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Sample records for grain legume crop

  1. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...

  2. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    balances. A 2½-year lysimeter experiment was carried out on a temperate sandy loam soil. Crops were not fertilized in the experimental period and the natural 15N abundance technique was used to determine grain legume N2 fixation. Faba bean total aboveground DM production was significantly higher (1,300 g m...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  3. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes. PMID:28165413

  4. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacira Muñoz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  5. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.

    2008-01-01

    . Faba bean and lupin had lower yield stability than pea and fertilized barley. However, the different IC used environmental resources for plant growth up to 50% (LER=0.91-1.51) more effectively as compared to the respective SC, but with considerable variation over location, years and crops. The SC...... in Denmark over three consecutive cropping seasons including dual grain legume (pea, faba bean and lupin)-barley intercropping as compared to the respective sole crops (SC). Yield stability of intercrops (IC) was not greater than that of grain legume SC, with the exception of the IC containing faba bean......-15% compared to the corresponding SC. However, especially lupin was suppressed when intercropping, with a reduced N2-fixation from 15 to 5-6 g N m-2. The IC were particularly effective at suppressing weeds, capturing a greater share of available resources than SC. Weed infestation in the different crops...

  6. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Giller, Ken E

    2017-11-01

    Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers' fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region. We studied effects of maize-legume spatial intercropping patterns and soil fertility status on resource use efficiency, crop productivity and economic profitability under on-farm conditions in the Guinea savanna. Treatments consisted of maize-legume intercropped within-row, 1 row of maize alternated with one row of legume, 2 rows of maize alternated with 2 rows of legume, a sole maize crop and a sole legume crop. These were assessed in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS) and the northern Guinea savanna (NGS) of northern Ghana for two seasons using three fields differing in soil fertility in each agro-ecological zone. Each treatment received 25 kg P and 30 kg K ha -1 at sowing, while maize received 25 kg (intercrop) or 50 kg (sole) N ha -1 at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. The experiment was conducted in a randomised complete block design with each block of treatments replicated four times per fertility level at each site. Better soil conditions and rainfall in the SGS resulted in 48, 38 and 9% more maize, soybean and groundnut grain yield, respectively produced than in the NGS, while 11% more cowpea grain yield was produced in the NGS. Sole crops of maize and legumes produced significantly more grain yield per unit area than the respective intercrops of maize and legumes. Land equivalent ratios (LERs) of all intercrop patterns were greater than

  7. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  8. Studies on controls of the insects infested on growing legume crops and stored grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, Y.I.; Shin, I.C.; Koh, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    Present studies were carried out to control the insect pests which infest on rice, barley, wheat, redbeam and mungbeam grains during the storage period. For application of radiation to the pest controls, life spans of indian-meal moth (Plodia interpuctella Hubner) and bean weevil (Callosobruches chinensis L.) were investigated in different rearing conditions. Eggs and adults of the bean weevil were irradiated with various doses of γ-ray to determine radiosensitivities of the insect. For the ecological control of general legume insects, screening for varietal resistance to bean weevil and beanfly were performed in the experiment field. Radioisotope, P-32, was applied to screening of soybean resistant to aphid. Also, the germinability and the seedling height were measured in γ-ray irradiated mungbean for the grain storage. (author)

  9. Optimizing legume cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, Tom; Helming, John; Linderhof, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The cultivation of legumes is low in Europe. Public policy incentives and/or regulations have a role to play in changing this. This chapter examines six such policies. The CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact) model, a partial equilibrium model for the agricultural sector, is used to

  10. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-06-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Inoculation with Azotobacter and Nitrogen Levels on Grain and Corn Yield Components at Simultaneous Cropping System with Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad mirzakhani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corn has been regarded as one of the important crops from the view point of both human and animal feeding resource. Intercropping defined as cultivation of two or more species together. The advantages of intercropping can be included: efficient use of water and sunlight, exchange of nutrients, weed competition reduction, reduction of pathogens and the increase of soil fertility. Research shows that intercropping combinations of legume–grass will increase forage quality. Because, grasses Grains have a lot of carbohydrates and legumes are rich in protein and vitamins. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with azotobacter and nitrogen levels on grain and corn yield components at simultaneous cropping system with legumes under the weather conditions of Markazi province. Materials and methods: This study was carried out at agricultural research field of Payame Noor University, Arak Branch during 2011. A factorial arrangement of treatment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Methods of plant nutrition (M0= inoculation with azotobacter, M1= inoculation with azotobacter + 37/5 Kg ha-1 of rare nitrogen with foliar application method, M2= inoculation with azotobacter + 150 Kg ha-1 of rare nitrogen mix with soil and simultaneous cropping treatment of legumes, [S1= corn + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., S2= corn + bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus L., S3= corn + mung bean (Vigna radiata L., S4= corn + chickpea (Cicer arientinum L., S5= corn + vetch (Vicia ervillia L. ] were assigned in plots. Each sub plot consisted of 4 rows, 6 m long with 60 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows and S.C Apex hybrid was used. In this study characteristics such as: plant height, earing height, the number of grains per m-2, the number of rows per ear, the number of grains per row, surface of ear leaf, grain yield of corn, 1000 grain weight, harvest index of corn, nitrogen use

  12. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  13. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  14. Managing for Multifunctionality in Perennial Grain Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew R; Crews, Timothy E; Culman, Steven W; DeHaan, Lee R; Hayes, Richard C; Jungers, Jacob M; Bakker, Matthew G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Plant breeders are increasing yields and improving agronomic traits in several perennial grain crops, the first of which is now being incorporated into commercial food products. Integration strategies and management guidelines are needed to optimize production of these new crops, which differ substantially from both annual grain crops and perennial forages. To offset relatively low grain yields, perennial grain cropping systems should be multifunctional. Growing perennial grains for several years to regenerate soil health before rotating to annual crops and growing perennial grains on sloped land and ecologically sensitive areas to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses are two strategies that can provide ecosystem services and support multifunctionality. Several perennial cereals can be used to produce both grain and forage, and these dual-purpose crops can be intercropped with legumes for additional benefits. Highly diverse perennial grain polycultures can further enhance ecosystem services, but increased management complexity might limit their adoption. PMID:29662249

  15. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  16. Determination of Allelopathic Effect of Some Invasive Weed Species on Germination and Initial Development of Grain Legume Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Marinov-Serafimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006-2007 period, the allelopathic effect of cold water extracts from Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Erigeron canadensis L. and Solanum nigrum L. on seed germinationand initial development of Glycine max L., Pisum sativum L. and Vicia sativa L. was studied under laboratory conditions in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven. It was found that: waterextracts from fresh and dry biomass of A. retroflexus, Ch. album, E. canadensis and S. nigrum had an inhibitory effect on seed ermination of G. max, P. sativum and V. sativa, the inhibition rate for the extracts from fresh biomass varying from 28.8 to 81.5% and for the extracts from dry weed biomass it was from 26.8 tо 89.2%; The values of LC50 varied from 13.5 tо 72.2 g l-1 for the extracts from fresh biomass and from 7.0 tо 84.1 g l-1 for the extracts from dry weed biomass and they could be conditionally grouped in the following ascending order: A. retroflexus < S. nigrum < E.canadensis

  17. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  18. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  19. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann; Bergkvist, Göran; Doltra, Jordi; Lopez-Bellido, Rafael J; Monti, Michele; Pappa, Valentini A; Reckling, Moritz; Topp, Cairistiona F E; Walker, Robin L; Rees, Robert M; Watson, Christine A; James, Euan K; Squire, Geoffrey R; Begg, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume-based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha -1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years). BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6-0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertilizer was normally applied. Forage (e.g., grass and clover), as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes has the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output.

  20. A comparative nitrogen balance and productivity analysis of legume and non-legume supported cropping systems: the potential role of biological nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro P M Iannetta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF to provide sufficient N for production have encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertiliser, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimising the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimise production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new, legume–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g. grains, forages and intercrops across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32-115 kg ha-1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc. was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years. BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6-0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertiliser was normally applied. Forage (e.g. grass and clover, as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes have the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output.

  1. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume......–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions...... the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years). BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6–0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping...

  2. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  3. Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Rosa, Eduardo; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include a good protein quality with a high nutritional value, its nitrogen-fixing ability, and an ability to be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, studies of cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress. The present review provides an overview of different aspects of cowpea, with a special emphasis on the molecular markers for assessing genetic diversity, as well as on biochemical and transcriptomic data with respect to evaluating cowpea drought stress tolerance. The integration of both datasets will be useful for the improvement of cowpea because research on drought stress tolerance is of major interest for this crop in a challenging environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Mixed Cropping of Legumes and Maize by the Use of Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers and mixed cropping of legumes and maize on its grain yield and yield component of corn in Arak, an experiment was carried at the Agricultural Research Center of Markazi Province in 2013. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Treatments were four levels of urea (N0= control, N1= 75 kg.ha-1, N2= 150 kg.ha-1, N3= 225 kg.ha-1 and mixed cropping with four levels (S1= planting corn, S2= planting corn + chickpea, S3= planting corn + cowpea, S4= planting corn + mung bean. Plot consisted of 4 rows, 6 m long with 60 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows, and S.C 704 corn hybrid was used. In this study characteristics such as: plant height, number of green leaf, grain yield, number of row per ear, number of grain per ear row, nitrogen use efficiency, biomasses of legumes, nitrogen percentage and 1000 grain weight were assessed. Results indicated that the effect of different levels of urea on plant height, number of green leaf, grain yield, number of grain per row, nitrogen use efficiency, legumes biomass and nitrogen percentage were significant. Effect of mixed cropping on characteristics like grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, biomasses of legumes nitrogen percentage was also significant. Highest and lowest grain yield (7.37 and 5.47 t.ha-1 were obtained with the use of 225 and 75 kg.ha-1 urea, respectively. The highest and lowest grain yield (7.30 and 6.01 t.ha-1 belonged to sole cropping at corn and mixed cropping of corn + mung bean, respectively.

  5. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  6. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...

  7. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  8. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  9. Selection and breeding of grain legumes in Australia for enhanced nodulation and N2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, D.F.; Holland, J.F.; Rose, I.A.; Redden, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    During the period 1980-87, the areas sown to grain legumes in Australia increased dramatically, from 0.25 Mha to 1.65 Mha. These increases occurred in the western and southern cereal belts, but not in the north which N continued to be supplied by the mineralization of soil organic matter. Therefore, there was a need to promote the use of N 2 -fixing legumes in the cereal-dominated northern cropping belt. Certain problems had to be addressed before farmers would accept legumes and change established patterns of cropping. Here we describe our efforts to improve N 2 fixation by soybean, common bean and pigeon pea. Selection and breeding for enhanced N 2 fixation of soybean commenced at Tamworth in 1980 after surveys of commercial crops indicated that nodulation was sometimes inadequate, particularly on new land, and that the levels of fixed-N inputs were variable and often low. Similar programmes were established in 1985 (common bean) and 1988 (pigeon bean). Progress was made in increasing N 2 fixation by these legumes towards obtaining economic yields without fertilizer N and contributing organic N for the benefit of subsequent cereal crops

  10. Expounding the Value of Grain Legumes in the Semi- and Arid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendai P. Chibarabada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 70% of the population in the semi- and arid tropics reside in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Crop production is primarily focused on a few starchy staple crops. While this can ensure adequate calories, it inadvertently neglects the need for dietary diversity. Consequently, food and nutritional insecurity remains prevalent in the semi- and arid tropics. We reviewed the legume value chain with the aim to identify opportunities and challenges to unlocking their value and promoting them in the tropics. Several grain legumes are rich in proteins and micronutrients. They also possess adaptability to marginal environmental conditions such as drought and low input systems which typify rural landscapes. Adaptability to abiotic stresses such as drought makes them key to agriculture in areas that will receive less rainfall in the future. However, this potential was currently not being realized due to a range of challenges. Aspects related to their seed systems, production, post-harvest handling and marketing remain relatively under-researched. This was especially true for minor legumes. There is a need for trans-disciplinary research which will address the entire value chain, as has been done for major starchy crops. This could also unlock significant economic opportunities for marginalized groups such as women. This will unlock their value and allow them to contribute meaningfully to food and nutrition security as well as sustainable and resilient cropping systems.

  11. Mixed Cropping of Legumes and Maize by the Use of Urea

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi; Mohammad Mirzakhani

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers and mixed cropping of legumes and maize on its grain yield and yield component of corn in Arak, an experiment was carried at the Agricultural Research Center of Markazi Province in 2013. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Treatments were four levels of urea (N0= control, N1= 75 kg.ha-1, N2= 150 kg.ha-1, N3= 225 kg.ha-1) and mixed cropping with four levels (S1= planting corn, S2=...

  12. Grain legume cultivars derived from induced mutations, and mutations affecting nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van

    2001-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-five grain legume cultivars developed using induced mutations have been released in 32 countries. A maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by common bean (50), groundnut (44), pea (32) and mungbean (14). Gamma or x-ray exposures of seeds led to the direct development of 111 cultivars, while neutron and chemical mutagen treatments resulted in 8 and 36 cultivars respectively. One hundred and three cultivars have been developed using mutants in cross breeding. Attempts have been made to estimate the successful dose range for gamma and x-rays, defined as the dose range, which led to the development, registration and release of a maximum number of mutant cultivars. Exposures to seeds ranging between 100-200 Gy in all grain legumes, except faba bean, resulted in 49 out of 111 cultivars being developed as direct mutants. Successful doses reported for faba bean are lower than 100 Gy. Modified crop plant characters are listed. Besides the development of new cultivars, a large number of induced mutants that show altered nodulation pattern have been isolated in grain legumes. Such mutants have made a significant contribution in basic studies on host-symbiont interactions and towards cloning of plant genes related to symbiosis and nitrogen fixation. Their exploitation in breeding programs for enhancing nitrogen fixation is just beginning. Available information on nodulation mutants in grain legume crops is summarised. Mainly, four types of nodulation mutants have been isolated. They show either: no nodulation (nod -), few nodules (nod +/-), ineffective nodulation (Fix-), hypernodulation (nod ++) or hypernodulation even in the presence of otherwise inhibitory nitrate levels (nts). Hypernodulating and nts mutants are of great interest. A soybean cultivar incorporating nts trait has been released in Australia. (author)

  13. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  14. Use of induced mutations for the improvement of grain legume production in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The improvement of grain legume production encompasses numerous possible actions. Some of these include (1) the upgrading of the quality of seeds used by farmers, (2) insurance that effective symbiotic nitrogen fixation is carried out through the use of effective inoculants, and (3) the development of superior, high-yielding, pathogen-resistant new varieties of crop varieties through plant breeding. It is only the last of these topics which was considered in detail at the Sri Lanka seminar. This meeting was organized with the dual purpose of identifying breeding objectives in the grain legumes and also to suggest ways in which induced mutations may be used in attaining these objectives. The work of the meeting was systematized by considering the complex task of defining breeding objectives as follows: A. Plant architecture: Breeders put forth ideas as to what the most desirable features of plant morphology should be with respect to different crop species and for local conditions. B. Disease and pest resistance: Breeders spoke about the major pathogens and pests which affect specific grain legume crops grown in different countries at different times. The magnitude of the problem was also indicated along with the availability of genetic resources with which to breed against particular pests. C. Physiological characters: Such topics as photoperiodic sensitivity, seed viability, nitrogen fixation, maturity time and other characteristics were considered and the ways in which these factors affect production. Following these discussions, the group documented the breeding needs for the major grain legumes of the region. In this context the participants were asked to identify potential situations where the induced mutation approach to plant breeding would prove valuable. During the meeting, breeders from different countries, unknown to one another previously, who work towards almost identical objectives, established communication and even arranged to begin to exchange germ

  15. Integration of biochar and legumes in summer gap for enhancing productivity of wheat under cereal based cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, F.; Munif, F.; Khan, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar application is gaining popularity in agriculture system as prime technology in sustainable context. Field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e., mungbean, cowpea and Sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and without biochar application. Biochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 to subsequent wheat crop. Biohcar application and plots previously sown with legumes improved thousand grain weight of wheat crop. Nitrogen application increased thousand spikes m-2, grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integration of biochar and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems by providing increased yields from this additional summer gap crop. (author)

  16. Adapting legume crops to climate change using genomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Derazmahalleh, Mahsa; Bayer, Philipp E; Hane, James K; Babu, Valliyodan; Nguyen, Henry T; Nelson, Matthew N; Erskine, William; Varshney, Rajeev K; Papa, Roberto; Edwards, David

    2018-03-30

    Our agricultural system and hence food security is threatened by combination of events, such as increasing population, the impacts of climate change and the need to a more sustainable development. Evolutionary adaptation may help some species to overcome environmental changes through new selection pressures driven by climate change. However, success of evolutionary adaptation is dependent on various factors, one of which is the extent of genetic variation available within species. Genomic approaches provide an exceptional opportunity to identify genetic variation that can be employed in crop improvement programs. In this review, we illustrate some of the routinely used genomics-based methods as well as recent breakthroughs, which facilitate assessment of genetic variation and discovery of adaptive genes in legumes. While additional information is needed, the current utility of selection tools indicate a robust ability to utilize existing variation among legumes to address the challenges of climate uncertainty. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable production of grain crops for biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain crops of the Gramineae are grown for their edible, starchy seeds. Their grain is used directly for human food, livestock feed, and as raw material for many industries, including biofuels. Using grain crops for non-food uses affects the amount of food available to the world. Grain-based biofuel...

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  19. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motior M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE, nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE, N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  20. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  1. Translational genomics from model species Medicago truncatula to crop legume Trifolium pratense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang Chunting, Chunting

    2012-01-01

    The legume Trifolium pratense (red clover) is an important fodder crop and produces important secondary metabolites. This makes red clover an interesting species. In this thesis, the red clover genome is compared to the legume model species Medicago truncatula, of which the

  2. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  3. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  4. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-12-15

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  5. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  6. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    Out of 18 papers presented, 15 fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics covered were: mutagenic efficiency of ethylmethane sulphonate in soybean; induced mutations for rust resistance in soybean; and nitrogen fixation-potentials for improvement in legumes

  7. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... 3. Genomic resources for SAT legumes. In the past, for genetic diversity analysis, a range of ... DNA libraries, (b) sequencing and mining the BAC (bacterial ..... spiration efficiency, biomass, specific leaf area, pod weight,.

  8. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  9. Potential use of phytocystatins in crop improvement, with a particular focus on legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Karl J; van Wyk, Stefan G; Cullis, Christopher A; Vorster, Barend J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-06-01

    Phytocystatins are a well-characterized class of naturally occurring protease inhibitors that function by preventing the catalysis of papain-like cysteine proteases. The action of cystatins in biotic stress resistance has been studied intensively, but relatively little is known about their functions in plant growth and defence responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought. Extreme weather events, such as drought and flooding, will have negative impacts on the yields of crop plants, particularly grain legumes. The concepts that changes in cellular protein content and composition are required for acclimation to different abiotic stresses, and that these adjustments are achieved through regulation of proteolysis, are widely accepted. However, the nature and regulation of the protein turnover machinery that underpins essential stress-induced cellular restructuring remain poorly characterized. Cysteine proteases are intrinsic to the genetic programmes that underpin plant development and senescence, but their functions in stress-induced senescence are not well defined. Transgenic plants including soybean that have been engineered to constitutively express phytocystatins show enhanced tolerance to a range of different abiotic stresses including drought, suggesting that manipulation of cysteine protease activities by altered phytocystatin expression in crop plants might be used to improve resilience and quality in the face of climate change. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    [*Author of Correspondence: hyakubu2009@g-mail.com]. 229. ABSTRACT: ... Yusuf et al, (2006) reported that cowpea fixed. 16-34kgN/ha and ... fixation of legume crops (Michiels et al.,. 1994). ..... Robert, M.B. (1995). ... nitrogen fixation), John.

  11. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  12. Alterations in biochemical and physiological characters in radiation-induced mutants of grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    Selected examples from different grain legumes are studied. The biochemically and physiologically detectable alterations in distintc characters as caused by the action of mutant genes are presented comparatively. The interactions between different mutant genes in order to evaluated the influence of the genotypic constitution on the expression of mutated genes are emphasized. (M.A.C.) [pt

  13. Sustainable intensification through rotations with grain legumes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Brand, van den G.J.; Vanlauwe, B.; Giller, K.E.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of literature on the residual effects of grain legumes in cereal-based systems of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to quantify the magnitude and variability of rotational effects, to explore the importance of environmental and management factors in determining variability

  14. Phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of grain legume seeds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2017-11-01

    Legumes are a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds which play significant roles in many physiological as well as metabolic processes. Phenolic acids, flavonoids and condensed tannins are the primary phenolic compounds that are present in legume seeds. Majority of the phenolic compounds are present in the legume seed coats. The seed coat of legume seeds primarily contains phenolic acids and flavonoids (mainly catechins and procyanidins). Gallic and protocatechuic acids are common in kidney bean and mung bean. Catechins and procyanidins represent almost 70% of total phenolic compounds in lentils and cranberry beans (seed coat). The antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds is in direct relation with their chemical structures such as number as well as position of the hydroxyl groups. Processing mostly leads to the reduction of phenolic compounds in legumes owing to chemical rearrangements. Phenolic content also decreases due to leaching of water-soluble phenolic compounds into the cooking water. The health benefits of phenolic compounds include acting as anticarcinogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-ulcer, anti-artherogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunemodulating, anti-microbial, cardioprotective and analgesic agents. This review provides comprehensive information of phenolic compounds identified in grain legume seeds along with discussing their antioxidant and health promoting activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating shade effects on crop productivity in sorghum-legume intercropping systems using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum-legume intercropping has the potential to improve forage productivity, resource use efficiency, and forage quality under irrigation in the Southern High Plains of the United States. Crop production is conversion of solar radiation into biomass and solar radiation is wasted early in the seaso...

  16. Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Yupeng

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume food crop grown primarily by smallholder farmers in many semi-arid tropical regions of the world. We used the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform to generate 237.2 Gb of sequence, which along with Sanger-based bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences...

  17. THE MAIN OUTCOME OF THE RUSSIAN\\BELARUSIAN COOPERATION IN BREEDING OF LEGUMES AND ONION CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Shimansky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian-Belarusian cooperation in breeding of legumes and onion crops has resulted in development of new cultivars of pea (Samorodok, bean (Phaeton and Mignon, onion (Palesskaya znahodka, Patrida and Vermeles, winter garlic (Dubkovsky Asilak, which were included in 2014 in the State Register of the Republic of Belarus.

  18. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya - Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M G; Maass, Brigitte L; Whitbread, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [ Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha -1 . An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  19. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  20. The suitability of non-legume cover crops for inorganic soil nitrogen immobilisation in the transition period to an organic no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rühlemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate non-legume cover crops for growing no-till grain legumes in organic farming systems. Evaluated cover crops should be able to suppress weed growth, reduce plant available nitrogen in the soil and produce large amounts of biomass with slow N mineralisation. Six non-legume species; spring rye (Secale cereale L., black oat (Avena sativa L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. were tested. Plots with organic fertiliser (50 kg N ha−1 and without fertiliser incorporation at three locations in south-east Germany were trialled and the cover crops’ ability to produce biomass and accumulate N in plant compartments was evaluated. The N mineralisation from stem and leaf material was simulated using the STICS model. The biomass production ranged from 0.95 to 7.73 Mg ha−1, with fertiliser increasing the total biomass at locations with low-N status. Sunflower consistently displayed large biomass and N accumulation at all locations and fertiliser variations, although not always significantly more than other species. Most N was stored in sunflower leaf material, which can be easily mineralised making it less suited as cover crop before no-till sown spring grain legumes. Rye, which produced slightly less biomass, but accumulated more N in the stem biomass, would be better suited than sunflower in this type of system. The N mineralisation simulation from rye biomass indicated long N immobilisation periods potentially improving weed suppression within no-till sown legume cash crops.

  1. Consumption of Whole Grains, Refined Cereals, and Legumes and Its Association With Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; Al-Awwad, Narmeen J; Heath, Dennis D; Bani-Hani, Kamal E

    2016-09-01

    Background The role of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes in preventing or initiating colorectal cancer (CRC) is still uncertain. The aim of this study is to examine the possible association between the consumption of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes and the risk of developing CRC among Jordanian population. Methods A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data with regard to intake of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. A total of 220 diagnosed CRC participants and 281 CRC-free control participants matched by age, gender, occupation, and marital status were recruited. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of developing CRC in relation to the consumption of different types of whole grains, refined cereals, and legumes. Results The odds ratio (OR) for developing CRC among cases consumed refined wheat bread at all meals was 3.1 compared with controls (95% CI: 1.2-7.9, P-Trend = 0.001); whereas the OR associated with whole wheat bread was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.92, P-Trend = 0.001). The statistical evaluation for daily consumption of rice suggested a direct association with the risk of developing CRC, OR = 3.0 (95% CI: 0.27-33.4, P-Trend = 0.020). Weekly consumption of macaroni was associated with CRC with OR of 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.3, P-Trend = 0.001). The consumption of corn, bulgur, lentils, and peas suggested a protective trend, although the trend was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study provides additional indicators of the protective role of whole grains and suggests a direct association between consumption of refined grains and higher possibility for developing CRC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Differences in crenate broomrape parasitism dynamics on three legume crops using a thermal time model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-De-Luque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Root parasitic weeds are a major limiting production factor in a number of crops, and control is difficult. Genetic resistance and chemical control lead the fight, but without unequivocal success. Models that help to describe and even predict the evolution of parasitism underground are a valuable tool for herbicide applications, and even could help in breeding programs. Legumes are heavily affected by Orobanche crenata (crenate broomrape in the Mediterranean basin. This work presents a descriptive model based on thermal time and correlating growing day-degrees (GDD with the different developmental stages of the parasite. The model was developed in three different legume crops (faba bean, grass pea and lentil attacked by crenate broomrape. The developmental stages of the parasite strongly correlated with the GDD and differences were found depending on the host crop.

  3. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sennhenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM. The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index. While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and

  4. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M. G.; Maass, Brigitte L.; Whitbread, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  5. Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    fertilizers use and associated fossil energy consumption. Organic farming, which does not allow the use of chemical, is also regarded as one prototype to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture while decreasing environmental impacts. Here, we review the potential advantages of eco......-functional intensification in organic farming by intercropping cereal and grain legume species sown and harvested together. Our review is based on a literature analysis reinforced with integration of an original dataset of 58 field experiments conducted since 2001 in contrasted pedo-climatic European conditions in order...... mechanistic understanding is required to propose generic crop management procedures. Also, development of this practice must be achieved with the collaboration of value chain actors such as breeders to select cultivars suited to intercropping...

  6. Crop Nitrogen Uptake in A Legume-wheat Rotation Using1'5N Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badarneh, D.

    2005-01-01

    Afield experiment was conducted to assess the impact of residual N from legume crops, fertilizer applied N, and fallow on the subsequent wheat production. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complex block design for the years 1993 and 1994. In 1993, barley was planted as a reference crop in legume plots. Micro plots, in both years were treated with 15 N. In 1994, whole plots were planted with wheat. In 1993, the yield of lentil treatments was not significantly different. The wheat yield, responded significantly to N addition. Lentil and chickpea derived 2/3 and 3/4 of their N needs from the atmosphere, respectively. In contrast, wheat derived most of its N needs(90%) from the soil. Water consumption was similar expect for wheat fertilized at low rate of N (179.5 mm). In 1994, wheat yields, the harvesting index and water consumption were not significantly different. Traditional harvesting of lentil and fertilizing wheat at a low rate reduced significantly the N% of wheat bio-mass. The % of N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) by wheat was much higher in 1994 (4.18 to 9.24%), but it was 3.62% for the fallow treatments. The % of N derived from soil (%Ndfs) by wheat 93% in 1994 for wheat planted after legume. The results indicated that legumes depleted soil N under the croping system currently adopted in Jordan, and the benefit of fallow to the subsequent wheat crop is attributed to the increase of soil organic N mineralization. (Author) 35 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Role of biological nitrogen fixation in legume based cropping systems; a case study of West Africa farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanginga, N.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) has been gradually depleted from West African soils and now poses serious threats to food production. Many ways of increasing N supply (e.g. judicious use of inorganic fertilizers and nitrogen-fixing plants) have been tried in West African farming systems. Herbaceous and woody legumes commonly contribute 40-70 kg N ha -l season. This represents about 30% of the total N applied as residues. Nevertheless and despite repeated demonstrations of the usefulness of green manures in enhancing soil fertility, their practices and adoption are still limited. Promiscuous soya beans are being used to develop sustainable cropping systems in the moist savannah. Reliable estimates of N 2 fixed by soya beans and their residual N benefits to subsequent cereal crops in the savannah zone of southern Guinea have only infrequently been made. The actual amounts measured varied between 38 and 126 kg N ha -l assuming that only seeds of soya beans are removed from the plots, the net N accrual of soil nitrogen ranges between minus 8 kg N ha -l and plus 47 kg N ha -l depending on the soyabean cultivar. Residual soyabean N values of 10-24 kg N ha -l (14-36% of the total N in maize) were obtained in a soyabean-maize rotation. Although cereal yields following legume cultivation have been attributed to greater N accumulation, our data show that the relative increase in maize N was smaller than the relative increase in dry-matter yield. Hence, the increased yields of maize following soy beans are not entirely due to the carry-over of N from soyabean residues (as well as to conservation of soil N) but to other rotational effects as well. It is thus clear that the N benefit of grain legumes to non-legumes is small compared to the level of N fertilizer use in more intensive cereal production systems but is nevertheless significant in the context of the low amounts of input in subsistence farming. (author)

  8. Use of 13.5-MeV neutrons for protein determination in grain crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barit, I.A.; Kuz'min, L.E.; Makarov, S.A.; Vozhzhov, V.F.; Pronman, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the Food Supply Program, i.e., that of improving the quality of crop production, is bound up intimately with the intensification of work on the selection and genetics of high-protein grain and legume crops. High-protein stains cannot be isolated without the proper analytical service for mass testing of the nitrogen content in the grain, which is one of the main elements of protein. The neutron-activation method of nitrogen determination is based on the use of the 14 N(n, 2n) 13 N nuclear reaction (E th = 11.3 MeV) with an average neutron energy of ∼14.5 MeV. In this work the authors consider a new variant of the neutron-activation method of determining nitrogen in grain and legume crops. The method is based on the use of monoenergetic neutrons with an energy of ∼13.5 MeV, generated in relatively thin titanium-tritium targets by a mass-separated deuteron beam from neutron generators operating at 150-300 kV, in order to eliminate the interference of the reaction 39 K(n, 2n) 38 K (E thr = 13.4 MeV). The present method has been used to determine the protein content (mass %) in different grains and legumes at the All-Union Selection-Genetic Institute of the Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The correctness of the analysis was checked by comparison with the data of chemical analysis. The discrepancy between the results of the two methods does not exceed 3%, which is within the limits of the error of measurement of Δ and K s.r

  9. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  10. Mapping rice-fallow cropland areas for short-season grain legumes intensification in South Asia using MODIS 250 m time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Rao, Mahesh N.; Mohammed, Irshad A.; Whitbread, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to map rainfed and irrigated rice-fallow cropland areas across South Asia, using MODIS 250 m time-series data and identify where the farming system may be intensified by the inclusion of a short-season crop during the fallow period. Rice-fallow cropland areas are those areas where rice is grown during the kharif growing season (June–October), followed by a fallow during the rabi season (November–February). These cropland areas are not suitable for growing rabi-season rice due to their high water needs, but are suitable for a short -season (≤3 months), low water-consuming grain legumes such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), black gram, green gram, and lentils. Intensification (double-cropping) in this manner can improve smallholder farmer’s incomes and soil health via rich nitrogen-fixation legume crops as well as address food security challenges of ballooning populations without having to expand croplands. Several grain legumes, primarily chickpea, are increasingly grown across Asia as a source of income for smallholder farmers and at the same time providing rich and cheap source of protein that can improve the nutritional quality of diets in the region. The suitability of rainfed and irrigated rice-fallow croplands for grain legume cultivation across South Asia were defined by these identifiers: (a) rice crop is grown during the primary (kharif) crop growing season or during the north-west monsoon season (June–October); (b) same croplands are left fallow during the second (rabi) season or during the south-east monsoon season (November–February); and (c) ability to support low water-consuming, short-growing season (≤3 months) grain legumes (chickpea, black gram, green gram, and lentils) during rabi season. Existing irrigated or rainfed crops such as rice or wheat that were grown during kharif were not considered suitable for growing during the rabi season, because the moisture/water demand of these crops is too high. The

  11. Analyzing production potential of selected food and legume crops for food security in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Hassan, S.; Bashir, A.; Mehmood, I.; Mahmood, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess growth rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legume crops. The estimated co-efficient for all growth models (area, production and yield) of selected commodities were statistically highly significant at 1 percentage level except yield of gram which was significant at 10 percentage level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9 percentage, 2.1 percentage and 0.8 percentage, respectively with the production growth of 3.0 percentage, 3.8 percentage and 2.2 percentage, respectively and yield growth of 2.1 percentage, 1.6 percentage and 1.5 percentage, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contribution for expansion in production for rice and sugarcane was area while it was yield for wheat. In this scenario the wheat production can be enhanced by increasing its area than that of rice and sugarcane. The annual growth rate for gram and mung area was estimated about 1.0 v and 4.9 percentage, respectively, with the production growth rate of 2.3 percentage and 6.4 percentage while yield growth rate of 2.9 percentage and 1.4 percentage, respectively. Keeping in view the higher growth of gram yield the increase in its area may enhance its production more than that of mung. The proportionate higher increase in the area of wheat and gram may enhance the welfare of producers in particular and provide food security to masses in general. (author)

  12. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    sepium (Jacq. Pers. and two control treatments: sole maize with or without fertilizer NPK. Eight months after the plantation, the legumes species were pruned and incorporated in soil. Maize was sown interows legumes, in rows spaced 80 cm. New prune carried on sixty days after the first cut. In the second cycle, the crop handlings were similar to the first cycle. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. In the alley cropping with Cajanus cajan the maize show the larger N foliar concentration, in first cycle. In the second cycle, maize+Gliricidia sepium, maize+Cajanus cajan and sole maize with NPK produced more grain than others treatments.

  13. Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Its Exploitation for Forage and Cool-Season Grain Legume Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Paolo; Nazzicari, Nelson; Wei, Yanling; Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) may drastically reduce genotyping costs compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platforms. However, it may require optimization for specific crops to maximize the number of available markers. Exploiting GBS-generated markers may require optimization, too (e.g., to cope with missing data). This study aimed (i) to compare elements of GBS protocols on legume species that differ for genome size, ploidy, and breeding system, and (ii) to show successful applications and challenges of GBS data on legume species. Preliminary work on alfalfa and Medicago truncatula suggested the greater interest of ApeKI over PstI:MspI DNA digestion. We compared KAPA and NEB Taq polymerases in combination with primer extensions that were progressively more selective on restriction sites, and found greater number of polymorphic SNP loci in pea, white lupin and diploid alfalfa when adopting KAPA with a non-selective primer. This protocol displayed a slight advantage also for tetraploid alfalfa (where SNP calling requires higher read depth). KAPA offered the further advantage of more uniform amplification than NEB over fragment sizes and GC contents. The number of GBS-generated polymorphic markers exceeded 6,500 in two tetraploid alfalfa reference populations and a world collection of lupin genotypes, and 2,000 in different sets of pea or lupin recombinant inbred lines. The predictive ability of GBS-based genomic selection was influenced by the genotype missing data threshold and imputation, as well as by the genomic selection model, with the best model depending on traits and data sets. We devised a simple method for comparing phenotypic vs. genomic selection in terms of predicted yield gain per year for same evaluation costs, whose application to preliminary data for alfalfa and pea in a hypothetical selection scenario for each crop indicated a distinct advantage of genomic selection. PMID:28536584

  14. Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Its Exploitation for Forage and Cool-Season Grain Legume Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS may drastically reduce genotyping costs compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array platforms. However, it may require optimization for specific crops to maximize the number of available markers. Exploiting GBS-generated markers may require optimization, too (e.g., to cope with missing data. This study aimed (i to compare elements of GBS protocols on legume species that differ for genome size, ploidy, and breeding system, and (ii to show successful applications and challenges of GBS data on legume species. Preliminary work on alfalfa and Medicago truncatula suggested the greater interest of ApeKI over PstI:MspI DNA digestion. We compared KAPA and NEB Taq polymerases in combination with primer extensions that were progressively more selective on restriction sites, and found greater number of polymorphic SNP loci in pea, white lupin and diploid alfalfa when adopting KAPA with a non-selective primer. This protocol displayed a slight advantage also for tetraploid alfalfa (where SNP calling requires higher read depth. KAPA offered the further advantage of more uniform amplification than NEB over fragment sizes and GC contents. The number of GBS-generated polymorphic markers exceeded 6,500 in two tetraploid alfalfa reference populations and a world collection of lupin genotypes, and 2,000 in different sets of pea or lupin recombinant inbred lines. The predictive ability of GBS-based genomic selection was influenced by the genotype missing data threshold and imputation, as well as by the genomic selection model, with the best model depending on traits and data sets. We devised a simple method for comparing phenotypic vs. genomic selection in terms of predicted yield gain per year for same evaluation costs, whose application to preliminary data for alfalfa and pea in a hypothetical selection scenario for each crop indicated a distinct advantage of genomic selection.

  15. Survey of Viruses Affecting Legume Crops in the Amhara and Oromia Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bekele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were undertaken to identify the viral diseases affecting lentil, faba bean, chickpea, pea, fenugreek and grass pea in two regions of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in the regions of Amhara (Gonder and Gojam administrative zones and Oromia (Bale administrative zone during the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growing seasons, respectively. The survey covered 138 randomly selected fields (48 faba bean, 10 pea, 38 grass pea, 34 chickpea, 8 lentil in the Amhara region, and 51 legume fields (29 faba bean, 12 pea, 3 lentil, 5 fenugreek, 2 chickpea in the Oromia region. Virus disease incidence was determined by laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly-collected samples from each field against the antisera of 12 legume viruses. Of the 189 fields surveyed, 121 and 7 had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and more than 6%, respectively, based on visual inspection in the field; later laboratory testing showed that the number of fields in these two categories was in fact 99 and 56, respectively. Serological tests indicated that the most important viruses in the Amhara region were Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV and the luteoviruses [e.g. Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV, Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV]. By contrast, only FBNYV and the luteoviruses were detected in the Oromia region. Other viruses, such as Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, were rarely detected in the Amhara region. This is the first report in Ethiopia of natural infection of faba bean, pea and fenugreek with SbDV, of fenugreek with BWYV, and of grass pea with BYMV, PSbMV and BWYV, and it is also the first recorded instance of BBMV infecting legume crops in Ethiopia.

  16. Field evaluations of N2 fixation by grain legumes in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.Y.; Ahmad, T.; Asad, T.; Malik, K.; Shah, N.H.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were undertaken with four legume species that are economically important in Pakistan, to gain an understanding of how host-genotype, rhizobial-strain, and environmental factors affect the root-nodule N 2 -fixing symbiosis of field-grown plants. Strong responses to inoculation were obtained with lentil (Lens culinaris) that showed significant host-genotype x rhizobial strain interaction. In contrast, only one of eight mung-bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes and none of five black-gram (V. mungo) genotypes responded positively to inoculation; however, negative effects of inoculation were cautionary that host-genotype x rhizobial strain interactions must nevertheless be considered. Trials with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) indicated that biomass, grain yield and total N may be used as indicators of the amount of N fixed for large screening trials in which employment of the 15 N-dilution technique would be prohibitively expensive

  17. Introduction of novel legume crops in Serbia: White lupin (Lupinus albus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The renewed interest in introducing white lupin in Serbia is its high crude protein content in grain dry matter of nearly 400 g kg-1, which makes it a potential supplement for soybean meal in animal feeding. The only collection of white and other lupins in Serbia is maintained at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, with about 200 accessions of 10 species, containing about 70 accessions of white lupin. The accessions with high tolerance to alkaline soil reaction of about pH=8 in a carbonated chernozem in Novi Sad regularly formed two orders of pods and grains and produced grain yields of more than 5 t ha-1, 45 t ha-1 of green forage and 8 t ha-1 of forage dry matter. The first Serbian white lupin breeding programme carried out at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad has resulted in developing cultivars Vesna and Panorama, registered in 2008. .

  18. Woody legume fallow productivity, biological N2-fixation and residual benefits to two successive maize crops in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.; Mapfumo, P.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Three woody legumes were planted as two-year 'improved fallows' to evaluate their residual nitrogen (N) effects on two subsequent maize crops under minimum and conventional tillage management. Maize monoculture and cowpea-maize-maize sequence treatments were included as controls. N-2-fixation was

  19. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  20. Microbial activity in soil cultivated with different summer legumes in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted for ten years in a sandy soil in the north part of the Paraná State, Brazil. The soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space between the coffee plants, in the following treatments: Control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The legume crops influenced the microbial activity, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space. The cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased the microbial biomass C, N and P. Although L. leucocephala and Arachis hypogaea provided higher microbial biomass, the qCO2 decreased by up to 50% under the coffee canopy and by about 25% in the inter row space. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P due to green manure residue addition.

  1. Breaking continuous potato cropping with legumes improves soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and tuber yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Cao, Li; Zhang, Junlian; Shi, Shangli; Liu, Yuhui

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato–Common vetch (P–C), Potato–Black medic (P–B) and Potato–Longdong alfalfa (P–L) in a semi–arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P–C rotation. The highest fungi/bacteria ratio was found in P–C (0.218), followed by P–L (0.184) and then P–B (0.137) rotation over the different cropping years. In the continuous potato cropping soils, the greatest fungi/bacteria ratio was recorded in the 4–year (0.4067) and 7–year (0.4238) cropping soils and these were significantly higher than 1–year (0.3041), 2–year (0.2545) and 3–year (0.3030) cropping soils. Generally, actinomycetes numbers followed the trend P–L>P–C>P–B. The P–L rotation increased aerobic azotobacters in 2–year (by 26% and 18%) and 4–year (40% and 21%) continuous cropping soils compared to P–C and P–B rotation, respectively. Generally, the highest urease and alkaline phosphate activity, respectively, were observed in P–C (55.77 mg g–1) and (27.71 mg g–1), followed by P–B (50.72 mg mg–1) and (25.64 mg g–1) and then P–L (41.61 mg g–1) and (23.26 mg g–1) rotation. Soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase activities decreased with increasing years of continuous potato cropping. On average, the P–B rotation significantly increased (p improve soil biology environment, alleviate continuous cropping obstacle and increase potato tuber yield in semi–arid region. PMID:28463981

  2. Productivity of clay tailings from phosphate mining: 3. Grain crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mislevy, P.; Blue, W.G.; Roessler, C.E.; Martin, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    A split-fold field experiment was conducted to study forage and grain yield, forage quality, plant nutrient concentrations, changes in soil nutrients, and 226 Ra contents of four grain crops in various rotations. The crop rotations (1) corn (Zea mays L. Jacques 247)-sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cargil 205), (2) sunflower-grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L, Moench Northrup King Savanna 5), (3) soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Williams 80)-grain sorghum, and (4) grain sorghum-soybean (University of Florida V-1) were grown on a dry phosphatic clay with and without a 50-mm surface layer of quartz-sand tailings. Results show that corn and grain sorghum produced highest forage yields and highest grain yields per harvest, respectively. Soybean harvested for forage (Crop 1) contained the highest crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe in most of the forages were adequate for the diets of beef cattle, while those of Mn, Cu and Zn were low. Mehlich I-extractable soil, Ca, and Mg were considered very high and changed little over the 4-yr production period. Application of 50 mm of sand tailings tended to increase Mehlich I-extractable P, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Radium-226 concentration in the forage of all grain crops averaged 8.5 Bq kg -1 , which was about 17 times higher than that in the grain of the same crops. Concentrations of 226 Ra in the forage and grain were 1.1% and 0.09% of the concentration in clay respectively. These data indicate that phosphatic clays can be a valuable resource for the production of corn and sorghum grain that contain low concentrations of 226 Ra

  3. Dinitrogen fixation measurements in some legume crops grown under irrigated condition without bacteria inoculation using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Sharabi, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    N 2 -fixation in some legume crops: Faba bean Vicia faba, common bean pisum sativum, lentil lens esculenta, chick pea cicer artinum and vetch vicia arvillia grown under irrigated conditions without Rhizobium inoculation was estimated using 15 N-labelled fertilizer method. Barley was used as a reference crop. Significant differences occured in N 2 -fixation capacity among legume crops at flowering and podding stages. The highest percentage of Nitrogen fixed occured in faba bean (88% of total N), while lower values were observed in the other crops: Lentil 84%, vetch 68%, common pea 67% and chick pea 57%. Moreover, amounts of N 2 -fixed were 171, 138, 100, 90 and 13 Kg. N. ha -1 respectively for faba bean, lentil, vetch, common pea and chick pea. This clearly indicates the importance of biological dinitrogen fixation in local legume crops nodulated with indigenous Rhizobium strains regarding to N-soil enrichment. Further investigations must be focused on the selection of both plant species and Rhizobium strains in order to obtain a good symbiotic system. (author). 2 figs

  4. Carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Vassenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Croplands could have equal or even greater net ecosystem production than several natural ecosystems (Hollinger et al., 2004), so agriculture plays a substantial role in mitigation strategies for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In Central Russia, where agricultural soils carbon loses are 9 time higher than natural (forest's) soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in agroecosystems must be the central focus of the scientific efforts. Although the balance of the CO2 mostly attributed to management practices, limited information exists regarding the crop rotation overall as potential of C sequestration. In this study, we present data on carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region followed for 4 years by measuring CO2 fluxes by paired eddy covariance stations (EC). The study was conducted at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Two fields of the four-course rotation were studied in 2013-2016. Crop rotation included winter wheat (Triticum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) and cereal-legume mixture (Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.). Crops sowing occurred during the period from mid-April to mid-May depending on weather conditions. Winter wheat was sown in the very beginning of September and the next year it occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering. White mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure after harvesting winter wheat in mid of July. Barley was harvested in mid of August, potato crop was harvested in September. Cereal-legume mixture on herbage was collected depending on the weather from early July to mid-August. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the fields with winter wheat and white

  5. Feeding potential of summer grain crop residues for woolled sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of 80:20 for the first collection on maize residues. Schoonraad (1985) did not pick up the cobs, so much more grain was available. Crude protein content. Changes in percentage crude protein in oesophageal samples are shown in Figure 2. With all crops, CP content of oesophageal samples was initially high but decreased ...

  6. Legume finishing provides beef with positive human dietary fatty acid ratios and consumer preference comparable with grain-finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2016-05-01

    Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.

  7. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  8. Effects of grain-producing cover crops on rice grain yield in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Stephan Nascente

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Besides providing benefits to the environment such as soil protection, release of nutrients, soil moisture maintenance, and weed control, cover crops can increase food production for grain production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and grain cover crops (and its respective effects on soil chemical and physical attributes, yield components, and grain yield of rice in Mozambique. The study was conducted in two sites located in the province of Cabo Delgado, in Mozambique. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 2 × 6 factorial, with four repetitions. Treatments were carried out in two locations (Cuaia and Nambaua with six cover crops: Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.; namarra bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet, velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens L., oloco beans (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., and fallow. Cover crops provided similar changes in chemical and physical properties of the soil. Lablab purpureus, Vigna unguiculata, and Mucuna pruriens produced the highest dry matter biomass. Vigna unguiculada produced the highest amount of grains. Rice grain yields were similar under all cover crops and higher in Cuaia than Nambaua.

  9. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from irrigated cropping systems as influenced by legumes, manure and fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Irrigated crops in Alberta require higher inputs of nitrogen (N) than rainfed crops. The aim of the study was to determine emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from the soils of irrigated cropping systems that used inorganic fertilizer N at a site in Alberta. The study measured carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) levels in order to determine net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and soil in selected treatments was measured in order to compare the effects of contrasting N inputs. Fluxes were measured bi-weekly from spring 2001 to spring 2004. The time period included annual and perennial legume crops; the termination of a perennial forage crop; manure application; and 2 growing seasons of test crops. Soil surface fluxes were measured using PVC chambers equipped with thermocouples. Gas samples were measured using gas chromatography. A linear least squares method was used to calculate gas concentrations. Results showed that soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production rates were intertwined after legume production or manure application, but decoupled during early spring bursts of N{sub 2}O production. Higher soil CO{sub 2} emissions with alfalfa and manure-amended soils suggested that soil oxygen consumption during high CO{sub 2} emission periods may promote N{sub 2}O emissions. Appreciable proportions of N{sub 2}O were emitted outside the growing season. Results suggested that N{sub 2}O leakage is an inevitable hazard of crop production. The study highlighted the importance of understanding and quantifying N{sub 2}O emissions from intensive cropping systems. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  11. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  12. Integrated crop management practices for maximizing grain yield of double-season rice crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depeng; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei; Ling, Xiaoxia; Cui, Kehui; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing

    2017-01-01

    Information on maximum grain yield and its attributes are limited for double-season rice crop grown under the subtropical environment. This study was conducted to examine key characteristics associated with high yielding double-season rice crop through a comparison between an integrated crop management (ICM) and farmers’ practice (FP). Field experiments were conducted in the early and late seasons in the subtropical environment of Wuxue County, Hubei Province, China in 2013 and 2014. On average, grain yield in ICM was 13.5% higher than that in FP. A maximum grain yield of 9.40 and 10.53 t ha-1 was achieved under ICM in the early- and late-season rice, respectively. Yield improvement of double-season rice with ICM was achieved with the combined effects of increased plant density and optimized nutrient management. Yield gain of ICM resulted from a combination of increases in sink size due to more panicle number per unit area and biomass production, further supported by the increased leaf area index, leaf area duration, radiation use efficiency, crop growth rate, and total nitrogen uptake compared with FP. Further enhancement in the yield potential of double-season rice should focus on increasing crop growth rate and biomass production through improved and integrated crop management practices.

  13. Weed infestation of a cereal-legume mixture depending on its concentration and position in a crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out in the period 2000-2006 at the Experimental Station in Tomaszkowo belonging to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. Its aim was to compare weed infestation of a mixture of spring barley and field pea grown in a four crop rotation with different crop selection and sequence. Each year during tillering of spring barley and before the harvest of the mixture, weed species composition and density were evaluated, while additionally weed biomass was also estimated before the harvest. These results were used to determine species constancy, Simpson’s dominance index, the Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices as well as the community similarity index based on floristic richness, numbers and biomass of particular weed species. The cropping frequency and the position of the mixture in the crop rotation did not differentiate the species composition and total biomass of weed communities in the cereal-legume mixture crops. The crop rotation in which the mixture constituted 50% and was grown after itself had a reducing effect on weed numbers. Growing field pea in the 4-year crop rotation promoted weed infestation of the mixture and the dominance of weed communities. Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus repens, Polygonum convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis were constant components of the agrophytocenoses. The weed communities were more similar in terms of their floristic composition than in terms of weed density and air-dry weight of weeds.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Small RNA Biogenesis Purveyors Reveal Their Role in Regulation of Biotic Stress Responses in Three Legume Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Dicer-like (DCL, Argonaute (AGO, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RDR constitute the major components of sRNA biogenesis machinery and are known to play a significant role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is, therefore, focused on identification and characterization of sRNA biogenesis proteins in three important legume crops, namely chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins between legume species classified them into distinct clades and suggests the evolutionary conservation of these genes across the members of Papillionidoids subfamily. Variable expression of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to the biotic stresses among the three legumes indicate the possible existence of specialized regulatory mechanisms in different legumes. This is the first ever study to understand the role of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to pathogen attacks in the studied legumes.

  15. Effect of legume grains as a source of dietary protein on the quality of organic lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Adriana; Tornambè, Gabriele; Di Grigoli, Antonino; Genna, Vincenzo; Bellina, Vincenzo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Giambalvo, Dario

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects on lamb growth, carcass traits and meat quality of replacing conventional soybean meal in the diet with alternative legume grains. Twenty-eight male lambs of Comisana breed weighing 16.9 ± 2.7 kg at weaning (66 ± 6 days old) were assigned to one of four diets. Until slaughter at 129 ± 6 days of age, each group received ad libitum pelleted alfalfa hay and concentrates differing in the source of protein: chickpea, faba bean, pea or soybean meal. Lambs fed chickpea showed higher dry matter and protein intakes from concentrate than those fed soybean. Lambs' growth, carcass weight and net dressing percentage did not vary by protein source, although chickpea lambs had more perirenal and pelvic fat than those in the soybean group. Diet did not affect chemical composition, colour, thawing and cooking losses, tenderness, and sensory properties of meat. Chickpea increased trans-vaccenic and linoleic acid, and chickpea and faba bean increased the isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Legume grains can completely replace soybean meal in concentrate, resulting in lamb carcasses and meat of comparable quality. Chickpea leads to an increase in feed intake of lambs and in fat depots in the carcass, and a more beneficial fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  17. Multi-model uncertainty analysis in predicting grain N for crop rotations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Kollas, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Realistic estimation of grain nitrogen (N; N in grain yield) is crucial for assessing N management in crop rotations, but there is little information on the performance of commonly used crop models for simulating grain N. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to (1) test if continuous simul...

  18. The effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on legumes germination and grain qualities of cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongyue; Lin Yin; Li Xiangling

    2004-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation on seed germination, bud length and living index of legumes, and food qualities including color and taste of cereals were studied. The results showed that when irradiation dosages were at 0.1 and 0.3 kGy bud living index and length of pea and green gram were affected respectively, but no changes were found in color of cereals. Irradiation changed the viscosity of fine broken corn, foxtail millet, sorghum grains and oat flakes greatly at the dose of 0.8 kGy, and altered taste of the two formers at the dose of 1.0 kGy significantly

  19. Improvement of Forage Quantity and Quality in Corn-Legumes Intercropping with Nitroxin Biofertilizer Application in Double Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Javanmard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Forage quantity and quality in simultaneous cropping of maize with vetch (Vicia villosa, grass pea (Lathyrus sativus, sainfoin (Onobrychis vicifolia, berseem clover (Trifolium alexanderinum L., studied by experiment as randomized complete block design (RCBD with 14 treatments and three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh during 2015. The treatments were monocultures of maize (SC 704, Vetch, Grass pea, Sainfoin, Berseem clover and intercropping maize with each legume in inoculated and non-inoculated with nitroxin biofertilizer. The results showed that the highest and lowest forage yield were obtained in maize (inoculation+ vetch intercropping and sainfoin monoculture, respectively. Also, the highest (277.5 g.kgDM-1 and the lowest (60.60 g.kgDM-1 crude protein were achieved in vetch and maize monoculture (without inoculation, respectively. In addition to, the highest acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF values were obtained in monoculture of maize (no -inoculation. The lowest ADF and NDF values were obtained in vetch monoculture and intercropping of maize (inoculation + vetch. The highest values of DMI, DDM, RFV, NEL and TDN was observed in vetch monocultures. Also, between intercropping patterns, the highest values of these indices were obtained in intercropping of maize (inoculation + vetch. Generally, the results of this study exhibited that the effects of vetch on the quality and quantity of forages was higher than other legumes in intercropping patterns.

  20. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  1. Eco-functional intensification by cereal-grain legume intercropping in organic farming systems for increased yields, reduced weeds and improved grain protein concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Étienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping, i.e., simultaneously growing two (or more) species in the same field for a significant period of time but without necessarily concomitant sowing or harvest, is a practice aimed at eco-functional intensification. This chapter integrates a comprehensive amount of original data from...... field experiments conducted since 2001 on spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops in experimental and farm contexts in France and Denmark, in an attempt to generalise the findings and draw up common guidelines. We have shown that intercrops appear to be a useful agronomic solution for organic......, structure and manuring strategies. Consequently, it should be emphasized that: (i) the species and varietal traits suited to intercropping and organic farming will make it necessary to reconsider the varietal selection criteria; (ii) further mechanistic understanding of the behaviour of intercropping...

  2. PEMANFAATAN LEGUM COVER CROP UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI SIFAT KIMIA TANAH PADA LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG EMAS DI KABUPATEN SIJUNJUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giska Oktabriana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sijunjung is one of the regencies in West Sumatra, which has reserves of gold mines. Gold mining in Sijunjung usually done illegally conducted dialiran river and spread the paddy rice is traditionally owned by the community. Problems encountered on mined land is that low productivity due to less good is the chemical properties of the soil it self like acid soil, N-total, P-available, cation exchange capacity (CEC and the content of bases (K, Ca, Mg and Na is low and Al dissolved in the soil is very high. One way you can do to fix it is by the use of Legume Cover Crop (LCC which is able to live on land that is damaged and is useful to protect the soil from erosion damage and is able to produce large amounts of organic matter. The purpose of this research is to improve the chemical properties of the gold mined land and to determine the type of Legume Cover Crop (LCC are good at improving the chemical nature of the gold mined lands. This research was conducted in Nagari Koto subdistrict Pala Outer Seven Sijunjung for 3 months and continued with the analysis in the Laboratory of Soil Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University. The design used in this study is a randomized block design (RAK with 5 treatments and 3 replications, treatment plant use LCC where, A = Control (without LCC,B =Mucuna conchinchinensis, C = Calopogonium mucunoide, D =Centrocema pubescen, E = Mucuna bracteata. Data analysis using Anova table 5% if F count is count more than F table 5% and a further test HSD 5%. From the research results can be concluded that the use of LCC M. conchinchinensisable to improve soil chemical properties in the gold mining land in Sijunjung.

  3. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

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    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  4. Genetic diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating selected annual grain legumes growing in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Rasche, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata, Vigna radiata and Arachis hypogaea growing in Ethiopia are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the genetic identity and symbiotic effectiveness of these bacteria, a collection of 36 test strains originating from the root nodules of the three hosts was investigated using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core genes including 16S rRNA, recA, glnII, gyrB, atpD and dnaK. Sequence analysis of nodA and nifH genes along with tests for symbiotic effectiveness using δ 15 N analysis were also carried out. The phylogenetic trees derived from the MLSA grouped most test strains into four well-supported distinct positions designated as genospecies I-IV. The maximum likelihood (ML) tree that was constructed based on the nodA gene sequences separated the entire test strains into two lineages, where the majority of the test strains were clustered on one of a well-supported large branch that comprise Bradyrhizobium species from the tropics. This clearly suggested the monophyletic origin of the nodA genes within the bradyrhizobia of tropical origin. The δ 15 N-based symbiotic effectiveness test of seven selected strains revealed that strains GN100 (δ 15 N=0.73) and GN102 (δ 15 N=0.79) were highly effective nitrogen fixers when inoculated to cowpea, thus can be considered as inoculants in cowpea production. It was concluded that Ethiopian soils are a hotspot for rhizobial diversity. This calls for further research to unravel as yet unknown bradyrhizobia nodulating legume host species growing in the country. In this respect, prospective research should also address the mechanisms of symbiotic specificity that could lead to high nitrogen fixation in target legumes.

  5. Biodegraded polymers as materials for sowing of grain crops seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Shibryaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of efficiency of grain production, solution of problems of food security demand search and development of innovative technologies at all stages. One of ways of environmentally friendly production is sowing of seeds on an excipient located in the soil, for example, nonwoven fabric made of eco- decomposable decomposed biodegraded polymer. Biodegraded polymeric materials influence on sowing properties of grain crops seeds and provide realization of their potential productivity. The authors used an electroforming method with chloroform and a dichloroethane application to receive nonwoven fabric from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and its compositions together with synthetic nitrile rubber (PHB-SNR. Polymeric material influences on energy of germination and viability of wheat seeds. Germination index is calculated, heat physical parameters are determined for the polymeric excipient. The major factor influencing seeds germination is a structure of nonwoven fabric. Water diffusion, its supply to seeds and their viability depend on morphological features of polymeric material. Polymer excipient structure influence on speed of development of root system on which, in turn, intensity of destruction of polymer depends. The best indicators of energy of germination and viability of seeds correspond to the greatest value of decrease of melting heat of PHB in mix PHB-SNR. In addition, among the studied samples of PHB-SNR the material received from blend of solvents is most effective. The cause is in feature of its structure favorable for a seed germination.

  6. POLYPHENOLS IN CHOSEN SPECIES OF LEGUME - A REVIEW

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    Judita Bystrická

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available  Legumes belongs to the most important grain for human consumption. They have been cultivated for thousands of years, and have played an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world. The most legumes are widely consumed in fresh and processed forms. The traditional way of legume preparation includes soaking in water following by cooking and are usually consumed boiled as soup, occasionally as roasted grains too. Legume are widely known for their nutraceutical value, but there is relatively little information about their polyphenols content (with the exception of soya. Inspite of the fact that phenolics in general are not the substances with nutritious value, the interest in them is still persisting for their positive effects on human health. For these reasons this short review is focused on summary of legume polyphenols – identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins in raw or processed legumes and their role in these crops. Monitoring and surveying of the changes of polyphenolic compounds contents thus complete knowledge about bioactive substances content in legumes species. And seeing that legumes are considered an ideal complement to cereals in diets, they gain increasing attention as functional food items. doi:10.5219/81

  7. Quantifying N2-fixed by groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as compared to some summer legumes using ''1''5N methodology with different reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlan, M. A. M.; Mukhtar, N. O.

    2004-01-01

    Using the ''1''5N methodology, one of the cultivar of groundnut repeated once (as groundnut 1 and 2) and one cultivar of each of the summer legumes guar, pigeon pea and mungbean were studied (a) to determine the amounts of nitrogen fixed by these legumes using different reference crops and (b) to compare N-fixation by groundnut to that of the above mentioned summer legumes. The reference crops used were, sorghum, soybean and a non-nodulating groundnut isoline. Each of the studied legumes and reference crops was grown at the Gezira Research Station Farm, in a microplot of 2.4 m''2 situated at one side of a main-plot of 24 m''2. The N 2 fixing legumes guar, mung bean, and pigeon pea and sorghum were given 20 kg N/ha as urea at 5.0% ''1''5N atom excess, and the reference crops of soybean and non -nodulating groundnut were given 100 kg N/ha at 1.0% ''1''5N atom excess. ''1''4N/''1''5N ratios were determined in plants sampled from the microplots. The results showed that pigeon pea and guar could compete well with groundnut as N 2 -fixers. Levels of fixation (%Ndfa) were 79% (108 kg N/ha), 77% (138 kg N/ha) and 80% (70 kg N/ha) of the total crop's N need for guar, groundnut and pigeon pea, respectively. Mungbean fixed about 12% (6 kg N/ha) of its N need. The variation in the amounts of N 2 fixed in kg/ha is dependent on the total plant N yield of each legume which was 160-180, 139, 87 and 68 for groundnut, guar, pigeon pea and mug bean, respectively. The non-nodulating groundnut was a superior reference crop over sorghum and soybean. Thus, the studied reference crops can be listed in a descending order of excellence as follows: non-nodulating groundnut, sorghum, soybean.(Author)

  8. Cover crop frequency and compost effects on a legume-rye cover crop during 8 years of organic vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic matter inputs from compost or cover crops (CC) are important to maintain or improve soil quality, but their impact in high-value vegetable production systems are not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of CC frequency (every winter versus every 4th winter) and yard-waste co...

  9. Performance of process-based models for simulation of grain N in crop rotations across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Kersebaum, KC; Kollas, C

    2017-01-01

    The accurate estimation of crop grain nitrogen (N; N in grain yield) is crucial for optimizing agricultural N management, especially in crop rotations. In the present study, 12 process-based models were applied to simulate the grain N of i) seven crops in rotations, ii) across various pedo...... (Brassica napus L.). These differences are linked to the intensity of parameterization with better parameterized crops showing lower prediction errors. The model performance was influenced by N fertilization and irrigation treatments, and a majority of the predictions were more accurate under low N...

  10. DAMPAK FASILITATIF TUMBUHAN LEGUM PENUTUP TANAH DAN TANAMAN BERMIKORIZA PADA SUKSESI PRIMER DI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG KAPUR (Facilitative Impacts of Legume Cover-crop and Mycorrhizal-inoculated Plant on Primary Succession of Limestone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-11-01

    melalui peningkatkan kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis pada semua tingkatan habitus, meskipun untuk tingkat herba dan semak, kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis terendah pada areal pertanaman tanpa mikoriza. ABSTRACT Limestone mining using open pit mining method that involves vegetation removal and soil drilling and blasting in accessing limestone material has caused ecosystem damages. Natural recovery of such a harsh site is a slow process as the site condition in the successional process do not favor the natural vegetation development. Plants Establishment could facilitate other plants by ameliorating harsh environmental characteristics and/or increasing the availability of nutrient resources. Facilitation impact of legume cover crop (Centrosema pubescens and mycorrhizal-inoculated plantation (Vitex cofassus was studied on primary succession of TNS limestone mining quarry. The emergence of natural plants is measured using individual density, diversity and number of species by quadrat systematic plot method base on their habitus. Site conditions measured by litterfall thickness and biomass, soil organic matter content and soil organic carbon levels. The study was conducted in four types of areas on limestone postmining lands are open areas/natural conditions without planting, legume cover crop area, non mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area and mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area. The results indicated, establishment of legume cover crops and mycorrhizal-inoculated plants improved site conditions of limestone quarry. Legume cover crops establishment produced a large amount of litters with 1.08 cm of a thickness and 188.96 g/m2 of biomass, and it’s subsequent decomposition increased soil organic matter of 3.80% and the organic carbon content of 2.20%. Plantation formation gave similar impact as well, particulary those inoculated with Arbuscula Mycorrhizae Fungi (AMF produced amount of litters with 1.32 cm of a thickness and 220.48 g/m2 of biomass, with 3

  11. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-06-05

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits.

  12. The value of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by grain legumes in comparison to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, G.; Bunning, S.; Montanez, A.; Roy, R.; MacMillan, A.

    2001-01-01

    A great challenge lies in devising more sustainable farming systems without compromising food production levels and food security. Obviously, increasing productivity is necessary to accommodate growth in the global population. World wide, the environmental factors that most severely restrict plant growth are the availability of water and nitrogen. The challenges in developing countries are to find ways of meeting this additional nitrogen demand without concomitant degrading natural productivity. Widespread adoption of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) would contribute to this goal. BNF, together with adequate N management in the ecosystem, appears to be the most promising alternative to increasing the use of inorganic fertiliser nitrogen. BNF technologies represent economic, sustainable and environmentally friendly means of ensuring the nitrogen requirement of an agro-ecosystem. Here we investigate the value of BNF by grain legumes and compares it to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries. Our data show that major grain legumes fix approximately 11.1 million metric tons of nitrogen per annum in developing countries. If this N was supplied by inorganic fertiliser one would have to apply at least double that amount to achieve the same yields, and this would cost approximately 6.7 billion US dollars. As the eight major grain legumes grown in developing countries contribute 30 - 40% of the annual N requirement the contribution of BNF is of great economic and environmental importance. (author)

  13. Use of radiation in grain legume improvement at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.E.; Reddy, K.S.; Pandey, R.N.; Manjaya, J.G.; Souframanien, J.; Joshi, Archana

    2001-01-01

    Pulses are the cheapest source of protein for the predominantly vegetarian population of India. However per capita availability of pulses is reduced due to high growth of population and only marginal increase in pulses production. Development of varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses will help to increase and stabilize pulse production in the country. Research work for the improvement of the three important pulse crops namely pigeon pea, mungbean and black gram was initiated using induced mutation approaches in early 70' and recently for cowpea and soybean at the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The programme for developing disease resistant high yielding varieties is being pursued at NABTD, BARC using induced mutations and conventional breeding approaches

  14. Genotypic variations in photosynthetic rate and respiratory losses in some grain legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, R K; Saxena, M C; Kalubarme, M H; Singh, V B; Prasad, V V.S.S. [Gobind Ballabh Pant Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (India)

    1976-01-01

    The relative rate of photosynthesis in 12 genotypes of Cajanus cajan as measured by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation, ranged from 100 percent in Pant A-2 to 126 percent in UPA 120. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation was not related to specific leaf weight. Respiratory losses in the 20-day period after exposure were 63 and 51 percent respectively, in seedlings of UPA-120 and Prabhat cultivars. The relative rate of photosynthesis in 13 genotypes of Vigna aureus ranged from 100 percent in LM-646 to 196 percent in LM-205. PS-16 also showed high photosynthetic rate. The translocation of /sup 14/C from leaves, stems and petioles to reproductive organs was also determined. Baisakhi accumulated larger proportion of total /sup 14/C in grain and showed lower respiratory loss than PS-16. The relative rate of photosynthesis in 20 Cicer arietinum cultivars ranged from 100 percent in S-330-1 to 224 percent in L-550. There was a considerable contribution from pod and stem towards total photosynthesis.

  15. Gamma radiation in the control of important storage pests of three grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Prasad, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    A dose of 1 kGy of gamma radiation completely killed adult pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis Linn) within a week, but the dose of 0.5 kGy required two weeks to achieve the same level of mortality. For six month storage, 1.0 kGy dose was effective for control of natural infestation of mung beans and gram by C. Chinensis alone. The dose was also sufficient for the management of weevilling in gram and lentil, which were additionally infested with C. chinensis, rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst), and lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius). For short (one and half months) storage of mung bean and lentil, a dose of 0.25 kGy was adequate. The test of significance for doses of radiation, storage periods and their interactions, however, indicated that 1.0 kGy is the preferred dose for the control of weevilling during storage upto 6 months. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  18. Cropping pattern adjustment in China's grain production and its impact on land and water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tian-xiang; Zhu, Jing; Balezentis, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at decomposing China's grain output changes into three terms, namely area sown effect, pure yield effect, and cropping pattern adjustment effect. Furthermore, the paper analyses the impact of shifts in cropping pattern on water and land use in China's grain production. An index...... adjustments). However, these effects vary across regions: Southeast China experienced land-saving and water-using changes, while other regions underwent land- and water-saving changes. In general, China's grain output growth has increased the total amount of land and water needed, implying more severe...... played an important role in promoting China's grain production, with a contribution of over 15 per cent during 2003-2012. Moreover, such changes enabled to save about 6.8 million hectares of sown areas and 31.06 billion m3 of water in grain production (if compared to the case without cropping pattern...

  19. Bio fertilization of Cereal and Legume Crops for Increasing Soil available P Uptake Using Nuclear Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.; El-Gandour, E. A.; El Gala, A. M.; Ishac, Y. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Application of N and P in uncommon sources such as N 2 -fixers and AM fungi considered as an important source to save money and reduce pollution. In this concern, two pot experiments were carried out in sandy soils, to study the role of these neutral organisms in increasing the fertility of sandy soil. Wheat and faba bean were used. Seeds of wheat or faba bean were inoculated with Azotobacter or Rhizobium and planted in soils inoculated with and without AM fungi. A 20 mg P/kg soil in the form of single super phosphate (15.5 % P 2 O 5 ) or rock-P (26.6% P 2 O 5 ) were applied in the first experiment while KH 2 PO 4 was added in the second one. Dry weight, spore number, root infection, total and specific P were also determined. Maximum shoot growth were gained when either, wheat or faba bean inoculated with mycorrhizae and N2-fixers relative to the control. it was reached to 54 and 73%, respectively. Phosphorus uptake for shoots of both wheat and faba bean had been significantly increased upon inoculating with AM and/or Azotobacter or Rhizobium. Addition of fertilizer P help to identify the P uptake from soil or fertilizer. Mycorrhizal plants induced significant increase in Pdff by about 39 and 27% over inoculated with Azotobacter for wheat and Rhizobium for faba bean and it reached to 95 and 79% when inoculated with combined inoculation. This may be due to AM fungi absorb more available P than do nonmycorrhizal roots. FUE was increased from about 5 to 10% for wheat; 6 to 19% for faba bean. It can be concluded that, bio fertilizers can increase crop production and soil fertility. Rock-P might be recommended as a source of P fertilizer to be applied with AM fungi. (Authors)

  20. Nitrogen accumulation profiles of selected grain and vegetable crops: A bibliography (1940-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meischen, S.J.; Byrd, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    A bibliography of nitrogen accumulation profile data for 25 vegetable and grain crops reported between 1940 and 1992 is presented. The selected crops are asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, field bean, field pea, garlic, lettuce, onions, and peppers.

  1. Vulnerability of grain crops and croplands in the Midwest to climatic variability and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Gylcine max (L.) Merr.) are the dominant grain crops across the Midwest and are grown on 75% of the arable land with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) small but economically important crops. Historically there have been variations in annual yiel...

  2. Improving yield and nitrogen fixation of grain legumes in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Co-ordinated Research Project on The Use of Isotopes in Studies to Improve Yield and N 2 Fixation of Grain Legumes with the Aim of Increasing Food Production and Saving N-fertilizer in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics of Asia that was operational from 1990 to 1995. This Project was underpinned by extensive experience in the use of 15 N-labelled fertilizer in quantifying N 2 fixation by food and pasture legumes; the isotope-dilution technique, recognized as the most accurate mode of quantifying fixation, was developed at the IAEA and has been used profitably for over 20 years in co-ordinated research projects that were focused on aspects relevant to the sustainability of agriculture in developing countries in which food security is most under threat. This effort to improve N 2 fixation by food legumes in Asia, and in so doing to increase productivity of cereal-based farming systems as a whole, was timely in terms of regional needs. It was complemented by an overlapping Co-ordinated Research Project entitled ''The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Management of Nitrogen Fixation by trees for Enhancing Soil Fertility and Soil Conservation in Fragile Tropical Soils''. The project involved scientists from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam

  3. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is ... Diabetes is an endocrine-metabolic disease characterised by hyperglycemia associated ... The high level of dietary fibre in legumes has long.

  4. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah, A.; Shah, P.; Arif, M.; Khan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  5. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  6. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  7. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  8. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. A meta-analysis of relative crop yields in cereal/legume mixtures suggests options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yang; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Makowski, David; Zhang, Lizhen; Werf, van der Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Intercrops of cereals and legumes are grown worldwide, both in smallholder agriculture in developing countries and in organic farming systems in developed countries. The competitive balance between species is a key factor determining productivity in mixtures. Management factors, e.g. sowing time,

  10. Performance of process-based models for simulation of grain N in crop rotations across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiaogang, Y.; Kesebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Manevski, K.; Baby, S.; Beaudoin, N.; Öztürk, I.; Gaiser, T.; Wu, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Charfeddine, M.; Conradt, T.; Constantin, J.; Ewert, F.; de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G.; Giglio, L.; Hlavinka, Petr; Hoffmann, H.; Launay, M.; Louarn, G.; Manderscheid, R.; Mary, B.; Mirschel, W.; Nendel, C.; Pacholski, A.; Palouso, T.; Ripoche-Wachter, D.; Rötter, R. P.; Ruget, F.; Sharif, B.; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, D.; Weigel, H-J.; Olesen, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 154, JUN (2017), s. 63-77 ISSN 0308-521X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1310123 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Calibration * Crop model * Crop rotation * Grain N content * Model evaluation * Model initialization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2016

  11. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  12. Grain and straw for whole plant: implications for crop management and genetic improvement strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Schiere, J.B.; Joshi, A.L.; Seetharam, A.; Oosting, S.J.; Goodchild, A.V.; Deinum, B.; Keulen, van, H.

    2004-01-01

    Straws and stovers are often called `by-products` of grain production even though they are increasingly important, e.g. for animal feed, thatching, soil improvement, mushroom production and industrial use. As a result, plant breeders, agronomists, economists and animal nutritionists have to pay more attention than before to the total value of crops, i.e. whole plant value in which straws and grain both play a part. This paper reviews literature about the technical potential of breeding and/or...

  13. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  14. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  15. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  16. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  17. Application of water footprint combined with a unified virtual crop pattern to evaluate crop water productivity in grain production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y B; Wu, P T; Engel, B A; Sun, S K

    2014-11-01

    Water shortages are detrimental to China's grain production while food production consumes a great deal of water causing water crises and ecological impacts. Increasing crop water productivity (CWP) is critical, so China is devoting significant resources to develop water-saving agricultural systems based on crop planning and agricultural water conservation planning. A comprehensive CWP index is necessary for such planning. Existing indices such as water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation efficiency (IE) have limitations and are not suitable for the comprehensive evaluation of CWP. The water footprint (WF) index, calculated using effective precipitation and local water use, has advantages for CWP evaluation. Due to regional differences in crop patterns making the CWP difficult to compare directly across different regions, a unified virtual crop pattern is needed to calculate the WF. This project calculated and compared the WF of each grain crop and the integrated WFs of grain products with actual and virtual crop patterns in different regions of China for 2010. The results showed that there were significant differences for the WF among different crops in the same area or among different areas for the same crop. Rice had the highest WF at 1.39 m(3)/kg, while corn had the lowest at 0.91 m(3)/kg among the main grain crops. The WF of grain products was 1.25 m(3)/kg in China. Crop patterns had an important impact on WF of grain products because significant differences in WF were found between actual and virtual crop patterns in each region. The CWP level can be determined based on the WF of a virtual crop pattern, thereby helping optimize spatial distribution of crops and develop agricultural water savings to increase CWP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, Gudni; Atkins, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N 2 , so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N 2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N 2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N 2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  19. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  20. Increasing seed size and quality by manipulating BIG SEEDS1 in legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liangfa; Yu, Jianbin; Wang, Hongliang; Luth, Diane; Bai, Guihua; Wang, Kan; Chen, Rujin

    2016-11-01

    Plant organs, such as seeds, are primary sources of food for both humans and animals. Seed size is one of the major agronomic traits that have been selected in crop plants during their domestication. Legume seeds are a major source of dietary proteins and oils. Here, we report a conserved role for the BIG SEEDS1 (BS1) gene in the control of seed size and weight in the model legume Medicago truncatula and the grain legume soybean (Glycine max). BS1 encodes a plant-specific transcription regulator and plays a key role in the control of the size of plant organs, including seeds, seed pods, and leaves, through a regulatory module that targets primary cell proliferation. Importantly, down-regulation of BS1 orthologs in soybean by an artificial microRNA significantly increased soybean seed size, weight, and amino acid content. Our results provide a strategy for the increase in yield and seed quality in legumes.

  1. Pea and pea-grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rondahl, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this review the use of pea and pea/grain mixtures as whole crop protein silage for dairy cows is discussed. An introductory discussion concerns the ensilage process and protein degradation and effects of different silage additives. To minimise protein loss, prewilting time should be kept short. An acid additive will reduce respiration and thereby reduce protein degradation. The main part of the review discusses nutritional and botanical changes during development as well as results from bo...

  2. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 2. Deposition of Cs and Sr on grain crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr at different times during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout and the results are compared with similar earlier Swedish works on nuclide retention in experiments and on fallout in agriculture. The aim has been to cover the nuclide transfer to grain crops after deposition at different times during the growing period. The initial interception capacity per kg d.w., TRd, seemed to depend on the surface/weight ratio of the plant parts considered. Changes in TRd-values were rapid during the early growth but slower in later stages. The reduction half-time was then often 2 weeks for vegetative parts. Considering the fraction of a deposition retained, FRd, the residence half-time had an average length of 3-4 weeks. During that time there were possibilities for cesium penetration into the plant and further transfer to ears and grain. Strontium did not seem to be transferred that way. There was no increase of cesium in the ears per unit d.w. after the initial interception. However, there was a steady increase in the total content, especially after deposition during the latter half of the growth period when about 5 % was retained of cesium, and 2 % of strontium. The retention of fallout caesium in 1964 was statistically estimated to be of about the same size in Swedish grains

  3. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cereal crop yield improvements following legume rotations ... effects of legumes rotation in meeting the N fertilizer requirements of maize. ... The effects of the rotations on increasing the maize yields were equivalent to application of 25, 19 and.

  4. Effects of earthworms on soil aggregate stability and carbon and nitrogen storage in a legume cover crop agroecosystem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Blair, J.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of earthworms on soil aggregate size-distribution, water-stability, and the distribution of total C and N among aggregates of different sizes. Earthworm populations were experimentally manipulated (reduced, unaltered or increased) in field enclosures cropped to soybean

  5. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  6. Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars: a randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginos, Bigina N R; Navarro, Sandi L; Schwarz, Yvonne; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Dongfang; Randolph, Timothy W; Shojaie, Ali; Hullar, Meredith A J; Lampe, Paul D; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L; Raftery, Daniel; Lampe, Johanna W

    2018-02-16

    The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m 2 ) and half overweight to obese (BMI 28.0-39.9 kg/m 2 ). Participants consumed two four-week controlled diets in randomized order: 1) a whole grain diet (WG diet), designed to be low in glycemic load (GL), high in whole grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables, and 2) a refined grain diet (RG diet), designed to be high GL, high in refined grains and added sugars, separated by a four-week washout period. Quantitative targeted analysis of 55 bile acid species in fasting plasma was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, and CRP were measured in fasting serum. Linear mixed models were used to test the effects of diet on bile acid concentrations, and determine the association between plasma bile acid concentrations and HOMA-IR and CRP. Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 was used to control for multiple testing. A total of 29 plasma bile acids were reliably detected and retained for analysis. Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), taurocholic acid (TCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA) were statistically significantly higher after the WG compared to the RG diet (FDR < 0.05). There were no significant differences by BMI or sex. When evaluating the association of bile acids and HOMA-IR, GCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 5β-cholanic acid-3β,12

  7. Multi-model uncertainty analysis in predicting grain N for crop rotations in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yin, X.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Baby, S.; Beaudoin, N.; Manevski, K.; Palosuo, T.; Nendel, C.; Wu, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Hoffmann, H. D.; Sharif, B.; Armas-Herrera, C.; Bindi, M.; Charfeddine, M.; Conradt, T.; Constantin, J.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Gaiser, T.; de Cortazar-Atauri, I. G.; Giglio, L.; Hlavinka, Petr; Lana, M.; Launay, M.; Louarn, G.; Manderscheid, R.; Mary, B.; Mirschel, W.; Moriondo, M.; Oeztuerk, M.; Pacholski, A.; Ripoche-Wachter, D.; Roetter, R. P.; Ruget, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Ventrella, D.; Weigel, H-J.; Olesen, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 84, mar (2017), s. 152-165 ISSN 1161-0301 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : air co2 enrichment * climate-change * catch crops * nitrogen-fertilization * wheat production * winter-wheat * model stics * sugar-beet * wide-range * growth * Continuous simulation * Grain N * Model calibration * Model ensemble * Model inter-comparison * Single year simulation Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy , plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 3.757, year: 2016

  8. Translocation of aluminum to grain crops grown in different agricultural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Kazi, T.G.; Kolachi, N.F.; Afridi, H.I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility and transport of Aluminum (AI) by shoot and grain crops (wheat and maize) grown on two different agricultural soil irrigated with water have high (lake water) and low levels (canal water) of AI. The total and bio available fractions (deionized water, 0.11 M CH/sub 3/COOH, 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDT A) and 0.1 M HCl extractable) of Al in both understudied agricultural soils and correlate with respective total Al in the edible parts (grains) and non edible parts (Shoots) of wheat and maize. The All content in lake and canal water samples was found in the range of 750 - 1340 and 90 - 50 micro g/L respectively. The total and extractable Al in both agricultural soil samples, edible and non edible parts of wheat and maize were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion in microwave oven. The edible and non edible part of both crops absorbed significantly high levels of Al grown on agricultural soil irrigated with lake water (SILW) as compared to those grown on soil irrigated with can water (SICW) had low level of A] (p< O.OI). The transfer factor of Al from soils to edible and non edible parts of wheat and maize were also evaluated. It was observed that the bioaccumulation of Al was found to be high in non edible parts of both crops grown in SILW. This study highlights the increased danger of growing food crops in the agricultural land continuously irrigated by A] contaminated lake water. (author)

  9. Corn yield for silage and grains in different integrated crop-livestock systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse da Silveira Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the objective was to assess the influence of two doses of N (90 and 180 kg N ha-1, added to the winter pastures, two integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, with and without trees and five positions between the tree rows, on the corn (Zea mays L. quality and productivity, for silage and grain. Adopting the complete randomized block design, the treatments included three replicates. In 2006, following the 14 x 3 m spacing (currently with 158 trees ha-1 the trees were planted in 6 out of the 12 paddocks. While the corn was implemented during summer of 2013/2014, cattle grazing on the annual pasture was done during the prior winter, in both ICLS. Corn for silage was reaped at the R5 phenological stage, whereas for grains it was done at 176 days post seeding. For silage, the corn plants were grinded and then stocked in the experimental mini PVC silos. The silage varied slightly in quality along the positions between the tree rows. The differences observed between N levels in the dry matter, crude protein (CP and grain productivity are expressions of the residual effects of the winter fertilization. Silage quality was improved by the shade effect which minimized the acid detergent fiber and raised the CP, although it reduced the corn production for silage and grains by 52%. Some feasible techniques to reduce these losses are discussed.

  10. Fungicidal Effects of Plasma and Radio-Wave Pre-treatments on Seeds of Grain Crops and Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Irina; Azharonok, Viktor; Shik, Alexander; Antoniuk, Alexandra; Terletskaya, Natalia

    An influence of RF plasma and RF electromagnetic field pre-treatments on level of fungal infection of some important agricultural plants has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing plasma and radio-wave seeds treatments contribute to their germination enhancement and plant productivity improvement owing to stimulative and fungicidal effect of plasma and RF electromagnetic field irradiation.

  11. Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    During combine harvesting of 5 various cereal crops (rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, corn) 24 samples of grain and 24 samples of settled grain dust were collected on farms located in the Lublin province of eastern Poland. The samples were examined for the concentration of total microfungi, Fusarium species, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and ochratoxin A (OTA). Microfungi able to grow on malt agar were present in 79.2% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 1.0-801.3x10(3) cfu/g and 1.5-12440.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. The concentration of microfungi in grain dust samples was significantly greater than in grain samples (pgrain samples and from 58.3% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.1-375.0x10(3) cfu/g and 4.0-7,700.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. They were found in all samples of grain and grain dust from rye, barley and corn, but only in 0-16.7% of samples of grain and grain dust from oats and buckwheat. DON was found in 79.2% of grain samples and in 100% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.001-0.18 microg/g and 0.006-0.283 microg/g, respectively. NIV was detected in 62.5% of grain samples and in 94.4% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.004-0.502 microg/g and 0.005-0.339 microg/g, respectively. OTA was detected in 58.3% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.00039- 0.00195 microg/g and 0.00036-0.00285 microg/g, respectively. The concentrations of DON, total fusariotoxins (DON+NIV) and OTA were significantly greater in grain dust samples than in grain samples (pgrain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentrations of DON (pgrain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentration of total fusariotoxins (pgrain dust collected from 5 various cereals on farms in eastern Poland was not large, the persistent presence of these mycotoxins in over 90% of examined samples poses a potential health risk of chronic respiratory

  12. Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, D R; Ranere, A J; Holst, I; Hansell, P

    2000-10-19

    Native American populations are known to have cultivated a large number of plants and domesticated them for their starch-rich underground organs. Suggestions that the likely source of many of these crops, the tropical forest, was an early and influential centre of plant husbandry have long been controversial because the organic remains of roots and tubers are poorly preserved in archaeological sediments from the humid tropics. Here we report the occurrence of starch grains identifiable as manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), yams (Dioscorea sp.) and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) on assemblages of plant milling stones from preceramic horizons at the Aguadulce Shelter, Panama, dated between 7,000 and 5,000 years before present (BP). The artefacts also contain maize starch (Zea mays L.), indicating that early horticultural systems in this region were mixtures of root and seed crops. The data provide the earliest direct evidence for root crop cultivation in the Americas, and support an ancient and independent emergence of plant domestication in the lowland Neotropical forest.

  13. The virtual water content of major grain crops and virtual water flows between regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Kun; Wu, Pu-Te; Wang, Yu-Bao; Zhao, Xi-Ning

    2013-04-01

    The disproportionate distribution of arable land and water resources has become a bottleneck for guaranteeing food security in China. Virtual water and virtual water trade theory have provided a potential solution to improve water resources management in agriculture and alleviate water crises in water-scarce regions. The present study evaluates the green and blue virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice at the regional scale in China. It then assesses the water-saving benefits of virtual water flows related to the transfer of the three crops between regions. The national average virtual water content of wheat, maize and rice were 1071 m(3) per ton (50.98% green water, 49.02% blue water ), 830 m(3) per ton (76.27% green water, 23.73% blue water) and 1294 m(3) per ton (61.90% green water, 38.10% blue water), respectively. With the regional transfer of wheat, maize and rice, virtual water flows reached 30.08 Gm(3) (59.91% green water, 40.09% blue water). Meanwhile, China saved 11.47 Gm(3) green water, while it consumed 7.84 Gm(3) more blue water than with a no-grain transfer scenario in 2009. In order to guarantee food security in China, the government should improve water productivity (reduce virtual water content of crops) during the grain production process. Meanwhile, under the preconditions of economic feasibility and land-water resources availability, China should guarantee the grain-sown area in southern regions for taking full advantage of green water resources and to alleviate the pressure on water resources. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah; Arif, M.; Shah, P.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rain fed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rain fed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha/sup -1/ wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dry land conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rain fed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production. (Author)

  15. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  16. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%–60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%–2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail.

  17. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kalita, Prasanta

    2017-01-15

    While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers' livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%-60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%-2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail.

  18. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 10, No 1 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source of nutrients on cereal grain yield and fodder dry matter yields. D R Mpairwe, E N Sabiiti, N N Ummuna, A Tegegne, P Osuji. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v10i1.27559 ...

  19. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  20. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Soil Carbon Changes in Transitional Grain Crop Production Systems in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Corn-C (Zea Mays L.), soybean-S (Glycine max L.) and spring wheat-W (Triticum aestivum L.) crops were seeded as a component of either a C-S, S-W, or C-S-W crop rotation on silt-loam textured soils ranging from 3.0-5.0% organic matter. Conservation tillage(chisel plow-field cultivator) was applied to half of the plots. The other plots were direct seeded as a no-till (zero-tillage) treatment. Grain yield and surface crop residues were weighed from each treatment plot. Crop residue (stover and straw) was removed from half of the plots. After four years, soil samples were removed at various increments of depth and soil organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) was measured. The ranking of crop residue weights occurred by the order corn>>soybean>wheat. Surface residue accumulation was also greatest with residue treatments that were returned to the plots, those rotations in which maize was a component, and those without tillage. Mean soil organic carbon levels in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.41% to 3.19% (- 0.22%) with conventional tillage (chisel plow/field cultivator) as compared to a decrease from 3.19% to 3.05% (-0.14%) in plots without tillage over a four year period. Organic carbon in the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 3.21% to 3.01% (- 0.20%) after residue removed as compared to a decrease from 3.39% to 3.23% (-0.17%) in plots without tillage applied after four years. The soil C:N ratio (0-7.5cm) decreased from 10.63 to 10.37 (-0.26 (unitless)) in the tilled plots over a four-year period. Soil C:N ratio at the 0-7.5cm depth decreased from 10.72 to 10.04 (-0.68) in the no-till plots over a four year period. Differences in the soil C:N ratio comparing residue removed and residue returned were similar (-0.51 vs. -0.43 respectively). These soils are highly buffered for organic carbon changes. Many cropping cycles are required to determine how soil carbon storage is significantly impacted by production systems.

  2. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits. PMID:28587254

  3. Influence of evenness of poultry manure application on grain crops productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Anisimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility of increase of efficiency of poultry manure application due to more evenness of fertilizer application into the soil was investigated. Machines with a wide range of regulation of an application rate, for example ROU-6 with interval from 4 to 80 t/ha are for this purpose necessary. Efficiency of poultry manure application for grain crops was increased due to using of machines of drum type with optimum doses fertilizing (12-16 t/ha. An assessment of efficiency was carried out. The drums rotation speed, shovel quantity and shape, their installation angle and a design of the directing board were determined. The developed modified working of a spreader of drum type allowed to reduce unevenness of width fertilizing by 12-14 percent, on length of unit pass - by 5 percent. It was established that if the dose increases more than 8 t/ha, the crop productivity growths not significant. At reduction of fertilizing unevenness from 97 to 72 percent yield losses decrease by 54.4 percent. At reduction of fertilizing unevenness more than 97 percent, efficiency worsens by 58 percent. Poultry manure spreading by the machine and tractor unit MTZ-82.1 + ROU-6M afforded an yield by 38 percent higher, in comparison with the machine and tractor unit T-150K + PRT-10. At decrease in unevenness from 82 to 43 percent of barley loss decreased by 29 percent. It was revealed that spreading by machine ROU-6M provided a yield increase by 8.6 percent more, than by machine PRT-10. Yield losses because of spreading unevenness made: by the PRT-10 operating - 30 percent; by the ROU-6M operating - 0.33 percent. The grain yield increase was higher thanks to more evenness of fertilizer application by ROU-6M with the new spreading working element.

  4. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  5. Legume carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, S; Erdman, J W

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the results of research studies have suggested a positive beneficial relationship between a vegetarian-based diet and low incidence of diseases, including coronary heart disease, cancer, obesity, dental caries, and osteoporosis. beta-Carotene has specifically been suggested as a nutrient with antitumorigenic properties. In this regard there is a need to evaluate the carotenoid content of foods. Legumes are one of the staple components of a vegetarian diet. This review specifically surveys the prevalence of carotenoids in food and forage legumes. In addition, the methods available for carotenoid analysis are discussed; factors affecting the determination of carotenoid content during maturation, germination, processing and storage are identified; research areas which have been inadequately explored are identified; and suggestions are made for future lines of investigation.

  6. Effects of legume cover crop and sub-soiling on soil properties and Maize (Zea mays L) growth in semi arid area of Machakos district, Kenya = Efecto del cultivo de cobertua y el subsolado sobre las propiedades del suelo y crecimiento de maiz (Zea mays L.) en la region semi arida de Machakos, Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuma, A.; Gachene, C.K.K.; Gicheru, P.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Mwangi, H.W.; Clavel, D.; Verhagen, A.; Kaufmann, Von R.; Francis, J.; Ekaya, W.

    2011-01-01

    Low crop yields in the semi arid areas of Kenya have been attributed to, among other factors, low soil fertility, low farm inputs, labour constraints and inappropriate tillage practices that lead to pulverized soils. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of legume cover crops (LCC) on

  7. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  8. Capability of crop water content for revealing variability of winter wheat grain yield and soil moisture under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jiangui; Shang, Jiali; Cai, Huanjie

    2018-08-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm -2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m -2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators. The result revealed that the water indicators were more sensitive to soil moisture variation before the jointing stage. All three water indicators were significantly correlated with soil moisture during the reviving stage, and the correlations were stronger for leaf water indicators than that of the canopy water indicator at the jointing stage. No correlation was observed after the heading stage. All three water indicators showed good capabilities of revealing grain yield variability in jointing stage, with R 2 up to 0.89. CWC had a consistent relationship with grain yield over different growing seasons, but the performances of EWT and LWC were growing-season specific. The partial least squares regression was the most accurate method for estimating LWC (R 2 =0.72; RMSE=3.6%) and comparable capability for EWT and CWC. Finally, the work highlights the usefulness of crop water indicators to assess crop growth, productivity, and soil water status and demonstrates the potential of various spectral processing methods for retrieving crop water contents from canopy reflectance spectrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Introduction to Agronomy, Grain Crops, Weeds and Controls. A Learning Activity Pac in Agricultural Education Courses in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Instructional Services.

    This learning activity pac contains information to help the teachers of high school vocational agriculture in the instructional area of agronomy. Each of the two main sections, grain crops and weeds and controls, includes teacher and student units for the section lessons. Teacher units include special instructions--equipment needed (film…

  10. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Vol. 1. Proceedings of an international symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH and held in Neuherberg, 4-8 September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS.

  11. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  12. [Agricultural and nutritional importance of legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, J J

    1996-12-01

    The main ecophysiologic, agronomic and economic feature of legume plants is the development of tubercles and nodules in their apical system. Nodule formation occurs in most legume species provided a compatible type of Rhizobium bacteria is present in the soil. Nitrogen fixation in nodules renders these plants independent of nitrogen fertilizers, the most expensive of all goods in modern cereal agriculture. Considering that soils may get enriched in nitrogen through fixation in nodules and the decomposition of foliage when the aerial parts of legume plants are used as green fertilizers, only through the inclusion of legume crops within planned harvest schemes, it would be possible to achieve success in large scale production strategies. Legume crops are extensively produced in temperate climates areas in which, in addition to their use in animal nutrition, yields of 18 kg per person per year are obtained. In contrast, in the Third World countries located in tropical areas, legume production is scarce, with annual yields of 9 kg per person per year. Currently, it is proposed that the energy and protein intake should match that of the developed countries 40 years ago (i.e. 3000 Kcal and 70 g protein per day); for this, it would be necessary to have an average availability of 60 g of legume seeds per person per day. Therefore, the production of legume seeds should be increased. In addition, research aimed to study and exploit the agronomic potential of this rich botanical family should be strengthened through the formation of interdisciplinary groups.

  13. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  14. Strategic objectives and the usage possibility of competitive advantages of the grain crops complex of Chelyabinsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga Dmitrievna Rubaeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the logical scheme of strategy of the grain complex competitive advantages usage. The results of evaluation of financial and economic situation of agricultural enterprises engaged into production of grain are presented. Determination of the level of competitiveness of the agro-grain industry was established on the basis of obtaining an integral point-weighting factor of competitiveness. Evaluation and confirmation of this technique allowed identifying key factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises in the grain corns industry. The main conclusion of the study is the following: the use of resource-saving technologies for the cultivation of crops greatly influences the development of competitive advantages. Calculations showed that the application of resource-saving technology increases productivity, reduces labour requirements and the cost of equipment maintenance and repair, fuel costs, improves basic economic indicators of activity: gross revenues from sales is increasing.

  15. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  16. Nitrate Leaching From Grain Maize After Different Tillage Methods and Long/Short Term Cover Cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller

    trial initiated in 1968 on a coarse sandy soil. The previous trial included spring sown crops undersown (with or without) perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as cover crop, two N-rates (90 and 120 kg N ha-1) and different tillage methods (shallow tillage and ploughing autumn or spring). With maize......) previous history of long-term cover cropping, ii) soil tillage methods, iii) N rates and iv) present short-term use of cover cropping in maize. Preliminary results from 2009 – 2011 suggest that leaching after a history of cover cropping tended to be higher than after no history of cover cropping......, but the effect was insignificant. The effect of tillage and previous N rates were also insignificant but the present use of cover crops had a small but significant decreasing effect on leaching compared to no cover cropping. The cover crop was well established in both years but grew less vigorously during autumn...

  17. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  18. Accelerating Genetic Gains in Legumes for the Development of Prosperous Smallholder Agriculture: Integrating Genomics, Phenotyping, Systems Modelling and Agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Tardieu, Francois; Ojiewo, Chris; Vadez, Vincent; Whitbread, Anthony M; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Nguyen, Henry T; Carberry, Peter S; Bergvinson, David

    2018-03-05

    Grain legumes form an important component of the human diet, feed for livestock and replenish soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation. Globally, the demand for food legumes is increasing as they complement cereals in protein requirements and possess a high percentage of digestible protein. Climate change has enhanced the frequency and intensity of drought stress that is posing serious production constraints, especially in rainfed regions where most legumes are produced. Genetic improvement of legumes, like other crops, is mostly based on pedigree and performance-based selection over the last half century. For achieving faster genetic gains in legumes in rainfed conditions, this review article proposes the integration of modern genomics approaches, high throughput phenomics and simulation modelling as support for crop improvement that leads to improved varieties that perform with appropriate agronomy. Selection intensity, generation interval and improved operational efficiencies in breeding are expected to further enhance the genetic gain in experiment plots. Improved seed access to farmers, combined with appropriate agronomic packages in farmers' fields, will deliver higher genetic gains. Enhanced genetic gains including not only productivity but also nutritional and market traits will increase the profitability of farmers and the availability of affordable nutritious food especially in developing countries.

  19. Climate change and its effect on grain crops yields in the middle belt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    impact of climate on the yield on reference crops in Kwara State, Nigeria. Multiple ... As a result, it is recommended that investment should be made to intensify the cultivation of crops on which .... Project (KWADP), Ilorin on maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum ... crop yield and the evaluation of a decade data is based on.

  20. Effects of abiotic stress and crop management on cereal grain composition: implications for food quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Nigel G; Curtis, Tanya Y; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The effects of abiotic stresses and crop management on cereal grain composition are reviewed, focusing on phytochemicals, vitamins, fibre, protein, free amino acids, sugars, and oils. These effects are discussed in the context of nutritional and processing quality and the potential for formation of processing contaminants, such as acrylamide, furan, hydroxymethylfurfuryl, and trans fatty acids. The implications of climate change for cereal grain quality and food safety are considered. It is concluded that the identification of specific environmental stresses that affect grain composition in ways that have implications for food quality and safety and how these stresses interact with genetic factors and will be affected by climate change needs more investigation. Plant researchers and breeders are encouraged to address the issue of processing contaminants or risk appearing out of touch with major end-users in the food industry, and not to overlook the effects of environmental stresses and crop management on crop composition, quality, and safety as they strive to increase yield. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir; Wylie, Bruce; Tieszen, Larry; Meyers, Tilden P.; Baron, Vern S.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Fischer, Marc L.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Hanan, Niall P.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Hollinger, Steven E.; Howard, Daniel M.; Matamala, Roser; Prueger, John H.; Tenuta, Mario; Young, David G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed net CO2 exchange data from 13 flux tower sites with 27 site-years of measurements over maize and wheat fields across midcontinent North America. A numerically robust “light-soil temperature-VPD”-based method was used to partition the data into photosynthetic assimilation and ecosystem respiration components. Year-round ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameters of apparent quantum yield, photosynthetic capacity, convexity of the light response, respiration rate parameters, ecological light-use efficiency, and the curvature of the VPD-response of photosynthesis for maize and wheat crops were numerically identified and interpolated/extrapolated. This allowed us to gap-fill CO2 exchange components and calculate annual totals and budgets. VPD-limitation of photosynthesis was systematically observed in grain crops of the region (occurring from 20 to 120 days during the growing season, depending on site and year), determined by the VPD regime and the numerical value of the curvature parameter of the photosynthesis-VPD-response, σVPD. In 78% of the 27 site-years of observations, annual gross photosynthesis in these crops significantly exceeded ecosystem respiration, resulting in a net ecosystem production of up to 2100 g CO2 m−2 year−1. The measurement-based photosynthesis, respiration, and net ecosystem production data, as well as the estimates of the ecophysiological parameters, provide an empirical basis for parameterization and validation of mechanistic models of grain crop production in this economically and ecologically important region of North America.

  2. Radiation induced mutant crop varieties: accomplishment and societal deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane

  3. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  4. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  5. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  6. 70-79 Effects of Crop Rotation and NP Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary nutrient (N, P and K) composition of the ... Crop rotation with fertilizer amendment improved the pH of the soil. Crop rotation and ..... Soil organic carbon contents declined regardless of inputs application for continuously cultivated land (Kapkiyai, 1996). Higher. Organic carbon content next to before planting (1.98 %).

  7. Use of crop selection and cattle manure to bioremediate a heavy-oil polluted loamy sand for grain production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederbeck, V. O.; Selles, F.; Hanson, K. G.; Geissler, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    As as initially unintended part of a study to assess the feasibility of utilizing heavy oil production waste to improve erodible sandy cropland by stabilizing soil aggregation and by microbial conversion of hydrocarbon into humus, it was discovered that by amending the highly polluted soil in one of the plots with an application of 63 tonnes /hectare of old cattle manure, it was possible to assess the restorative ability of manure for soil properties critical to plant growth as well as to measure manuring benefits for grain production for more oil-tolerant crops. Oat was identified by greenhouse and field tests as the least sensitive toward oily residues in soil, followed by wheat as a distant second, with barley and rye following a long way back. Marked improvements in soil properties were observed in unfertilized plots within four months, although the effectiveness of manure to improve soil conditions declined with increasing rates of previous fertilization. Two years after the addition of manure all plots were seeded to oats; manuring resulted in a 55 per cent increase in plant density, 70 per cent increase in crop biomass and an 82 per cent increase in grain yield. Manuring was also found to improve grain quality by maintaining protein levels and a marked increase in kernel size and test weight. The study demonstrated the restorative properties of old manure in improving soil properties, and its ability to restoring oil-polluted topsoil to full productivity within a relatively short time (one to two years). 10 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Genetic control of flowering time in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Weller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The timing of flowering, and in particular the degree to which it is responsive to the environment, is a key factor in the adaptation of a given species to various eco-geographic locations and agricultural practices. Flowering time variation has been documented in many crop legumes, and selection for specific variants has permitted significant expansion and improvement in cultivation, from prehistoric times to the present day. Recent advances in legume genomics have accelerated the process of gene identification and functional analysis, and opened up new prospects for a molecular understanding of flowering time adaptation in this important crop group. Within the legumes, two species have been prominent in flowering time studies; the vernalization-responsive long-day species pea (Pisum sativum and the warm-season short-day plant soybean (Glycine max. Analysis of flowering in these species is now being complemented by reverse genetics capabilities in the model legumes Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, and the emergence of genome-scale resources in a range of other legumes. This review will outline the insights gained from detailed forward genetic analysis of flowering time in pea and soybean, highlighting the importance of light perception, the circadian clock and the FT family of flowering integrators. It discusses the current state of knowledge on genetic mechanisms for photoperiod and vernalization response, and concludes with a broader discussion of flowering time adaptation across legumes generally.

  9. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6, Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1 and soybean (pb1, MISB1 for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P. Seed shape, seed coat texture and colour, seed size and 100 seed weight (g were observed morphological characteristics in present study. Most of the characteristics of mung bean and soybean were similar within their species whereas characteristics of cowpea varieties largely differed. Values of 100 seed weight among the varieties of mung bean, soybean and cowpea were ranged from 5.8 - 6.5 g, 13.5 - 14.1 g and 13.4 - 17.2 g, respectively. The moisture content of all legume seeds ranged from 6.81% to 11.99%. Results were shown that the protein content significantly higher in soybean (36.56 - 39.70% followed by mung bean (26.56 - 25.99% and cowpea (25.22 - 22.84% respectively. Range of total carbohydrate, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash contents of nine legume varieties varied from 15.29 - 62.97%, 1.25 - 22.02%, 3.04 - 7.93% and 3.43 - 6.35 respectively. potassium (K, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn ranged from 1000 - 1900, 360 - 669, 15.0 - 192.3, 2.26 - 11.6 and 1.67 - 4.26 mg.100g-1 respectively in all the species of studied legume varieties. The wide variation in the chemical and physical properties of observed nine legume varieties, suggesting possible applications for various end-use products. 

  10. 70-79 Effects of Crop Rotation and NP Fertilizer Rate on Grain Yield a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amendment enabled maize yields and soil fertility to be maintained at a higher level. Multiple ... Higher grain yield and high net return of maize were realized following Niger seed, ...... Generation, Transfer and Gap Analysis Workshop. Nekemt ...

  11. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  12. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Attaullah; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation

  13. Nitrogen metabolism in plants using 15N as tracer. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes in fertilizer efficiency studies on grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.; Atkins, C.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are described for studying the economy of carbon and nitrogen in annual nodulated legumes. Budgets for utilization of net photosynthate are constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), including expenditure in respiration and dry matter accumulation of plant parts, carbon consumption in growth, respiration and export of fixed nitrogen by nodules, and the provision of recent photosynthate and earlier-fixed carbon to fruits. Sources of nitrogen to fruits are defined, and efficiencies of conversion of net photosynthate to protein of above-ground vegetative parts and of seeds are computed. Consideration is given to the timing of events associated with loss of symbiotic activity after flowering. Literature giving estimates of the respiratory requirements of nitrogen fixation by nodules is reviewed. Rates of respiration of nodules of cowpea, white lupin and pea (Pisum sativum L.) are assessed from a theoretical viewpoint, basing the estimates on ATP requirements for assimilation of N 2 into nitrogenous solutes, and published values for respiration costs in plant tissues. Expressed as CO 2 output per unit of nitrogen assimilated, these estimates greatly exceed the experimentally-observed CO 2 efflux of nodules of the species. This discrepancy is examined in relation to the capacity of nodules to fix CO 2 and the uncertainty of the in vivo requirement of nitrogenase for ATP

  14. Harvesting Legume Genomes: Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics and high through-put phenotyping are ushering in a new era of accessing genetic diversity held in plant genetic resources, the cornerstone of both traditional and genomics-assisted breeding efforts of food legume crops. Acknowledged or not, yield plateaus must be broken given the daunting ...

  15. INFLUENCE OF LEGUME RESIDUE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to search for more arable land with reduction in fallow period and decline in fertility ... The stalks are used as feed, fuel, thatch making and in roofing houses. ... soil nitrogen content can be a practicable alternative to reduce the use of chemical .... significance of legume in nitrogen fixation and its inclusion to cropping system.

  16. Soil water infiltration affected by biofuel and grain crop production systems in claypan landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of soil management systems on water infiltration is very crucial within claypan landscapes to maximize production as well as minimize environmental risks. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and biofuel...

  17. Comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela H; Sharma, Mamta; Thatcher, Louise F; Azam, Sarwar; Hane, James K; Sperschneider, Jana; Kidd, Brendan N; Anderson, Jonathan P; Ghosh, Raju; Garg, Gagan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Kistler, H Corby; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Kamphuis, Lars G; Saxena, Rachit; Pande, Suresh; Ma, Li-Jun; Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Karam B

    2016-03-05

    Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential for growth and in Fusarium species are known to be enriched in host-specificity and pathogenicity-associated genes. Comparative genomics of the publicly available Fusarium species revealed differential patterns of sequence conservation across F. oxysporum formae speciales, with legume-pathogenic formae speciales not exhibiting greater sequence conservation between them relative to non-legume-infecting formae speciales, possibly indicating the lack of a common ancestral source for legume pathogenicity. Combining predicted dispensable gene content with in planta expression in the model legume-infecting isolate, we identified small conserved regions and candidate effectors, four of which shared greatest similarity to proteins from another legume-infecting ff. spp. We demonstrate that distinction of core and potential dispensable genomic regions of novel F. oxysporum genomes is an effective tool to facilitate effector discovery and the identification of gene content possibly linked to host

  18. Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vadakattu

    2013-04-01

    Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a

  19. The use of N-15 in the measurement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes under field condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impithuksa, Viroj

    1982-01-01

    The amount of N fixation by legume crop in field condition by using 15 N can determine by the addition of labelled 15 N fertilizer into the soil and measuring the amount of labelled 15 N, soil N, and fixed N taken up by legume crop. This requires a standard crop (reference crop) as a control to determine labelled 15 N and soil N taken up by this crop. In case the same rate of labelled 15 N fertilizer is added to the legume crop and a standard crop

  20. Estimating legume N-2 fixation in grass-clover mixtures of a grazed organic cropping system using two N-15 methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, F.P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The input of Nitrogen (N) through symbiotic N-2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping. system for grazing during 3 years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the N-15 isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the N-15 by addition of a carbon source before...

  1. Grain yield and crop N offtake in response to residual fertilizer N in long-term field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Mattsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    in four long-term (>35 yr) field experiments, we measured the response of barley (grain yield and N offtake at crop maturity) to six rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) of mineral fertilizer N (Nnew) applied in subplots replacing the customary long-term plot treatments of fertilizer inputs (Nprev......). Rates of Nprev above 50-100 kg N/ha had no consistent effect on the soil N content, but this was up to 20% greater than that in unfertilized treatments. Long-term unfertilized plots should not be used as control to test the residual value of N in modern agriculture with large production potentials....... Although the effect of mineral Nprev on grain yield and N offtake could be substituted by Nnew within a range of previous inputs, the value of Nprev was not eliminated irrespective of Nnew rate. Provided a sufficient supply of plant nutrients other than N, the use-efficiency of Nnew did not change...

  2. LegumeDB1 bioinformatics resource: comparative genomic analysis and novel cross-genera marker identification in lupin and pasture legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolhuijzen, P; Cakir, M; Hunter, A; Schibeci, D; Macgregor, A; Smith, C; Francki, M; Jones, M G K; Appels, R; Bellgard, M

    2006-06-01

    The identification of markers in legume pasture crops, which can be associated with traits such as protein and lipid production, disease resistance, and reduced pod shattering, is generally accepted as an important strategy for improving the agronomic performance of these crops. It has been demonstrated that many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in one species can be found in other plant species. Detailed legume comparative genomic analyses can characterize the genome organization between model legume species (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus) and economically important crops such as soybean (Glycine max), pea (Pisum sativum), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), and lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), thereby identifying candidate gene markers that can be used to track QTLs in lupin and pasture legume breeding. LegumeDB is a Web-based bioinformatics resource for legume researchers. LegumeDB analysis of Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) has identified novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (16 tested), some of which have been putatively linked to symbiosome membrane proteins in root nodules and cell-wall proteins important in plant-pathogen defence mechanisms. These novel markers by preliminary PCR assays have been detected in Medicago truncatula and detected in at least one other legume species, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, Cicer arietinum, and (or) Lupinus angustifolius (15/16 tested). Ongoing research has validated some of these markers to map them in a range of legume species that can then be used to compile composite genetic and physical maps. In this paper, we outline the features and capabilities of LegumeDB as an interactive application that provides legume genetic and physical comparative maps, and the efficient feature identification and annotation of the vast tracks of model legume sequences for convenient data integration and visualization. LegumeDB has been used to identify potential novel cross-genera polymorphic legume

  3. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. SINGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011. In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44 were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM; T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA; T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield

  4. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  5. An Assessment of Direct on-Farm Energy Use for High Value Grain Crops Grown under Different Farming Practices in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek Maraseni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have quantified the energy consumption associated with crop production in various countries. However, these studies have not compared the energy consumption from a broad range of farming practices currently in practice, such as zero tillage, conventional tillage and irrigated farming systems. This study examines direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia. Grain farming processes are identified and “typical” farming operation data are collected from several sources, including published and unpublished literature, as well as expert interviews. The direct on-farm energy uses are assessed for 27 scenarios, including three high value grain crops―wheat, barley and sorghum―for three regions (Northern, Southern and Western Australia under three farming conditions with both dryland (both for conventional and zero-tillage and irrigated conditions. It is found that energy requirement for farming operations is directly related to the intensity and frequency of farming operations, which in turn is related to tillage practices, soil types, irrigation systems, local climate, and crop types. Among the three studied regions, Western Australia requires less direct on-farm energy for each crop, mainly due to the easily workable sandy soils and adoption of zero tillage systems. In irrigated crops, irrigation energy remains a major contributor to the total on-farm energy demand, accounting for up to 85% of total energy use.

  6. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  7. Cytogenetics of Legumes in the Phaseoloid Clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics played an essential role in studies of chromosome structure, behavior, and evolution in numerous plant species. The advent of molecular cytogenetics combined with recent development of genomic resources has ushered in a new era of chromosome studies that have greatly advanced our knowledge of karyotypic diversity, genome and chromosome organization, and chromosomal evolution in legumes. This review summarizes some of the achievements of cytogenetic studies in legumes in the Phaseoloid clade, which includes several important legume crops such as common bean ( L., cowpea [ (L. Walp.], soybean [ (L. Merr.], and pigeonpea [ (L. Huth]. In the Phaseoloid clade, karyotypes are mostly stable. There are, however, several species with extensive chromosomal changes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization has been useful to reveal chromosomal structure by physically mapping transposons, satellite repeats, ribosomal DNA genes, and bacterial artificial chromosome clones onto chromosomes. Polytene chromosomes, which are much longer than the mitotic chromosomes, have been successfully found and used in cytogenetic studies in some and species. Molecular cytogenetics will continue to be an important tool in legume genetics and genomics, and we discuss future applications of molecular cytogenetics to better understand chromosome and genome structure and evolution in legumes.

  8. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  9. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta's Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants

  10. Domino effect of pollution from sour gas fields : failing legume nodulation and the honey industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirker, H.J. [Peace Country Agricultural Protection Association, AB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The sustainability of the honey industry in Alberta`s Peace Country has been threatened by pollution from sour gas fields. The region has suffered crop reductions and chlorosis in grains, grasses, and legumes. Severe die-back and die-off of aspens and poplars has also been observed. Crops per colony were reduced by as much as 75 per cent, and winter losses more than tripled. Nectar flow patterns shifted from main flow in early summer to late flows in August or September from second growth alfalfa. A sampling of 27 fields found nitrogen fixation in alfalfa and red clovers lacking in areas downwind from major oil and sour gas flaring facilities. The reduction of the early season nectar flow appears to be caused by the synergistic interaction of ozone and sulphur compounds when ozone levels are at their highest. Reduced ozone levels in the fall permit a late, but uncertain flow from alfalfa plants.

  11. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Daryanto

    Full Text Available Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and green gram (Vigna radiate. Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  12. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  13. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  14. Breeding for traits supportive of nitrogen fixation in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, David F.

    2001-01-01

    As the potential economic benefits of enhancing dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation of crop, pasture and forage legumes are substantial, the idea that legume breeding could play a role in enhancing N 2 fixation was advanced more than 50 years ago. Various programmes have sought to genetically improve a wide range of species, from pasture legumes such as red clover (Trifolium pratense) to the crop legumes like soybean (Glycine max) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). In some the selection trait was yield, whilst in others it was high plant reliance on N 2 fixation (%Ndfa). A third strategy was to optimise legume nodulation through specific nodulation traits, e.g. mass, duration, promiscuous and selective nodulation. Plant genetic variation was sought from natural populations or created through mutagenesis. Although methods for assessing single plants and populations of plants for yield and %Ndfa varied over the years, it is now clear that measurements based on either 15 N or xylem solute analysis are the most reliable. Methodological issues as well as poor focus plagued many of the earlier programmes, since enhancing N 2 fixation essentially involves adapting legumes to fix more N when growing in N-poor soils. Programmes in which plant genotypes are inoculated with effective rhizobia and screened under conditions of low soil N maximise the symbiotic potential of the legume. (author)

  15. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  16. Radiation technology for the development of improved crop varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Stanislaus F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane. The desirable traits which have been bred through induced mutations include higher yield, grain quality, early maturity, disease and pest resistance, improved plant type and abiotic stress resistance

  17. Productivity and carbon dioxide exchange of leguminous crops: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Baker, John M.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Castro, Saulo; Chen, Jiquan; Eugster, Werner; Fischer, Marc L.; Gamon, John A.; Gebremedhin, Maheteme T.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Howard, Daniel M.; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Loescher, Henry W.; Marloie, Oliver; Meyers, Tilden P.; Olioso, Albert; Phillips, Rebecca L.; Prueger, John H.; Skinner, R. Howard; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tenuta, Mario; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    Net CO2 exchange data of legume crops at 17 flux tower sites in North America and three sites in Europe representing 29 site-years of measurements were partitioned into gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration by using the nonrectangular hyperbolic light-response function method. The analyses produced net CO2 exchange data and new ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameter estimates for legume crops determined at diurnal and weekly time steps. Dynamics and annual totals of gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production were calculated by gap filling with multivariate nonlinear regression. Comparison with the data from grain crops obtained with the same method demonstrated that CO2 exchange rates and ecophysiological parameters of legumes were lower than those of maize (Zea mays L.) but higher than for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops. Year-round annual legume crops demonstrated a broad range of net ecosystem production, from sinks of 760 g CO2 m–2 yr–1 to sources of –2100 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, with an average of –330 g CO2 m–2 yr–1, indicating overall moderate CO2–source activity related to a shorter period of photosynthetic uptake and metabolic costs of N2 fixation. Perennial legumes (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) were strong sinks for atmospheric CO2, with an average net ecosystem production of 980 (range 550–1200) g CO2 m–2 yr–1.

  18. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    oleracea L. var. acephala and corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with green manure legumes under no-tillage organic system. The study was conducted in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, during two years. We utilized dwarf velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana and showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis as green manure intercropped with collard greens and in succession sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea and velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens intercropped with corn. As a control, there was a single crop system of corn and collard greens. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks, a factorial 3 (crop system x 2 (doses of poultry bed manure, with four replications, in plots of 20 m². For the collard greens we applied 0 and 5.4 t ha-1 of poultry bed manure (2.7 t ha-1 in two applications in 2003; 0 (zero and 2.7 t ha-1 in 2004. In the monocrop system, the yield of collard greens was of 37.7 and 18.4 t ha-1, intercropped with dwarf velvet bean the yield reached 40.3 and 38.8 t ha-1 and, using showy crotalaria the yield was of 42.9 and 24.8 t ha-1, in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The corn was benefited from the residual effect of fertilizer with poultry bed manure increasing the production of ears from 25,625 to 27,916 ha-1. Crop succession of collard greens and corn, intercropped with annual legumes under organic fertilization as poultry bed manure, showed yield increase for collard greens and corn.

  19. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  20. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  1. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in south-western Zimbabwe: Unravelling the effects of water and nitrogen using a simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Dimes, J.P.; Wijk, van M.T.; Twomlow, S.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    The APSIM model was used to assess the impact of legumes on sorghum grown in rotation in a nutrient-limited system under dry conditions in south-western Zimbabwe. An experiment was conducted at Lucydale, Matopos Research Station, between 2002 and 2005. The model was used to simulate soil and plant

  2. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    technique. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo was calculated using the Penamn-Monteith model. The accumulated ETc were 59.41, 55.31 and 119.62 mm, respectively, for cameroon, gliricídia and bare soil. The values of kc obtained for the initial, middle and end developmental stages were 0.39, 0.42 and 1.02, 0.79, 0.76 and 1.18 and 0.56, 0.61 and 0.84, respectively, for cameroon, gliricídia and bare soil. The use of soil cover with grass or legume minimized significantly the water demand by beet crop.

  3. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data suggest that 15% replacement of corn and 10% untreated residue with treated forage result in a nutrient supply of OM similar to that of the control. The improvements in total tract fiber digestibility that occurred when treated forages were fed may have been related to increased digestibility of recoverable NDF and not to increased ruminal pH. Feeding chemically treated crop residues and WDGS is an effective strategy for replacing a portion of corn grain and roughage in feedlot diets.

  4. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  5. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development...... of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...

  6. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  7. Prospecting plant growth promoting bacteria and cyanobacteria as options for enrichment of macro- and micronutrients in grains in rice–wheat cropping sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and cyanobacteria, alone and in combination, was investigated on micronutrient enrichment and yield in rice–wheat sequence, over a period of two years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in both crops indicated significant differences in soil dehydrogenase activity and micronutrient enrichment in grains (Fe, Zn in rice, and Cu, Mn in wheat. The combined inoculation of Anabaena oscillarioides CR3, Brevundimonas diminuta PR7, and Ochrobactrum anthropi PR10 (T6 significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK content and improved rice yield by 21.2%, as compared to the application of recommended dose of NPK fertilizers (T2. The treatment T5 (Providencia sp. PR3 + B. diminuta PR7 + O. anthropi PR10 recorded an enhancement of 13–16% in Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations, respectively, in rice grains. In wheat, Providencia sp. PW5 (T6 recorded the highest yield (5.23 Mg ha−1 and significantly higher enrichment of Fe and Cu (44–45% in the grains. This study highlighted the promise of combinations of cyanobacteria/bacteria and their synergistic action in biofortification and providing savings of 40–60 kg N ha−1. Future focus needs to be towards integrating such promising environment-friendly and environmentally sustainable options in nutrient management strategies for this cropping sequence.

  8. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  9. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  10. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  11. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  12. Biological N2 Fixation by Chickpea in inter cropping System on Sand Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. M.; Moursy, A. A. A.; Kotb, E. A.; Farid, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The benefits of N 2 fixation by legumes to cereals growing in inter crops or to grasses growing in mixed swards are high clear. in cases the benefit to the N status of cereals has bee seen when they are inter cropped with legumes , where benefit is found ,it is mainly due to sparing of soil N rather than direct transfer from the legume. inter cropped wheat has a high grains yield as compared to those recorded under sole crop. The application of inter cropping system induced an increase of wheat grain yield against the sole system. regardless the cultivation system, the over all means of fertilizer rates indicated (50% MF + 50% OM) treatment was superiority (100% OM) and (75% MF + 25% OM) or those recorded with either un fertilizer when wheat grain yield considered. Comparison heed between organic sources reflected the superiority of under sole cultivation, while chickpea straw was the best under inter cropping. Inter cropped has a high grain N uptake compared to soil system. While totally organic materials had accumulates more N in grain than those of underrated treated control. In the same time, the overall mean indicated the superiority of compost treatment combined with 50% mineral fertilizer under inter cropping system over those of either only organic materials treatment or those combined with 75% mineral fertilizer. Plants treated of chickpea straw and compost, achieved the best value of straw weight. Among the organic manure treatments, chickpea straw and compost seem to be the best ones. Nitrogen derived from air (% Ndfa) shoots and seeds of chickpea plant: In case of cow manure and maize stalk, the best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general

  13. Effects of dietary combination of corn and rice as whole crop silage and grain sources on carbohydrate digestion and nitrogen use in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongfu; Sugino, Toshihisa; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2014-02-01

    Four Holstein steers were used to evaluate the combination effects of whole crop corn (Cs) or rice (Rs) silage with steam-flaked corn (Cg) or rice (Rg) grain (four dietary treatments) on ruminal carbohydrate digestion, duodenal nitrogen (N) flow and plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. The ruminal digestibility of starch and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) for Rs and Rg diets compared with Cs and Cg diets was greater, but that of neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) was less. Because the ruminal disappearance of NFC plus aNDFom was similar across four dietary treatments, microbial N flow was not affected by the diets. There was an interaction of methionine (Met) flow by silage and grain sources: greatest for CsRg and least for RsRg diet, and blood plasma concentration of Met after feeding was lower for Rg than Cg diets. Postprandial reduction degree of plasma EAA varied with the diets and individual EAA. The Cs diets compared with the Rs diets tended to be greater in N retention because of greater digestible organic matter (OM) intake. These results suggest that silage source combined with corn or rice grain affects N use in steers through the digestible OM intake, and the kinds of limiting AA may differ among the combination of silage and grain sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  15. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  16. Use of nitrogen from fertilizer and cover crops by upland rice in an Oxisol under no-tillage in the Cerrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edson Cabral da; Muraoka, Takashi; Bendassolli, Jose Alberto, E-mail: edsoncabralsilva@gmail.com, E-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br, E-mail: jab@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franzini, Vinicius Ide, E-mail: vinicius.franzini@embrapa.br [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil); Sakadevan, Karuppan, E-mail: K.Sakadevan@iaea.org [Joint FAO/IAEA, Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Subprogram, Vienna International Centre, Vienna (Austria); Buzetti, Salatier; Arf, Orivaldo, E-mail: sbuzetti@agr.feis.unesp.br, E-mail: arf@agr.feis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Soares, Frederico Antonio Loureiro, E-mail: fredalsoares@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops on the yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa) grown under no-tillage system, in the presence and absence of N fertilizer, as well as to quantify, in the field, the use efficiency of N from urea and cover crops by upland rice, through the {sup 15}N isotope dilution technique. The field experiment was carried out in the municipality of Selviria, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in an Oxisol (Rhodic Hapludox) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) region. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 15 treatments and four replicates, in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement. The treatments were four cover crops (Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna pruriens, and Pennisetum glaucum) + spontaneous vegetation (fallow in off-season), combined with three forms of N fertilization: control treatment, without N fertilizer application; 20 kg ha{sup -1} N at sowing; and 20 kg ha{sup -1} N at sowing plus 60 kg ha{sup -1} N as topdressing. Rice is not affected by N fertilizer application as topdressing, when legume cover crops are used. The use of legume cover crops provides higher grain yield and use of fertilizer-N by rice than that of millet or fallow. Legume cover crops promote an effect equivalent to that of the application of 60 kg ha{sup -1} N as urea on rice yield. (author)

  17. Use of nitrogen from fertilizer and cover crops by upland rice in an Oxisol under no-tillage in the Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edson Cabral da; Muraoka, Takashi; Bendassolli, Jose Alberto; Franzini, Vinicius Ide; Sakadevan, Karuppan; Buzetti, Salatier; Arf, Orivaldo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of cover crops on the yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa) grown under no-tillage system, in the presence and absence of N fertilizer, as well as to quantify, in the field, the use efficiency of N from urea and cover crops by upland rice, through the 15 N isotope dilution technique. The field experiment was carried out in the municipality of Selviria, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in an Oxisol (Rhodic Hapludox) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) region. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 15 treatments and four replicates, in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement. The treatments were four cover crops (Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Mucuna pruriens, and Pennisetum glaucum) + spontaneous vegetation (fallow in off-season), combined with three forms of N fertilization: control treatment, without N fertilizer application; 20 kg ha -1 N at sowing; and 20 kg ha -1 N at sowing plus 60 kg ha -1 N as topdressing. Rice is not affected by N fertilizer application as topdressing, when legume cover crops are used. The use of legume cover crops provides higher grain yield and use of fertilizer-N by rice than that of millet or fallow. Legume cover crops promote an effect equivalent to that of the application of 60 kg ha -1 N as urea on rice yield. (author)

  18. Biological N2 fixation by chickpea in inter cropping system on sand soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. M.; Moursy, A. A. A.; Kotb, E. A.; Farid, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the plant nutrition and fertilization unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea incorporating. The benefits of N 2 fixation by legumes to cereals growing in inter crops or to grasses growing in mixed swards are high clear. In cases the benefit to the N status of cereals has bee seen when they are inter cropped with legumes, where benefit is found, it is mainly due to sparing of soil N rather than direct transfer from the legume. Inter cropped wheat, has a high grains yield as compared to those recorded under sole crop. The application of inter cropping system an increase of wheat grain yield against the sole system, regardless the cultivation system, the over all means of fertilizer rates indicated (50% MF + 50% OM) treatment was superiority (100% OM) and (75% MF + 25% OM) or those recorded with either un fertilizer when wheat grain yield considered. Comparison heed between or gain sources reflected the superiority of compost under sole cultivation, while chickpea straw was the best under inter cropping. Inter cropped has a high grain N uptake compared to soil systems. While totally organic materials had accumulates more N in grains than those of untreated treated control. In the some time, the overall mean indicated the superiority of compost treatment combined with 50% mineral fertilizer under inter cropping system over those of either only organic materials treatment or those combined with 75% mineral fertilizer. Plants treated of chickpea straw and compost, achieved the best value of straw weight. A mong the organic manure treatments, chickpea straw and compost seem to be the best ones. Nitrogen derived from air (%Ndfa) shoots and seeds of chickpea plants: In case of cow manure and maize stalk, the best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general

  19. Response of Short Duration Tropical Legumes and Maize to Water Stress: A Glasshouse Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Sohrawardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a pot experiment in the tropical glasshouse to evaluate the response of grain legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, and Lablab purpureus in comparison to maize (Zea mays and estimate their potential and performance. Two experiments were established using completely randomized design. Physiological measurements (stomatal conductance, photosynthetic activities, and transpiration rates were measured using LCpro instrument. Scholander bomb was used for the measurement of plant cell water potential. Significant difference was observed in different plant species with increase of different water regimes. Among the legumes, L. purpureus showed better response in water stressed conditions. At the beginning, in dry watered treatment the photosynthetic rate was below 0 µmol m−2 s−1 and in fully watered condition it was 48 µmol m−2 s−1. In dry treatment, total dry weight was 10 g/pot and in fully watered condition it was near to 20 g/pot in P. vulgaris. The study concludes that water stress condition should be taken into consideration for such type of crop cultivation in arid and semiarid regions.

  20. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings of an international symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH and held in Neuherberg, 4-8 September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS.

  1. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P content of WCW silage. A quadratic (P content of WCW; however, linear decreases were observed when expressed relative to DMI (P = 0.01) and CG (P rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments.

  2. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh and Cajanus scarabaeoides: Genome organization and Comparison with other legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Kaila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh, a diploid (2n = 22 legume crop with a genome size of 852 Mbp, serves as an important source of human dietary protein especially in South East Asian and African regions. In this study, the draft chloroplast genomes of Cajanus cajan and Cajanus scarabaeoides were sequenced. Cajanus scarabaeoides is an important species of the Cajanus gene pool and has also been used for developing promising CMS system by different groups. A male sterile genotype harbouring the Cajanus scarabaeoides cytoplasm was used for sequencing the plastid genome. The cp genome of Cajanus cajan is 152,242bp long, having a quadripartite structure with LSC of 83,455 bp and SSC of 17,871 bp separated by IRs of 25,398 bp. Similarly, the cp genome of Cajanus scarabaeoides is 152,201bp long, having a quadripartite structure in which IRs of 25,402 bp length separates 83,423 bp of LSC and 17,854 bp of SSC. The pigeonpea cp genome contains 116 unique genes, including 30 tRNA, 4 rRNA, 78 predicted protein coding genes and 5 pseudogenes. A 50kb inversion was observed in the LSC region of pigeonpea cp genome, consistent with other legumes. Comparison of cp genome with other legumes revealed the contraction of IR boundaries due to the absence of rps19 gene in the IR region. Chloroplast SSRs were mined and a total of 280 and 292 cpSSRs were identified in Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus cajan respectively. RNA editing was observed at 37 sites in both Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus cajan, with maximum occurrence in the ndh genes. The pigeonpea cp genome sequence would be beneficial in providing informative molecular markers which can be utilized for genetic diversity analysis and aid in understanding the plant systematics studies among major grain legumes.

  3. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Chu

    Full Text Available The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC and nitrogen (N in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0-40 cm at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0-20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the 0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm.

  4. Benefits from cover crops based on plant-microbial interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Manici , L.M.; Kelderer, M.; Caputo, F.; De Luca Picione , F.; Topp, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed on the impact of two different cover crops (cereal and legume) on composition of root fungal endophytes and rhizospheric bacterial communities as a function of crop health in replanted apple orchards.

  5. Prospects of whole grain crops of wheat, rye and triticale under different fertilizer regimes for energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    is an advantage for biomass for energy purposes. The mineral content of the grain fraction changed only little between years and locations. By contrast, large variations in the analysed ions in the straw fraction between years and locations were observed. The use of K fertilizers resulted in a significantly...

  6. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  7. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  8. The Crop Journal Call for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  9. The Crop Journal Call for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer-reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  10. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  11. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer-reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  12. Optimizing reed canary grass cropping to increase profitability. Field studies of plant varieties, intercropping with legumes and barley, fertilization and soil compaction; Optimering av odlingsaatgaerder i roerflen foer oekad loensamhet. Faeltstudier av sorter, samodling med baljvaexter och korn, goedsling samt markpackning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Reed Canary Grass is a promising crop for biofuel production. For reed canary grass the first year is an establishment year when the small biomass is not harvested. The second year the biomass is usually cut in late autumn but the harvest (removal of the biomass from the field) is delayed until spring. This technique has resulted in lower costs and increases in fuel quality through lower ash contents, including lower contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium. However costs for production are still high, especially establishment costs, fertilization costs and harvesting costs. The aim of this project was to test ways to cut costs per MWh by increased yields, and decreased establishment costs. The methods used have been variety trials to develop more productive plant material, intercropping with nitrogen fixing legumes to reduce the nitrogen demand of the crop, fertilization with waste material (sewage sludge, reed canary grass ash or poultry manure) and harvest at frozen ground as a strategy to reduce soil compaction and harvest damages on the crop. Reed canary grass grown as a fuel has so far been grown as a mono culture. However, when it is been grown for forage, or as a biogas crop, intercropping with legumes has been successful in some studies. In addition to NPK-fertilizers sewage sludge, ash from combustion of reed canary grass and poultry manure was used. An economic calculation showed that the establishment costs (the first two growing seasons) can be lowered by intercropping with red clover. However it is also involves more risks, related to weeds, and cannot be recommended on fallow soil with a large seed bank of weeds. A ten year old reed canary grass ley was used for the experiment. Two 25 m wide strips were harvested with a mower on November 19 2008 when the top soil was frozen. The harvested material was chopped and removed from the field the following day. The following spring, May 19 2009, the remaining reed canary grass on the field was cut with a

  13. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de fitomassa da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N, P e K nas leguminosas arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais de aléias, bem como verificar o efeito da adição de fósforo sobre as leguminosas. Foram realizados experimentos de campo com a utilização de leguminosas, com e sem adição de P, por dois anos consecutivos de avaliação, em Campos dos Goytacazes,RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, estas foram podadas a 1,5 m de altura, restando a haste principal. O material podado foi pesado, descartando-se os ramos com diâmetro superior a 1,5 cm e sendo retiradas as amostras compostas para determinações da fitomassa seca e dos teores de N, P e K. Efetuou-se nova poda 80 dias após a primeira, e pesou-se esse material. No primeiro ano, o guandu mostrou-se superior na produtividade de fitomassa seca e no acúmulo de N, P e K. No segundo ano de avaliação, no experimento com adição de P a leucena e a canafístula assemelharam-se ao guandu na produtividade de fitomassa, enquanto a leucena e o guandu, no acúmulo de N e P, porém a leucena superou o guandu e a canafístula no acúmulo de K na parte aérea. A aplicação de P teve efeito positivo na produtividade de fitomassa seca de algumas espécies.The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot phytomass and shrub legumes N, P and K accumulation in agroforestry system (alley cropping system and study the effect of P fertilization. Two field experiments were carried out - without and with P application - for two years: 2004 and 2005, using shrub legumes in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the

  14. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  15. The Effect of Crop Seed Rate and Post Emergence Herbicide Application on Weed control and grain yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Interference weed with crop is a major concern for production in croplands particularly where modern agricultural practices such as mechanical weeding and the application of herbicides are limited. At present, the aim of weed management is to keep weed population at an acceptable level rather than to keep crop totally free of weeds. Among the weed control methods, the chemical control is the easiest one of the recent origins, as well the most successful alternative method. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted at Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran (32 0 3´ N, 480 50´ E during winters of 2012-2013 in order to evaluate the effect of sulfosulfuron and sulfosulfuron plus metsulfuron-methyl at 30 and 45 g a.i. ha-1, respectively, and wheat seed rate at 180, 200 and 220 kg ha-1 on weed control. Experiments were carry out in a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plot size was 6 m × 2 m. The soil was a clay loam texture, pH 7.4 and 0.6 % organic matter content. In the experimental site, the 30-year average annual rainfall is 321.4 mm, daily average annual air temperature is minimum and maximum 9.5 °C and 46.3 °C, respectively. Wheat cv. Chamran was planted in the first fortnight of November. Seedbed preparation consisted of moldboard plowing, disking and leveling. A basal fertilizer rate of 125 kg ha-1 N (form of urea (46% N, 75 kg ha-1 P2O5 (diammonium phosphate (18% N; 46% P2O5, and 60 kg K2O ha-1 (sulfate of potash (50% K2O was applied. The whole P and K and half of N were applied at sowing. The remaining half of N was top dressed with the irrigation at the booting stage. Results and Discussion As the crop population brings competition for limited resources with the weeds, we tested different seeding rates to increase crop plant density as a measure to control weeds. The weed population was significantly affected by seed rate. In general, there was an

  16. Features of Terra MOD11A2DAY in Operational Forecastof Grain Crops Yield in Kazakhstan with AN 8 Day Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, A.

    2011-08-01

    The Kazakhstan, with export capacity of 6-8 million tons, is one of the largest wheat exporter in the world. About 16 million hectares of unirrigated land is used for monocultural cultivation of cereals (wheat and barley). Most of the cropland is located in the steppe and forest steppe zone. The moisture deficit limits the crop productivity and creates a strong dependency of its state of the moisture conditions during vegetation season. In Kazakhstan, the average grain yield variations are sufficiently large, from 0.9 (2010) to 1.4 tonha (2007). Given the high volatility of the gross grain harvest and export potential, respectively, methods of early satellite forecast of grain yield with high frequency of the renewal are of the great interest. In Kazakhstan, the variations in the weather growing season determine the yield of grain crops. By significant weather parameters include: the spring soil moisture, humidity and air temperature, rainfall, and several others. Plants respond to the sum of all parameters through the volume of green biomass. The regional cereal state can be estimated from satellite vegetation indices, which are particularly informative in the period of its seasonal peak. Another satellite parameter closely related to humidity conditions may be the land surface temperature (LST). Product USGS: TERRA MOD11A2DAY represents the 8-days LST composite was tested in the task of estimating of arable lands temperature in Northern Kazakhstan. The description of the temperature conditions of the growing season based on the temperature calibrated index (TCI), which was introduced by Kogan. TCI provides a weighted assessment of the current LST on a scale of 0-100, where 0 - the lowest, respectively, 100 as a high temperature, recorded during the observation period at a given location at a given time window. The monitoring period included 2004-2010 years. During the beginning of the growing season was taken on April 15, season end on 20 August - ripeness stage

  17. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa eBorrill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  18. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from mown-grass and grain-cropping systems: Testing and sensitivity analysis of DailyDayCent using high frequency measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Nimai; Chabbi, Abad; Giostri, André Faé; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh B; Smith, Pete

    2016-12-01

    The DailyDayCent biogeochemical model was used to simulate nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from two contrasting agro-ecosystems viz. a mown-grassland and a grain-cropping system in France. Model performance was tested using high frequency measurements over three years; additionally a local sensitivity analysis was performed. Annual N 2 O emissions of 1.97 and 1.24kgNha -1 year -1 were simulated from mown-grassland and grain-cropland, respectively. Measured and simulated water filled pore space (r=0.86, ME=-2.5%) and soil temperature (r=0.96, ME=-0.63°C) at 10cm soil depth matched well in mown-grassland. The model predicted cumulative hay and crop production effectively. The model simulated soil mineral nitrogen (N) concentrations, particularly ammonium (NH 4 + ), reasonably, but the model significantly underestimated soil nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentration under both systems. In general, the model effectively simulated the dynamics and the magnitude of daily N 2 O flux over the whole experimental period in grain-cropland (r=0.16, ME=-0.81gNha -1 day -1 ), with reasonable agreement between measured and modelled N 2 O fluxes for the mown-grassland (r=0.63, ME=-0.65gNha -1 day -1 ). Our results indicate that DailyDayCent has potential for use as a tool for predicting overall N 2 O emissions in the study region. However, in-depth analysis shows some systematic discrepancies between measured and simulated N 2 O fluxes on a daily basis. The current exercise suggests that the DailyDayCent may need improvement, particularly the sub-module responsible for N transformations, for better simulating soil mineral N, especially soil NO 3 - concentration, and N 2 O flux on a daily basis. The sensitivity analysis shows that many factors such as climate change, N-fertilizer use, input uncertainty and parameter value could influence the simulation of N 2 O emissions. Sensitivity estimation also helped to identify critical parameters, which need careful estimation or site

  19. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  20. Impacts of previous crops on Fusarium foot and root rot, and on yields of durum wheat in North West Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia CHEKALI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of ten previous crop rotations (cereals, legumes and fallow on Fusarium foot and root rot of durum wheat were investigated for three cropping seasons in a trial established in 2004 in Northwest Tunisia. Fungi isolated from the roots and stem bases were identified using morphological and molecular methods, and were primarily Fusarium culmorum and F. pseudograminearum. Under low rainfall conditions, the previous crop affected F. pseudograminearum incidence on durum wheat roots but not F. culmorum. Compared to continuous cropping of durum wheat, barley as a previous crop increased disease incidence more than fivefold, while legumes and fallow tended to reduce incidence.  Barley as a previous crop increased wheat disease severity by 47%, compared to other rotations. Grain yield was negatively correlated with the incidence of F. culmorum infection, both in roots and stem bases, and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.61 for roots and -0.77 for stem bases, P<0.0001. Fusarium pseudograminearum was also negatively correlated with yield and fitted an exponential model (R2 = -0.53 on roots and -0.71 on stem bases, P < 0.0001 but was not correlated with severity.

  1. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement of pulse crops through induced mutations: Reconstruction of plant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.H.; Tickoo, J.L.; Ram, H.; Jain, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    Many species of grain legumes, because of their cultivation under marginal conditions for centuries, have retained a number of semi-wild characteristics, such as a bushy and spreading growth, which contribute to their adaptability but reduce their yields. The observations presented here indicate that induced mutations may prove effective in generating new plant-types in these crops, which are marked by an improvement in the harvest index and which will show a response to increased plant densities. The present report describes observations on the M 2 progenies of pigeon pea and mung bean on which work has been initiated. (author)

  3. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamon, Eva; Cabellos, Blanca; Burbano, Carmen; Gomez-Fernandez, Jose; de Mercado, Eduardo; Gomez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Cuadrado, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive compo...

  4. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  5. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  6. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K.; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  7. Symbiotic N fixation and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in legume-cereal intercropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, D.; Misra, C.

    1990-01-01

    On a lateritic soil at Bhubaneswar short duration rice, finger millet, maize, groundnut, pigeon pea, black gram were grown alone or as intercrop in microplots (1mx1m). Thirty days after germination, 15 N tagged urea (3% a.e.) solutions was applied to all the treatments so as to provide 40 kg N ha -1 for the cereals, 10 kg n ha -1 for the legumes and 20 kg N ha -1 for cereal plus legumes. The results show the fertilizer efficiency values to be nearly 62 to 69 per cent for rice, 53 per cent for maize and 22 percent for finger millet. These values were 12 to 17 per cent for pigeon pea, 18 percent for black gram and 23 percent for groundnut. Averaged over the cropping system and fertilizer doses, the nitrogen fixed by legumes, viz,pigeon-pea, black gram and groundnut were 16.3, 15.5 and 17.5 kg ha -1 , respectively, within 60 days of crop growth. Horse gram grown as a sequence crop during the dry season (after the harvest of wet season crops) using the residual soil water and nutrients appears to utilize the residual 15 N better when it follows the non-legumes compared with that when it follows the legumes. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs

  8. Mutational breeding and genetic engineering in the development of high grain protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Linscombe, Steve D

    2013-12-04

    Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high protein content, will have significant implications, from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and other disease-fighting phytocompounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock that is about 3 times that of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp) are among the most critical and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve these essential amino acids. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, modulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce essential and limiting amino acids, increasing nitrogen relocation to the grain through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed to improve protein content including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, marker-assisted selection, and genomic analysis. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge at a rapid pace on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding of the molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enables individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important

  9. Soil-applied zinc and copper suppress cadmium uptake and improve the performance of cereals and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Javed, Wasim; Hussain, Amir; Qadir, Manzoor; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil-applied Zn and Cu on absorption and accumulation of Cd applied through irrigation water in legume (chickpea and mung bean) and cereal (wheat and maize) crops. The results revealed that Cd in irrigation water at higher levels (2 and 5 mg L -1 ) significantly (p soil application of Zn and Cu, singly or combined, favored the biomass production. Plant tissue Cd concentration increased linearly with the increasing application of Cd via irrigation water. While Cd application caused a redistribution of metals in grains, straw, and roots with the highest concentration of Cd, Zn, and Cu occurred in roots followed by straw and grains. Zinc addition to soil alleviated Cd toxicity by decreasing Cd concentration in plant tissues due to a possible antagonistic effect. The addition of Cu to the soil had no consistent effects on Zn and Cd contents across all crops. Inhibitory effects of Cd on the uptake and accumulation of Zn and Cu have also been observed at higher Cd load. Thus, soil-applied Zn and Cu antagonized Cd helping the plant to cope with its toxicity and suppressed the toxic effects of Cd in plant tissues, thus favoring plant growth.

  10. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  11. Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego dos Santos Baião

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (polyphenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies.

  12. Polyphenols from Root, Tubercles and Grains Cropped in Brazil: Chemical and Nutritional Characterization and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Baião, Diego; Silva de Freitas, Cyntia; da Silva, Davi; Ribeiro Pereira, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Throughout evolution, plants have developed the ability to produce secondary phenolic metabolites, which are important for their interactions with the environment, reproductive strategies and defense mechanisms. These (poly)phenolic compounds are a heterogeneous group of natural antioxidants found in vegetables, cereals and leguminous that exert beneficial and protective actions on human health, playing roles such as enzymatic reaction inhibitors and cofactors, toxic chemicals scavengers and biochemical reaction substrates, increasing the absorption of essential nutrients and selectively inhibiting deleterious intestinal bacteria. Polyphenols present in some commodity grains, such as soy and cocoa beans, as well as in other vegetables considered security foods for developing countries, including cassava, taro and beetroot, all of them cropped in Brazil, have been identified and quantified in order to point out their bioavailability and the adequate dietary intake to promote health. The effects of the flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds present in these vegetables, their metabolism and their effects on preventing chronic and degenerative disorders like cancers, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and neurological diseases are herein discussed based on recent epidemiological studies. PMID:28930173

  13. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  14. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  15. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation in three long-term organic and conventional arable crop rotation experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Arjun; Li, Fucui; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) by legumes in organic cropping systems has been perceived as a strategy to substitute N import from conventional sources. However, the N contribution by legumes varies considerably depending on legumes species, as well as local soil and climatic conditions...

  17. Using an energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to assess the best applications of legumes within a biobased economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehmer, Ben; Struik, Paul C.; Sanders, Johan

    2008-01-01

    In symbiosis with bacteria, legumes are able to biologically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and therefore require less artificial nitrogen fertilizer. As the manufacturing of nitrogen fertilizers demands a lot of process energy, growing legumes may give large overall energy savings. The reduction of nitrogen fertilizer, however, gives a yield loss as the carbon-to-nitrogen efficiency is lower for inoculation than for the synthetic process. When brought into the realm of biomass for bioenergy, the energy savings obtained through less fertilizer input must be balanced with the loss of potential yield output. Twelve popular choice crops (including two legumes, two crops grown in mixture with legumes and one crop associated with mycorrhiza) were chosen to investigate the relationship between solar radiation input, fertilizer input and the resulting potential bioenergy output. A cradle-to-factory gate assessment was performed with cumulative energy and exergy values as the main indicators. The trade-off between lower fertilizer energy inputs to utilized solar radiation was assessed. Combined they relate to the land use efficiency, basically the energy relations per hectare. Our analysis shows that legumes do not present energy savings and do not contribute to sustainability when grown as bioenergy crops. The benefits of nitrogen fixation by legumes should be carefully assessed and best utilized within the emerging sector of non-food applications

  18. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Oghbaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.

  19. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  20. The evaluation and adoption of annual legumes by smallholder maize farmers for soil fertility maintenance and food diversity in central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.C.G.; Kanyama-Phiri, G.Y.; Waddington, S.R.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the process of assessment and adoption of 10 grain- and green-manure legumes by smallholder maize farmers differing in resource endowment in Chisepo, central Malawi. The legumes had been promoted with the farmers from 1998 to 2004, primarily as a way to diversify food production and

  1. Nitrogen research for perennial crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.D.; Danso, S.K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the role of trees in restoring and maintaining soil fertility. Cropping systems that include trees can provide the ecological framework within which food, fuelwood, and fibre production can be intergrated. The IAEA has been actively involved in studies on nitrogen-fixing pasture legumes and is ready to embark on similar studies of trees. 1 tab

  2. Evaluation of nodulation and nitrogen fixing potentials of some herbaceous legumes in inland valley soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayorbor, T. B.; Addai, I. K.; Lawson, I. Y. D.; Dogbe, W.; Djagbletey, D.

    2006-01-01

    A screening experiment was conducted to evaluate the nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biomass production of eleven herbaceous legumes in three soil series mainly used for rice production in the Guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. This study was carried out with a view to fully exploiting the potential of N-fixating legumes as a supplement to inorganic N-fertilizers in rice-based cropping systems. The treatment combinations were laid out in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant samples were harvested at flowering for nodule count, biomass production and N-fixation. The study revealed that the mucuna and crotalaria species were the best nitrogen fixers and biomass producers. For increased yields of rice in the study area, these legumes require more intensive field study for their integration into the rice-based cropping systems. (au)

  3. Genetic analysis of tolerance to boron toxicity in the legume Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Paul; Peck, David M; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Howie, Jake; Oldach, Klaus H

    2013-03-27

    Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (barrel medic) is cultivated as a pasture legume for its high protein content and ability to improve soils through nitrogen fixation. Toxic concentrations of the micronutrient Boron (B) in agricultural soils hamper the production of cereal and leguminous crops. In cereals, the genetic analysis of B tolerance has led to the development of molecular selection tools to introgress and maintain the B tolerance trait in breeding lines. There is a comparable need for selection tools in legumes that grow on these toxic soils, often in rotation with cereals. Genetic variation for B tolerance in Medicago truncatula was utilised to generate two F2 populations from crosses between tolerant and intolerant parents. Phenotyping under B stress revealed a close correlation between B tolerance and biomass production and a segregation ratio explained by a single dominant locus. M. truncatula homologues of the Arabidopsis major intrinsic protein (MIP) gene AtNIP5;1 and the efflux-type transporter gene AtBOR1, both known for B transport, were identified and nearby molecular markers screened across F2 lines to verify linkage with the B-tolerant phenotype. Most (95%) of the phenotypic variation could be explained by the SSR markers h2_6e22a and h2_21b19a, which flank a cluster of five predicted MIP genes on chromosome 4. Three CAPS markers (MtBtol-1,-2,-3) were developed to dissect the region further. Expression analysis of the five predicted MIPs indicated that only MtNIP3 was expressed when leaf tissue and roots were assessed. MtNIP3 showed low and equal expression in the roots of tolerant and intolerant lines but a 4-fold higher expression level in the leaves of B-tolerant cultivars. The expression profile correlates closely with the B concentration measured in the leaves and roots of tolerant and intolerant plants. Whereas no significant difference in B concentration exists between roots of tolerant and intolerant plants, the B concentration in the leaves

  4. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  5. Increase and improvement of protein content of cereals and legumes. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjichristodoulou, A.

    1979-11-01

    Mutation breeding was studied on barley (variety Athenais) and Italian drurum wheat (variety Capeiti). Gamma radiation and fast neutrons were used. The intention is to use high protein lines of barley and wheat in crosses with the high-yielding varieties grown in Cyprus, in order to develop new varieties with high seed protein, without reducing grain yield. The work on forage legumes was limited to the screening of varieties of forage vetches and medics, as part of the programme on improving dryland forage crops. Tables indicate the relative performance of M 6 -lines of Attiki barley (1977-79) and of M 4 Athenais barley (1978-79). A list of 8 publications by the author, some of them jointly with A. della, is given, relating to the project

  6. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  7. Enhancing legume ecosystem services through an understanding of plant-pollinator interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose eSuso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant-pollinator interplay (PPI, in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: 1 optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and 2 biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the pest control service and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: a Farming with Alternative Pollinators (FAP and b Crop Design System (CDS.

  8. Growth and foliar nitrogen concentrations of interplanted native woody legumes and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; Kenneth L. Hunt

    2008-01-01

    The interplanting and underplanting of nodulated nitrogen-fixing plants in tree plantings can increase early growth and foliage nitrogen content of hardwoods, especially black walnut and pecan. Recent studies have demonstrated that some non-nodulated woody legumes may be capable of fixing significant levels of atmospheric nitrogen. The following nine nurse crop...

  9. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  10. Farmer evaluation of phosphorus fertilizer application to annual legumes in Chisepo, Central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.C.G.; Whitbread, A.M.; Wall, P.; Waddington, S.R.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Building from the perception that farmers have an intimate knowledge of their local environment, production problems, crop priorities and criteria for evaluation, an on-farm experiment was conducted with farmers in 2003/4 in Chisepo, central Malawi, to evaluate the response of six annual legumes to

  11. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, Søren O; Sørensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) may act as an important source of nitrogen (N) in organic crop rotations because of biological N fixation. However, the potential risk of high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions needs to be taken into account when including LBCCs in crop rotations. Here, we report...

  12. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous

  13. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  14. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Mutation breeding of food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present mission were to assist and advise mutation breeders on the induction, selection, utilization and maintenance of useful mutants in grain legumes, especially in soybean, mungbean, red kidney bean, sugar pea, cowpea and yard-long bean, and to provide consultation to plant breeders

  15. Inactivation Methods of Trypsin Inhibitor in Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Gaxiola, Sara; Chuck-Hernández, Cristina; Serna Saldívar, Sergio O

    2018-01-01

    Seed legumes have played a major role as a crop worldwide, being cultivated on about 12% to 15% of Earth's arable land; nevertheless, their use is limited by, among other things, the presence of several antinutritional factors (ANFs - naturally occurring metabolites that the plant produces to protect itself from pest attacks.) Trypsin inhibitors (TIs) are one of the most relevant ANFs because they reduce digestion and absorption of dietary proteins. Several methods have been developed in order to inactivate TIs, and of these, thermal treatments are the most commonly used. They cause loss of nutrients, affect functional properties, and require high amounts of energy. Given the above, new processes have emerged to improve the nutritional quality of legumes while trying to solve the problems caused by the use of thermal treatments. This review examines and discusses the methods developed by researchers to inactivate TI present in legumes and their effects over nutritional and functional properties. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  17. A Proteomic View on the Role of Legume Symbiotic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Wienkoop, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Legume plants are key elements in sustainable agriculture and represent a significant source of plant-based protein for humans and animal feed worldwide. One specific feature of the family is the ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. Additionally, like most vascular flowering plants, legumes are able to form a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These beneficial associations can enhance the plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding how symbiotic interactions influence and increase plant stress tolerance are relevant questions toward maintaining crop yield and food safety in the scope of climate change. Proteomics offers numerous tools for the identification of proteins involved in such responses, allowing the study of sub-cellular localization and turnover regulation, as well as the discovery of post-translational modifications (PTMs). The current work reviews the progress made during the last decades in the field of proteomics applied to the study of the legume-Rhizobium and -AM symbioses, and highlights their influence on the plant responses to pathogens and abiotic stresses. We further discuss future perspectives and new experimental approaches that are likely to have a significant impact on the field including peptidomics, mass spectrometric imaging, and quantitative proteomics. PMID:28769967

  18. Use of 15N enriched plant material for labelling of soil nitrogen in legume dinitrogen fixation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    The soil nitrogen in a field plot was labelled with nitrogen-15 (15N) by incorporating labelled plant material derived from previous experiments. The plot was used the following 3 years for determination of the amount of N2 fixed by different leguminous plants. The atom % 15N excess in grains of cereals grown as reference crops was 0.20, 0.05 and 0.03 in the 3 years, respectively. In the first year the level of enrichment was adequate for estimating symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In the second and third year lack of precision in determination of the 15N/14N ratios of legume N, may have caused an error in estimates of nitrogen fixation. About 23% of the labelled N was taken up by plants during the 3 years of cropping; after 4 years about 44% of the labelled N was found still to be present in the top soil. The labelling of the soil nitrogen with organic bound 15N, compared to adding mineral 15N at sowing, is advantageous because the labelled N is released by mineralization so that the enrichment of the plant available soil N pool become more uniform during the growth season; and high levels of mineral N, which may depress the fixation process, is avoided. (author) 7 tabs., 1 ill., 30 refs

  19. Nutritional value and acceptability of irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.A.; Rao, V.S.; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Disinfestation of prepacked cereal products, legumes and pulses by low dose gamma irradiation is well documented. This study showed that irradiation of prepacked green gram (Mung), Bengal gram (Chick pea or Chole) and horse bean (Val) at 0.25 and 0.75 kGy dose did not alter the contents of macronutrients, functional qualities and sensory attributes of these legumes, compared to non-irradiated legumes. (author)

  20. Cover Crop-Based, Organic Rotational No-Till Corn and Soybean Production Systems in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Wallace

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cover crop-based, organic rotational no-till (CCORNT corn and soybean production is becoming a viable strategy for reducing tillage in organic annual grain systems in the mid-Atlantic, United States. This strategy relies on mechanical termination of cover crops with a roller-crimper and no-till planting corn and soybean into cover crop mulches. Here, we report on recent research that focuses on integrated approaches for crop, nutrient and pest management in CCORNT systems that consider system and regional constraints for adoption in the mid-Atlantic. Our research suggests that no-till planting soybean into roller-crimped cereal rye can produce consistent yields. However, constraints to fertility management have produced less consistent no-till corn yields. Our research shows that grass-legume mixtures can improve N-release synchrony with corn demand and also improve weed suppression. Integration of high-residue inter-row cultivation improves weed control consistency and may reduce reliance on optimizing cover crop biomass accumulation for weed suppression. System-specific strategies are needed to address volunteer cover crops in later rotational phases, which result from incomplete cover crop termination with the roller crimper. The paucity of adequate machinery for optimizing establishment of cash crops into thick residue mulch remains a major constraint on CCORNT adoption. Similarly, breeding efforts are needed to improve cover crop germplasm and develop regionally-adapted varieties.

  1. The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivenge, Pauline; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Modi, Albert T.; Mafongoya, Paramu

    2015-01-01

    Modern agricultural systems that promote cultivation of a very limited number of crop species have relegated indigenous crops to the status of neglected and underutilised crop species (NUCS). The complex interactions of water scarcity associated with climate change and variability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and population pressure require innovative strategies to address food insecurity and undernourishment. Current research efforts have identified NUCS as having potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity, particularly for resource poor households in SSA. This is because of their adaptability to low input agricultural systems and nutritional composition. However, what is required to promote NUCS is scientific research including agronomy, breeding, post-harvest handling and value addition, and linking farmers to markets. Among the essential knowledge base is reliable information about water utilisation by NUCS with potential for commercialisation. This commentary identifies and characterises NUCS with agronomic potential in SSA, especially in the semi-arid areas taking into consideration inter alia: (i) what can grow under water-scarce conditions, (ii) water requirements, and (iii) water productivity. Several representative leafy vegetables, tuber crops, cereal crops and grain legumes were identified as fitting the NUCS category. Agro-biodiversity remains essential for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26016431

  2. The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Chivenge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern agricultural systems that promote cultivation of a very limited number of crop species have relegated indigenous crops to the status of neglected and underutilised crop species (NUCS. The complex interactions of water scarcity associated with climate change and variability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and population pressure require innovative strategies to address food insecurity and undernourishment. Current research efforts have identified NUCS as having potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity, particularly for resource poor households in SSA. This is because of their adaptability to low input agricultural systems and nutritional composition. However, what is required to promote NUCS is scientific research including agronomy, breeding, post-harvest handling and value addition, and linking farmers to markets. Among the essential knowledge base is reliable information about water utilisation by NUCS with potential for commercialisation. This commentary identifies and characterises NUCS with agronomic potential in SSA, especially in the semi-arid areas taking into consideration inter alia: (i what can grow under water-scarce conditions, (ii water requirements, and (iii water productivity. Several representative leafy vegetables, tuber crops, cereal crops and grain legumes were identified as fitting the NUCS category. Agro-biodiversity remains essential for sustainable agriculture.

  3. Comparative genome analysis and resistance gene mapping in grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Using, DNA markers and genome organization, several important disease resistance genes have been analyzed in mungbean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max). In the process, medium-density linkage maps consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were constructed for both mungbean and cowpea. Comparisons between these maps, as well as the maps of soybean and common bean, indicate that there is significant conservation of DNA marker order, though the conserved blocks in soybean are much shorter than in the others. DNA mapping results also indicate that a gene for seed weight may be conserved between mungbean and cowpea. Using the linkage maps, genes that control bruchid (genus Callosobruchus) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) resistance in mungbean, aphid resistance in cowpea (Aphis craccivora), and cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) resistance in soybean have all been mapped and characterized. For some of these traits resistance was found to be oligogenic and DNA mapping uncovered multiple genes involved in the phenotype. (author)

  4. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in the five sections of the conference: the world protein and nutritional situation; the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry, and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programs. (HLW)

  5. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Natural and induced variability was studied in Vicia faba, Phaseolus, soybeans, maize, barley, wheat, rice, and other cereals. Studies included mutations induced by radiation and chemical mutagens and breeding for high protein production. Prospects for the future were considered with regard to cell cultures, plant transformations, and development of food and feed materials. Other studies included molecular basis of gene action in protein synthesis; genetic control of protein synthesis; automated assay of protease inhibitors; radioinduced mutants in mung beans; and improvement in lysine content in maize. (HLW)

  6. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  7. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Andreas; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO_2_e_q per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  8. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N 2 -fixing legume shrubs and non-N 2 -fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N 2 -fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N 2 -fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N 2 -fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N 2 -fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N 2 -fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N 2 -fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care

  9. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  10. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría, D.N.; Verdenelli, R.A.; Muñoz, M.J.; Conforto, C.; Restovich, S.B.; Andriulo, A.E.; Meriles, J.M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC) as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation) during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) which weresown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1) and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2), with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield. (Author)

  11. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signalling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiatul Akmal Mohd-Radzman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  12. Crop residue, manure and fertilizer in dryland maize under reduced tillage in northern China: I grain yields and nutrient use efficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Oenema, O.

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly increasing population and associated quest for food and feed in China has led to increased soil cultivation and nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and as a consequence to increased wind erosion and unbalanced crop nutrition. In the study presented here, we explored the long-term effects of

  13. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of ...

  14. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Coates, Brad Steven; Kim, Kyungseok; Forgacs, D.; Margam, Venu; Murdock, Larry L.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabiré , Clé mentine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim B.; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Tamò , Manuele; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2012-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M

  15. Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raj Kishor; Gangoliya, Shivraj Singh; Singh, Nand Kumar

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the world populations are affected by micronutrient malnutrition and one third of world's population suffers from anemia and zinc deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several methods have been developed to reduce the phytic acid content in food and improve the nutritional value of cereal which becomes poor due to such antinutrient. These include genetic improvement as well as several pre-treatment methods such as fermentation, soaking, germination and enzymatic treatment of grains with phytase enzyme. Biofortification of staple crops using modern biotechnological techniques can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries.

  16. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  17. Fusarium Wilt Affecting Chickpea Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda Jendoubi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 18% of the global production of grain legume and serves as an important source of dietary protein. An important decrease in cropping area and production has been recorded during the last two decades. Several biotic and abiotic constraints underlie this decrease. Despite the efforts deployed in breeding and selection of several chickpea varieties with high yield potential that are tolerant to diseases, the situation has remained the same for the last decade. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc is the major soilborne fungus affecting chickpeas globally. Fusarium wilt epidemics can devastate crops and cause up to 100% loss in highly infested fields and under favorable conditions. To date, eight pathogenic races of Foc (races 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been reported worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars is the most effective method to manage this disease and to contribute to stabilizing chickpea yields. Development of resistant varieties to fusarium wilt in different breeding programs is mainly based on conventional selection. This method is time‐consuming and depends on inoculum load and specific environmental factors that influence disease development. The use of molecular tools offers great potential for chickpea improvement, specifically by identifying molecular markers closely linked to genes/QTLs controlling fusarium wilt.

  18. Phytoextraction of nitrogen and phosphorus by crops grown in a heavily manured Dark Brown Chernozem under contrasting soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomoh, Ikechukwu; Hao, Xiying; Zvomuya, Francis

    2018-01-02

    Phytoextraction of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. This greenhouse study examined the effectiveness of six growth cycles (40 d each) of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha -1 (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years. Moisture content during the study was maintained at either 100% or 50% soil field capacity (SFC). Repeated cropping resulted in an overall decrease in dry matter yield (DMY). The decrease in N and P uptake relative to Cycle 1 was fastest for the cereal grains and less pronounced for the two legumes. However, cumulative N uptake values were significantly greater for corn than the other crops under both moisture regimes. The reduction in soil N was greater under the 100% than the 50% SFC. These results indicate that repeated cropping can be a useful management practice for reducing N and P levels in a heavily manured soil. The extent of reduction will be greater for crops with high biomass production under adequate moisture supply.

  19. Exploiting Genomic Resources for Efficient Conservation and Use of Chickpea, Groundnut, and Pigeonpea Collections for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Laxmipathi Gowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Both chickpea ( L. and pigeonpea [ (L. Millsp.] are important dietary source of protein while groundnut ( L. is one of the major oil crops. Globally, approximately 1.1 million grain legume accessions are conserved in genebanks, of which the ICRISAT genebank holds 49,485 accessions of cultivated species and wild relatives of chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut from 133 countries. These genetic resources are reservoirs of many useful genes for present and future crop improvement programs. Representative subsets in the form of core and mini core collections have been used to identify trait-specific genetically diverse germplasm for use in breeding and genomic studies in these crops. Chickpea, groundnut, and pigeonpea have moved from “orphan” to “genomic resources rich crops.” The chickpea and pigeonpea genomes have been decoded, and the sequences of groundnut genome will soon be available. With the availability of these genomic resources, the germplasm curators, breeders, and molecular biologists will have abundant opportunities to enhance the efficiency of genebank operations, mine allelic variations in germplasm collection, identify genetically diverse germplasm with beneficial traits, broaden the cultigen’s genepool, and accelerate the cultivar development to address new challenges to production, particularly with respect to climate change and variability. Marker-assisted breeding approaches have already been initiated for some traits in chickpea and groundnut, which should lead to enhanced efficiency and efficacy of crop improvement. Resistance to some pests and diseases has been successfully transferred from wild relatives to cultivated species.

  20. Soil-N tagging - a method for measurement of biological nitrogen fixation in cereal-legume intercropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, D.D.; Subbiah, B.V.; Sachdev, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The quantitative estimates of atmospheric dinitrogen fixed by the legume crop and transferred to the associated cereal in cereal-legume intercropping system of maize-cowpea and wheat-gram using soil and fertilizer nitrogen labelling with 15 N have been reported. The estimates of N-fixation have been compared with the similar data from A-value method. Under field conditions sole cropped cowpea fixed 53.7 per cent of its total N uptake while as intercrop with maize fixed 43.5 per cent. Maize crop got 27.6 per cent of its total N uptake by transference of the nitrogen fixed by the intercropped cowpea. In the wheat-gram intercropping system the corresponding values under greenhouse conditions were 35.0, 44.8 and 20.2 per cent, respectively. (author)

  1. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Breeding food and forge legumes for enhancement of nitrogen fixation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Hussain, S.; Qamar, I.A.; Khan, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation in legume - root nodules requires the functioning of genes present in the Rhizobia that induce nodule-formation. The plant produces the nodules and the energy required for respiration. Genes in both Rhizobium and the plant are responsible for the efficient use of photosynthesis for N/sub 2/ fixation and assimilation of nitrogen. Genes from Rhizobium and legume hosts that are involved in the symbiosis are being identified, isolated and cloned, to facilitate the manipulation of either partner. The amounts of nitrogen fixed by grain-legumes vary appreciably, between and within, species and are also influenced by environment. With few exceptions, most legumes fix insufficient N/sub 2/ to support substantial seed-yields. Deficits between required N and the combined amounts provide by soil and fertilizer help in estimating the improvements in N/sub 2/ fixation which is possible through breeding. Since the symbiosis is a complex process, heritability of traits is weak, and most methods which estimate fixation are destructive, a breeding method that allows selection of replicated families rather than single plants is preferred. (author)

  3. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  4. Effects of Bean-Maize Intercropping,Phosphorus and Manure Additions on N2 fixation and Grain Yield of Phaseolus Vulgaris in the Central Kenya Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimani, S.K.; Mwangale, N.; Gathua, K.W.; Delve, R.; Cadisch, G.

    1999-01-01

    Sole bean and intercropped bean crops were studied for four seasons from 1996-1998. Addition of organic P at the recommended rate of 60 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 increased bean standing biomass and grain yields during the first season. Cattle manure applied at the rate of 12 t ha -1 (25% moisture content), had a negative effect on bean yield during the first season, possibly due to short-term nutrient immobilisation induced by the high C:N ratio of manure. In subsequent seasons, manure additions resulted in higher grain yields compared to inorganic P. Intercropping bean with maize lowered grain yields by 10-100%. N 2 fixed on beans on average from 55 to 69%. Intercropping thus provides a strategy for a better N resource use where the maize competes efficiently for available soil mineral N and the legume replenishes part of the extracted N via atmospheric N 2 fixation. However, the amounts of N 2 fixed appear not to be enough to replenish whole systems N in grain crops and so additional N 2 are needed. Thus more attention needs to be given to manure management and its long-term impact on soil fertility

  5. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  6. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  7. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González , Javier; Andrés , Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  8. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  9. Validation of crop weather models for crop assessment arid yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...

  10. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  11. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  12. Evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on the growth and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropped in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandeh, E; Rahimian, H; Pirdashti, H; Nematzadeh, G A

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of four phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth and yield of rice under different soil conditions. Bacterial strains were Rahnella aquatillis (KM977991), Enterobacter sp. (KM977992), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. These studies were conducted on different rice cultivars ('Shiroodi', 'Tarom' and 'Tarom Hashemi') in both pot and field experiments. Measurements started from transplanting and continued throughout the growing season in field experiments. Single PSB inoculations in field trials increased grain yield, biological yield, total number of stems hill(-1) , number of panicles hill(-1) and plant height by 8·50-26·9%, 12·4-30·9%, 20·3-38·7%, 22·1-36·1% and 0·85-3·35% in experiment 1, by 7·74-14·7%, 4·22-12·6%, 6·67-16·7%, 4·0-15·4% and 3·15-4·20% in experiment 2 and by 23·4-37%, 16·1-36·4%, 30·2-39·1%, 28·8-34% and 2·11-4·55% in experiment 3, respectively, compared to the control. Our results indicate that the application of triple super phosphate together with PSB inoculations resulted in reducing the use of chemical fertilizers (about 67%) and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. This study clearly indicates that these PSBs can be used as biofertilizers in ecological rice agricultural systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report on the association of Rahnella aquatilis with rice and also the application of a mathematical model to evaluate the effect of PSBs on rice growth. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  14. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daofeng; Su, Zhen; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2009-11-11

    Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  15. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  16. Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan W; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

  17. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  18. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  19. Side-effects of domestication: cultivated legume seeds contain similar tocopherols and fatty acids but less carotenoids than their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Milla, Rubén; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Arc, Erwann; Kranner, Ilse; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2014-12-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants play dual key roles in edible seeds (i) as preservatives of cell integrity and seed viability by preventing the oxidation of fats, and (ii) as essential nutrients for human and animal life stock. It has been well documented that plant domestication and post-domestication evolution frequently resulted in increased seed size and palatability, and reduced seed dormancy. Nevertheless, and surprisingly, it is poorly understood how agricultural selection and cultivation affected the physiological fitness and the nutritional quality of seeds. Fabaceae have the greatest number of crop species of all plant families, and most of them are cultivated for their highly nutritious edible seeds. Here, we evaluate whether evolution of plants under cultivation has altered the integrated system formed by membranes (fatty acids) and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocopherols), in the ten most economically important grain legumes and their closest wild relatives, i.e.: Arachis (peanut), Cicer (chickpea), Glycine (soybean), Lathyrus(vetch), Lens (lentil), Lupinus (lupin), Phaseolus (bean), Pisum (pea), Vicia (faba bean) and Vigna (cowpea). Unexpectedly, we found that following domestication, the contents of carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, decreased in all ten species (total carotenoid content decreased 48% in average). Furthermore, the composition of carotenoids changed, whereby some carotenoids were lost in most of the crops. An undirected change in the contents of tocopherols and fatty acids was found, with contents increasing in some species and decreasing in others, independently of the changes in carotenoids. In some species, polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid especially), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased following domestication. The changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids are likely side-effects of the selection for other desired traits such as the loss of seed dormancy and dispersal mechanisms, and

  20. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  1. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop

    OpenAIRE

    Balkcom,Kipling Shane; Wood,Charles Wesley; Adams,James Fredrick; Meso,Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N) requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaoli...

  2. Early agriculture and crop transmission among Bronze Age mobile pastoralists of Central Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Robert; Frachetti, Michael; Doumani, Paula; Rouse, Lynne; Cerasetti, Barbara; Bullion, Elissa; Mar'yashev, Alexei

    2014-05-22

    Archaeological research in Central Eurasia is exposing unprecedented scales of trans-regional interaction and technology transfer between East Asia and southwest Asia deep into the prehistoric past. This article presents a new archaeobotanical analysis from pastoralist campsites in the mountain and desert regions of Central Eurasia that documents the oldest known evidence for domesticated grains and farming among seasonally mobile herders. Carbonized grains from the sites of Tasbas and Begash illustrate the first transmission of southwest Asian and East Asian domesticated grains into the mountains of Inner Asia in the early third millennium BC. By the middle second millennium BC, seasonal camps in the mountains and deserts illustrate that Eurasian herders incorporated the cultivation of millet, wheat, barley and legumes into their subsistence strategy. These findings push back the chronology for domesticated plant use among Central Eurasian pastoralists by approximately 2000 years. Given the geography, chronology and seed morphology of these data, we argue that mobile pastoralists were key agents in the spread of crop repertoires and the transformation of agricultural economies across Asia from the third to the second millennium BC.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M.E., E-mail: marney.isaac@utoronto.ca [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Hinsinger, P. [INRA, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); Harmand, J.M. [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France)

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N{sub 2}-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N{sub 2}-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems

  4. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.E.; Hinsinger, P.; Harmand, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N 2 -fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N 2 -fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ 15 N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. -- Highlights

  5. Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in Central Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keston O. W. Njira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2 as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application. The gridline intersect method was used to assess the VAM fungal colonisation levels. Results showed that all treatments that included legumes whether grown as sole crop, in legume-cereal or in legume-legume cropping systems in the previous year, had significantly higher (P < 0.05 VAM fungal colonisation of the rotational maize crop roots by a range 39% to 50% and 19% to 47% than those in maize supplied and not supplied with N fertilizer, respectively, in a maize-maize short rotation, at the Lilongwe site. A similar trend was reported for the Dowa site. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between VAM fungal colonisation and the plant P content, dry matter yield, and nodule numbers. Further studies may help to assess the diversity of VAM fungal species in Malawi soils and identify more adaptive ones for inoculation studies.

  6. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  7. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    treatments were applied, seedbed preparation was carried out and wheat Anfarm- 4 (Bam was planted. At the end of the growing season, yield and yield components of wheat were measured. Results and Discussion The results indicated that the maximum grain yield, biological yield, and spike.m-2 of wheat were observed with the no-till and reduced tillage treatments. The wheat spike weight significantly increased in the treatment of no-tillage compared with conventional tillage treatment. It seems that increased crop yield under no-till and reduced till systems might be owing to the enhancement of the soil nutrient status, reduced weed populations, improved physical health of the soil improved soil water status and increased efficiency of nutrient usage in these systems comparing with the conventional tillage systems. The main effect of cover crop type showed that incorporating chickling pea and rocket salad resulted in the greatest grain yield, thousand-kernal weight, spike weight, and biological yield of wheat compared to the control (no cover crop and also chickling pea, rocket salad and barley caused the greatest grain. Spike-1 of wheat compared to the control (no cover crop. Although the use of total cover crops improved yield and yield components in wheat. Chickling pea superiority in many traits was evident in comparison with other cover crops. This superiority could be due to the fact that this plant belongs to the legume family and legumes release higher amounts of nitrogen during decomposition compared to grass species. Grasses produce large amounts of carbon and are slowly decomposed. Although rocket salad does not belong to the legume family, due to having deep roots, it is able to absorb nutrients from the deep soil layers and provide the main plant with these nutrients after its decay. Conclusions The results of this study revealed that employment of conservation tillage systems remarkably affected the yield and yield components of wheat, and the greatest positive

  8. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Broekman, R.A.; de Vos, A.C.; Parra González, A.; Rozema, J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation

  9. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2016-01-01

    with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N......A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized...... carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground...

  10. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India | Page 4 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While staple foods such as wheat and rice are subsidized by the government, the subsidies do not consistently reach those most in need. The availability of affordable and nutritious alternative grains and legumes could help alleviate poverty and nutrition insecurity in rural India, particularly among vulnerable women and ...

  11. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza Lespedeza striata (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by 'Bragg' soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl > DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Flavonoid profiling and nodulation of some legumes in response to the allelopathic stress of Sonchus oleraceus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomaa,Nasr Hassan; Hassan,Mahmoud Omar; Fahmy,Gamal Mohammad; González,Luís; Hammouda,Ola; Atteya,Atteya Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) has been reported to produce allelopathic effects. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to estimate the allelopathic potential of both plant residue and root exudates of S. oleraceus on flavonoid composition and nodulation in a leguminous crop, Trifolium alexandrinum, and in two leguminous weeds, Melilotus indicus and T. resupinatum. The results of high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) showed that all three legumes con...

  13. Biomass productivity and radiation utilisation of innovative cropping systems for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jiao, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    rotation of annual crops (maize, beet, hemp/oat, triticale, winter rye and winter rapeseed), ii) perennial crops intensively fertilised (festulolium, reed canary, cocksfoot and tall fescue), low-fertilised (miscanthus) or unfertilised (grass-legume mixtures) and iii) traditional systems (continuous...

  14. Enhancing the biological nitrogen fixation of leguminous crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legumes have the ability to establish a symbiotic interaction with soil bacteria, collectively termed as rhizobia. These bacteria can enhance growth and development of associated crops by transferring atmospheric nitrogen into a form that is available for plant growth or by improving nutrient uptake through modulation of ...

  15. EVALUATION OF GRAIN SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR DOUBLE CROPPING IN THE SOUTHWEST OF GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL AVALIAÇÃO DE CULTIVARES DE SORGO GRANÍFERO NA SAFRINHA NO SUDOESTE DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bezerra de Morães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Sorghum is a crop of great importance for double cropping, in the Brazilian Central-West region. Within this region, in the Southwestern Goiás State, a research was conducted to select sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivars, in the municipalities of Montividiu, Rio Verde, and Santa Helena de Goiás. A randomized blocks design, with four replications, was used. The grain sorghum cultivars tested were: BR 304, 741, 822, Catuy, and the experimental hybrid V 00069. The cultivars were sown on March 5, 2005. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, weight of thousand grains, plant height, and flowering and maturation dates. The results showed the interaction genotype x environment for all evaluated characteristics. The region of Montividiu presented better potential for sorghum grain production. Early flowering and harvest allowed higher grain yields.

     

  16. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G [Dnipropetrovsk, UA; Noyes, Ronald T [Stillwater, OK; Potapovych, Larysa P [Dnipropetrovsk, UA

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  17. Evolutionary and biotechnology implications of plastid genome variation in the inverted-repeat-lacking clade of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal; Schwarz, Erika; Ellison, Nicholas; Zhang, Jin; Baeshen, Nabih A; Mutwakil, Muhammed; Jansen, Robert; Ruhlman, Tracey

    2014-08-01

    Land plant plastid genomes (plastomes) provide a tractable model for evolutionary study in that they are relatively compact and gene dense. Among the groups that display an appropriate level of variation for structural features, the inverted-repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) of papilionoid legumes presents the potential to advance general understanding of the mechanisms of genomic evolution. Here, are presented six complete plastome sequences from economically important species of the IRLC, a lineage previously represented by only five completed plastomes. A number of characters are compared across the IRLC including gene retention and divergence, synteny, repeat structure and functional gene transfer to the nucleus. The loss of clpP intron 2 was identified in one newly sequenced member of IRLC, Glycyrrhiza glabra. Using deeply sequenced nuclear transcriptomes from two species helped clarify the nature of the functional transfer of accD to the nucleus in Trifolium, which likely occurred in the lineage leading to subgenus Trifolium. Legumes are second only to cereal crops in agricultural importance based on area harvested and total production. Genetic improvement via plastid transformation of IRLC crop species is an appealing proposition. Comparative analyses of intergenic spacer regions emphasize the need for complete genome sequences for developing transformation vectors for plastid genetic engineering of legume crops. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Guillermo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabaceae (legumes is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean 1. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome.

  19. Effect of pea intercropping on biological efficiencies and economics of some non-legume winter vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, S.A.; Anjum, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Intercropping with legumes makes effective use of land and other resources and results in reduced cost of production. Increased agricultural production through intercropping with minimal cost is need of time to feed increasing population. The reported work evaluates the biological efficiencies and economics of pea, garlic, turnip and cauliflower grown as sole crops and when pea intercropped in garlic, turnip and cauliflower during 2010-12. All the vegetables generally yielded more when grown as single crop compared with when pea was intercropped in these vegetables. In peas in garlic intercropping, pea yield was not significantly affected; however, garlic yield was significantly reduced (65.8%). Pea intercropping in turnip or cauliflower resulted in significantly lower yields of both crops (29.1 and 28.0%, respectively) as compared with their sole cropping. All other characteristics (plant growth and yield components) of all the four crops which indicate biological efficiency generally were greater when grown as single crops and decreased in intercropping combinations. Analysis of intercropping treatments revealed that pea intercropping in turnip resulted in the highest marginal rate of return (8,875%), followed by pea intercropping in cauliflower (6,977%), due to lower input costs incurred per hectare. However, net benefit to the growers was higher (Rs. 327,925) in case of pea intercropping in cauliflower, followed by pea intercropping in garlic (Rs. 213,425). (author)

  20. Genetic Architecture of Grain Chalk in Rice and Interactions with a Low Phytic Acid Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain quality characteristics have a major impact on the value of the harvested rice crop. In addition to grain dimensions which determine rice grain market classes, translucent milled kernels are also important for assuring the highest grain quality and crop value. Over the last several years, ther...

  1. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  2. Towards a new classification system for legumes: Progress report from the 6th International Legume Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Coelho Borges, L.M.; Bruneau, A.; Cardoso, D.; Crisp, M.; Delgado-Salinas, A.; Doyle, J.J.; Egan, A.; Herendeen, P.S.; Hughes, C.; Kenicer, G.; Klitgaard, B.; Koenen, E.; Lavin, M.; Lewis, G.; Luckow, M.; Mackinder, B.; Malecot, V.; Miller, J.T.; Pennington, R.T.; Queiroz, de L.P.; Schrire, B.; Simon, M.F.; Steele, K.; Torke, B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Wojciechowski, M.F.; Boatwright, S.; Estrella, de la M.; Mansano, V.D.; Prado, D.E.; Stirton, C.; Wink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Legume systematists have been making great progress in understanding evolutionary relationships within the Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the third largest family of flowering plants. As the phylogenetic picture has become clearer, so too has the need for a revised classification of the family. The

  3. Amendment of Acid Soils with Crop Residues and Biochars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jin-Hua; XU Ren-Kou; WANG Ning; LI Jiu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The liming potential of some crop residues and their biochars on an acid Ultisol was investigated using incubation experiments. Rice hulls showed greater liming potential than rice hull biochar, while soybean and pea straws had less liming potential than their biochars. Due to their higher alkalinity, biochars from legume materials increased soil pH much compared to biochars from non-legume materials. The alkalinity of biochars was a key factor affecting their liming potential,and the greater alkalinity of biochars led to greater reductions in soil acidity. The incorporation of biochars decreased soil exchangeable acidity and increased soil exchangeable base cations and base saturation, thus improving soil fertility.

  4. Rhizosphere Biological Processes of Legume//Cereal Intercropping Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Yuan-yuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping, a sustainable planting pattern, was widely used in the wordwide. It not only has the advantages of yield and nutrient acquisition, but also can ensure food security and reduce the risk of crop failures. The majority of intercropping systems involve legume//cereal combinations because of interspecific facilitation or complementarity. The rhizosphere is the interface between plants and soil where there are interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and affect the uptake of nutrients, water and harmful substances. The rhizosphere biologi-cal processes not only determine the amount of nutrients and the availability of nutrients, but also affect crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Hence, this paper summarized the progress made on root morphology, rhizosphere microorganisms, root exudates and ecological ef-fect in the perspective of the rhizosphere biological process,which would provide theoretical basis for improving nutrient availability, remov-ing heavy metals, and plant genetic improvements.

  5. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    to intensification. Ricebean (Vigna umbellata L.) was the most preferred legume species among the others to be integrated with maize due to its high selling price, ease to grow and harvest, stable market demand and ability to improve soil fertility. The results from researcher-managed field trial demonstrated......The transition from swidden agriculture to intensive maize (Zea mays L.) monoculture in upland regions of Southeast Asia has led to declining soil fertility problem, which necessitates the use of external nutrient inputs to sustain crop productivity. Conventional intensification via the use...... cropping represented low-external-input intensive farming systems, and the villages in northern Laos that cultivated maize with a short fallow period represented low-input farming systems. Data were collected from field surveys, a set of researcher- and farmer-managed field trials under rain-fed conditions...

  6. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...... amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...

  7. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  8. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Andrade Lira Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein, climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior, and urbanization (and thus heavy metals. This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge.

  9. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  10. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  11. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  12. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  13. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures; Senkung der THG-Emissionen in landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsverfahren zur Erzeugung von Biokraftstoffen durch Leguminosenanbau und produktionstechnische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO{sub 2eq} per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  14. to Phosphorus Fertilization, Crop Sequence and Tillage Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Manitoba, Canada, to determine the effect of crop rotation, phosphorus (P fertilization and tillage on grain yield and grain concentrations of Cd and Zn in durum wheat (Triticum durum L.. Compared to conventional tillage (CT, reduced tillage (RT management decreased grain Cd and increased grain yield and grain Zn in half of the site-years. The type of preceding crops of spring wheat-flax or canola-flax had little influence. Rate and timing of P application had little effect on grain Cd, but increasing P rate tended to decrease grain Zn. No interactive effect was detected among tested factors. Grain Zn was not related to grain Cd, but positively to other nutrients such as Fe, Mn, P, Ca, K, and Mg. Both grain Zn and Fe correlated positively with grain protein content, suggesting protein may represent a sink for micronutrients. The study suggested that the tillage management may have beneficial effects on both grain yield and quality. Phosphorus fertilizer can remain available for subsequent crops and high annual inputs in the crop sequence may decrease crop grain Zn. Understanding the environment is important in determining the impact of agricultural management on agronomic and nutrient traits.

  15. Interstellar grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1980-11-01

    Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25% and (3) hollow dielectric cylinders containing metallic iron, with diameters of 2/3 microns making up 45%. The remaining 20% consists of other metals, metal oxides, and polysiloxanes. Absorption factor evidence suggests that the main dielectric component of the grains is organic material.

  16. Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Luke Mahler, D; Burns, Jean H; Weber, Marjorie G; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Sprent, Janet; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2018-02-01

    How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central - but also data-hungry - question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria that ameliorate nutrient stress by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. These symbioses are ecologically-important interactions, influencing community assembly, diversity, and succession, contributing ~100-290 million tons of N annually to natural ecosystems, and enhancing growth of agronomically-important forage and crop plants worldwide. In recent work attempting to determine whether mutualism with N-fixing bacteria led to increased diversification across legumes, we were unable to definitively resolve the relationship between diversification and nodulation. We did, however, succeed in compiling a very large searchable, analysis-ready database of nodulation data for 749 legume genera (98% of Leguminosae genera; LPWG 2017), which, along with associated phylogenetic information, will provide a valuable resource for future work addressing this question and others. For each legume genus, we provide information about the species richness, frequency of nodulation, subfamily association, and topological correspondence with an additional data set of 100 phylogenetic trees curated for database compatibility. We found 386 legume genera were confirmed nodulators (i.e., all species examined for nodulation nodulated), 116 were non-nodulating, four were variable (i.e., containing both confirmed nodulators and confirmed non-nodulators), and 243 had not been examined for nodulation in published studies. Interestingly

  17. Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for complementarity: Root morphology and exudation in relation to nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Brown, Lawrie K; Adu, Michael O; Mezeli, Malika M; Sandral, Graeme A; Simpson, Richard J; Wendler, Renate; Shand, Charles A; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc I; Lumsdon, David G; Zhang, Hao; Blackwell, Martin S A; Wearing, Catherine; Cooper, Patricia; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency may be improved through increased biodiversity in agroecosystems. Phenotypic variation in plants' response to nutrient deficiency may influence positive complementarity in intercropping systems. A multicomponent screening approach was used to assess the influence of P supply and N source on the phenotypic plasticity of nutrient foraging traits in barley (H. vulgare L.) and legume species. Root morphology and exudation were determined in six plant nutrient treatments. A clear divergence in the response of barley and legumes to the nutrient treatments was observed. Root morphology varied most among legumes, whereas exudate citrate and phytase activity were most variable in barley. Changes in root morphology were minimized in plants provided with ammonium in comparison to nitrate but increased under P deficiency. Exudate phytase activity and pH varied with legume species, whereas citrate efflux, specific root length, and root diameter lengths were more variable among barley cultivars. Three legume species and four barley cultivars were identified as the most responsive to P deficiency and the most contrasting of the cultivars and species tested. Phenotypic response to nutrient availability may be a promising approach for the selection of plant combinations for minimal input cropping systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  19. Effects legumes, Fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M. B.; Akin, A.; Aydin, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the Nsub 2- fixation capacities of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of N 15 technique, and to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume as well as water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed Central Anatolia conditions field experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 at three different provinces using completely randomized block design with 5 replications. Results we obtained showed that %Ndff values among legumesdid not differ significantly neither within or between locations. Legumesvaried significantly (P<0.05) in their %Ndfa values at each location and highest values of %Ndfa were obtained at Eskisehir. In general, %Ndfa varied from59-84, and 36-85 for chickpea,lentils and vetchs. The evaluation of the yield and N data obtained in 1993 indicated that lentil (winter or summer) -wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir conditions and chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya conditions should be prefered, due to the higher seed and total yields, higher N yields and higher %NUE values obtained from these rotations in comparison to the others. In order to estimate the carry-over of nitrogen from legumes to the succeeding wheat crop, % nitrogen derived from unknown (%Ndfu) were also calculated. Highest amount of carry-over from the legumesto the succeeding wheat were 31.1 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Ankara; 16.9 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Eskisehir; and 8.0 kgN/ha from chickpea at Konya. These results obtined showed that a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Mean while, the evaluation of the soil and WUE data at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicated that winter lentil-wheat rotation should be prefered in these areas due to more efficient use of water by wheat crop after this rotation system

  20. Trichoderma inoculation augments grain amino acids and mineral nutrients by modulating arsenic speciation and accumulation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is an industrially important fungi which also imparts stress tolerance and plant growth promotion in various crops. Arsenic (As) contamination of field soils is one of the challenging problems in agriculture, posing potential threats for both human health and the environment. Plants in association with microbes are a liable method to improve metal tolerance and enhance crop productivity. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume providing cheap source of protein in semi-arid regions including As affected areas. In this study we report the role of T. reesei NBRI 0716 (NBRI 0716) in supporting chickpea growth and improving soil quality in As simulated conditions. NBRI 0716 modulated the As speciation and its availability to improve grain yield and quality (amino acids and mineral content) in chickpea (C. arietinum L.) plants grown in As spiked soil (100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Arsenic accumulation and speciation results indicate that arsenate [As(V)] was the dominant species in chickpea seeds and rhizosphere soil. The Trichoderma reduced total grain inorganic As (Asi) by 66% and enhanced dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsinic acid (MMA) content of seed and rhizosphere soil. The results indicate a probable role of NBRI 0716 in As methylation as the possible mechanism for maneuvering As stress in chickpea. Analysis of functional diversity using carbon source utilization (Biolog) showed significant difference in diversity and evenness indices among the soil microbial rhizosphere communities. Microbial diversity loss caused by As were prevented in the presence of Trichoderma NBRI 0716. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  2. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hpRNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection.

  3. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  4. Short-term contributions of cover crop surface residue return to soil carbon and nitrogen contents in temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Wu, Hanwen; Li, Guangdi; Chen, Chengrong

    2016-11-01

    Cover crop species are usually grown to control weeds. After cover crop harvest, crop residue is applied on the ground to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little information is available about quantifying the contributions of cover crop application to soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents in temperate Australia. Here, we selected eight cover crop treatments, including two legume crops (vetch and field pea), four non-legume crops (rye, wheat, Saia oat, and Indian mustard), a mixture of rye and vetch, and a nil-crop control in temperate Australia to calculate the contributions of cover crops (crop growth + residue decomposition) to soil C and N contents. Cover crops were sown in May 2009 (autumn). After harvest, the crop residue was placed on the soil surface in October 2009. Soil and crop samples were collected in October 2009 after harvest and in May 2010 after 8 months of residue decomposition. We examined cover crop residue biomass, soil and crop total C and N contents, and soil microbial biomass C and N contents. The results showed that cover crop application increased the mean soil total C by 187-253 kg ha -1 and the mean soil total N by 16.3-19.1 kg ha -1 relative to the nil-crop treatment, except for the mixture treatment, which had similar total C and N contents to the nil-crop control. Cover crop application increased the mean soil microbial biomass C by 15.5-20.9 kg ha -1 and the mean soil microbial biomass N by 4.5-10.2 kg ha -1 . We calculated the apparent percentage of soil total C derived from cover crop residue C losses and found that legume crops accounted for 10.6-13.9 %, whereas non-legume crops accounted for 16.4-18.4 % except for the mixture treatment (0.2 %). Overall, short-term cover crop application increased soil total C and N contents and microbial biomass C and N contents, which might help reduce N fertilizer use and improve sustainable agricultural development.

  5. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  6. MARKET ANALYSIS AND MICROBIAL BIOPREPARATIONS CREATION FOR CROP GROWING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARKET ANALYSIS AND MICROBIAL BIOPREPARATIONS CREATION FOR CROP GROWING IN UKRAINE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available А microbial biopreparations, particularly for the leguminous, grains, industrial and other agricultural crops of Ukrainian as well as foreign production are analyzed. All biopreparations on the market of Ukraine may be divided into basic groups — growth-activating preparations, phytoprotective preparations, preparations for the accelerated decomposition of plant wastes, preparations for restoration and preservation of soil fertility (depending on the functional activity of a biological agent as well as info mono- and complex biopreparations (depending on the number of components within them. Approaches to the creation of complex biopreparations and compositions based on biological agents — microorganisms with agronomically valuable properties, fungi, algae, biologically active metabolites of plants and microorganisms as well as microelements in chelated forms are considered to solve the following key environmental goals: getting organic crop production, restoration and preservation of soil fertility. The results of original research on the complex compositions based on nodule bacteria, rhizobacteria, microorganisms — destructors of xenobiotics, microbial (exopolysaccharides, exometabolites and plant (phytolectins, extract of blue-green algae metabolites for growth of legumes and grain cultures are presented. It is established that the complex biopreparations and compositions have more effective and stable action as compared to monoculture. The examples of biopreparations of a new generation which are created using the innovative technologies such as IGET Technology (Induced Gene Expression Triggers, LHO-promoter (lipohitooligosaccharides-promoter technology, TOP-technology (technology osmoprotector involving achievements of molecular and cell biology, nanotechnology as well as the modern solid carriers, adhesives, lipkogenes, formularies that provide high titer of microbial cells in biopreparations, close contact the bacterial cells with

  7. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, Jordi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    common practices in organic farming. Measurements of dry matter (DM) and N content of grain cereals at harvest, above-ground biomass in catch crops and green manure crops in autumn and of the green manure crop at the first cutting were performed. The effect of catch crops on grain yield varied...... the nitrate leaching and increasing N retention, but also by improving yields. Management practices in relation to catch crops must be adapted to the specific soil and cropping systems....

  8. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  9. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    documented on forage legumes and fodder trees in Uganda. However .... held to encourage interaction and collaborative learning between .... decision-making regarding income. ... the introduction of a milk-processing machine by Masaka.

  10. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

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    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  11. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  12. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes .... mean seed mass (without seed coat) per species was used for W1 ...... Of light and length: regulation of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis.

  13. Changes in soil biological quality under legume- and maize-based farming systems in a humid savanna zone of Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tano Y.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of farming systems on soil status is essential in determining the most relevant for a given agroecological zone. A trial was conducted in a West Africa humid savanna, aiming at assessing the short-term effects of farming systems on soil (0-10 cm organic carbon (SOC content and some soil microbiological properties. A randomized complete block experimental design with three replications, and the following treatments were used: Mucuna pruriens (Mucuna, Pueraria phaseoloides (Pueraria, Lablab purpureus (Lablab, a combination of these three legumes (Mixed-legumes, maize + urea (Maize-U, maize + triple super phosphate (Maize-Sp, maize + urea + triple super phosphate (Maize-USp, fertilizer-free maize continuous cropping (Maize-Tradi. Results indicated that SOC content was improved over time under legume-based systems. The relative increase was the highest with the legume association and Lablab, where SOC varied from 7.5 to 8.6 g.kg-1 (i.e. 14.7% and from 7.2 to 8.3 g.kg-1 (i.e. 15.3% respectively, between the start and the end of the trial. Besides, applying grass and maize residues as mulch on the ground, in association with inorganic fertilizers may be a way of improving SOC content in the short-term. Although legume-based systems exhibited highest values, microbial biomass carbon (MBC did not show any statistical significant differences between treatments. However, soil C mineralization and soil specific respiration were influenced by the farming systems, with higher mean values under legume-based systems (42 ± 7.6 mg C-CO2.g-1 Corg and 0.4 mg C-CO2.g-1 biomass C, respectively, compared to maize continuous cropping systems (33.1 ± 1.6 mg C-CO2.g-1 Corg and 0.3 mg C-CO2.g-1 biomass C, respectively. Thus, these parameters can be used as sensitive indicators of the early changes in soil organic matter quality. The integration of legumes cover crops in farming systems may contribute to improve soil quality that would lead to

  14. Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Gramatina; Jelena Zagorska; Evita Straumite; Svetlana Sarvi

    2012-01-01

    In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total wei...

  15. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  16. CARBON CYCLES, NITROGEN FIXATION AND THE LEGUME-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSIS AS SOIL CONTAMINANT BIOTEST SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Werner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The major pools and turnover  rates of the global carbon (C cycles are presented and compared to the human production of CO2  from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal and oil and geothermal  fuels (natural  gases, both categorized as non-renewable energy resources which  in amount  reaches around  6.5 Gigatons C per year. These pools that serve as C-holding stallions  are in the atmosphere,  the land plant biomass, the organic soils carbon, the ocean carbon and the lithosphere. In another related case, the present focus in the area of nitrogen  fixation  is discussed with  data on world  production of grain  legumes  compared  to cereals production and nitrogen  fertilizer use. The focus to understand  the molecular  biology of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis as a major contributor to nitrogen  fixation  is in the areas of signal exchange between  host plants and rhizobia  in the rhizophere including  the nod factor signalling, the infection  and nodule compartmentation and the soils stress factors affecting the symbiosis. The use of the Legume-Rhizobia symbiosis as a biotest system for soil contaminants includes data for cadmium,  arsenate, atrazine,  lindane,  fluoranthene, phenantrene and acenaphthene and also results  on the mechanism,  why the symbiotic system is more sensitive  than test systems with plant growth  parameters.

  17. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  18. Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year and 2012 (the 4th year the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully

  19. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    grain and biological yield resulted from the treated plants with F1 there was no difference among F2 and F1 fertilizer rate for grain yield of wheat. Also cereal straw + legume (GM in CR4 and CR5 treatments in F2 performed better than F1 fertilizer in no residue treatment and Wheat grain yield under F2 × CR5 treatments was 25% greater than under F1 × CR8 treatments. The combined use of NPK fertilizer plays an important role in wheat production. Application of NPK in balanced share at proper time has great impact on wheat yield. In order to achieve higher crop production, balanced and integrated nutrient supply and proper management of soil fertility is essential. Application of crop residues/green manures along with suitable does of major nutrients for efficient growth of crop prevent the decline in organic carbon and also bridge up gap between potential and actual yield of wheat. Further, use of crop residue had favorable effect on physic chemical and biological properties of soil due to supply of macro and micro-nutrients to crop properly. Furthermore the decomposition and mineralization of crop residue is a slow process which could match the nutrient requirement of crop. The protein percentage, which is higher in CR5 and CR4 ,shows in whole crop residue treatments, the lowest valuable in F3 and improves with the increase in fertilization researching the highest value with the rate F1. No significant difference was observed between the rate F2 and F3; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. Increased wheat yield and component yield due to different crop residue incorporation and NPK rate were reported by Verhulst et al. (2011 and Aulakh et al. (2012. Conclusion Application of (140N- 90P- 80K kg.ha-1 and straw wheat along with mungbean and application straw barley + green manure was more effective than (180N- 120P- 100K kg.ha-1 application in no residue incorporation on grain yield and based on this research findings

  20. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  1. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  2. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  3. COMPARAÇÃO DE SISTEMAS DE COLHEITA MECANIZADA E SEMIMECANIZADA NA PERDA, DANO MECÂNICO E IMPUREZA DE GRÃOS NA CULTURA DO FEIJOEIRO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. COMPARISON OF SYSTEMS OF AUTOMATED CROP AND SEMIMECHANIZED IN THE LOSS, MECHANICAL DAMAGE AND IMPURITY OF GRAINS IN THE CULTURE OF THE BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pasqualetto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As dificuldades constatadas na colheita mecanizada do feijoeiro ainda constitui em um obstáculo para a expansão da cultura. Diante disto, o CNPAF vem se esforçando para o melhoramento da espécie buscando características adequadas à colheita mecanizada. A cultivar Safira atende a este objetivo. Neste sentido foi realizado um experimento na Fazenda Três Irmãos, no município de Santa Helena de Goiás (GO, onde se compararam três sistemas de colheita, objetivando avaliar perdas de grãos, bem como a qualidade do produto colhido, através da análise de grãos quebrados e impurezas, na cultivar Safira. Os resultados demonstraram que a colheita mecanizada do feijoeiro para a cultivar Safira é viável. A automotriz recolhedora causa menor perda de grãos, mas o dano mecânico é elevado; a recolhedora-trilhadora apresentou perda satisfatória, apesar de exigir manuseio adequado.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Feijão; culturas anuais; mecanização agrícola.

    The mechanization of the crop of the bean still constitutes an obstacle for the expansion of the culture. Due to this fact, CNPAF is making an effort to the improvement of the species looking for favorable characteristics to the mechanized crop. The cultivar ‘Safira’ fulfills this aim. In this sense, an experiment was carried out at Fazenda Três Irmãos, in the district of Santa Helena of Goiás (GO. Three crop systems were tested in order to evaluate losses of grains and the quality of the picked product, through analysis of broken grains and sludges. The results demonstrated that the mechanized crop of bean concerning the cultivar ‘Safira’ is viable. The self-driven retirement causes a smaller loss of grains, but the mechanical damage is higher; the retirement-thrashing showed satisfactory loss, despite of requiring

  4. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  5. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF A GRAIN DRILL IN FUNCTION OF SOIL TILLAGE AND MAIZE CROP SPACING DESEMPENHO DE SEMEADORA-ADUBADORA EM FUNÇÃO DO PREPARO DE SOLO E ESPAÇAMENTO DA CULTURA DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Hiroshi Kaneko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The performance of machines and agricultural implements are of fundamental importance, especially when subjected to different types of soil tillage, and have to adapt to these conditions, in order to promote good operational performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the operational performance of a Marchesan Supreme Cop grain drill, equipped with four rows, spaced 0.90 m, according to three types of tillage: conventional tillage (plowing and two harrowing series, reduced tillage (scarification with a roller, and no-tillage, in areas previously seeded with maize (Zea mays L., at two spacing measures (0.90 m and 0.45 m. The results indicate that the demand for power, tensile stress, and motor rotation, in the sowing operation, were not influenced by tillage and maize crop. The tractor wheel slip showed different results, being lower in no

  7. Symbiotic N2-fixation by the cover crop Pueraria phaseoloides as influenced by litter mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, J.M.; Østerby, S.; Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    The perennial legume Pueraria phaseoloides is widely used as a cover crop in rubber and oil palm plantations. However, very little knowledge exists on the effect of litter mineralization from P. phaseoloides on its symbiotic N-2- fixation. The contribution from symbiotic N-2-fixation (Ndfa...

  8. Teknologi Pengendalian Gulma Alang-alang dengan Tanaman Legum untuk Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Juarsah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv merupakan salah satu gulma terpenting dan termasuk sepuluh gulma bermasalah di dunia.  Melalui biji dan rimpang, alang-alang dapat tumbuh dan menyebar luas pada hampir semua kondisi lahan. Teknologi pengendalian alang-alang telah banyak dikenal namun belum dapat menjamin eradikasi populasi alang-alang secara berkelanjutan tanpa diikuti oleh kultur teknis dan pola budidaya tanaman pangan sepanjang tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa lahan alang-alang dapat dikendalikan/dikelola menjadi lahan produktif setelah direhabilitasi dengan tanaman legume (Mucuna sp. untuk usaha tani tanaman pangan lahan kering berorientasi konservasi tanah. Bahan hijauan tanaman Mucuna dapat meningkatkan kadar C-organik, memperbaiki sifat fisika, kimia tanah dan meningkatkan  produksi tanaman pangan. In Indonesia, Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv is one of important weeds and included to ten most problematic weeds around the world. Through its seeds and roots, alang-alang can grow and expand in nearly all soil conditions. Many technologies for controlling have been known but can not ensure the eradication of weeds population, however the controlling via food crops cropping systems for the whole years is the best method so far to have sustainability of the agriculture land. Research showed that alang-alang area could be controlled/managed became more productive land after rehabilitation with legume (ie Mucuna sp. especially for dry land conservation oriented. Mucuna green materials might increase C-organic content, both soil chemical and physical improvement, furthermore increased foodcrops production.

  9. Energizing marginal soils: A perennial cropping system for Sida hermaphrodita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Moritz; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky; Schrey, Silvia D.; Koller, Robert; Schurr, Ulrich; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    As a way to avoid land use conflicts, the use of marginal soils for the production of plant biomass can be a sustainable alternative to conventional biomass production (e.g. maize). However, new cropping strategies have to be found that meet the challenge of crop production under marginal soil conditions. We aim for increased soil fertility by the use of the perennial crop Sida hermaphrodita in combination with organic fertilization and legume intercropping to produce substantial biomass yield. We present results of a three-year outdoor mesocosm experiment testing the perennial energy crop Sida hermaphrodita grown on a marginal model substrate (sand) with four kinds of fertilization (Digestate broadcast, Digestate Depot, mineral NPK and unfertilized control) in combination with legume intercropping. After three years, organic fertilization (via biogas digestate) compared to mineral fertilization (NPK), reduced the nitrate concentration in leachate and increased the soil carbon content. Biomass yields of Sida were 25% higher when fertilized organically, compared to mineral fertilizer. In general, digestate broadcast application reduced root growth and the wettability of the sandy substrate. However, when digestate was applied locally as depot to the rhizosphere, root growth increased and the wettability of the sandy substrate was preserved. Depot fertilization increased biomass yield by 10% compared to digestate broadcast fertilization. We intercropped Sida with various legumes (Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Melilotus spp. and Medicago sativa) to enable biological nitrogen fixation and make the cropping system independent from synthetically produced fertilizers. We could show that Medicago sativa grown on marginal substrate fixed large amounts of N, especially when fertilized organically, whereas mineral fertilization suppressed biological nitrogen fixation. We conclude that the perennial energy crop Sida in combination with organic fertilization has great

  10. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  11. Mutation breeding in pulse crops for rural development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.S.; Souframanien, J.; Dhanasekar, P.; Dhole, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Pulse crops, among the legumes form an important source of the dietary protein of the predominantly vegetarian population of India. The biotic and abiotic stresses are the major deterrents in improving the yield and productivity of pulses. Mutation breeding plays a significant role in the development of biotic and abiotic stresses resistant varieties leading to higher production and overall remuneration of the farming community. The biotic stress resistant varieties also play an important role in the ecological balance, by reducing the dependency on pesticides. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay has been instrumental in the development of 15 high yielding, disease resistant mutant varieties in 4 pulse crops. (author)

  12. Induced mutations for crop improvement- the generation next

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments to use induced mutations for the improvement of crop plants were initiated in the country in mid nineteen fifties. After forty five years and reasonably good success stories, it is no longer an attractive subject for bright young graduate students. The areas of intellectually satisfying, contemporary, plant genetics based on induced mutations that can also bring social and commercial benefits are identified. These are: nodulation mutants in legumes, altering fatty acid composition in oil crops, modification of root characters, altering host-pathogen interactions, flowering time, day length insensitivity and some changes in modulation pattern involve mutations

  13. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the first two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding in particular countries and crop-specific mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  15. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-07-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N{sub 1}40 P{sub 1}00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg{sup -}1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg{sup -}1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg{sup -}1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg{sup -}1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. The impact of the cropping system management on soil erosion and fertility in Northeastern Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitareanu, G.; Ailincai, C.; Bucur, D.; Raus, L.; Filipov, F.; Cara, M.

    2009-01-01

    The mass of total carbon from Cambic Chernozem in the Moldavian Plain has recorded significant increases at higher than N 1 40 P 1 00 rates, in organo-mineral fertilization and in 4-year crop rotation, which included melioration plants of perennial grasses and legumes. In maize continuous cropping and wheat-maize rotation, very significant values of the carbon content were found only in the organo-mineral fertilization, in 4-year crop rotations + reserve field cultivated with perennial legumes and under N 1 40 P 1 00 fertilization. In comparison with 4-year crop rotations, in wheat-maize rotation with melioration plants (annual and perennial legumes and perennial grasses), the mean carbon content from soil has diminished from 18.6 to 16.4 C, g.Kg - 1 and the content in mobile phosphorus decreased from 51.6 to 36.8 P-Al, mg.kg - 1. The 40 year use of 3 and 4-year crop rotations has determined the increase in total carbon mass and mobile phosphorus from soil by 10% (1.7 C g-kg - 1) and 31%, respectively (11.8 P-Al mg.kg - 1), against maize continuous cropping. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US Eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  18. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on World Food Supply: Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Datasets from a Major Crop Modeling Study contain projected country and regional changes in grain crop yields due to global climate change. Equilibrium and transient...

  19. Yields of crops on a rhodic ferralsol in southern Brazil in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though no-tillage, crop rotation management systems have been accepted as useful for sustaining crop production, there is the need to identify which crops can be used for such rotations. This study evaluated the dry matter and grain yields of eight winter and two summer crops (maize, Zea mays L. and soybean, ...

  20. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  1. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  2. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  3. Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Skøt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clovers (genus Trifolium are a large and widespread genus of legumes. A number of clovers are of agricultural importance as forage crops in grassland agriculture, particularly temperate areas. White clover (Trifolium repens L. is used in grazed pasture and red clover (T. pratense L. is widely cut and conserved as a winter feed. For the diploid red clover, genetic and genomic tools and resources have developed rapidly over the last five years including genetic and physical maps, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence and transcriptome sequence information. This has paved the way for the use of genome wide selection and high throughput phenotyping in germplasm development. For the allotetraploid white clover progress has been slower although marker assisted selection is in use and relatively robust genetic maps and QTL (quantitative trait locus information now exist. For both species the sequencing of the model legume Medicago truncatula gene space is an important development to aid genomic, biological and evolutionary studies. The first genetic maps of another species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. have also been published and its comparative genomics with red clover and M. truncatula conducted. Next generation sequencing brings the potential to revolutionize clover genomics, but international consortia and effective use of germplasm, novel population structures and phenomics will be required to carry out effective translation into breeding. Another avenue for clover genomic and genetic improvement is interspecific hybridization. This approach has considerable potential with regard to crop improvement but also opens windows of opportunity for studies of biological and evolutionary processes.

  4. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  5. Vertical distribution of the root system of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. and legumes in pure and mixed sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Root competition for below-ground resources between edible plants may provide for long-term sustainability of agriculture systems. Intercropping can be more productive than a pure crop due to taking advantage of the morphological differences between species. In pure cropping, all biophysical interactions between plants occur through soil conditions. In intercropping, competition for water and nutrients is of major importance, but if the roots of one species occupy the zone just underneath the roots of the other crop, they can better use the resources of the root zone of the crop. The root system demonstrates a high degree of plasticity in its development in response to local heterogeneity of the soil profile and plant density. This study aimed at determining: (i the morphological characteristics of the root systems of linseed, pea and vetch depending on the method of sowing; (ii the root distribution in various soil types and at different soil profile depths (0–15 cm, 15–30 cm. Two three-year field experiments were conducted on two soil types in south Poland: soil A – Luvic Phaeozem (s1 and soil B – Eutric Cambisol (s2. These results show that linseed was more aggressive toward both legumes in mixture, but it produced lower yield compared to pure cropping. The environmental stress of plants in mixtures increased the relative weight of roots, which resulted in decreasing the root-shoot ratio (RSR.

  6. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  7. Populasi jamur mikoriza vesikular-arbuskular pada lahan bekas galian emas yang direklamasi dengan legum tumbuh cepat dikombinasikan dengan penutup tanah dan mikroba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available field work has been carried out to study the population of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM fungi on degraded gold mining land that was reclamated with fast growing legume (Enterolobium sp. and Acacia mangium trees in combination with cover crops (Centrosema pubescen dan Flemingia congesta and microbe (VAM fungi, Rhizobium sp. and mixed Rhizobium sp. and phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation. Reclamation with fast growing legumes in combination with cover crops and microbe inoculation on the degraded land increased the population of VAM fungi. After 1.5 years, the population of the fungi on the reclamated land increased from 3.4 (control to 6.1–80.5 spore/g soil. The highest spore population resulted by combination between Acacia mangium, C. pubescen, and VAM fungi (V2I1C1 plot followed by combination between Acacia mangium without cover crop, and VAM fungi inoculation (V2I1C0 plot and combination between Enterolobium sp. without cover crop and mixed Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculation (V1I3Co plot were 80.5, 56.0 and 51.8 respectively.

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, M E; Hinsinger, P; Harmand, J M

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N(2)-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N(2)-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ(15)N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. Copyright

  9. Economic efficiency of legume-cereal intercrops in conditions of organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic analysis of growing of legume-cereal intercropping in conditions of organic farming. Results of the analysis are based on data monitoring in chosen organic farms that grow LCI. In the paper there is also compared economic efficiency of LCI grown in organic and conventional farming system. Methodological solution results from costingness and earnings monitoring of LCI production in five chosen organic farms in the period 2007–2008.When evaluating costs existing in individual variants of LCI growing it is necessary to say that the selection of individual machines and machine aggregations represents the most important factor of influencing direct costs, namely with regard to the size of organic farms and to the area of individual field blocks. Under conditions of organic farms, the LCI production is also significantly influenced also by agrotechnical (tillage operations. As compared with conventional farms, the final yield of both green fodder and grain is lower by 14–38%. Total direct costs per hectare of harvested LCI acreage ranged in case of fodder production from 9.249 CZK to 11.620 CZK per hectare. In case of grain production, the corresponding costs ranged from 8.848 to 9.970 CZK per hectare. In case of LCI, the direct costs of organic farms per unit of production of both fodder and grain consist mainly of material costs, which represent 63–76% and 61–68% of total expenses associated with production of fodder and grain, respectively. These direct costs are influenced also by higher prices of inputs.

  10. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  11. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  12. Rhizobium promotes non-legumes growth and quality in several production steps: towards a biofertilization of edible raw vegetables healthy for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    Full Text Available The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization.

  13. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  14. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  15. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  16. Strategies For Sustainable Conservation And Use Of Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies For Sustainable Conservation And Use Of Legume Genetic Resources In Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Science ... Strategic development of conservation technologies in plant genetic resources (PGR) is the backbone for agricultural development, food security and sustainable livelihood, now and for the future.

  17. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  18. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  19. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, O P; Prasad, R; Subbiah, B V [Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi. Nuclear Research Lab.

    1977-09-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soybean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with /sup 32/P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soybean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding).

  20. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  1. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Abstract. Adoption studies on fodders legume technologies have shown that spread of the technology is ... A tobit model was used to analyse the data to get the magnitude of the effects of factors affecting .... level of education of the farmer, position of the farmer in the .... Assessing the early stages of adoption of fodder tree.

  2. Emergence of forage legume seedlings influenced by water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergence of forage legume seedlings influenced by water potential and soil strength. DMG Njarui, LM Bahnisch, B O'Hagan, B So. Abstract. No Abstract Available E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 2003 69(1), 29-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  3. smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Rhizobia inoculant, a product of Kenya, and its profitability in smallholder farms. Data were collected from ... of the inoculants use and gross margin analysis to examine profitability. The area under the .... the effects of various factors on the extent of. BIOFIX® use. ..... little information, resulting in reduced adoption of legume ...

  4. Effects of temporal changes in climate variables on crop production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    comprehensive study of the impacts of climate variability on some common classes of food crops. (tubers, grains ... erosion, incidents of pests and diseases, and sea level rise (Onyekwelu et .... calamities and human sufferings. The productivity ...

  5. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea. PMID:29444142

  6. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišić, Adnan; Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  7. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Šišić

    Full Text Available Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  8. Biomass supply from alternative cellulosic crops and crop residues: A spatially explicit bioeconomic modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, César R.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially-explicit bioeconomic model for the study of potential cellulosic biomass supply. For biomass crops to begin to replace current crops, farmers must earn more from them than from current crops. Using weather, topographic and soil data, the terrestrial ecosystem model, EPIC, dynamically simulates multiple cropping systems that vary by crop rotation, tillage, fertilization and residue removal rate. EPIC generates predicted crop yield and environmental outcomes over multiple watersheds. These EPIC results are used to parameterize a regional profit-maximization mathematical programming model that identifies profitable cropping system choices. The bioeconomic model is calibrated to 2007–09 crop production in a 9-county region of southwest Michigan. A simulation of biomass supply in response to rising biomass prices shows that cellulosic residues from corn stover and wheat straw begin to be supplied at minimum delivered biomass:corn grain price ratios of 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. At the mean corn price of $162.6/Mg ($4.13 per bushel) at commercial moisture content during 2007–2009, these ratios correspond to stover and straw prices of $24 and $29 per dry Mg. Perennial bioenergy crops begin to be supplied at price levels 2–3 times higher. Average biomass transport costs to the biorefinery plant range from $6 to $20/Mg compared to conventional crop production practices in the area, biomass supply from annual crop residues increased greenhouse gas emissions and reduced water quality through increased nutrient loss. By contrast, perennial cellulosic biomass crop production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved water quality. -- Highlights: ► A new bioeconomic model predicts biomass supply and its environmental impacts. ► The model captures the opportunity cost of switching to new cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from crop residues is supplied at lower biomass price than cellulosic crops. ► Biomass from cellulosic crops has

  9. Interrelationship among some yield characters and the productivity of mutants of three grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubaihayo, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of gamma-ray irradiation dosage and environmental conditions on yield component correlations was studied on food beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), white haricot beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soy beans (Glycine max L.). It was found that in general radiation dosage had no significant effects on these factors. Differences in the relationships in different generations were attributed to the environmental conditions under which the plants were grown during different generations. (author)

  10. Development of disease-resistant lines of grain legumes through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been attempted for developing genotypes that may contain resistance to: (a) a necrotic strain of common mosaic virus in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); (b) soil fungi causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.); (c) the fungus Uromyces fabae that causes rust in lentil (Lens culinaris). Seeds of these three species were treated with gamma rays and planted in October 1979. Mature M 1 plants were harvested individually in March 1980. M 2 seeds were sown as single-row plant progenies in the fall (June) and spring (September) of 1980. Chickpea and lentil were planted in a soil naturally infested with soil-borne fungi (Fusarium sp. and Phytophthora sp.). Lentil plants were sprayed with a suspension of spores of the rust fungus on two occasions. Bean plants were sprayed with a suspension of virus particles mixed with carborundum. Symptomless plants were selected and harvested. There were 47 such plants of lentils and 246 of chickpea. Progenies of these plants will be tested again in replicated rows. None of the bean plants was free of virus symptoms. The least severely damaged ones were harvested. Some chickpea materials appear fairly promising. (author)

  11. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... E.K. CHERUIYOT, L.M. MUMERA, L.N. NAKHONE1 and S.M. MWONGA1. Egerton University .... on a farmer's field at Mangu in Rongai (0" 10' S and 36" 01' E), both ..... Nairobi, Kenya. Onim, I.F.M., Mathuva, M., Otieno, K. and.

  12. Agriculture and crop science in China:Innovation and sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbi Xu; Jiayang Li; Jianmin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is a regularly held event allowing crop scientists to integrate current knowledge into a global context and international applications. The 7th ICSC was held on August 14–19, 2016 in Beijing, China, with the theme "Crop Science: Innovation and Sustainability". As a companion production for this great congress, the nine papers collected in this special issue feature important fields of crop science in China. This editorial first briefly introduces the 7th ICSC, followed by a brief discussion of the current status of, constraints to, and innovations in Chinese agriculture and crop science. Finally, the main scientific points of the papers published in this special issue are surveyed, covering important advances in hybrid rice breeding, minor cereals, food legumes, rapeseed, crop systems, crop management, cotton, genomics-based germplasm research, and QTL mapping. In a section describing future prospects, it is indicated that China faces a full transition from traditional to modern agriculture and crop science.

  13. Nitrogen deposition, competition and the decline of a regionally threatened legume, Desmodium cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Krissa A; Holsinger, Kent E; Cardon, Zoe G

    2011-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, production of synthetic fertilizers, growth of N(2)-fixing crops and high-intensity agriculture, is one of the anthropogenic factors most likely to cause global biodiversity changes over the next century. This influence may be especially large in temperate zone forests, which are highly N limited and occur in regions with the highest levels of N deposition. Within these ecosystems, N(2)-fixing plants, including legumes, may be more sensitive to N deposition than other plant species. Though it has long been recognized that the competitive edge conferred by N(2)-fixation diminishes with increasing soil N availability, the conservation implications of increased N deposition on native N(2)-fixers have received less attention. We focus on Desmodium cuspidatum, which has experienced dramatic population losses in the last 30-40 years in the northeastern United States. We explore competition between this regionally threatened legume and a common non-N(2)-fixing neighbor, Solidago canadensis, across a gradient of N deposition. Our data show that increased N deposition may be detrimental to N(2)-fixers such as D. cuspidatum in two ways: (1) biomass accumulation in the non-N(2)-fixer, S. canadensis, responds more strongly to increasing N deposition, and (2) S. canadensis competes strongly for available mineral nitrogen and can assimilate N previously fixed by D. cuspidatum, resulting in D. cuspidatum relying more heavily on energetically expensive N(2)-fixation when grown with S. canadensis. N deposition may thus reduce or eliminate the competitive advantage of N(2)-fixing species growing in N-limited ecosystems.

  14. Dissection of genetic architecture of grain chalk using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk is a major quality characteristic that causes grain breakage during milling and loss of crop value. In this study, we sought to elucidate the quantitatively inherited grain chalk trait in rice and to conduct genome-wide association mapping to identify SNPs and candidate genes associated with ...

  15. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1989-01-01

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  16. Influence of cover crops on citrus crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi development in the Colombian piedmont Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Javier Monroy L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with grassand legume cover crops established on Oxisol soils in the Colombian piedmont (Meta were identified morphologically and the ability to colonize was evaluated. The experimental area consisted of cover crops Arachispintoi (CIAT 18744, Brachiaria brizantha cv. Toledo, B. dictyoneura cv. Llanero, Desmodium ovalifolium c v. Maquenque, Panicum maximum (CIAT 36000, Paspalumnotatum, and a chemical control (Glyphosate and mechanical control established in the rows in a Valencia orange grove. The experiment followed a complete randomized block design (8 cover crops and three replications, evaluated during the wet and dry seasons. Rhizosphere soil and grass and legumes roots were sampled in order to identified AMF and quantify the number of spores and the percentage of colonization. A total of 26 species were identified, including Acaulosporascrobiculata, A. morrowiae and, Scutellospora heterogama, which accounted for over 65% of the population. Thepercentage of root colonization ranged between 47% and 94% with spore counts between 63 and 300/100 g of dry soil. Cover crops with the highest colonization percentage and AMF diversity were B. brizantha, B. dictyoneura and P. notatumin their respective order. Glyphosate and mechanical control had a negative influence on the sporulation and colonization of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root system

  17. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, S.; Huang, B.; Bembenek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation sin...

  18. Evaluation of certain crop residues for carbohydrate and protein fractions by cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarulu Swarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four locally available crop residues viz., jowar stover (JS, maize stover (MS, red gram straw (RGS and black gram straw (BGS were evaluated for carbohydrate and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein (CNCP system. Lignin (% NDF was higher in legume straws as compared to cereal stovers while Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC (% DM followed the reverse trend. The carbohydrate fractions A and B1 were higher in BGS while B2 was higher in MS as compared to other crop residues. The unavailable cell wall fraction (C was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers. Among protein fractions, B1 was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers while B2 was higher in cereal stovers as compared to legume straws. Fraction B3 largely, bypass protein was highest in MS as compared to other crop residues. Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP (% CP or unavailable protein fraction C was lowest in MS and highest in BGS. It is concluded that MS is superior in nutritional value for feeding ruminants as compared to other crop residues.

  19. Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch (Vicia villo...

  20. The disinfestation of grains and stored products through ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.

    1975-12-01

    Disinfestation of stored products and grains through ionizing radiation is reviewed. A promising technique, the one of irradiation to achieve sterilization and increasing mortality of stored grain insects, which are commonly destructive to the main crops in Brazil is explained. Methodology to determine the sterilizing dose and lethality; the wholesomeness of irradiated grains and searches realized in Brazil with Sitophilus, Sototroga, Zabrotes and Acanthocelides are also presented

  1. Achievements in research on vavilovia (Vavilovia formosa (Stev. Fed., a legume crop wild relative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vavilovia (Vavilovia formosa (Stev. Fed. belongs to the tribe Fabeae along with peas, vetchlings, vetches and lentils. It prefers high mountain areas in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Russia, Syria and Turkey. A true success in the ex situ conservation has recently been achieved, within the display plot Flora and Vegetation of Armenia in the Yerevan Botanic Garden. The hybridization between vavilovia and other Fabeae was done in the N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry with F1 seeds and F1 plants that did not produce the next generation. The recent molecular research showed that vavilovia belongs to a Lathyrus-Pisum-Vavilovia clade with a clearly distinct status.

  2. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  3. Consorciação de plantas de cobertura antecedendo o milho em plantio direto: II - Nitrogênio acumulado pelo milho e produtividade de grãos Cover crop mixtures preceding no-till corn: II - Nitrogen accumulation by corn and grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Giacomini

    2004-08-01

    possível atingir uma produtividade de grãos de milho equivalente àquela da ervilhaca solteira e a 70 % daquela obtida com o uso de 180 kg ha-1 de N-uréia no pousio.No-tillage has been increasingly adopted by farmers in South Brazil and it has increased the interest for the mixtures of cover crops in the autumn/winter as source of nitrogen to the corn in succession. A field experiment was carried out on a typic Hapludalf at the experimental area of the Soil Science Department, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1998/99 and 1999/00 to evaluate the effect of single crop and mixtures of black oat (BO (Avena strigosa Schieb, common vetch (CV (Vicia sativa L. and oilseed radish (OR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg. on N accumulation and grain yield by corn. The experiment was set in a complete randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were: 100 % BO (80 kg ha-1 of seeds, 100 % CV (80 kg ha-1, 100 % OR (14 kg ha-1, 15 % BO + 85 % CV, 30 % BO + 70 % CV, 45 % BO + 55 % CV, 15 % BO + 85 % OR and 30 % BO + 70 % OR. Two additional plots under winter fallow were also used for comparison. Other control treatments were corn cultivated without N fertilizer in one plot and fertilized with 180 kg ha-1 of N-urea in another one. Corn grain yield, dry matter and total N concentration in corn biomass was evaluated at different crop stages. The amount of N accumulated by corn and the grain yield in succession of oat + vetch mixtures were not different from the single vetch, and were proportional to the N amount in the vetch biomass of the crop mixtures. Vetch and oilseed radish as single crop or in mixtures with black oat provided a higher corn grain yield than after fallow and single oat. Results of this study indicated that oat + vetch mixtures, up to a maximum proportion of 30 % of oat, attained a productivity of corn grain equivalent to the single vetch and 70 % of that obtained with the use of 180 kg ha-1

  4. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  5. Weed infestation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. depending on the cover crop and weed control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this 3-year field study was to evaluate the effect of some stubble crops and weed control methods on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds in a spring barley crop grown in short-term monoculture. The study was conducted in the period 2009–2011 at the Uhrusk Experimental Farm, on mixed rendzina soil classified as very good rye soil complex. It included stubble crops which were ploughed under in each year (control treatment without cover crop, white mustard, lacy phacelia, a mixture of legumes – narrow-leaf lupin + field pea and 3 weed control methods used in spring barley crops (mechanical, mechanical and chemical, chemical weed control. Veronica persica was the weed species that occurred in greatest numbers in the spring barley crop sown after stubble crops. All cover crops reduced the numbers of Avena fatua which was the dominant species in the control treatment. Chemical as well as chemical and mechanical weed control significantly reduced the numbers of Avena fatua compared to the treatment where only double harrowing was used for weed control. The stubble crops did not reduce weed infestation of spring barley. Compared to the control treatment, the ploughing-in of white mustard and the mixture of legumes reduced the dry weight of weeds by 49.1 and 22.7%, respectively. Mechanical weed management proved to be less effective in reducing the number and dry weight of weeds compared to the other weed control methods. A significant negative correlation was found between the dry weight of weeds in the spring barley crop and the dry weight of the ploughed-in white mustard cover crop under the conditions of chemical weed control as well as in the case of the mixture of legumes when complete mechanical and chemical weed control was used.

  6. Interaction between Orobanche crenata and its host legumes: unsuccessful haustorial penetration and necrosis of the developing parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-DE-Luque, A; Rubiales, D; Cubero, J I; Press, M C; Scholes, J; Yoneyama, K; Takeuchi, Y; Plakhine, D; Joel, D M

    2005-05-01

    Orobanche species represent major constraints to crop production in many parts of the world as they reduce yield and alter root/shoot allometry. Although much is known about the histology and effect of Orobanche spp. on susceptible hosts, less is known about the basis of host resistance to these parasites. In this work, histological aspects related to the resistance of some legumes to Orobanche crenata have been investigated in order to determine which types of resistance responses are involved in the unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata. Samples of resistance reactions against O. crenata on different genotypes of resistant legumes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. Sections were observed using a transmission light microscope and by epi-fluorescence. Lignification of endodermal and pericycle host cells seems to prevent parasite intrusion into the root vascular cylinder at early infection stages. But in other cases, established tubercles became necrotic and died. Contrary to some previous studies, it was found that darkening at the infection site in these latter cases does not correspond to death of host tissues, but to the secretion of substances that fill the apoplast in the host-parasite interface and in much of the infected host tissues. The secretions block neighbouring host vessels. This may interfere with the nutrient flux between host and parasite, and may lead to necrosis and death of the developing parasite. The unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata seedlings into legume roots cannot be attributed to cell death in the host. It seems to be associated with lignification of host endodermis and pericycle cells at the penetration site. The accumulation of secretions at the infection site, may lead to the activation of xylem occlusion, another defence mechanism, which may cause further necrosis of established tubercles.

  7. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  8. Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 ...

  9. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  10. Desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora no estabelecimento e na produtividade da cultura do milho sob plantio direto Performance of a sowing-fertilizer machine for corn crop establishment and grain yield under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo da Silva

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Na semeadura mecanizada diversos fatores interferem no estabelecimento do estande de plantas e, com freqüência, na produtividade da cultura, destacando entre eles a velocidade de operação da máquina no campo e a profundidade de deposição do adubo no solo. Neste estudo avaliou-se o estabelecimento da cultura do milho, através de uma semeadora-adubadora provida de um dosador de sementes de disco horizontal perfurado e de quatro linhas de semeadura. A máquina foi operada em quatro velocidades de deslocamento (3, 6, 9 e 11,2 km/h e em duas profundidades de adubação (5 e 10 cm, num Latossolo Roxo eutrófico com plantio direto há 12 anos. O número de plantas de milho na linha de semeadura foi menor nas maiores velocidades de operação da máquina. As sementes de milho que passaram pelo dosador de disco horizontal, não foram sensivelmente danificadas nas velocidades de semeadura mais elevadas. A uniformidade dos espaçamentos entre as sementes de milho na linha de semeadura foi considerada excelente para velocidade de 3 km/h, regular para 6 e 9 km/h e insatisfatória para 11,2 km/h. As velocidades da semeadora-adubadora de até 6 km/h e a adubação realizada a 10 cm de profundidade propiciaram maiores estandes de plantas e número de espigas por metro e foram responsáveis pelos maiores rendimentos de grãos.In mechanized planting, several factors such as machine operation velocity in the field and depth of fertilizer deposition in the soil interfere in the plant stand establishment and crop yield. In this study, corn crop establishment was evaluated using a sowing-fertilizer machine, provided with a perforated horizontal disc device for seed dosage and containing four planting units. The machine was operated using four displacement velocities (3, 6, 9 and 11.2 km/h and two fertilization depths (5 and 10 cm, on an eutrophic Red Latosol, previously under no-tillage for 12 years. Corn seeding density in the sowing line was affected by the

  11. Performance evaluation of selected crop yield-water use models for wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Igbadun

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield-water use models that provide useful information about the exact form of crop response to different amounts of water used by the crop throughout its growth stages and those that provide adequate information for decisions on optimal use of water in the farm were evaluated. Three crop yield models: Jensen (1968, Minhas et al., (1974 and Bras and Cordova (1981 additive type models were studied. Wheat (Triticum aestivum was planted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Farm during the 1995/96 and 1996/97 irrigation seasons of November to March. The data collected from the field experiments during the 1995/96 planting season were used to calibrate the models and their stress sensitivity factors estimated for four selected growth stages of the wheat crop. The ability of the model to predict grain yield of wheat with the estimated stress sensitivity factors was evaluated by comparing predicted grain yields by each model with those obtained in the field during the 1996/97 season. The three models performed fairly well in predicting grain yields, as the predicted results were not significantly different from the field measured grain yield at 5% level of significance.

  12. Handbook of plant cell culture. Volume 2. Crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.R.; Evans, D.A.; Ammirato, P.V.; Yamada, Y. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    In this volume the state-of-the-art plant cell culture techniques described in the first volume are applied to several agricultural and horticultural crops. In 21 chapters, they include maize, oats, wheat, beans, red clover and other forage legumes, asparagus, celery, cassava, sweet potato, banana, pawpaw, apple, grapes, conifers, date palm, rubber, sugarcane and tobacco. Each chapter contains (1) detailed protocols to serve as the foundation for current research, (2) a critical review of the literature, and (3) in-depth evaluations of the potential shown by plant cell culture for crop improvement. The history and economic importance of each crop are discussed. This volume also includes an essay, ''Oil from plants'', by M. Calvin.

  13. Mutation breeding in crop improvement - achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkwal, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Crop improvement programmes through induced mutations were initiated about seven decades ago. Majority of the mutant varieties have been released during the last two decades. In terms of the development and release of mutant varieties, China (605), India (309), Russia (204), the Netherlands (176), USA (125) and Japan (120) are the leading countries. Radiation, especially gamma radiation was the most frequently used mutagen for inducing mutations in crop plants. Out of 1072 mutant varieties of cereals, rice alone accounts for 434 varieties followed by barley (269). Mutation breeding has made significant contribution in increasing the production of rice, ground nut, castor, chickpea, mungbean and urd bean in the Indian subcontinent. The future mutation breeding programmes should be aimed at improving the root characters, nodulation in legumes, alteration of fatty acid composition in oil seeds, host pathogen interactions, photo- insensitivity and apomixix in crop plants

  14. Endophytic and epiphytic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules of legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, N.; Khanafer, M.; Radwan, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    During their withdrawal from Kuwait in 1991, the Iraqi forces damaged and set fire to approximately 700 oil wells. Oil gushed from the wells for a period of 7 months, resulting in oil lakes which covered about 50 square km of the Kuwaiti desert and posing an environmental problem. Most of the crude oil has been pumped out, leaving the lake bottoms polluted with oil to depths reaching 20 to 25 cm. The oily areas have been mediated through indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms, but recovery is slow. Rhizospheres of crop plants, including legumes, are rich in oil-utilizing bacteria. Cultivation of broad beans in oily desert samples has enhanced oil biodegradation. This paper discussed the evidence that rhizobium strains inside the nodules on roots of broad beans are active in hydrocarbon utilization, and that the nodules are also colonized on their entire surfaces with oil-utilizing bacteria. Nodule-associated hydrocarbon utilizers appear to contribute together with rhizospheric hydrocarbon utilizers to the phytoremediation of oily soil. Broad beans were removed from soil and their root surfaces were sterilized to eliminate rhizospheric microorganisms. Plants with intact nodules were tested for their potential of attenuating to crude oil in water. Plants were divided into 2 groups: control plants in which all nodules were removed; and experimental plants which were used directly without further treatment. To isolate rhizobium from inside the nodules, fresh nodules were washed, sterilized and homogenized in sterile water. Bacterial strains were tested for their hydrocarbon utilization potential by streaking cell suspensions on the surface of sterile inorganic mediums containing 1 per cent of crude oil or of individual pure aliphatic and aromatic test hydrocarbons. All bacterial isolates were tested for growth on a solid Ashbery's nitrogen free medium. Results indicated that hydrocarbons were more efficiently eliminated from water supporting disinfected

  15. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  16. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  18. Potential rapd markers for population studies in tree legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.M.; Ramasubramanian, T.; Mohankumar, S.

    2011-01-01

    RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method. (author)

  19. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  1. Identification and characterization of a novel legume-like lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A legume-type lectin (L-lectin) gene of the red algae Gracilaria fisheri (GFL) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of GFL was 1714 bp and contained a 1542 bp open reading frame encoding 513 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 56.5 kDa. Analysis of the putative ...

  2. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  3. Comparative metabolomics of drought acclimation in model and forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego H; Schwabe, Franziska; Erban, Alexander; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Water limitation has become a major concern for agriculture. Such constraints reinforce the urgent need to understand mechanisms by which plants cope with water deprivation. We used a non-targeted metabolomic approach to explore plastic systems responses to non-lethal drought in model and forage legume species of the Lotus genus. In the model legume Lotus. japonicus, increased water stress caused gradual increases of most of the soluble small molecules profiled, reflecting a global and progressive reprogramming of metabolic pathways. The comparative metabolomic approach between Lotus species revealed conserved and unique metabolic responses to drought stress. Importantly, only few drought-responsive metabolites were conserved among all species. Thus we highlight a potential impediment to translational approaches that aim to engineer traits linked to the accumulation of compatible solutes. Finally, a broad comparison of the metabolic changes elicited by drought and salt acclimation revealed partial conservation of these metabolic stress responses within each of the Lotus species, but only few salt- and drought-responsive metabolites were shared between all. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the current insights into legume water stress physiology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Tropical forage legumes for environmental benefits: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schultze-Kraft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock production in the tropics, particularly when based on pastures, is frequently blamed for being detrimental to the environment, allegedly contributing to: (1 degradation and destruction of ecosystems, including degradation and loss of soil, water and biodiversity; and (2 climate change (global warming. In this paper we argue that, rather than being detrimental, tropical forage legumes can have a positive impact on the environment, mainly due to key attributes that characterize the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family: (1 symbiotic nitrogen fixation; (2 high nutritive value; (3 deep-reaching tap-root system; (4 wide taxonomic and genetic diversity; and (5 presence of particular secondary metabolites. Although there are also potential negative aspects, such as soil acidification and the risks of introduced legumes becoming invasive weeds, we submit that legumes have potential to contribute significantly to sustainable intensification of livestock production in the tropics, along with the provision of ecosystem services. To further assess, document and realize this potential, research for development needs in a range of areas are indicated.

  5. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  6. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  7. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the importance of corn in supplying the human food directly and indirectly, it is one of the most important plants among crops. One of the major problems in corn production systems, is competition with weeds that reduce corn yield significantly. Weeds not only reduce crop yields but also decrease the commercial quality and the feeding palatability of main crops. They enhance the soil seed bank of weeds, which may cause continuous weed infestation of field crops as well. Herbicide application is a reliable and highly effective method for weed control. However, demand for safe food products that have been produced with a minimum application of chemical inputs is increasing. Therefore, farmers interested in weed management have to rely on other control approaches. An alternative weed control method is the use of cover crops, which can suppress the growth of weeds by preventing them from light and by producing allelopathic compounds. Cover crops successfully have been integrated into conservational agriculture systems in many areas of the world. Legumes are used as cover crop because of their rapid growth, in addition their potential to provide further nitrogen,along with high ability to compete with weeds. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of cover crops (soybean and wheat and different fertilizers sources on yield of corn and weed control, a filed experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments included two cover crop (wheat and soybean and three fertilizer (no fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost..Fertilizer treatments was used according to soil analysis and requirement of corn (as a main plant. Weed-infestation and weed-free plots were used as controls. Study cultivars of corn, wheat and soybean were NS-640, Milan and Sari, respectively. Planting of corn was in June and cover crop was planted with corn simultaneously and between corn rows

  8. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  9. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  10. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  11. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  12. Spatial resolution of precipitation and radiation: the effect on regional crop yield forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.J.W.; Boogaard, H.L.; Diepen, van C.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of uncertainty in precipitation and radiation on crop simulation results at local (50 × 50 km grids) and regional scale (NUTS1 regions) and on the crop yield forecasts for Germany and France. Two experiments were carried out where crop yields for winter-wheat and grain

  13. Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottorff, Marti; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Fatokun, Christian; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2012-06-12

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54 cM to 67.54 cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96 cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes.

  14. Plant mutation breeding for crop improvement. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the final two sessions of the FAO/IAEA Symposium on Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement, focussing on mutation breeding with particular objectives and the methodology of mutation breeding. The individual contributions are indexed separately. Although a wide variety of topics is included, the emphasis is on the use of (mainly gamma) radiation to induce economically useful mutants in cereals and legumes. The results of many conventional plant breeding programs are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Preliminary report on the development of some indices of relative nutritive value (RNV) of cereal and legume samples, applicable in the early generations of selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.K.; Niemann, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid screening methods for biuret nitrogen determination and fluorometric lysine estimation are described. While the biuret method has been found to be suitable for early generation screening for peptide nitrogen determination, fluorescence estimation of dansylated grain meal could be taken as a good index of available lysine in cereal and legume samples. The necessity of rapid and inexpensive tests for the determination of Relative Nutritive Value (RNV) in the advance generations of screening, is discussed. Preliminary data available on two such tests, utilizing protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W. and flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval, indicated promise. Both techniques were tried on different cereal and legume samples. The relative lethality of beetle larvae and their nitrogen retention were taken as indices of RNV in legumes. Larval Nitrogen Retention Index (LNRI) of cereal samples was found to be dependent both on nitrogen content and on protein quality. It was concluded that both these organisms need to be further investigated for their potential as test animals for RNV determination in the advance segregating populations. (author)

  16. Radiation interception and the accumulation of biomass and nitrogen by soybean and three tropical annual forage legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengelly, B.C.; Blamey, F.P.C.; Muchow, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Gatton and Dalby in southeastern Queensland to determine parameters associated with radiation interception and biomass and nitrogen (N) accumulation for the ley legume species, phasey bean (Macroptilum lathyroides (L.) Urban) and vigna, (Vigna trilobata (L.) Verdc.). Sesbania (Sesbania cannabina Retz.), a native legume species, and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)) were included in the study for comparison. The most important differences between species related to differences in radiation interception, radiation-use efficiency (RUE), N-accumulation efficiency and the partitioning of N to plant parts. During early growth, soybean intercepted more radiation than the other species, primarily because of its greater leaf area index (LAI). Sesbania had the highest RUE (1.08 g MJ −1 ) followed by phasey bean (0.94 g MJ −1 ), soybean (0.89 g MJ −1 ) and vigna (0.77 g MJ −1 ). The efficiency of N-accumulation was greater in soybean (0.028 g N g −1 ) and phasey bean (0.030 g N g −1 ) than in vigna (0.022 g N g −1 ) and sesbania (0.021 g N g −1 ). In all species, the proportion of N allocated to leaves declined throughout the experimental period, being more rapid in soybean than in sesbania and phasey bean. Despite this decline in total N partitioned to the leaves, both soybean and phasey bean maintained a relatively stable specific leaf nitrogen (SPLN) throughout the experimental periods although sesbania and vigna displayed rapid decreases in SPLN. The large variation between species in RUE and N-accumulation efficiency indicates that the development of ley legume cultivars with a combination of traits for more efficient legume production, water use and soil N-accumulation in the water-limited environments of the grain belt of eastern Australia may be possible. The sensitivity of forage production, water use and soil N-accumulation to variation in RUE and N-accumulation efficiency needs to be quantified using modeling

  17. The Crop Journal: A new scientific journal for the global crop science community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As global population increases and demands for food supplies become greater, we face great challenges in providing more products and in larger quantities from less arable land. Crop science has gained increasing importance in meeting these challenges and results of scientific research must be communicated worldwide on a regular basis. In many countries, however, crop scientists have to publish the results of their investigations in national journals with heterogeneous contents and in their native languages. As a consequence, valuable work often remains unknown to scientists elsewhere. As a big country with a large number of crop scientists, China has a wide range of climatic and ecological environments, diverse plant species and cropping systems, and different regional needs for food supplies, which justify the recent decision by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science within the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, to launch a new communication channel, The Crop Journal. The goal of The Crop Journal is to meet an urgent need for a major Asia-based journal that covers the diverse fields of crop science. Our aim is to create a vital and thought-provoking journal that will highlight state-of-the-art original work and reviews by high-profile crop scientists and investigative groups throughout the world — a journal that will respond to the needs of specialists in strategic crop research. We will work with scientific and publishing colleagues worldwide, using The Plant Journal and Crop Science as models, to establish The Crop Journal as a broadly based high quality journal and a premier forum for issues in crop science. The Crop Journal will cover a wide range of topics, including crop genetics, breeding, agronomy, crop physiology, germplasm resources, grain chemistry, grain storage and processing, crop management practices, crop biotechnology, and biomathematics. The journal also encourages the submission of review

  18. Burkholderia sp. induces functional nodules on the South African invasive legume Dipogon lignosus (Phaseoleae) in New Zealand soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy Y Y; Ridgway, Hayley J; James, Trevor K; James, Euan K; Chen, Wen-Ming; Sprent, Janet I; Young, J Peter W; Andrews, Mitchell

    2014-10-01

    The South African invasive legume Dipogon lignosus (Phaseoleae) produces nodules with both determinate and indeterminate characteristics in New Zealand (NZ) soils. Ten bacterial isolates produced functional nodules on D. lignosus. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences identified one isolate as Bradyrhizobium sp., one isolate as Rhizobium sp. and eight isolates as Burkholderia sp. The Bradyrhizobium sp. and Rhizobium sp. 16S rRNA sequences were identical to those of strains previously isolated from crop plants and may have originated from inocula used on crops. Both 16S rRNA and DNA recombinase A (recA) gene sequences placed the eight Burkholderia isolates separate from previously described Burkholderia rhizobial species. However, the isolates showed a very close relationship to Burkholderia rhizobial strains isolated from South African plants with respect to their nitrogenase iron protein (nifH), N-acyltransferase nodulation protein A (nodA) and N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase nodulation protein C (nodC) gene sequences. Gene sequences and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) banding patterns indicated that the eight Burkholderia isolates separated into five clones of one strain and three of another. One strain was tested and shown to produce functional nodules on a range of South African plants previously reported to be nodulated by Burkholderia tuberum STM678(T) which was isolated from the Cape Region. Thus, evidence is strong that the Burkholderia strains isolated here originated in South Africa and were somehow transported with the plants from their native habitat to NZ. It is possible that the strains are of a new species capable of nodulating legumes.

  19. CADUB GHF: um programa computacional para cálculo da quantidade de fertilizantes e corretivos da acidez do solo para culturas produtoras de grãos, hortaliças e forrageiras CADUB GHF: a computer program to calculate fertilizer and lime needs for grain crops, horticulture and forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ivonir Gubiani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A recomendação da adubação e calagem dos cultivos no Rio Grande do Sul e em Santa Catarina é baseada em dados oficiais da pesquisa, sendo apoiada em resultados de análise de solo, histórico de manejo e na experiência técnica. Alguns softwares têm sido desenvolvidos como ferramenta de auxílio aos técnicos, porém, a recente modificação nas recomendações demanda construção de novos programas computacionais. Esse trabalho descreve um programa computacional que tem como objetivo fazer a recomendação, na forma digital, de fertilizantes e corretivos da acidez do solo a partir de informações contidas no Manual de Adubação e Calagem da CQFS, para as culturas produtoras de grãos, hortaliças e forrageiras. O programa foi desenvolvido em software Microsoft Excel®, apresentando interface principal em Visual Basic for Applications (VBA, e está disponível para download em http://coralx.ufsm.br/solos/cadub2.php. O CADUB GHF fornece as necessidades de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio (NPK para a adubação de base e cobertura e a necessidade de calcário para as culturas produtoras de grãos, hortaliças e forrageiras. O CADUB GHF gera um laudo contendo os dados fornecidos e calculados, apresentando-o em forma de arquivo com extensão "xls", que pode ser impresso e/ou salvo.The fertilizers and lime recommendation for Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states is based o