formula as given by Chinaka and colleagues, and.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Juice Beverages Available in Dar es

    SUBZERO/BETAONE/VDOWN

    against 15 commonly used antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Reference ... contaminants. MATERIALS AND METHODS .... to both raw materials and ready-to-use juices. [27]. ... in place the Hazard Analysis Critical Control.

  6. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  7. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  8. Development and Analysis of Quality Parameters of an Innovative Juice

    Anca FARCAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the functional products represent a sustainable trend in food industry due to the beneficial effects that they have on the human body as well as due to the increased interest of people for a healthy and balanced lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to develop and optimize a pumpkin and apple functional juice, respectively to accomplish the quality control in terms of its physicochemical and sensorial properties. The highest levels of vitamin C occurred in pumpkin and implicitly in the juice obtained in the 1:1 ratio, which also presented the highest antioxidant activity. The nitrates content was at very low level in all the analysed sample, with values between 24.7-41.2 mg/kg for apple and pumpkin, respectively between 28.41-30.94 mg/kg for juices. Also, the consumers were impressed by sensorial and nutritional properties of the new product, positively appreciating both variants of juice.

  9. Chemical and physicochemical characteristics changes during passion fruit juice processing

    Aline Gurgel Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit is widely consumed due to its pleasant flavour and aroma acidity, and it is considered very important a source of minerals and vitamins. It is used in many products such as ice-cream, mousses and, especially, juices. However, the processing of passion fruit juice may modify the composition and biodisponibility of the bioactive compounds. Investigations of the effects of processing on nutritional components in tropical juices are scarce. Frequently, only losses of vitamin C are evaluated. The objective of this paper is to investigate how some operations of passion fruit juice processing (formulation/homogeneization/thermal treatment affect this product's chemical and physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that the chemical and physicochemical characteristics are little affected by the processing although a reduction in vitamin C contents and anthocyanin, large quantities of carotenoids was verified even after the pasteurization stage.

  10. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... in Check Better Check Your Bowels Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  11. Anticoccidial efficacy of naringenin and a grapefruit peel extract in growing lambs naturally-infected with Eimeria spp.

    Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B

    2016-12-15

    The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached

  12. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice

    1997-01-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple's juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  13. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  15. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  16. Applications of stable Isotope ratios determinations in fruit juice authentication

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Voica, Cezara; Puscas, Romulus

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Adulteration of a product consists in making it impure by fraudulent addition of a foreign or inferior substance. The result is either an alteration of the product and of its quality or a falsification. The falsification is a voluntary act with the intention of abuse. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. Vacuum concentration with aroma does not affect the chemical composition of fruit juices and therefore the determination of deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 content in waters is the most confident procedure for differentiating between a natural single strength juice and a juice rediluted from a concentrate. This technique is based on the fact that when absorbed by a plant, the rainwater or the irrigation water is fractionated by evapotranspiration, and enriched in the heavy isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) with respect to the light isotope (hydrogen and oxygen-16, respectively). It is known that climatic conditions affect the isotope content of rain waters and therefore that of fruit juices waters: the warmer climate, the higher the deuterium and oxygen-18 contents in water. Rainwater and tap water have nearly the same isotopic content and the water of fruit juices derived from concentrate by dilution with tap water has an isotopic content close to that of tap water. This makes it easy to distinguish diluted concentrates from the isotopically more enriched water of authentic single strength juice. In this study, single strength juice, in Romanian fruits, were investigated by mean of stable isotope measurements (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon) in order to offer a discussion basis for the authenticity of some fruit juices currently available on Romanian market. (authors)

  17. Application of laser in powder metallurgy

    Tolochko, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Modern status of works in the field of laser application in powder metallurgy (powders preparation, sintering, coatings formation, powder materials processing) is considered. The attention is paid to the new promising direction in powder products shape-formation technology - laser layer-by-layer selective powders sintering and bulk sintering of packaged layered profiles produced by laser cutting of powder-based sheet blanks. 67 refs

  18. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  19. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice

    Prasetijio, L.D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice. Cloudy starfruit juice produced by juicing of the edible part of starfruit, then the obtained filtrate was formulated with citric acid, Na- CMC and different ratio of cane sugar and sorbitol i.e. 10.0%:0.0%, 7.5%:2.5%, 5.0%:5.0%, 2.5%:5.0% and 0.0%:10.0% (% b/v. Physicochemical characteristics of the starfruit juice were total soluble solids in a range of 9.20 and 11.90%, the viscosity of 8.27 and 8.65 cP, pH of 3.56 and 3.63; and titratable acidity of 0.29 and 0.31%. Those cane sugar and sorbitol ratios affected significantly only on the total soluble solids. Based on the sensory evaluation, starfruit juice with cane sugar and sorbitol ratio of 7.50%:2.50% had the highest total preference scores of color, appearance, and taste. Colloidal stability of the starfruit juices during 10 days storage was in a range of 86.26% and 88.18%.

  20. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice.

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-08-07

    To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  1. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  3. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  4. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  5. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  6. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  7. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity.

    Heggers, John P; Cottingham, John; Gusman, Jean; Reagor, Lee; McCoy, Lana; Carino, Edith; Cox, Robert; Zhao, Jian-Gang; Reagor, Lana

    2002-06-01

    Recent testimonials report grapefruit-seed extract, or GSE (Citricidal) to be effective against more than 800 bacterial and viral strains, 100 strains of fungus, and a large number of single and multicelled parasites. This study investigated GSE for antibacterial activity at varying time intervals and concentration levels and tissue toxicity at varying concentrations in an effort to determine if a concentration existed that was both microbicidal and nontoxic and in what period of time. Gram-negative and gram-positive isolates were introduced into graduated dilutions of GSE (twofold concentrations ranging from 1:1, through 1:512) for determination of bacterial activity. In vitro assays with human skin fibroblast cells were also performed at the same dilutions to determine toxicity. These tests indicated that from the 1:1 through the 1:128 concentrations, GSE remained toxic as well as bactericidal. However, test results indicated that at the 1:512 dilution, GSE remained bactericidal, but completely nontoxic. The initial data shows GSE to have antimicrobial properties against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms at dilutions found to be safe. With the aid of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the mechanism of GSE's antibacterial activity was revealed. It was evident that GSE disrupts the bacterial membrane and liberates the cytoplasmic contents within 15 minutes after contact even at more dilute concentrations.

  8. Extract of grapefruit-seed reduces acute pancreatitis induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats: possible implication of tissue antioxidants.

    Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Konturek, S J; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Pawlik, W W; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Naskalski, J W

    2004-12-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to exert antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of naringenin, the flavonoid with cytoprotective action on the gastric mucosa. No study so far has been undertaken to determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is known to result from reduction of anti-oxidative capability of pancreatic tissue, and whether its possible preventive effect involves an antioxidative action of this biocomponent. In this study carried out on rats with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by 30 min partial pancreatic ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, the GSE or vehicle (vegetable glycerin) was applied intragastrically in gradually increasing amounts (50-500 microl) 30 min before I/R. Pretreatment with GSE decreased the extent of pancreatitis with maximal protective effect of GSE at the dose 250 microl. GSE reduced the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum lipase and poly-C specific ribonuclease activity, and attenuated the marked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow.

  9. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  10. Microfiltration of red berry juice with thread filters: Effects of temperature, flow and filter pore size

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Casani, Sandra Dobon; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2002-01-01

    ) on the transmembrane pressure, juice turbidity, protein, sugar, and total phenols levels was evaluated in a lab scale microfiltration unit employing statistically designed factorial experiments. Thread microfiltration reduced significantly the turbidity of both juices. For blackcurrant juice, in all experiments......, the turbidity was immediately reduced to the level required for finished juice without compromising either the protein, the sugar or the phenols content. High flow rates increased the turbidity in blackcurrant juice, but did not affect cherry juice quality. Filtomat(R) thread microfiltration therefore appears...

  11. Ultrasonic wave propagation in powders

    Al-Lashi, R. S.; Povey, M. J. W.; Watson, N. J.

    2018-05-01

    Powder clumps (cakes) has a significant effect on the flowability and stability of powders. Powder caking is mainly caused by moisture migration due to wetting and environmental (temperature and humidity) changes. The process of moisture migration caking involves creating liquid bridges between the particles during condensation which subsequently harden to form solid bridges. Therefore, an effective and reliable technique is required to quantitatively and non-invasively monitor caking kinetics and effective stiffness. This paper describes two ultrasonic instruments (ultrasonic velocity pulse and airborne ultrasound systems) that have been used to monitor the caking phenomenon. Also, it discusses the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements and tracking caking kinetics and the effective stiffness of powders.

  12. Neutron Powder Diffraction in Sweden

    Tellgren, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction in Sweden has developed around the research reactor R2 in Studsvik. The article describes this facility and presents a historical review of research results obtained. It also gives some ideas of plans for future development

  13. Powder metallurgy - some economic considerations

    Kassem, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    As a forming process powder metallurgy offers reductions in material and energy consumption. The engineering prerequisites and economics are discussed in relation to several industrial applications including automobile parts. 14 refs.

  14. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)

  15. Dry and coating of powders

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  16. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  17. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  20. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  1. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  2. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  3. REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION OF ORANGE JUICE USING SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANES

    W. A. de ARAUJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  4. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  5. Deacidification of cranberry juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membranes.

    Rozoy, Elodie; Boudesocque, Leslie; Bazinet, Laurent

    2015-01-21

    Cranberry is recognized for its many benefits on human health; however, its high acidity may be a limiting factor for its consumption. This study aimed to investigate the deacidification of cranberry juice using a two simultaneous step electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) process. In step 1 (deacidification), during the 6 h treatment, the pH of the juice increased from 2.47 to 2.71 and a deacidification rate of 22.84% was obtained, whereas in step 2 (pH lowering) the pH of juice 2 was almost stable. Citric, quinic, and malic acid were extracted with a maximum of 25% and were mainly transferred to the KCl 2 fraction. A significant loss of anthocyanins in juice 2 (step 2) was observed, due to their oxidation by oxygen incorporated by the centrifugal pump. This also affected its coloration. The first step of the EDBM process was successful for cranberry juice deacidification and could be improved by increasing the number of membranes stacked.

  6. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis).

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  7. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  8. Processing of mixed fruit juice from mango, orange and pineapple

    Sajeda Begam

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to prepare mixed fruit juice by using mango pulp, pineapple and orange juices and the quality in terms of nutritional value, keeping quality, shelf life and consumers’ acceptability were investigated. Chemical analysis showed that TSS, acidity were increased slightly whereas vitamin C and pH were decreased gradually during the storage periods. Storage studies were carried out up to one month with an interval of one week and the result showed that all the samples were in good condition after one month, though little bit of faded color was found at the end of storage periods. Sample with 35% mango juice, 40% orange juice and 25% pineapple secured the highest score on sensory evaluation and showed the best consumer acceptance. This research reveals that perishable fruits can be converted to attractive mixed juice and thus increase the shelf-life, which increase value of the product. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(2.000: 440-445

  9. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Danesi, Francesca; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2017-08-30

    Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  10. Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?

    Francesca Danesi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials.

  11. Gamma radiation and the conservation of natural orange juice

    Iemma, Juliana; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Domarco, Rachel Elisabeth; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Blumer, Lucimara; Matraia, Clarice

    1999-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation was evaluated on the microbiological population, soluble solids content, acidity, p H and ascorbic acid content of natural orange juice. Microbial activity may cause deterioration of orange juice. Irradiation is a process of food conservation which eliminates microorganisms. nevertheless radiation may affect some characteristics of irradiated food. The experimental design was a 4 x 5 factorial scheme, including control and 3 rates of irradiation (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kGy) and 5 storage periods (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days), with 2 replicates. Samples of juice were extracted from variety Pera oranges and irradiated at a rate of 2.0 kGy/h ( 60 Cobalt) and thereafter stored at 5 +- 3 deg C. Results showed small changes in soluble solids content, acidity and p H, for all treatments. The ratio soluble solids/acidity was also determined and showed little variation for all treatments. There was a reduction on ascorbic acid content of the orange juice with increased radiation dosage and storage time. Gamma radiation was effective in reducing the microbiological population of the juice. (author)

  12. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pyogurt. PMID:28078255

  13. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  14. Applying of dietary fiber from sugar beet for diffusion juice purification

    V. A. Loseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pilot study examined the effects of dietary fiber and filtroperlit on the efficiency of juice purification. The rational consumption of combined sorbent is determined, sorbent contact time with juice and temperature is defined.

  15. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste ( P antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  16. Shock diffraction in alumina powder

    Venz, G.; Killen, P.D.; Page, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    In order to produce complex shaped components by dynamic compaction of ceramic powders detailed knowledge of their response under shock loading conditions is required. This work attempts to provide data on release effects and shock attenuation in 1 μm and 5 μm α-alumina powders which were compacted to between 85 % and 95 % of the solid phase density by the impact of high velocity steel projectiles. As in previous work, the powder was loaded into large cylindrical dies with horizontal marker layers of a contrasting coloured powder to provide a record of powder displacement in the recovered specimens. After recovery and infiltration with a thermosetting resin the specimens were sectioned and polished to reveal the structure formed by the passage of the projectile and shock wave. Results indicate that the shock pressures generated were of the order of 0.5 to 1.4 GPa and higher, with shock velocities and sound speeds in the ranges 650 to 800 m/s and 350 to 400 m/s respectively

  17. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Therma...

  18. Health benefit of vegetable/fruit juice-based diet: Role of microbiome

    Henning, Susanne M.; Yang, Jieping; Shao, Paul; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Ly, Austin; Hsu, Mark; Lu, Qing-Yi; Thames, Gail; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vege...

  19. Analyzing Households’ Fruit Juice Consumption and Purchasing Tendency: A Case Study From Isparta

    Gul, Mevlut; Akpinar, Goksel; Dagistan, Erdal; Yilmaz, Hilal; Gulcan, Sinem

    2011-01-01

    The investments of fruit juice industry had been begun in 1969 in Turkey and accelerated since 1983 in modern sense. 37 fruit juice firms are officially registered as trademark. The fruit juice consumption per head was increased in the beginning of 1970s by about 13 fold augmentation, however, this value is still considerably lower than the developed countries. Relatively high fresh fruit consumption is caused lower fruit juice consumption in Turkey. However, an increasing in the domestic dem...

  20. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  1. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  2. Thermal tolerance of acid-adapted and unadapted Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

    Sharma, M; Adler, B B; Harrison, M D; Beuchat, L R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to determine D values of acid-adapted and unadapted cells of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice. Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, S. enterica serotype Saphra, two strains of E. coli O157:H7, and two strains of L. monocytogenes were grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and TSB supplemented with 1% glucose for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Decimal reduction times (D values) of cells suspended in unpasteurized cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice were determined. Acid-adapted cells of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, but not L. monocytogenes, had increased thermal tolerance compared with cells that were not acid-adapted. There was no correlation between soluble solids content of the two types of juice and thermal resistance. Growth of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in cantaloupe juice, watermelon juice, or other acidic milieu, either in preharvest or postharvest environments, may result in cross protection to heat. The pasteurization conditions necessary to achieve elimination of pathogens from these juices would consequently have to be more severe if cells are habituated to acidic environments. Insights from this study provide guidance to developing pasteurization processes to eliminate Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes in cantaloupe juice and watermelon juice.

  3. Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation.

    Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C

    2018-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK.

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of human and rat hepatic lipid metabolism by the grapefruit flavonoid naringenin: role of PPARalpha, PPARgamma and LXRalpha.

    Jonathan Goldwasser

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis is an important factor in the development of prevalent metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, small molecules that could reduce insulin dependence and regulate dyslipidemia could have a dramatic effect on public health. The grapefruit flavonoid naringenin has been shown to normalize lipids in diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, as well as inhibit the production of HCV. Here, we demonstrate that naringenin regulates the activity of nuclear receptors PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and LXRalpha. We show it activates the ligand-binding domain of both PPARalpha and PPARgamma, while inhibiting LXRalpha in GAL4-fusion reporters. Using TR-FRET, we show that naringenin is a partial agonist of LXRalpha, inhibiting its association with Trap220 co-activator in the presence of TO901317. In addition, naringenin induces the expression of PPARalpha co-activator, PGC1alpha. The flavonoid activates PPAR response element (PPRE while suppressing LXRalpha response element (LXRE in human hepatocytes, translating into the induction of PPAR-regulated fatty acid oxidation genes such as CYP4A11, ACOX, UCP1 and ApoAI, and inhibition of LXRalpha-regulated lipogenesis genes, such as FAS, ABCA1, ABCG1, and HMGR. This effect results in the induction of a fasted-like state in primary rat hepatocytes in which fatty acid oxidation increases, while cholesterol and bile acid production decreases. Our findings explain the myriad effects of naringenin and support its continued clinical development. Of note, this is the first description of a non-toxic, naturally occurring LXRalpha inhibitor.

  6. Study on biologically active substances in irradiated apple juice

    Tencheva, S.

    1975-01-01

    The radiochemical changes proceeding by irradiation of foodstuffs rich in carbohydrates are studied. For the purpose pure solutions of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose and fresh apple juice, irradiated with 0,5 and 1,0 Mrad are investigated. Changes set in UV-spectra of the irradiated foodstuffs, the specific reaction of malonic dialdehyde formation with 2-thiobarbituric acid and the formation of carbonyl compounds reacting with 2,4-dinitro phenylhydrazine are studied. Results show that in the irradiated sample solutions of sugars and apple juice two peaks are formed. The malonic dialdehyde formation depends on the dose of irradiation applied. The newly formed carbonyl compounds both in the sample solutions and in the juice are 8 to 9 in number. (author)

  7. Quantitative Fate of Chlorogenic Acid during Enzymatic Browning of Potato Juice

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO3 (S control). To study the

  8. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  9. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-840] Certain Orange Juice From... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of...\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20, 2012...

  10. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  11. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production

    ESHMATOV FOZIL KHIDIROVICH; MAKSUMOVA DILRABO KUCHKAROVNA; DODAEVA LAYLO KUCHKAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  12. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  13. Evidence of Immunosuppressive and Th2 Immune Polarizing Effects of Antidiabetic Momordica charantia Fruit Juice.

    Fachinan, Rufine; Fagninou, Adnette; Nekoua, Magloire Pandoua; Amoussa, Abdou Madjid; Adjagba, Marius; Lagnika, Latifou; Lalèyè, Anatole; Moutairou, Kabirou; Yessoufou, Akadiri

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation. However, the filtered fruit and leafy stem juices significantly inhibited PHA-stimulated T cell proliferation, while neither juice influenced T cell proliferation. Moreover, total and filtered fruit juice increased IL-4 secretion, while total and filtered leafy stem juice enhanced IFN- γ production. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyans, steroids, and triterpenoids in both juices. Alkaloids, quinone derivatives, cardenolides, and cyanogenic derivatives were undetectable. The saponins present in total juices were undetectable after filtration. Moreover, both juices had appreciable antioxidant capacity. Our study supports the type 1 antidiabetic effect of filtered fruit juice of M. charantia which may be related to its immunosuppressive and T-helper 2 cell inducing capacities. Due to their immune-stimulatory activities and their ability to increase T-helper 1 cell cytokines, total fruit and leafy stem juices may serve in the treatment of immunodeficiency and certain infections.

  14. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  15. Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling

    Anderson, J.-O.; Elfgren, E.; Westerlund, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a juice production was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of drying cycle improvements at the energy usage were explored. • The total heat use for drying could thereby be decreased with 52%. • The results point out a significant decrease of heat consumption with low investment costs. - Abstract: Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality

  16. Dehydration of jambolan [Syzygium cumini (L.)] juice during foam mat drying: Quantitative and qualitative changes of the phenolic compounds.

    Iasnaia Maria de Carvalho, Tavares; Nogueira, Tuany Yuri Kuboyama; Mauro, Maria Aparecida; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva

    2017-12-01

    Jambolan [Syzygium cumini (L.)] berries are a popular fruit in Brazil, renowned for their high phenolic compound (PC) content. These PCs have antioxidant, antibacterial, and other characteristics that may be beneficial to human health. The objective of the study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes of the main phenolic compounds (PCs) (anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydrolysable tannins) in the jambolan fruit, the produced fruit juice, and in the corresponding dehydrated powders obtained by foam mat drying (60, 70, and 80°C) and lyophilization (control). The PCs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n ). Juice production resulted in a more pronounced degradation of anthocyanins than flavonols, and facilitated the extraction of hydrolysable tannins. Elevation of the dehydration temperature negatively impacted the anthocyanin content of the products; on the other hand, the flavonols and hydrolysable tannins were more sensitive to oxidation and heating time during dehydration, respectively, than dehydration temperature. In summary, it can be concluded that processing at 70°C is most suitable, in light of the least loss of nutritional quality of the product with processing time. This study directly informs further investigations into preparation of high-quality jambolan fruit products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Microencapsulation by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Technique on the Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Juice Polyphenolic Compounds

    Wilkowska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.

  18. Electro-driven extraction of polar compounds using agarose gel as a new membrane: Determination of amino acids in fruit juice and human plasma samples.

    Sedehi, Samira; Tabani, Hadi; Nojavan, Saeed

    2018-03-01

    In this work, polypropylene hollow fiber was replaced by agarose gel in conventional electro membrane extraction (EME) to develop a novel approach. The proposed EME method was then employed to extract two amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) as model polar analytes, followed by HPLC-UV. The method showed acceptable results under optimized conditions. This green methodology outperformed conventional EME, and required neither organic solvents nor carriers. The effective parameters such as the pH values of the acceptor and the donor solutions, the thickness and pH of the gel, the extraction voltage, the stirring rate, and the extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (acceptor solution pH: 1.5; donor solution pH: 2.5; agarose gel thickness: 7mm; agarose gel pH: 1.5; stirring rate of the sample solution: 1000rpm; extraction potential: 40V; and extraction time: 15min), the limits of detection and quantification were 7.5ngmL -1 and 25ngmL -1 , respectively. The extraction recoveries were between 56.6% and 85.0%, and the calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients above 0.996 over a concentration range of 25.0-1000.0ngmL -1 for both amino acids. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 5.5-12.5%, and relative errors were smaller than 12.0%. Finally, the optimized method was successfully applied to preconcentrate, clean up, and quantify amino acids in watermelon and grapefruit juices as well as a plasma sample, and acceptable relative recoveries in the range of 53.9-84.0% were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    Denisova, E.A.; Lazarev, P.I.; Vazina, A.A.; Zheleznaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure. (author)

  20. Acetone and acetaldehyde determination in tomato juice by isotopic dilution

    Piva, M.-T.; Crouzet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Acetone and acetaldehyde content of tomato juice were determined by isotope dilution techniques. The juice is added to 14 C labelled compounds, carried along by nitrogen at low pressure. The mixture of 2.4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained from volatile compounds is separated by thin layer chromatography on silica gel and then on alumina. A determination of radioactivity and concentration of acetone and acetaldehyde 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained after separation and elution allow to calculate the content of these two compounds in the initial product with the same sample. This technique could be used for determination of methanol and ethanol after transformation in 3,5 dinitrobenzoates [fr

  1. Fibres as carriers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus during freeze-drying and storage in apple juice and chocolate-coated breakfast cereals.

    Saarela, Maria; Virkajärvi, Ilkka; Nohynek, Liisa; Vaari, Anu; Mättö, Jaana

    2006-11-01

    The capability of different fibre preparations to protect the viability and stability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus during freeze-drying, storage in freeze-dried form and after formulation into apple juice and chocolate-coated breakfast cereals was studied. In freeze-drying trials wheat dextrin and polydextrose proved to be promising carriers for the L. rhamnosus strains: both freeze-drying survival and storage stability at 37 degrees C were comparable to the control carrier (sucrose). Using apple fibre and inulin carriers resulted in powders with fairly good initial freeze-drying survival but with poor storage stability at 37 degrees C. When fresh L. rhamnosus cells were added into apple juice (pH 3.5) together with oat flour with 20% beta-glucan the survival of the cells was much better at 4 degrees C and at 20 degrees C than with sucrose, wheat dextrin and polydextrose, whereas with freeze-dried cells no protective effect of oat flour could be seen. The stability of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus cells at 20 degrees C was higher in chocolate-coated breakfast cereals compared to low pH apple juice. Similar to freeze-drying stability, wheat dextrin and polydextrose proved to be better carriers than oat flour in chocolate-coated breakfast cereals. Regardless of their differing capability to adhere to fibre preparations the two L. rhamnosus strains studied gave parallel results in the stability studies with different carriers.

  2. Method of solidifying powderous wastes

    Kakimoto, Akira; Miyake, Takashi; Sato, Shuichi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the properties of solidification products, in the case of solidifying powderous wastes with thermosetting resins. Method. A solvent for the solution of the thermosetting resin is admixed with the powderous wastes into a paste-like form prior to adding the resin to the wastes, which are then mixed with the resin solution. As the result, those solidification products having the specific gravity and the compression strength more excellent than those of the conventional ones, and much higher than the reference values can be obtained. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Co-administration of fresh grape fruit juice (GFJ and bergamottin prevented paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose in rats

    Refuoe Baleni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate small doses of known cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors, grapefruit juice (GFJ and one of its components, bergamottin (BGT, for the prevention of paracetamol (PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after overdose in rats. Six groups of 15 Sprague Dawley (SD rats each were treated with single oral doses of either saline, PAR only 1725 mg/kg, PAR + GFJ low dose (2 ml and PAR + GFJ high dose (3 ml, PAR + BGT 0.05 mg/kg (BGT-low and PAR + BGT 0.22 mg/kg (BGT-high. Thereafter, 5 rats from each group were sacrificed after 24, 48 and 72 h and, on each occasion, blood samples were collected for determination of liver and renal function, full blood count (FBC and PAR concentration. A piece of liver was sent for histopathology. By 48 h the liver enzymes in the PAR-only group were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than in the PAR + GFJ and PAR + BGT groups, i.e., alanine transaminase (ALT 837 ± 268 u/L and aspertate transaminase (AST 1359 ± 405 for PAR only; versus ALT 34 ± 48.8 u/L and AST 238 ± 221 for PAR + GFJ-high; ALT 22 ± 13.9 and AST168 ± 49.6 for PAR + BGT-high; and ALT 52 ± 7.2 u/L and AST 147 ± 153 for the control group. The results correlated with the histopathology findings where livers of the PAR-only group exhibited severe centrilobular and hepatocyte necrosis. In conclusion, GFJ and BGT prevented PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after PAR overdose in rats, and this calls for appropriate observation studies in humans.

  4. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  5. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock.

    Mizuri Marutani-Hert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. SIGNIFICANCE: The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid.

  6. A dark incubation period is important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature internode explants of sweet orange, grapefruit, citron, and a citrange rootstock.

    Marutani-Hert, Mizuri; Bowman, Kim D; McCollum, Greg T; Mirkov, T Erik; Evens, Terence J; Niedz, Randall P

    2012-01-01

    Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees. Factors important for promoting shoot regeneration from internode explants from adult phase citrus trees were identified and included a dark incubation period and the use of the cytokinin zeatin riboside. Transgenic trees were produced from four citrus types including sweet orange, citron, grapefruit, and a trifoliate hybrid using the identified factors and factor settings. The critical importance of a dark incubation period for shoot regeneration was established. These results confirm previous reports on the feasibility of transforming mature tissue from sweet orange and are the first to document the transformation of mature tissue from grapefruit, citron, and a trifoliate hybrid.

  7. Grape juice quality control by means of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Grandizoli, Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Simonelli, Fabio; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the application of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single {sup 1}H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration. (author)

  8. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercially available fruit juices

    Yawar, W.; Rahman, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out for the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe in different varieties of commercially available packed fruit juices like apple, mango orange and mixed flavour by using flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. These juices are available at a reasonable price and are commonly used by public. Like many other articles the baseline levels of essential and toxic elements in Pakistani fruit juices are generally not available. It was, therefore, considered to monitor the levels of essential as well toxic elements in the juices. Hence a variety of juices was collected from local market and measurements of the above mentioned elements were made. (author)

  9. Evaluation of radurizited and pasteurized fruits juices during 12 months of storage

    Wilska-Jeszka, J.; Skorupinska, A.

    1975-01-01

    Stability of radurized red and black currant, bilberry, plum and tomato juices, stored at a temperature of 20+-3 0 C, was investigated. With 60 Co as radiation source, doses of 0,5 to 1,5 Mrad were applied. In a 12-month period no significant changes in pH, total and volatile acidity were found. Anthocyanic pigment and ascorbic acid losses were greater in radurized than in pasteurized juices. No organoleptic changes occurred after irradiation with 1 Mrad in tomato juices, very little change in plum and bilberry juices and considerable unfavorable changes in currant juice

  10. Influence of kinnow juice on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in healthy male volunteers.

    Garg, S K; Bhargava, V K; James, H; KuJan-Mar, N; Prabhakar, S; Naresh, Ku

    1998-01-01

    Kinnow juice produces a marked and variable increase in carbamazepine bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine was studied after drug administration with 300 ml water or kinnow juice in a randomized cross over trial on nine healthy male volunteers. With kinnow juice peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) was significantly (P kinnow juice enhances carbamazepine bioavailability could be due to inhibition of cytochrome P-450 enzyme, since kinnow juice contains naringin which is considered to be inhibitor of liver microsomal dihydropyridine oxidation.

  11. Metallography of powder metallurgy materials

    Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F.

    2003-01-01

    The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly

  12. Electro/powder separation process

    Dunn, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented to introduce the ELECTRO/POWDER process to the P/M Industry. The process effectively uses electrostatic forces to convey, sort, meter, and blend fine powders. The major advantages of this separating process consist of the processing of primary particles, low particle energy due to particle velocity control and the pattern of particle movement over the sieve (vertical oscillation of particles above the sieve aperture). The report briefly describes the forces involved in both mechanical and sieving devices, with major emphasis on the operating principles of this process. Sieve separation of particulates is basically the result of two physical separating processes which occur simultaneously or independently; separation (dispersion) of particulates from each other and the size separation by passage through fixed apertures. In order to accomplish this goal, mechanical sieving devices utilize various motions to induce shear forces between the sieve surface and the particulates, and between the particulates themselves. It is noted that the ELECTRO/POWDER process is making steady progress in becoming an industrial tool for sieving and feeding of fine particles. Its potential extends into both the blending and admixing of powders, either by incorporating two opposing feeders, one being charged with the opposite polarity or by modifying the ELECTRO/SIEVE to incorporate more than one input and a solid electrode to replace the sieve electrode

  13. Effect of Extraction, Pasteurization and Cold Storage on Flavonoids and other Secondary Metabolites in Fresh Orange Juice

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have nutrients and phytonutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. To evaluate this, 'Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, r...

  14. Effect of extraction method on quality of orange juice: hand-squeezed, commercial-fresh squeezed and processed

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have flavor and nutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. In this study, ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, resulting in...

  15. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  16. Don't Take This with That!

    Full Text Available ... and tangelos (a cross between tangerines and grapefruit) affect the same enzyme as grapefruit juice, so avoid ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  17. Don't Take This with That!

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration that can have negative interactions with grapefruit. As little as one cup of ... medicine interacts with grapefruit juice. Related Information Drug Interactions: What You Should Know More in Special Features ...

  18. Don't Take This with That!

    Full Text Available ... are currently working on breeding hybrid grapefruits that will be safe to mix with medications. In the ... If it’s OK to have grapefruit juice, there will be no mention of it in the guide ...

  19. Don't Take This with That!

    Full Text Available ... Administration that can have negative interactions with grapefruit. As little as one cup of juice or two grapefruit wedges ... delay, decrease, or enhance absorption of certain drugs; as a result, the patient does not receive the ...

  20. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    . Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 muM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 muM GAE. White.......96, P acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly...

  1. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  3. Variation in fruit juice consumption among infants and toddlers: associations with WIC participation.

    McElligott, James T; Roberts, James R; Varadi, Eliza A; O'Brien, Elizabeth S; Freeland, Katherine D; Basco, William T

    2012-07-01

    Juice is a common component of a child's diet. Excessive juice consumption may lead to adverse nutritional and dental outcomes. The objective of the study was to evaluate consumption patterns and parental perception regarding juice in a sample of children from families participating or not participating in Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services. Parents of children aged 12 months to 5 years completed a survey consisting of questions about beverage intake and related opinions. Practices were selected to provide a mix of families who do and do not use WIC services. Comparisons were made by WIC use and by quantity of juice consumption. Of 173 surveys, 51% of participants had received benefits from the WIC program. Overall, children who drank larger quantities of fruit juice drank less milk. One-third of all of the parents who responded to the survey reported that they believed that juice was at least as healthy as fresh fruit, with WIC parents reporting this belief more often (56% vs 9%; P juice before their child reached age 12 months, and this was more likely in WIC families (78% vs 54%; P juice consumption is associated with decreased milk consumption. Many parents expressed a belief that juice was at least as healthful as fresh fruit. Being a WIC recipient was associated with an earlier introduction of juice into a child's diet and a greater perception that juice was healthful.

  4. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  5. Moringa extracts used in sugarcane juice treatment and effects on ...

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugarcane juice treatment using Moringa oleifera leaf and seeds extracts on ethanolic fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a split plot statistical design, with four replications. Main treatments were three sedimentation agents (synthetic polyelectrolyte, ...

  6. Health benefits of orange juice and citrus flavonoids

    The main flavonoids found in orange juice are hesperidin and naringenin, which can affect several metabolic routes that improve blood serum antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory performance, while decreasing insulin resistance protecting against diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, or...

  7. Environmental assessment of organic juice imported to Denmark

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Langer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    -scale farmers imported to Denmark, followed by the farm stage (23%), especially the truck transport of fresh oranges in Brazil and of reconstituted orange juice in Europe. Non-renewable energy use per hectare was significantly lower on the organic small-scale farms than on the conventional, with a similar...

  8. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  9. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    2012-04-13

    ... Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation No. 731-TA-1089...

  10. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    . It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt extract (YM) medium. Ethanol ...

  11. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. .... the fruit market in D/Line area of Port Harcourt. .... [16] Neville A.M. 2006 . Properties of concrete. 4th ed.,. Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi, India. [17] NIS 235 (1987). Nigerian Industrial Standards. Standards for ...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic ( Allium ...

    Statistically significant (P<0.05) reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN) was more lethal (causing 93% adult mortality), when applied topically on the freshly emerged S. zeamais adults, compared to the ...

  13. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five ...

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of freeze dried fruit juices (FDFJ) of Morinda elliptica Ridl. (Rubiaceae), Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Phyllantus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllantaceae) and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) in Allium cepa L was evaluated. Testing the ...

  14. High pressure and foods -fruit/vegetable juices

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Kocurová, K.; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Fiedlerová, V.; Holasová, M.; Gabrovská, D.; Paulíčková, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2006), s. 386-398 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : high-pressure pasteurisation * Foods * Broccoli juice Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  15. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  17. Fermentation potentials of Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa juice ...

    This study aimed to determine the fermentation potentials of yeast isolates from Citrus limon and Hibiscus sabdariffa for the fermentation of juice extracts of C. limon and H. sabdariffa. Isolation and morphological studies of yeast cells were carried out by standard protocols. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) ...

  18. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    usage of jungle juice on patients in Kenyan public hospitals. Objectives: To .... and the management of the selected institutions ... given to 10kg child indicated that none of the surgeons ... 38(5.8%); burn surgery 37(5.6%); dentistry 24(3.6%).

  19. Comparison of bioactive components in pressurized and pasteurized longan juices fortified with encapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-06-01

    In this study, longan juice was subjected to a high pressure of 500 MPa for 30 min and compared with a juice pasteurized at 90°C/2 min. Probiotic Lactobacillus casei 01 was fortified into both juices and the shelf life of these products was studied. Their bioactive components such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid and ellagic acid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Total phenolic compounds and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrythydrazyl radical-scavenging activity were determined by colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. It was found that the pressurized longan juice retained higher amounts of bioactive compounds than the pasteurized juice. In terms of storage stability, bioactive compounds in both processed juices decreased according to the increase in storage time. The survivability of probiotic L. casei 01 in both processed juices declined from 9 to 6 log CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage.

  20. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Tsuruoka, Shu-ichi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Hasegawa, Gohki; Obi, Yuri; Kaneda, Tae; Takahashi, Masaki; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Fujimura, Akio

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate a potential interaction between cranberry juice and diclofenac, a substrate of CYP2C9. METHODS The inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on diclofenac metabolism was determined using human liver microsome assay. Subsequently, we performed a clinical trial in healthy human subjects to determine whether the repeated consumption of cranberry juice changed the diclofenac pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Cranberry juice significantly suppressed diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, repeated consumption of cranberry juice did not influence the diclofenac pharmacokinetics in human subjects. CONCLUSIONS Cranberry juice inhibited diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in human subjects. Based on the present and previous findings, we think that although cranberry juice inhibits CYP2C9 activity in vitro, it does not change the pharmacokinetics of medications metabolized by CYP2C9 in clinical situations. PMID:19694738

  1. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also......-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted...

  2. Investigation on the Ultrasonic Nozzle Parameters Affecting Physical Properties of Tomato Powder

    M. R Arjomandi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Preserving food products has been much regarded due to the population growth and food scarcity. Drying food is one of the methods of preventing the waste of food products. Spray drying for which products that are initially in the liquid phase is the most suitable method of drying the moisture. In this method, the solution is turned into particles and droplets via mechanism and synchronous collision with the hot air that enters the drying case. Moisture content is one important aspect of the food powder which is associated with an increase of adhesion. The particles size is an important feature of the product due to its effect on the product appearance, solubility, and powder fluidity. Materials and Methods In this study for producing tomato powder, 10 kg of tomato available in the market which was not good and did not have a good appearance but suitable for juicing was supplied. A meat grinder was used for juicing. Tomato juice was filtered to become pure. Tomato juice was put in the 1.5 lit bottles and was kept in the refrigerator for experiments. To spray the tomato juice, an ultrasonic nozzle with 20 kHz frequency was used. Energy sources (TOPSONICS 400W, 20 kHz was used to provide the atomizer power with adjustable power from 0 to 400 W. In this study a hot-plate spray dryer was used to change the tomato juice into powder. An oven was used to measure the tomato powder moisture content. 0.5 g of tomato powder was weighed and was put in the oven with 70°C for 24 hours to be dried to lose moisture. To measure the size of the particles the analysis of two-dimensional images was used. The photos were taken with optical microscope OLYMPUS CX21‏equipped with a digital camera- SONY DSC-HX1. To illustrate the photos, the Digimizer software was applied. SAS software was used for further statistical analysis. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance results indicated that the effect of the studied parameters was significant on the

  3. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  4. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Adele Costabile

    Full Text Available A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice. Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  5. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  6. Investigation of pressing of molybdenum powder compacts

    Mymrin, S.A.; Kuznetsov, V.Eh.; Yampol'skij, M.L.; Leonov, S.A.; Mikhridinov, R.M.; Korzukhin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into pressing of compacts of MCh type molybdenum powders using the industrial equipment are presented. To measure the density of powder molybdenum billets a radioisotopic density meter with cesium-137 is used as radioactive gamma radiation source. The dependence of the produced billet density on the specific compacting pressure at different values of the powder bulk density is ascertained

  7. MECHANICS OF DYNAMIC POWDER COMPACTION PROCESS

    Nurettin YAVUZ

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, interest in dynamic compaction methods of metal powders has increased due to the need to improve compaction properties and to increase production rates of compacts. In this paper, review of dynamic and explosive compaction of metal powders are given. An attempt is made to get a better understanding of the compaction process with the mechanicis of powder compaction.

  8. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  11. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of

  12. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  13. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  14. Separation of UO2 powder

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al 3 O 3 and UO 2 . it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO 2 fraction additionally by sedimentation method

  15. Manufacture of uranium dioxide powder

    Becker, M.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium dioxide powder is prepared by the AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) method. Supplementing the known process steps, the AUC, after separation from the mother liquor, is washed with an ammonium hydrogen carbonate or an NH 4 OH solution and is subsequently post-treated with a liquid which reduces the surface tension of the residual water in an AUC. Such a liquid is, for instance, alcohol

  16. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  17. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  18. Sucralfate protects blood clots from peptic digestion by gastric juice in vitro.

    Nysaeter, Gunnar; Berstad, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    To test in vitro the ability of sucralfate to protect a blood clot from peptic digestion by gastric juice. Blood clots adhering to the bottom of plastic tubes were exposed to native acidic gastric juice or gastric juice to which Al-Mg antacids, sucralfate or alkali had been added. The tubes were tilted regularly at room temperature and clot digestion monitored by measuring the diameters of the clots. After 15 h, the liquids, but not the adherent clots, were poured out and the tubes refilled with native acidic gastric juice. Further clot digestion was measured, as before. Native gastric juice digested the clots completely during approximately 7 h, while in neutralized gastric juice or in gastric juice containing antacids or sucralfate no digestion was seen. In the second experiment, native gastric juice completely digested all remaining clots, except those previously exposed to sucralfate. A dose-response study indicated that gastric juice containing 3% or more of sucralfate had this long-lasting, clot-protective effect. In vitro, sucralfate adheres to and protects blood clots from digestion by gastric juice pepsin. This unique effect of sucralfate may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  20. Comparison of Pancreas Juice Proteins from Cancer Versus Pancreatitis Using Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    Chen, Ru; Pan, Sheng; Cooke, Kelly; Moyes, Kara White; Bronner, Mary P.; Goodlett, David R.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. However, it often shares many molecular features with pancreatic cancer. Biomarkers present in pancreatic cancer frequently occur in the setting of pancreatitis. The efforts to develop diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer have thus been complicated by the false-positive involvement of pancreatitis. Methods In an attempt to develop protein biomarkers for pancreatic cancer, we previously use quantitative proteomics to identify and quantify the proteins from pancreatic cancer juice. Pancreatic juice is a rich source of proteins that are shed by the pancreatic ductal cells. In this study, we used a similar approach to identify and quantify proteins from pancreatitis juice. Results In total, 72 proteins were identified and quantified in the comparison of pancreatic juice from pancreatitis patients versus pooled normal control juice. Nineteen of the juice proteins were overexpressed, and 8 were underexpressed in pancreatitis juice by at least 2-fold compared with normal pancreatic juice. Of these 27 differentially expressed proteins in pancreatitis, 9 proteins were also differentially expressed in the pancreatic juice from pancreatic cancer patient. Conclusions Identification of these differentially expressed proteins from pancreatitis juice provides useful information for future study of specific pancreatitis-associated proteins and to eliminate potential false-positive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. PMID:17198186

  1. Microbiological testing and physical and chemical analysis of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water
    Avaliação microbiológico e caracterização físico-quimica de refrescos e água de coco

    F. B. PILÓ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water sold for immediate consumption in bars, restaurants and bakeries, and by street vendors in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbial quality was determined by counting coliforms, yeasts, staphylococci and salmonellae. Total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids of these beverages were recorded. For coconut water samples, the total reducing sugar content was also determined. The “juices” collected included reconstituted orange, cashew and grape-fl avored juice powders and concentrated cashew juice. Sixty samples of these juices and 45 of coconut water were collected. More than half (55% of the juice samples did not comply with current Brazilian legislation, which states that there must be a total absence of coliforms in a 50 mL sample. Sixteen percent of the coconut water samples exceeded the bacterial count limits defi ned in Brazilian law, with thermotolerant coliform densities above 102 MPN / mL. The high levels of sugar and low pH found in the coconut water were possibly related to the high yeast counts in most samples. Forty-seven percent of coconut water samples showed staphylococcal counts above 103 CFU/mL. The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and staphylococci found suggest unsatisfactory hygienic practices during the preparation of these beverages. Salmonellae were not detected in any of the samples. The physical and chemical properties of the drinks varied among the samples. Our results suggest that both the reconstituted juices and coconut waters need better hygienic and sanitary control.

  2. Simultaneous identification and quantification by liquid chromatography of benzethonium chloride, methyl paraben and triclosan in commercial products labeled as grapefruit seed extract.

    Avula, B; Dentali, S; Khan, I A

    2007-08-01

    A HPLC method has been developed which permits the quantification of methyl paraben, benzethonium chloride and triclosan in various samples of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). The best results were obtained with a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column using gradient mobile phase of water (0.1% acetic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% acetic acid) with a flow rate of 1.0 mL per minute. The detection wavelength was 254 nm for methyl paraben, and 275 nm for benzethonium chloride and triclosan. The main synthetic antimicrobial agent identified in commercial GSE samples was benzethonium chloride in concentrations from 0.29-21.84%. Positive ion electrospray MS of a commercial GSE sample showed a molecular ion at m/z 412 [M+], which matched that of a standard of benzethonium chloride. Triclosan was detected in two samples at 0.009 and 1.13%concentrations; while methyl paraben was not detected in the samples analyzed.

  3. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  4. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  5. Antibacterial effect of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and its application in the preservation of fresh Makgeolli.

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Yu-Ri; Ha, Yu-Mi; Seo, Hyo Ju; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-06-01

    To develop a new preservation method, the antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) against Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and food-borne pathogens was assessed, and a general analysis and sensory evaluation of fresh Makgeolli with added GSE was made. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of GSE against 10 strains of Makgeolli-brewing microorganism were 0.0122 to 1.5625 μL/mL. The MIC values against 6 strains of food-borne pathogens were 0.0061 to 0.7813 μL/mL. On addition of 0.1% (v/v) and 0.2% GSE in bottled fresh Makgeolli, no significant difference in the pH, or the contents of total acids, ethanol, or methanol in the Makgeolli, were observed compared with control Makgeolli (with no GSE), during the preservation period (8 weeks) at 10 °C. In the Makgeolli with 0.1% and 0.2% GSE, the total bacterial counts decreased significantly by 4.9% (P grapefruit seed extract (GSE) was developed. As fresh Makgeolli contains live microorganisms, the preservation period is 1 wk, which is relatively short. GSE controls the growth of Makgeolli-brewing and Makgeolli-spoiling microorganisms. 0.1% to 0.2% GSE is optimum for prolonging the shelf life (2 wk) of bottled fresh Makgeolli, and has no adverse effect on overall acceptability. We demonstrated that GSE is an effective natural additive that prolongs the shelf life of fresh Makgeolli with no significant loss in quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Touhami, Mohammed; Laroubi, Amine; Elhabazi, Khadija; Loubna, Farouk; Zrara, Ibtissam; Eljahiri, Younes; Oussama, Abdelkhalek; Grases, Félix; Chait, Abderrahman

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered n...

  7. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage.

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-Juan; Wu, Ji-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Shan; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage.

  8. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K m values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydroge...

  9. Antioxidant Activities of Celery and Parsley Juices in Rats Treated with Doxorubicin

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals. Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  10. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

    2010-09-03

    We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  11. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  12. Variation with the cultivar on the processing of apples as clear juice

    Vasile Lazar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The researches done at UASVM Cluj-Napoca in the frame of Horticultural product technology Department between 2014-2015 years followed the behavior of five apple cultivars at processing as clear juice. The apple juice characteristics (soluble solids content, organic acids content and clarification grade were analyzed at processing of apples as clear juice and three months later, in order to determine how the initial characteristics of raw material were found again in the finished product. In order to provide the microbiological stability of juice, preservation was done with two chemical methods (sulfur dioxide – SO2 and sodium benzoate and one physical method (pasteurization. The obtained results revealed ‘Florina’ cultivar, which had a processing efficiency as juice about 60%, high soluble solids content, 1% acidity, good clarification grade of juice, and pasteurization as microbiological stabilization method.

  13. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  15. A study of DNA protective effect of orange juice supplementation.

    Szeto, Yim Tong; To, Tai Lun; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2013-05-01

    The potential acute genoprotective effect of orange juice supplementation was investigated. Six healthy subjects (aged 33 to 60 years; 3 women and 3 men) were asked to drink 400 mL of commercial orange juice, which contained 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g sugar. Venous blood (2 mL) was taken before and 2 h after ingestion (test trial). A week later, the subjects were asked to repeat the trial by drinking 400 mL water with 100 mg vitamin C and 40.8 g glucose (control trial). Lymphocytes isolated from blood samples underwent comet assay on the day of collection. Pre- and postingestion DNA damage scores were measured in both the test and control trials. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide after 2 h of supplementation with orange juice, and no change in baseline DNA damage. There was no significant decrease in the DNA damage in lymphocytes in the control trial.

  16. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  17. Energy consumption during Refractance Window evaporation of selected berry juices

    Nindo, C.I.; Tang, J. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Powers, J.R. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Bolland, K. [MCD Technologies, Tacoma, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The Refractance Window evaporator represents a novel concept in the design of evaporation systems for small food processing plants. In this system thermal energy from circulating hot water is transmitted through a plastic sheet to evaporate water from a liquid product flowing concurrently on the top surface of the plastic. The objectives of this study were to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this evaporator, determine its energy consumption, and capacity at different tilt angles and product flow rates. The system performance was evaluated with tap water, raspberry juice, and blueberry juice and puree as feed. With a direct steam injection heating method, the steam economy ranged from 0.64 to 0.84, while the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was 666 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}. Under this condition, the highest evaporation capacity was 27.1 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry juice and 31.8 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} for blueberry puree. The energy consumption was 2492-2719 kJ kg{sup -1} of water evaporated. Installation of a shell and tube heat exchanger with better temperature control minimized incidences of boiling and frequent discharge of condensate. The steam economy, highest evaporation rate and overall heat transfer coefficient increased to 0.99, 36.0 kg h{sup -1} m{sup -2} and 733 W m{sup -2} {sup o}C{sup -1}, respectively. [Author].

  18. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  19. Energetic analysis of fruit juice processing operations in Nigeria

    Waheed, M.A.; Imeokparia, O.E. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Department; Jekayinfa, S.O.; Ojediran, J.O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria). Agricultural Engineering Department

    2008-01-15

    Energy and exergy studies were conducted in an orange juice manufacturing industry in Nigeria to determine the energy consumption pattern and methods of energy optimization in the company. An adaptation of the process analysis method of energy accounting was used to evaluate the energy requirement for each of the eight defined unit operations. The types of energy used in the manufacturing of orange juice were electrical, steam and manual with the respective proportions of 18.51%, 80.91% and 0.58% of the total energy. It was estimated that an average energy intensity of 1.12 MJ/kg was required for the manufacturing of orange juice. The most energy intensive operation was identified as the pasteurizer followed by packaging unit with energy intensities of 0.932 and 0.119 MJ/kg, respectively. The exergy analysis revealed that the pasteurizer was responsible for most of the inefficiency (over 90%) followed by packaging (6.60%). It was suggested that the capacity of the pasteurizer be increased to reduce the level of inefficiency of the plant. The suggestion has been limited to equipment modification rather than process alteration, which constitutes additional investment cost and may not be economical from an energy savings perspective. (author)

  20. PIXE analysis of powdered milk

    Hallak, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator-based study, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was performed on four full-cream and four half-cream brands of powdered milk commonly consumed in Jordan. The elements detected in the samples are S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. The significance of some of these elements is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition and also their effect on milk processing and dairy technology. The standard reference milk sample, A-11, which is distributed by IAEA was also examined, and the results for trace elements detected are compared with the values certified by IAEA. (author)