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Sample records for gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity

  1. The neuropeptide Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modifies the spontaneous muscular contraction in the earthworm: Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Quintanar, J; Gutiérrez-García, Karina; Castillo-Hernández, Luis

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone affects the spontaneous muscular contraction in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. In addition, we investigated the presence of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in ventral nerve cord by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone induced a significant increase on both amplitude and muscular tone and decrease in the frequency of spontaneous muscular contraction. We found the presence of immunoreactive material to Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the ventral nerve cord, likewise the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA expression. In conclusion, the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modifies the spontaneous muscular contraction in E. foetida and these effects can be due to the activation of the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

  2. Photoperiod-independent changes in immunoreactive brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a free-living, tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ignacio T; Bentley, George E; Wotus, Cheryl; Wingfield, John C

    2006-01-01

    Timing of seasonal reproduction in high latitude vertebrates is generally regulated by photoperiodic cues. Increasing day length in the spring is associated with changes in the brain that are responsible for mediating reproductive activities. A primary example of this is the increased content of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus in birds as they enter the spring breeding season. Increased GnRH activity stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary. These gonadotropins induce growth of the gonads and release of sex steroids which act on the brain to mediate reproductive behaviors. By contrast, seasonal breeding in the tropics can occur in the absence of significant changes in photoperiod. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated whether seasonal breeding in free-living tropical vertebrates is associated with seasonal changes in the GnRH system. We studied two populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) at the equator, separated by only 25 km, but with asynchronous reproductive phenologies associated with local climate and independent of photoperiodic cues. We collected brains and measured GnRH immunoreactivity (GnRH-ir) during each population's breeding and non-breeding periods. Breeding males had larger, but not more, GnRH-ir cells than non-breeding birds. The plasticity of the GnRH system was associated with local climate, such that the two populations exhibited asynchronous changes in GnRH-ir despite experiencing identical photoperiod conditions. Our results demonstrate that tropical birds can exhibit neural changes similar to those exhibited in higher latitude birds. However, these tropical populations appear to be using supplementary cues (e.g., rainfall, temperature, food availability) in a similar way to higher latitude species using an initial predictive cue (photoperiod). These results raise questions about the evolution of

  3. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  4. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor are expressed at tubal ectopic pregnancy implantation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Klausen, Christian; Campbell, Lisa; Leung, Peter C K; Horne, Andrew W; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) are expressed at tubal ectopic pregnancy sites, and to study the potential role of GnRH signaling in regulating immortalized human trophoblast cell viability. Immunohistochemical and experimental studies. Academic research laboratory. Fallopian tube implantation sites (n = 25) were collected from women with ectopic pregnancy. First-trimester human placenta biopsies (n = 5) were obtained from elective terminations of pregnancy. None. GnRH and GnRHR expression was examined by means of immunohistochemistry and histoscoring. Trophoblastic BeWo choriocarcinoma and immortalized extravillous trophoblast (HTR-8/SVneo) cell viability was examined by means of cell counting after incubation with GnRH and/or GnRH antagonist (Antide). GnRH and GnRHR immunoreactivity was detected in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous trophoblast in all women with tubal pregnancy. GnRH immunoreactivity was higher and GnRHR immunoreactivity lower in syncytiotrophoblast compared with cytotrophoblast. GnRH and GnRHR immunoreactivity was detected in adjacent fallopian tube epithelium. Whereas neither GnRH nor Antide altered HTR-8/SVneo cell viability, treatment with GnRH significantly increased the overall cell viability of BeWo cells at 48 and 72 hours, and these effects were abolished by pretreatment with Antide. GnRH and GnRHR are expressed in trophoblast cell populations and fallopian tube epithelium at tubal ectopic pregnancy sites. GnRH increases BeWo cell viability, an effect mediated by the GnRHR. Further work is required to investigate the potential role of GnRH signaling in ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  7. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol.......To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  8. Mathematical modeling of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Amitesh; Garner, Kathryn L; Voliotis, Margaritis; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; McArdle, Craig A

    2017-07-05

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) acts via G-protein coupled receptors on pituitary gonadotropes to control reproduction. These are G q -coupled receptors that mediate acute effects of GnRH on the exocytotic secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as the chronic regulation of their synthesis. GnRH is secreted in short pulses and GnRH effects on its target cells are dependent upon the dynamics of these pulses. Here we overview GnRH receptors and their signaling network, placing emphasis on pulsatile signaling, and how mechanistic mathematical models and an information theoretic approach have helped further this field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone systems in the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive processes are mainly regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG-axis). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons localized in the brain release their hormone GnRH, which allows the release of gonadotropic hormone by gonadotropic cells in the pituitary. Gonadotropic

  10. Effect of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cGnRH-II) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally the third experiment was carried out to compare the effectiveness of cGnRH-II against leutinising hormone releasing-hormone analogue (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) in inducing maturation and ovulation. Plasma steroid levels (17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone) were ...

  11. Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Eugster, Erica A; Rogol, Alan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs revolutionized the treatment of central precocious puberty. However, questions remain regarding their optimal use in central precocious puberty and other conditions. The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society......, an equal male/female ratio, and a balanced spectrum of professional seniority and expertise. EVIDENCE: Preference was given to articles written in English with long-term outcome data. The US Public Health grading system was used to grade evidence and rate the strength of conclusions. When evidence...... precocious puberty. Other key areas, such as the psychosocial effects of central precocious puberty and their alteration by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, need additional study. Few controlled prospective studies have been performed with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children, and many...

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in mulberry cells of Saccoglossus and Ptychodera (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C B; Mackie, G O; Powell, J F; Lescheid, D W; Sherwood, N M

    1999-04-01

    Mulberry cells are epidermal gland cells bearing a long basal process resembling a neurite and are tentatively regarded as neurosecretory cells. They occur scattered through the ectoderm of the proboscis, collar, and anterior trunk regions of the acorn worms Saccoglossus, usually in association with concentrations of nervous tissue. They contain secretion granules that appear from electron micrographs to be released to the exterior. The granules are immunoreactive with antisera raised against mammalian and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Similar results were obtained with another enteropneust, Ptychodera bahamensis, using antisera raised against tunicate-1 and mammalian GnRH. Mulberry cells were not found in either Cephalodiscus or Rhabdopleura (Hemichordata: Pterobranchia). Extracts of tissues from 4200 Saccoglossus contain an area of immunoreactive GnRH that is detected by an antiserum raised against lamprey GnRH when characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. This is the first report of the occurrence of GnRH in hemichordates, probably the most primitive group clearly belonging to the chordate lineage. The physiological function of GnRH in enteropneusts is unknown, but an exocrine function appears more likely than an endocrine or neurotransmitter role. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration on the induction of multiple births in synchronized Afshari ewes. 16 cycling, multiparous fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes, weighing 66.5 ± 2.5 kg, were used in the trail. Estrus was synchronized using controlled ...

  14. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration on the induction of multiple births in synchronized Afshari ewes. 16 cycling, multiparous fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes, weighing 66.5 ± 2.5 kg, were used in the trail. Estrus was synchronized.

  15. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  16. Ontogenesis of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons: A Model for Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Erica L.; Corella, Kristina M.; Chung, Wilson C. J.

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis is the anatomical framework responsible for reproductive competence and species propagation. Essential to the coordinated actions of this three-tiered biological system is the fact that the regulatory inputs ultimately converge on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system, which in rodents primarily resides in the preoptic/hypothalamic region. In this short review we will focus on: (1) the general embryonic temporal and spatial...

  17. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in oocyte donors co-treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuong, T. N. L.; Ho, M. T.; Ha, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    -35 years, body mass index [BMI] hormone level >1.25 ng/mL, and antral follicle count >= 6). Intervention(s): Ovulation trigger with 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg triptorelin in a GnRH antagonist cycle. Main Outcome Measure(s): The primary end point was number of metaphase II oocytes...... to number of metaphase II oocytes (16.0 +/- 8.5, 15.9 +/- 7.8, and 14.7 +/- 8.4, respectively), embryos (13.2 +/- 7.8, 11.7 +/- 6.9, 11.8 +/- 7.0), and number of top-quality embryos (3.8 +/- 2.9, 3.6 +/- 3.0, 4.1 +/- 3.0). Luteinizing hormone levels at 24 hours and 36 hours after trigger was significantly...

  18. Optimizing subcutaneous injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist degarelix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jack; Burton, Shelley; Lambert, Carole

    2016-02-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist degarelix has several unique characteristics compared to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs used in the management of prostate cancer. Notable differences of GnRH receptor antagonists include no flare reaction, and a more rapid suppression of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) compared to LHRH analogs. Despite emerging evidence supporting the use of GnRH receptor antagonists over the more widely used LHRH analogs in the management of prostate cancer, physicians may be reluctant to prescribe degarelix. They may be concerned about patient complaints about injection-site reactions (ISRs). The subcutaneous injection of degarelix has been associated with a higher rate of ISRs compared with the intramuscular injections of LHRH analogs. This "How I Do It" article describes techniques and strategies that have been developed by physicians and nurses to reduce the discomfort associated with the subcutaneous delivery of degarelix.

  19. Morphometric and electron-microscopic analyses of the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on uterine leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalir, T; Goldstein, M; Dottino, P; Brodman, M; Gordon, R; Deligdisch, L; Wu, H; Gil, J

    1998-05-01

    Reports on the histologic effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on uterine leiomyomas provide conflicting results. Most previous studies used qualitative methods of analysis. Using quantitative and semiquantitative stereologic methods of analysis, we assessed volume density of hyalinized areas, cell density, nuclear volume, and cytoplasmic cross-sectional areas of smooth muscle cells in histologic sections and also measured diameters of collagen fibrils in electron micrographs of uterine leiomyomas. Thirty leiomyomas from patients treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (10 different patient samples), age-matched control patients (10 different patient samples), and postmenopausal women (10 different patient samples) were used. Hyalinization was assessed using a microscope with a projection head and affixed morphometric grid. Cell size and density were evaluated using a video-based, computerized system attached to the microscope, for which morphometric ad hoc programs were written. Diameters of collagen fibrils were measured from electron micrographs. The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY. A total of 30 patient samples were studied, with three groups comprising 10 samples each, including patients treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, age-matched control patients, and postmenopausal women. Myomas from patients treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists exhibited more hyalinization, greater cell density, slightly smaller cell sizes, and larger collagen fibrils than those of age-matched control patients and postmenopausal women. Shrinkage after treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists is attributed to smaller cell size and increased collagenization in myomas.

  20. Neurokinin B and serum albumin limit copper binding to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ahmad Samir; Tran, Kevin K; Jones, Christopher E

    2018-02-26

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) triggers secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is able to bind copper, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the copper-GnRH complex is more potent at triggering gonadotropin release than GnRH alone. However, it remains unclear whether copper-GnRH is the active species in vivo. To explore this we have estimated the GnRH-copper affinity and have examined whether GnRH remains copper-bound in the presence of serum albumin and the neuropeptide neurokinin B, both copper-binding proteins that GnRH will encounter in vivo. We show that GnRH has a copper dissociation constant of ∼0.9 × 10 -9  M, however serum albumin and neurokinin B can extract metal from the copper-GnRH complex. It is therefore unlikely that a copper-GnRH complex will survive transit through the pituitary portal circulation and that any effect of copper must occur outside the bloodstream in the absence of neurokinin B. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of canine pyometra with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pablo R; Blanco, Paula G; Gobello, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    To describe the effect of the third-generation gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline in the treatment of 4 diestrous bitches with the cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex. The 4 bitches were treated with 330 μg/kg of subcutaneous acyline on day 0 and antibiotics, and followed up for 2 weeks. One closed-cervix case showed cervical dilatation 36 hours after treatment, and all the 4 animals showed resolution of clinical signs starting on day 3 posttreatment. Ultrasonographic uterine diameters and luminal contents decreased in the bitches having high progesterone serum concentrations before treatment but not in those with low levels. Serum progesterone importantly decreased from high to basal concentrations in the 3 "ultrasonographically cured" animals. No local or systemic side effects related to the treatment were observed. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline may have a promising place for the medical treatment of cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulate Aldosterone Production in a Subset of Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Rui; Oki, Kenji; Yoneda, Masayasu; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Itcho, Kiyotaka; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to detect novel genes associated with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and elucidate the mechanisms underlying aldosterone production. Microarray analysis targeting GPCR-associated genes was conducted using APA without known mutations (APA-WT) samples (n = 3) and APA with the KCNJ5 mutation (APA-KCNJ5; n = 3). Since gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) was the highest expression in APA-WT by microarray analysis, we investigated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation on aldosterone production. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay results revealed higher GNRHR expression levels in APA-WT samples those in APA-KCNJ5 samples (P APA-WT samples, and there was a significant and positive correlation between GNRHR and LHCGR expression in all APA samples (r = 0.476, P APA-WT (n = 9), which showed higher GNRHR and LHCGR levels, had significantly higher GnRH-stimulated aldosterone response than those with APA-KCNJ5 (n = 13) (P APA-WT, and the molecular analysis including the receptor expression associated with clinical findings of GnRH stimulation. PMID:27196470

  3. Active immunization of gilts against gonadotropin-releasing hormone: effects on secretion of gonadotropins, reproductive function, and responses to agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, K L; Britt, J H

    1985-10-01

    Sexually mature gilts were actively immunized against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by conjugating GnRH to bovine serum albumin, emulsifying the conjugate in Freund's adjuvant, and giving the emulsion as a primary immunization at Week 0 and as booster immunizations at Weeks 10 and 14. Antibody titers were evident by 2 wk after primary immunization and increased markedly in response to booster immunizations. Active immunization against GnRH caused gonadotropins to decline to nondetectable levels, gonadal steroids to decline to basal levels, and the gilts to become acyclic. Prolactin concentrations in peripheral circulation were unaffected by immunization against GnRH. The endocrine status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis was examined by giving GnRH and two agonists to GnRH and by ovariectomy. An i.v. injection of 100 micrograms GnRH caused release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in control animals, but not in gilts immunized against GnRH. In contrast, administration of 5 micrograms D-(Ala6, des-Gly-NH2(10] ethylamide or 5 micrograms D-(Ser-t-But6, des-Gly-NH2(10] ethylamide resulted in immediate release of LH and FSH in both control and GnRH-immunized gilts. Circulating concentrations of LH and FSH increased after ovariectomy in the controls, but remained at nondetectable levels in gilts immunized against GnRH. Prolactin concentrations did not change in response to ovariectomy. We conclude that cyclic gilts can be actively immunized against GnRH and that this causes cessation of estrous cycles and inhibits secretion of LH, FSH, and gonadal steroids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, G; Acone, F; Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Ventriglia, G; Addis, P; Genovese, S; Aprea, A; Spedicato, D; Losurdo, M; Deflorio, M; Di Summa, A; De Metrio, G

    2008-01-01

    The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions) as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE) similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (s)GnRH, chicken (c)GnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6) and sea bream (sb)GnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRH-immunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  5. Dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin improves in vitro fertilization outcome in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seval, Mehmet Murat; Özmen, Batuhan; Atabekoğlu, Cem; Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Şimşir, Coşkun; Kan, Özgur; Sönmezer, Murat

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dual trigger with leuprolide acetate plus recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) improves in vitro fertilization outcome in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles. A total of 156 patients diagnosed with mild male factor, unexplained or tubal factor infertility were enrolled in the study. All subjects were allocated into one of two groups: the dual trigger group (leuprolide acetate 500 μg + recombinant hCG 250 μg) and the standard group (recombinant hCG 250 μg) according to the selected trigger method. Oocyte trigger was performed when at least three follicles >17 mm were observed. Pregnancy rate, number of collected oocytes, number of metaphase II oocytes, number of grade-A embryos, cycle cancellation rate, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate were the main outcome measures for the study. The mean number of grade-A embryos (1.6 ± 1.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.4, P = 0.01) and of metaphase II oocytes (7.9 ± 4.6 vs 6.3 ± 5.8, P = 0.02) was significantly higher in the dual-trigger group. Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the dual-trigger group than in the standard group (54.8 vs 37.5%, P = 0.006). Two cases of mild ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were observed in each group. This novel and more physiological trigger approach using 500 μg leuprolide acetate plus 250 μg recombinant hCG may lead to an increase in the number of metaphase II oocytes, grade-A embryos, and may improve pregnancy rates. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Proper receptor signalling in a mutant catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor lacking the highly conserved Asp(90) residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomenrohr, M.; Kuhne, R.; Hund, E.; Leurs, R.; Bogerd, J.; ter Laak, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    The negatively charged side chain of an Asp residue in transmembrane domain 2 is likely to play an important role in receptor signalling since it is highly conserved in the whole family of G protein-coupled receptors, except in mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. In this paper

  7. The dopaminergic regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; van 't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    In several teleost species, including the African catfish, dopamine acts as an endogenous inhibitor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated gonadotropin (GTH) release. The present in vivo study was carried out to investigate whether this inhibitory action of dopamine can be explained by

  8. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

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    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  9. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons

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    Christian Cortés-Campos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons.

  10. Enzymatic tracer damage during the gonadotropin releasing hormone radioimmunoassay: analytical and immunological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Conner, J.L.; Lapp, C.A.; Clary, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hypothalamic supernatants from 60 day female rats were fractionated from Sephadex G-200 columns. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) detected an apparently cross-reacting high molecular weight substance. The substance caused apparent displacement of iodinated GnRH binding in dose response fashion; however, no biological activity was observed in pituitary cell cultures. In order to determine whether the depressed binding might be caused by enzymatic degradation of iodinated GnRH during the RIA incubation, iodinated GnRH was preincubated under RIA conditions with either buffer or increasing concentrations of the GnRH cross-reacting material. Aliquots were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and the gels slices counted. Identical aliquots were subsequently used as iodinated hormone in the RIA of known quantities of synthetic GnRH. Tracer damage during the RIA-like preincubation period was reflected in the subsequent PAGE studies as decreased counts per minute in the intact GnRH peak and in the RIA studies as over-estimated quantification of the GnRH standards. This report describes such damage during the GnRH RIA and the data misinterpretations which result. 30 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  11. Investigation of structure-activity relationships of synthetic anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chenghung; Varamini, Pegah; Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Mansfeld, Friederike M; D'Occhio, Michael J; Toth, Istvan

    2015-05-01

    The immunoneutralization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) can be used for the treatment of human hormone-dependent male and female cancers or as immunocontraceptives in animals. Vaccine candidates 1 [Th(K-LP)GnRH], 2 [GnRH(K-LP)Th], 3 [GnRH(K-Th)LP], and 4 [Th(K-GnRH)LP] (for which K=lysine, LP=lipopeptide Ser-Ser-C16 -C16 , and Th=T helper cell epitope influenza HA2), were synthesized by assembling a CD4(+) T helper cell epitope (Th), GnRH, and an adjuvanting lipid moiety (LP) in various spatial arrangements. All compounds were efficiently taken up by antigen-presenting cells with significant immunogenicity without an external adjuvant. Compounds 2, 3, and 4, in which GnRH is conjugated through its C terminus, produced higher GnRH-specific antibody responses than construct 1, in which the GnRH moiety is conjugated through its N terminus. All four constructs induced a significant antiproliferative effect (up to 55 %) on GnRH-receptor-positive LNCaP cells, but showed weaker activity in the GnRH-receptor-negative SKOV-3 cell line. Marked degenerative changes were observed in morphology and follicular development in the ovaries of immunized mice, with approximately 30 % higher degenerative antral and atretic follicles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Radioimmunoassay and chromatographic similarity of circulating endogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone and hypothalamic extracts in man. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, C.H. (St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London); McNeilly, A.S.; Rees, L.H.; Lowry, P.J.; Gilmore, D.; Dobbie, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for the gonadotropin releasing hormone has been developed in order to study its physiological importance in man. In view of the expected low concentrations in peripheral blood, large volumes of human plasma were extracted by two different methods and the characteristics of the radioimmunoassayable material compared with those of synthetic decapeptide and extracts of human hypothalami. The results indicate that radioimmunoassayable gonadotropin releasing hormone is present in some human plasmas but the plasma concentrations are less than 2.5 pg/ml. Peripheral levels were more consistently measurable in women at midcycle and after the menopause. The hormone was undetectable in the plasma of normal men, human cerebrospinal fluid, and fetal cerebral tissue, but was present in fetal hypothalami.

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone targeting for gonadotroph ablation: an approach to non-surgical sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, R S

    2012-08-01

    Surgical sterilization is the mainstay of dog and cat population control, but its use is still often limited by the costs and effort involved, especially in developing countries. An ideal non-surgical sterilant that is safe, effective, permanent, administered as a single injection and capable of being manufactured inexpensively could have a significant impact on the world-wide dog and cat overpopulation problem. One approach towards developing such an agent is the targeting of pituitary gonadotrophic cells with cytotoxic agents using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH is a peptide that binds to high-affinity receptors selectively expressed on gonadotrophs and some types of cancers. Both small molecules and proteins have been conjugated to GnRH analogues to generate targeted cytotoxic and imaging agents. Although most of these efforts have focused on development of human cancer therapeutics, available reproductive studies in rats and dogs suggest that current compounds do not have sufficient therapeutic windows for complete gonadotroph ablation, in part owing to poor stability of peptide targeting sequences. The only reported longer-term study of gonadotroph ablation in dogs reported suppression of serum testosterone for 8 months, but endocrine function then recovered, raising important questions about the mechanism of reproductive suppression and its recovery. Although studies to date suggest that this is a potentially attractive approach to non-surgical sterilization, ideal agents are yet to be developed, and important mechanistic questions remain to be answered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  15. Dual effect of melatonin on gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-induced Ca(2+) signaling in neonatal rat gonadotropes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Vaněček, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2001), s. 262-269 ISSN 0028-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0213; GA ČR GA309/99/0215; GA AV ČR IAA5011103; GA AV ČR IAA5011105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : melatonin * gonadotropin-release hormone * calcium Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2001

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE PITUITARY OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS-GARIEPINUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; Conn, P. M.; van't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were characterized using a radioligand prepared from a superactive analog of salmon GnRH (sGnRH), D-Arg(6)-Pro(9)-sGnRH-NEt (sGnRHa). Binding of(125)I-sGnRHa to catfish pituitary membrane fractions reached equilibrium after 2 h incubation at 4°C.

  17. Negative feedback governs gonadotrope frequency-decoding of gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse-frequency.

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    Stefan Lim

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the gonadotropin subunits is directed by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH from the hypothalamus, with the frequency of GnRH pulses governing the differential expression of the common alpha-subunit, luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta. Three mitogen-activated protein kinases, (MAPKs, ERK1/2, JNK and p38, contribute uniquely and combinatorially to the expression of each of these subunit genes. In this study, using both experimental and computational methods, we found that dual specificity phosphatase regulation of the activity of the three MAPKs through negative feedback is required, and forms the basis for decoding the frequency of pulsatile GnRH. A fourth MAPK, ERK5, was shown also to be activated by GnRH. ERK5 was found to stimulate FSHbeta promoter activity and to increase FSHbeta mRNA levels, as well as enhancing its preference for low GnRH pulse frequencies. The latter is achieved through boosting the ultrasensitive behavior of FSHbeta gene expression by increasing the number of MAPK dependencies, and through modulating the feedforward effects of JNK activation on the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of changing GnRH pulse-frequency in controlling transcription of the pituitary gonadotropins, which comprises a crucial aspect in regulating reproduction. Pulsatile stimuli and oscillating signals are integral to many biological processes, and elucidation of the mechanisms through which the pulsatility is decoded explains how the same stimulant can lead to various outcomes in a single cell.

  18. Acute gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment enhances extinction memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, L Y; Taha, M B; Cover, K K; Glynn, S S; Murillo, M; Lebron-Milad, K; Milad, M R

    2017-08-01

    Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known. In this study, we examined the acute effects of LEU on fear extinction, hypothesizing that increased T levels following a single administration of LEU will facilitate extinction recall by altering neuronal activity within the fear extinction circuitry. Two groups of naïve adult male rats underwent a 3-day fear conditioning, extinction, and recall experiment. The delayed group (n=15) received a single injection of vehicle or LEU (1.2mg/kg) 3weeks before behavioral testing. The acute group (n=25) received an injection one day after fear conditioning, 30min prior to extinction training. Following recall, the brains for all animals were collected for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were also collected and assayed for T levels. Acute administration of LEU increased serum T levels during extinction training and enhanced extinction recall 24h later. This enhanced extinction memory was correlated with increased c-fos activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala, which was not observed in the delayed group. These results suggest that the elevation in T induced by acute administration of LEU can influence extinction memory consolidation, perhaps through modification of neuronal activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala. This may be an important consideration in clinical applications of LEU and its effects on anxiety and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dienogest compared with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist after conservative surgery for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaesu, Yotaro; Nishi, Hirotaka; Kojima, Junya; Sasaki, Toru; Nagamitsu, Yuzo; Kato, Rina; Isaka, Keiichi

    2016-09-01

    Although there are various hormone therapies, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, danazol, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, dienogest, and low-dose estrogen progestin, no consensus opinion has been reached in terms of which medication should be used and for how long it should be administered. We aimed to determine whether dienogest or goserelin is the better postoperative therapy to prevent recurrence of endometriosis. A prospective cohort randomized study were conducted, including 198 patients diagnosed as having endometriosis. A total of 111 patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the dienogest-administered group (n = 56) and the goserelin-administered group (n = 55). Patients were followed for 24 months after laparoscopic surgery. Those who gave consent but desired no postoperative therapy were assigned to the non-treatment group (n = 79). Recurrence, side-effects, degrees of menstrual pain and chronic pelvic pain measured by the Visual Analogue Scale were compared among the three groups: the dienogest, goserelin, and non-treatment groups. No significant difference was observed in the postoperative recurrence rate between the dienogest and goserelin groups. No significant difference was found in the recurrence rate between the goserelin group and non-treatment group; however, a significant difference was found in the recurrence rate between the dienogest group and the non-treatment group (P = 0.027). Menstrual pain and chronic pelvic pain were significantly improved in both treatment groups. Side-effects were markedly observed in the goserelin group as compared with the dienogest group. Dienogest is available for prolonged administration of more than 6 months, so it is more useful than goserelin, which is available only for short-term administration. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 suppresses food intake in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eNishiguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His5 Trp7 Tyr8]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior in goldfish. However, the influence of GnRH2 on feeding behavior in other fish has not yet been studied. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the role of GnRH2 in the regulation of feeding behavior in a zebrafish model, and examined its involvement in food intake after intracerebroventricular (ICV administration. ICV injection of GnRH2 at 0.1 and 1 pmol/g body weight (BW induced a marked decrease of food consumption in a dose-dependent manner during 30 min after feeding. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of GnRH2 at 1 pmol/g BW during the 30-min post-treatment observation period. The anorexigenic action of GnRH2 was completely blocked by treatment with the GnRH type I receptor antagonist Antide at 50 pmol/g BW. We also examined the effect of feeding condition on the expression level of the GnRH2 transcript in the hypothalamus. Levels of GnRH2 mRNA obtained from fish that had been provided excess food for 7 days were higher than those in fish that had been fed normally. These results suggest that, in zebrafish, GnRH2 acts as an anorexigenic factor, as is the case in goldfish.

  1. Characterization and spatiotemporal expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ha; Kim, Mi Ae; Kim, Kyeong Seop; Kim, Jae Won; Lim, Han Kyu; Lee, Jung Sick; Sohn, Young Chang

    2017-07-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key neuropeptide regulating reproduction in humans and other vertebrates. Recently, GnRH-like cDNAs and peptides were reported in marine mollusks, implying that GnRH-mediated reproduction is an ancient neuroendocrine system that arose prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we evaluated the reproductive control system mediated by GnRH in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. We cloned a prepro-GnRH cDNA (Hdh-GnRH) from the pleural-pedal ganglion (PPG) in H. discus hannai, and analyzed its spatiotemporal gene expression pattern. The open reading frame of Hdh-GnRH encodes a protein of 101 amino acids, consisting of a signal peptide, a GnRH dodecapeptide, a cleavage site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. This structure and sequence are highly similar to GnRH-like peptides reported for mollusks and other invertebrates. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Hdh-GnRH mRNA was more strongly expressed in the ganglions (PPG and cerebral ganglion [CG]) than in other tissues (gonads, gills, intestine, hemocytes, muscle, and mantle) in both sexes. In females, the expression levels of Hdh-GnRH mRNA in the PPG and branchial ganglion (BG) were significantly higher at the ripe and partial spent stages than at the early and late active stages. In males, Hdh-GnRH mRNA levels in the BG showed a significant increase in the partial spent stage. Unexpectedly, Hdh-GnRH levels in the CG were not significantly different among the examined stages in both sexes. These results suggest that Hdh-GnRH mRNA expression profiles in the BG and possibly the PPG are tightly correlated with abalone reproductive activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E; White, David

    2013-12-01

    Sleep interruption is often reported by women with hot flashes and night sweats (or vasomotor symptoms, VMS). Although women report that VMS awaken them, polysomnography (PSG) studies have not consistently supported this contention. We mimicked menopause using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to investigate whether VMS increase awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO). VMS, serum estradiol, and at-home PSGs (two pretreatment, two posttreatment) were measured before and after 4 weeks on GnRHa. Regression models were used to determine the effect of increasing VMS frequency on awakenings and WASO, as measured objectively and subjectively. Twenty-nine healthy women (mean 27.3 y). Academic medical center. Depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg). Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed on GnRHa. Persistent VMS were reported by 69% of women. The number of nighttime VMS correlated directly with the degree of sleep disturbance. Each additional reported nighttime VMS was associated with a 62% increase from baseline in PSG-measured WASO (P = 0.007), a 3% increase in awakenings (P = 0.05), and 6% increase in %N1 sleep (P = 0.02). Nighttime VMS were also associated with increased perceived WASO (312%; P = 0.02), awakenings (16%; P = 0.007), Insomnia Severity Index (P = 0.03), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P = 0.03) scores, and decreased perceived sleep efficiency (P = 0.01). Objectively recorded nighttime VMS correlated with PSG-measured WASO (rs = 0.45, P = 0.02). This menopause model demonstrates that nighttime vasomotor symptoms correlate with increased sleep fragmentation. These findings are consistent with a specific contribution of vasomotor symptoms to polysomnography-measured sleep interruption suggesting that nighttime vasomotor symptoms interrupt sleep in the setting of menopause.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone from brains of reptiles: turtles (Pseudemys scripta) and snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, N M; Whittier, J M

    1988-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptides were present in whole brain extracts of turtle (Pseudemys scripta) and snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) with higher content and concentration in the turtle brain. The peptides were identified by cross-reactivity profiles with four GnRH antisera and by retention times on reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with synthetic GnRH standards. Turtle brain extracts contained two HPLC peaks that cross-reacted with GnRH antisera; these peaks eluted from the HPLC in the same positions as chicken I and II GnRH. Snake brain extracts contained only one major HPLC peak (and two minor peaks in some brains) that cross-reacted with anti-GnRH sera; the major peak eluted with the same retention time as chicken I GnRH. Mammalian, salmon, and lamprey GnRH-like peptides were not detected. In extracts from both turtle and snake brains, the cross-reactivity profile of the HPLC peaks compared with those of synthetic chicken I and II GnRH showed a similar order of sensitivity with four antisera. It is likely that chicken I and II GnRH-like peptides were present in ancestral reptiles prior to the evolution of the three living reptilian subclasses of Anapsida (turtle), Lepidosauria (snake and lizard), and Archosauria (alligator). This assertion is based on the present demonstration and work by others showing that chicken I and II GnRH-like peptides are in turtle and alligator, chicken I is in snake, and chicken II is in lizard.

  4. Invertebrate Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Peptides and Their Receptors: An Update

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    Tsubasa Sakai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs play pivotal roles in reproductive functions via the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad axis, namely, HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRHs and their receptors (GnRHRs are likely to be conserved in invertebrate deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. All vertebrate and urochordate GnRHs are composed of 10 amino acids, whereas protostome, echinoderm, and amphioxus GnRH-like peptides are 11- or 12-residue peptide containing two amino acids after an N-terminal pyro-Glu. In urochordates, Halocynthia roretzi GnRH gene encodes two GnRH peptide sequences, whereas two GnRH genes encode three different GnRH peptides in Ciona intestinalis. These findings indicate the species-specific diversification of GnRHs. Intriguingly, the major signaling pathway for GnRHRs is intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in chordates, echinoderms, and protostomes, whereas Ciona GnRHRs (Ci-GnRHRs are endowed with multiple GnRHergic cAMP production pathways in a ligand-selective manner. Moreover, the ligand-specific modulation of signal transduction via heterodimerization among Ci-GnRHR paralogs suggests the species-specific development of fine-tuning of gonadal functions in ascidians. Echinoderm GnRH-like peptides show high sequence differences compared to those of protostome counterparts, leading to the difficulty in classification of peptides and receptors. These findings also show both the diversity and conservation of GnRH signaling systems in invertebrates. The lack of the HPG axis in invertebrates indicates that biological functions of GnRHs are not release of gonadotropins in current invertebrates and common ancestors of vertebrates and invertebrates. To date, authentic or putative GnRHRs have been characterized from various echinoderms and protostomes as well as chordates and the mRNAs have been found to be distributed not only reproductive organs but also other tissues. Collectively, these findings further support the notion that invertebrate Gn

  5. Expression and Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 and Its Receptor in Mammals

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    Amy T. Desaulniers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1 and its receptor (GnRHR1 drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2 and its receptor (GnRHR2 also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig. Likewise, many species (e.g., human, chimpanzee, cow, and sheep retain the GnRHR2 gene but lack the appropriate coding sequence to produce a full-length protein due to gene coding errors; although production of GnRHR2 in humans remains controversial. Certain mammals lack the GnRHR2 gene (e.g., mouse or most exons entirely (e.g., rat. In contrast, old world monkeys, musk shrews, and pigs maintain the coding sequence required to produce a functional GnRHR2. Like GnRHR1, GnRHR2 is a 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with Gαq/11 to mediate cell signaling. However, GnRHR2 retains a cytoplasmic tail and is only 40% homologous to GnRHR1. A role for GnRH2 and its receptor in mammals has been elusive, likely because common laboratory models lack both the ligand and receptor. Uniquely, both GnRH2 and GnRHR2 are ubiquitously expressed; transcript levels are abundant in peripheral tissues and scarcely found in regions of the brain associated with gonadotropin secretion, suggesting a divergent role from GnRH1/GnRHR1. Indeed, GnRH2 and its receptor are not physiological modulators of gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Instead, GnRH2 and GnRHR2 coordinate the interaction between nutritional status and sexual behavior in the female brain. Within peripheral tissues, GnRH2 and its receptor are novel regulators of reproductive organs. GnRH2 and GnRHR2 directly stimulate steroidogenesis within the porcine testis. In the female, GnRH2 and

  6. [Spermatogenesis of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion versus gonadotropin therapy in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingkun; Mao, Jiangfeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2015-05-26

    To compare the efficacies of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) versus human chorionic gonadotropin/human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) for spermatogenesis in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). For this retrospective study, a total of 92 male IHH outpatients from May 2010 to October 2014 were recruited and categorized into GnRH (n = 40) and HCG/HMG (n = 52) groups. Each subject selected one specific therapy voluntarily. The gonadotropin levels were measured in the first week and monthly post-treatment in GnRH group. And serum total testosterone (TT), testicular volume (TV) and rate of spermatogenesis were observed monthly post-treatment in two groups. Spermatogenesis, TT and TV were compared between two groups. All IHH patients were treated for over 3 months. The median follow-up periods in GnRH and HCG/HMG groups was 8.2 (3.0-18.4) and 9.2 (3.0-18.6) months respectively (P = 0.413). In GnRH group, LH ((0.5 ± 0.6) vs (3.4 ± 2.4) U/L, P < 0.01) and FSH ((1.3 ± 1.1) vs (5.8 ± 3.8) U/L, P < 0.01) increased after 1-week treatment. In GnRH group, at the end of follow-up, TT ((1.0 ± 1.0) vs (7.4 ± 5.2) nmol/L, P < 0.01) and TV ((2.3 ± 1.5) vs (8.1 ± 4.0) ml, P < 0.01) significantly increased compared to baseline. In HCG/HMG group, TT ((0.8 ± 0.6) vs (14.4 ± 8.0) nmol/L, P < 0.01) and TV ((2.3 ± 2.1) vs (7.6 ± 4.2) ml, P < 0.01) significantly increased after therapy. The success rate of spermatogenesis was 50.0% (20/40) in GnRH group versus 28.8% (15/52) in HCG/HMG group (P = 0.038). GnRH group required a shorter treatment time for initial sperm appearance than HCG/HMG group ((6.5 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 3.7) months, P = 0.001). Pulsatile GnRH requires a shorter time for initiation of spermatogenesis than gonadotropin therapy in IHH male patients.

  7. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH Receptor Structure and GnRH Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A. Flanagan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH regulates reproduction. The human GnRH receptor lacks a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail but has amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of rhodopsin-like, class A, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. This review will consider how recent descriptions of X-ray crystallographic structures of GPCRs in inactive and active conformations may contribute to understanding GnRH receptor structure, mechanism of activation and ligand binding. The structures confirmed that ligands bind to variable extracellular surfaces, whereas the seven membrane-spanning α-helices convey the activation signal to the cytoplasmic receptor surface, which binds and activates heterotrimeric G proteins. Forty non-covalent interactions that bridge topologically equivalent residues in different transmembrane (TM helices are conserved in class A GPCR structures, regardless of activation state. Conformation-independent interhelical contacts account for a conserved receptor protein structure and their importance in the GnRH receptor structure is supported by decreased expression of receptors with mutations of residues in the network. Many of the GnRH receptor mutations associated with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, including the Glu2.53(90 Lys mutation, involve amino acids that constitute the conserved network. Half of the ~250 intramolecular interactions in GPCRs differ between inactive and active structures. Conformation-specific interhelical contacts depend on amino acids changing partners during activation. Conserved inactive conformation-specific contacts prevent receptor activation by stabilizing proximity of TM helices 3 and 6 and a closed G protein-binding site. Mutations of GnRH receptor residues involved in these interactions, such as Arg3.50(139 of the DRY/S motif or Tyr7.53(323 of the N/DPxxY motif, increase or decrease receptor expression and efficiency of receptor coupling to G protein signaling, consistent with the

  8. Functional Characterization of Paralogous Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Type and Corazonin-Type Neuropeptides in an Echinoderm

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    Shi Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologs of the vertebrate neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH have been identified in invertebrates, including the insect neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ. Recently, we reported the discovery of GnRH-type and CRZ-type signaling systems in an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens, demonstrating that the evolutionary origin of paralogous GnRH-type and CRZ-type neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we have investigated the physiological roles of the GnRH-type (ArGnRH and the CRZ-type (ArCRZ neuropeptides in A. rubens, using mRNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and in vitro pharmacology. ArGnRH precursor (ArGnRHP-expressing cells and ArGnRH-immunoreactive cells and/or processes are present in the radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system (e.g., cardiac stomach and pyloric stomach, body wall-associated muscle (apical muscle, and appendages (tube feet, terminal tentacle. The general distribution of ArCRZ precursor (ArCRZP-expressing cells is similar to that of ArGnRHP, but with specific local differences. For example, cells expressing ArGnRHP are present in both the ectoneural and hyponeural regions of the radial nerve cords and circumoral nerve ring, whereas cells expressing ArCRZP were only observed in the ectoneural region. In vitro pharmacological experiments revealed that both ArGnRH and ArCRZ cause contraction of cardiac stomach, apical muscle, and tube foot preparations. However, ArGnRH was more potent/effective than ArCRZ as a contractant of the cardiac stomach, whereas ArCRZ was more potent/effective than ArGnRH as a contractant of the apical muscle. These findings demonstrate that both ArGnRH and ArCRZ are myoexcitatory neuropeptides in starfish, but differences in their expression patterns and pharmacological activities are indicative of distinct physiological roles. This is the first study to investigate the physiological roles of both Gn

  9. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  10. alpha-difluoromethylornithine modifies gonadotropin-releasing hormone release and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the immature female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, S M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1997-06-01

    Polyamines play an essential role in tissue growth and differentiation, in body weight increment, in brain organization, and in the molecular mechanisms of hormonal action, intracellular signaling, and cell-to-cell communication. In a previous study, inhibition of their synthesis by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, during development in female rats, was followed by prolonged high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) serum level and a delayed puberty onset. Those changes were relatively independent of body mass and did not impair posterior fertility. The present work studies the mechanisms and site of action of polyamine participation in FSH secretion during development. DFMO was injected in female rats between Days 1 and 9 on alternate days. At 10 days of age, hypothalami from control and DFMO rats were perifused in vitro, and basal and potassium-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release were measured. The response to membrane depolarization was altered in DFMO hypothalami. Increased GnRH release in response to a low K+ concentration was evidenced. Adenohypophyses of the same treated prepubertal rats were perifused in vitro and the response to GnRH pulses was checked. In DFMO-treated rats, higher FSH release was observed, with no changes in LH or PRL secretion. Finally, pituitary GnRH receptor number in adenohypophyseal membranes from treated and control groups was quantified. A significant reduction in specific binding was evident in hypophyses from DFMO-treated rats when compared with binding in the control group. In summary, DFMO treatment in a critical developmental period in the female rat impacts the immature GnRH neuronal network and immature gonadotropes. A delay in maturation is evidenced by a higher sensitivity to secretagogs in both pituitary glands and hypothalamic explants. These events could explain the prolonged high FSH serum levels and delayed puberty onset seen in

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Overnight levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormone before and during gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in short boys born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.R. Rose (Susan); R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); W.M. Bakker-Van Waarde (Willie); E.J. Sulkers (Eric); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare

  13. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfer after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles among high responder women: A randomized, multi-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aflatoonian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of embryo cryopreservation excludes the possible detrimental effects of ovarian stimulation on the endometrium, and higher reproductive outcomes following this policy have been reported. Moreover, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist cycles as a substitute for standard human chorionic gonadotropin trigger, minimizes the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in fresh as well as frozen embryo transfer cycles (FET. Objective: To compare the reproductive outcomes and risk of OHSS in fresh vs frozen embryo transfer in high responder patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization triggered with a bolus of GnRH agonist. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, multi-centre study, 121 women undergoing FET and 119 women undergoing fresh ET were investigated as regards clinical pregnancy as the primary outcome and the chemical pregnancy, live birth, OHSS development, and perinatal data as secondary outcomes. Results: There were no significant differences between FET and fresh groups regarding chemical (46.4% vs. 40.2%, p=0.352, clinical (35.8% vs. 38.3%, p=0.699, and ongoing (30.3% vs. 32.7%, p=0.700 pregnancy rates, also live birth (30.3% vs. 29.9%, p=0.953, perinatal outcomes, and OHSS development (35.6% vs. 42.9%, p=0.337. No woman developed severe OHSS and no one required admission to hospital. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GnRHa trigger followed by fresh transfer with modified luteal phase support in terms of a small human chorionic gonadotropin bolus is a good strategy to secure good live birth rates and a low risk of clinically relevant OHSS development in in vitro fertilization patients at risk of OHSS.

  14. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone

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    Mo Kyung Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThere is controversy surrounding the growth outcomes of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa in central precocious puberty (CPP. We analyzed height preservation after treatment with GnRHa with and without growth hormone (GH in girls with CPP.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 82 girls with idiopathic CPP who had been treated with GnRHa at Severance Children's Hospital from 2004 to 2014. We assessed the changes in height standard deviation score (SDS for bone age (BA, and compared adult height (AH with midparental height (MPH and predicted adult height (PAH during treatment in groups received GnRHa alone (n=59 or GnRHa plus GH (n=23.ResultsIn the GnRHa alone group, the height SDS for BA was increased during treatment. AH (160.4±4.23 cm was significantly higher than the initial PAH (156.6±3.96 cm (P<0.001, and it was similar to the MPH (159.9±3.52 cm. In the GnRHa plus GH group, the height SDS for BA was also increased during treatment. AH (159.3±5.33 cm was also higher than the initial PAH (154.6±2.55 cm (P<0.001, which was similar to the MPH (158.1±3.31 cm. Height gain was slightly higher than that in the GnRHa alone group, however it statistically showed no significant correlation with GH treatment.ConclusionIn CPP girls treated with GnRHa, the height SDS for BA was increased, and the AH was higher than the initial PAH. Combined GH treatment showed a limited increase in height gain.

  15. Clinical and hormonal effects of chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingold, K; De Ziegler, D; Cedars, M; Meldrum, D R; Lu, J K; Judd, H L; Chang, R J

    1987-10-01

    Previously, we reported that short term administration of a highly potent GnRH agonist (GnRHa) for 1 month to patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) resulted in complete suppression of ovarian steroidogenesis without measurable effects on adrenal steroid production. This new study was designed to evaluate the effects of long term GnRHa administration in PCO patients with respect to their hormone secretion patterns and clinical responses. Eight PCO patients and 10 ovulatory women with endometriosis were treated daily with sc injections of [D-His6-(imBzl]),Pro9-NEt]GnRH (GnRHa; 100 micrograms) for 6 months. Their results were compared to hormone values in 8 women who had undergone bilateral oophorectomies. In response to GnRHa, PCO and ovulatory women had rises of serum LH at 1 month, after which it gradually declined to baseline. In both groups FSH secretion was suppressed throughout treatment. Serum estradiol, estrone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone levels markedly decreased to values found in oophorectomized women by 1 month and remained low thereafter. In contrast, serum pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were partially suppressed, and dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol levels did not change. Clinically, hyperplastic endometrial histology in three PCO patients reverted to an inactive pattern, and proliferative endometrium in two other PCO patients became inactive in one and did not change in the other. Regression of proliferative endometrial histology occurred in all ovulatory women. Vaginal bleeding occurred in all women studied during the first month of GnRHa administration, after which all but one PCO patient became amenorrheic. Hot flashes were noted by all ovulatory women and by four of eight PCO patients. All PCO patients noted subjective reduction of skin oiliness, and five had decreased hair growth. We conclude that in premenopausal women: 1) chronic Gn

  16. Treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin releasing hormone. A double-blind controlled study of 243 boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Müller, J; Buhl, S

    1988-01-01

    We have conducted a modified double-blind study on the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and placebo on bilateral and unilateral maldescended testes. One hundred and fifty-five boys with bilateral and 88 boys with unilateral cryptorchidism fulfilled...... the inclusion criteria and completed the treatment protocol. The boys were between 1 and 13 years of age. hCG was administered as intramuscular injections twice weekly for 3 weeks. GnRH and placebo were given intranasally. hCG was superior to GnRH and placebo in the treatment of bilateral maldescended testes (p...... = 0.0009). Both testes descended in 25% of the boys following treatment with hCG, and improvement in the position of the testes was obtained in a further 25% of the cases. hCG administration resulted in complete testicular descent in 14% of boys with unilateral cryptorchidism compared with 3 and 0...

  17. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone radioimmunoassay and its measurement in normal human plasma, secondary amenorrhea, and postmenopausal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, N.G.; Schlaff, S.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been developed for measurement in ethanol extracts of human plasma. Iodinated hormone was prepared with the use of the chloramine-T method, and antibodies were developed in rabbits over a six-month period with a GnRH synthetic copolymer immunogen. A Scatchard plot revealed at least three species of antibody. The assay can measure conservatively at the 5 pg. per milliliter level and shows no cross-reactivity with other available hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The releasing hormone was quantitatively recovered from human plasma with immunologic identity to native hormone. Unextracted plasma could not be used because of nonspecific displacement. The measurement of GnRH in individuals receiving 100 μg of intravenous bolus infusions of the synthetic decapeptide show extremely elevated values with two half-lives: one of two to four minutes and another of 35 to 40 minutes. In our experiments, we have found measurable GnRH in patients with secondary amenorrhea and at the midcycle in normal women. In the normal cycling woman during the follicular and luteal phases, GnRH was undetectable. In postmenopausal women with extreme hypoestrogenism and markedly elevated luteinizing hormone values, GnRH was also undetectable. No bursts of GnRH could be detected in normal men when sampled every ten minutes over a two-hour period and every two hours throughout the day

  18. Involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular calcium signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of prolactin release from lactotrophs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Weber, G M; Strom, C N

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a potent stimulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion in various vertebrates including the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The mechanism by which GnRH regulates lactotroph cell function is poorly understood. Using the advantageous characteristics of the teleo...

  19. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol--the protocol of choice for the polycystic ovary syndrome patient undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Homburg, Roy; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients are prone to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a condition which can be minimized or completely eliminated by the use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger. In this commentary paper, we maintain that the gonadotropin...

  20. Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency not linked to gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in Brazilian kindred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, J.; Francke, U.; Toledo, S. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency (FIGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which results in failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics. The origin is a hypothalamic defect resulting in insufficient secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (also called LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH). FIGD has been determined to be a separate entity from Kallmann syndrome which presents with hypogonadism as well as anosmia. The FIGD phenotype appears to be analogous to the phenotype of the hpg (hypogonadal) mouse. Because the hpg phenotype is the result of a structurally abnormal GnRH gene, we have studied the GnRH gene in individuals from a previously reported Brazilian FIGD family. An informative dimorphic marker in the signal peptide sequence of the GnRH gene allowed assessment of linkage between the disease gene and the GnRH locus in this pedigree. We have concluded that the GnRH locus is not linked to the disease-causing mutation in these hypogonadal individuals. Recent evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a role in the initiation of puberty. We hypothesize that mutations in NPY may result in failure to secrete GnRH. We have characterized three diallelic frequent-cutter restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the human NPY locus, and are currently using these markers to determine if the NPY gene is linked to, and possibly the site of the disease mutation in this kindred.

  1. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  2. Enhancement of a robust arcuate GABAergic input to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in a model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aleisha M; Prescott, Mel; Marshall, Christopher J; Yip, Siew Hoong; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-01-13

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of female infertility, is associated with an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency, implicating abnormal steroid hormone feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. This study investigated whether modifications in the synaptically connected neuronal network of GnRH neurons could account for this pathology. The PCOS phenotype was induced in mice following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. Serial blood sampling confirmed that PNA elicits increased LH pulse frequency and impaired progesterone negative feedback in adult females, mimicking the neuroendocrine abnormalities of the clinical syndrome. Imaging of GnRH neurons revealed greater dendritic spine density that correlated with increased putative GABAergic but not glutamatergic inputs in PNA mice. Mapping of steroid hormone receptor expression revealed that PNA mice had 59% fewer progesterone receptor-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARN). To address whether increased GABA innervation to GnRH neurons originates in the ARN, a viral-mediated Cre-lox approach was taken to trace the projections of ARN GABA neurons in vivo. Remarkably, projections from ARN GABAergic neurons heavily contacted and even bundled with GnRH neuron dendrites, and the density of fibers apposing GnRH neurons was even greater in PNA mice (56%). Additionally, this ARN GABA population showed significantly less colocalization with progesterone receptor in PNA animals compared with controls. Together, these data describe a robust GABAergic circuit originating in the ARN that is enhanced in a model of PCOS and may underpin the neuroendocrine pathophysiology of the syndrome.

  3. Beneficial effects of dienogest on uterine myoma volume: a retrospective controlled study comparing with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichigo, Satoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi; Matsunami, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Noriko; Imai, Atsushi

    2011-09-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of reproductive age women, but there is no effective medical therapy to data. Aim of this study was to examine and compare the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) versus dienogest in premenopausal women with uterine myoma. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 55 premenopausal patients with endometriosis, who received dienogest (2 mg daily) for 6 months regarding coexistence of uterine myoma between January 2008 and June 2010. To compare these data in a case-control study, we analyzed a matched control group of 12 patients treated with leuprolide acetate (1.88 mg monthly) for 6 months having uterine myoma. Of the 55 patients treated with dienogest, six were associated with coexistent myoma node. Total myoma volume significantly decreased to 59.7 ± 7.0% of initial in dienogest group and 51.9 ± 5.5% in GnRHa group. Reduction rate in myoma volume was similar in both groups. Uterine myoma volume was successfully reduced by use of dienogest. Consideration of GnRHa disadvantages may lead to short- or long-term management of women with myoma who are to be managed transiently, and who wish to avoid surgical intervention, especially perimenopausal women.

  4. Combined administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, progesterone, and meloxicam is an effective treatment for the repeat-breeder cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiridis, G S; Tsiligianni, Th; Dovolou, E; Rekkas, C; Vouzaras, D; Menegatos, I

    2009-09-01

    In practice, the etiologic treatment of the repeat-breeder cow is nearly infeasible. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a combined treatment would benefit the conception rate of repeat-breeder cows. The components of this regimen target ovulation defects, late progesterone (P4) rise, and premature luteolysis. In a 5-year period, 402 repeat-breeder cows were divided in five groups, and treatment regimens consisted of the following: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; Group 1, n=115, 0.012mg buserelin im 4 to 6h before artificial insemination); P4 (Group 2, n=51, 100mg P4 intravaginally, on Days 5 to 7); meloxicam (Group 3, n=31, 0.5mgkg(-1), 24h(-1) melomicronxicam sc, on Days 16 to 18); GnRH+P4+meloxicam (Group 4, n=98); and no treatment (Group 5, control, n=107). Artificial insemination was conducted only after overt estrus; thereafter, the duration of the estrous cycle was assessed in all cows that were detected to return to heat. The conception and pregnancy rate was compared among groups. The proportion of cows that returned to estrus after artificial insemination did not differ among groups; the duration of estrous cycle was the shortest in Group 1 and the longest in Group 4. In Group 4, pregnancy rate was higher (Pcow.

  5. Body image and depression in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Precocious puberty (PP) is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue therapy. From March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment. The depression score was calculated using the Korean Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory. The patients perceived their body to be more obese than the controls did. The mean depression score did not differ between the patients and controls. The mean depression scores according to Tanner stages (1: prepubertal, 2: early pubertal, and 3-5: mid to late pubertal stage) by self-assessment were 5.2±3.6, 6.8±4.9, and 11.4±10.1 ( P body build and figure (%) and the mean depression scores in patients were: dissatisfied (25.6%, 9.7±7.8) and satisfied (74.4%, 5.5±3.4) ( P body build and figure were found to significantly affect the depression score( P body image and breast development. Such incorrect body image seems to contribute to depression score.

  6. Definition of estrogen receptor pathway critical for estrogen positive feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermantel, Tim M; Campbell, Rebecca E; Porteous, Robert; Bock, Dagmar; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Todman, Martin G; Korach, Kenneth S; Greiner, Erich; Pérez, Cristian A; Schütz, Günther; Herbison, Allan E

    2006-10-19

    The mechanisms through which estrogen regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to control mammalian ovulation are unknown. We found that estrogen positive feedback to generate the preovulatory gonadotropin surge was normal in estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta) mutant mice, but absent in ERalpha mutant mice. An ERalpha-selective compound was sufficient to generate positive feedback in wild-type mice. As GnRH neurons do not express ERalpha, estrogen positive feedback upon GnRH neurons must be indirect in nature. To establish the cell type responsible, we generated a neuron-specific ERalpha mutant mouse line. These mice failed to exhibit estrogen positive feedback, demonstrating that neurons expressing ERalpha are critical. We then used a GnRH neuron-specific Pseudorabies virus (PRV) tracing approach to show that the ERalpha-expressing neurons innervating GnRH neurons are located within rostral periventricular regions of the hypothalamus. These studies demonstrate that ovulation is driven by estrogen actions upon ERalpha-expressing neuronal afferents to GnRH neurons.

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist pretreatment did not decrease postoperative adhesion formation after abdominal myomectomy in a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, Charles C; Grow, Daniel R; Ahmed, Mohamed S; Toner, James P; Cook, Elizabeth; Diamond, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    To determine if 3 months of preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment decreases postoperative uterine adhesions after open abdominal surgery for the removal of uterine fibroids. Prospective, randomized, clinical study. A tertiary care medical center. Women of reproductive age with symptomatic uterine fibroids not amenable to hysteroscopic removal. Twenty patients underwent an initial abdominal myomectomy followed by a second-look laparoscopy for evaluating uterine adhesions after random allocation to groups receiving either GnRH analog or placebo for 3 months before the initial surgery. Adhesion formation between treatment groups and by incision number and aggregate length. Presurgical GnRH-a treatment did not decrease adhesion formation compared with placebo. For every additional centimeter of incision length, the total adhesion area over the uterine serosal surface increased by 0.55 cm(2). The number of myomas removed and the number of incisions were positively correlated with total adhesion area. Preoperative treatment with GnRH-a for 3 months before open abdominal myomectomy did not decrease postoperative uterine adhesions. Following the standards of good surgical technique, adhesions are minimized with fewer and smaller incisions.

  8. The Regulation and Function of Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 and Its Function during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wilson C J; Linscott, Megan L; Rodriguez, Karla M; Stewart, Courtney E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerous studies solidified the hypothesis that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates neuroendocrine progenitor cell proliferation, fate specification, and cell survival and, therefore, is critical for the regulation and maintenance of homeostasis of the body. One important example that underscores the involvement of FGF signaling during neuroendocrine cell development is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron ontogenesis. Indeed, transgenic mice with reduced olfactory placode (OP) Fgf8 expression do not have GnRH neurons. This observation indicates the requirement of FGF8 signaling for the emergence of the GnRH neuronal system in the embryonic OP, the putative birth place of GnRH neurons. Mammalian reproductive success depends on the presence of GnRH neurons to stimulate gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary, which activates gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Together, these observations are critical for understanding the function of GnRH neurons and their control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to maintain fertility. Taken together, these studies illustrate that GnRH neuron emergence and hence HPG function is vulnerable to genomic and molecular signals that abnormally modify Fgf8 expression in the developing mouse OP. In this short review, we focus on research that is aimed at unraveling how androgen, all-trans retinoic acid, and how epigenetic factors modify control mouse OP Fgf8 transcription in the context of GnRH neuronal development and mammalian reproductive success.

  9. Molecular Cloning, Genomic Organization and Developmental Regulation of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors from Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Søndergaard, Leif; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    1998-01-01

    After screening the data base of the BerkeleyDrosophilaGenome Project with a sequence coding for the transmembrane region of a G protein-coupled receptor, we found thatDrosophilamight contain a gene coding for a receptor that is structurally related to the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Gn...... on the molecular cloning of a member of the GnRH receptor family from invertebrates....

  10. Long-Term Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists and Add-Back in Adolescent Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jenny Sadler; Missmer, Stacey A; Hornstein, Mark D; Laufer, Marc R; Gordon, Catherine M; DiVasta, Amy D

    2018-03-15

    To explore the potential occurrence of long-term side effects and tolerability of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) plus 2 different add-back regimens in adolescent patients with endometriosis DESIGN: Follow-up questionnaire sent in 2016 to patients who participated in a drug trial between 2008-2012 SETTING: Tertiary care center in Boston, MA. Females with surgically confirmed endometriosis (n=51) who enrolled in a GnRHa plus add-back trial as adolescents INTERVENTIONS: Leuprolide depot 11.25 mg intramuscular injection every 3 month, plus oral norethindrone acetate 5 mg daily or oral norethindrone acetate 5 mg daily plus oral conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg daily. Side effects during and after treatment, irreversible side effects, changes in pain, overall satisfaction RESULTS: The response rate was 61%. Almost all (96%) reported side effects during treatment; 80% reported side effects lasting > 6 months after stopping treatment. Almost half (45%) reported side effects they considered irreversible, including memory loss, insomnia, and hot flashes. Despite side effects, subjects rated GnRHa plus add-back as the most effective hormonal medication for treating endometriosis pain; two thirds (16/25) would recommend it to others. More subjects who received a modified two drug add-back regimen versus standard one drug add-back would recommend GnRHa and felt it was the most effective hormonal medication. Subjects felt GnRHa plus add-back was effective and would recommend it to others, despite significant side effects. Those who received two drug add-back reported more success than those who received standard add-back. A subset of patients reported irreversible side effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Prepubertal Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity Is Altered by Sex, Age, and Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

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    Dulka, Eden A; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown. We hypothesized GnRH neurons are active before puberty and that this activity is sexually differentiated and altered by PNA. Dams were injected with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on days 16 to 18 post copulation to generate PNA mice. Action potential firing of GFP-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week-old and adult mice was monitored. GnRH neurons were active at all ages tested. In control females, activity increased with age through 3 weeks, then decreased to adult levels. In contrast, activity did not change in PNA females and was reduced at 3 weeks. Activity was higher in control females than males from 2 to 3 weeks. PNA did not affect GnRH neuron firing rate in males at any age. Short-term action potential patterns were also affected by age and PNA treatment. GnRH neurons are thus typically more active during the prepubertal period than adulthood, and PNA reduces prepubertal activity in females. Prepubertal activity may play a role in establishing sexually differentiated neuronal networks upstream of GnRH neurons; androgen-induced changes during this time may contribute to the adult PNA, and possibly PCOS, phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Ovarian response to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and porcine pituitary extract in gilts actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone.

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    Esbenshade, K L

    1987-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous gonadotropins on follicular development in gilts actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Four gilts, which had become acyclic after immunization against GnRH, and four control gilts were given 1,000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), while four additional control gilts were given saline. Control animals were prepuberal crossbred gilts averaging 100 kg body weight. Control gilts given saline had ovaries containing antral follicles (4 to 6 mm in diameter). Control gilts given PMSG exhibited estrus and their ovaries contained corpora hemorrhagica and corpora lutea. PMSG failed to stimulate follicular growth in gilts immunized against GnRH, and ovaries contained regressed corpora albicantia and small antral follicles (less than 1 mm in diameter). Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) were non-detectable in gilts immunized against GnRH and given PMSG. In the second experiment, five gilts actively immunized against GnRH were given increasing doses of PMSG every third day until unilateral ovariectomy on d 50. PMSG failed to stimulate follicular growth, and concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), E2 and LH were not detectable. Six weeks later, gilts were given a booster immunization and then were given 112 micrograms LH and 15 micrograms FSH intravenously every 6 h for 9 d. The remaining ovary was removed on d 10. Although LH and FSH concentrations were elevated, administration of gonadotropins did not stimulate follicular growth or increase E2 concentrations. These results indicate that neither PMSG or exogenous LH and FSH can induce E2 synthesis or sustain follicular development in gilts actively immunized against GnRH.

  13. Treatment of nonparaphilic hypersexuality in men with a long-acting analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

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    Safarinejad, Mohammad R

    2009-04-01

    Hypersexuality is one of the most embarrassing behaviors for both patients and their families and there are no effective drug treatments for this sexual inappropriateness. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a long-acting analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (triptorelin) in men with nonparaphilic hypersexuality (NPH). Primary outcome measure was the frequency of intercourse. The designated secondary outcome measures were the changes in International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and responses to the questions from the IIEF in the preceding month: question 11, "How often have you felt sexual desire?" and question 12, "How would you rate your level of sexual desire"? Seventy-six men (mean age 44.4 years) with NPH were treated with monthly intramuscular injections of 3.75 mg of triptorelin for an indefinite period. During treatment, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, testosterone (T), and free testosterone (fT), were measured monthly, and bone mineral density every 6 months. The mean sexual attempts decreased from 7.6 +/- 1.4 per day at baseline to 4.2 +/- 1.2 (P = 0.001), 1.2 +/- 0.4 (P = 0.001), and hypersexuality (r = -0.62, P = 0.01), and treatment duration (r = 0.78, P = 0.001). These beneficial effects persisted 6 months in all men who were treated for at least 24 months. The serum LH and FSH concentrations begun to decrease after two doses of triptorelin. After 3 months, serum T, and fT levels decreased by 50% in 65 (85.5%) of patients (P = 0.01). Triptorelin was very effective and well tolerated in men with NPH. Further studies are needed to replicate our results.

  14. Factors that predict a positive response on gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls

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    Junghwan Suh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rapid increase in the incidence of precocious puberty in Korea has clinical and social significance. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is required to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP, however this test is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify factors that can predict a positive response to the GnRH stimulation test.MethodsClinical and laboratory parameters, including basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and estradiol (E2, were measured in 540 girls with clinical signs of CPP.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-nine of 540 girls with suspected CPP had a peak serum LH level higher than 5 IU/L (the CPP group. The CPP group had advanced bone age (P<0.001, accelerated yearly growth rate (P<0.001, increased basal levels of LH (P=0.02, FSH (P<0.001, E2 (P=0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels (P<0.001 compared to the non-CPP group. In contrast, body weight (P<0.001 and body mass index (P<0.001 were lower in the CPP group. Although basal LH was significantly elevated in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group, there was considerable overlap between the 2 groups. Cutoff values of basal LH (0.22 IU/L detected CPP with 87.8% sensitivity and 20.9% specificity.ConclusionNo single parameter can predict a positive response on the GnRH stimulation test with both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, multiple factors should be considered in evaluation of sexual precocity when deciding the timing of the GnRH stimulation test.

  15. [Effects of obesity on peak level of luteinizing hormone in gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist test and obesity-related hormones in girls with central precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Lian; Fu, Jun-Fen; Jin, Ju-Hua; Dong, Guan-Ping; Jiang, You-Jun; Huang, Ke; Chen, Xue-Feng; Wu, Wei

    2015-08-01

    To explore the effects of obesity on the peak level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist test and obesity-related hormones in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). Three hundred and thirty-three girls with CPP who underwent the GnRH agonist test between 2012 and 2014 were classified into three groups: normal weight (n=123), overweight (n=108), and obesity (n=102), according to body mass index (BMI). The sexual development indices were compared between the three groups. Twenty girls were randomly selected from each group for evaluation of the serum levels of leptin, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), neurokinin B, and kisspeptin. The correlation of BMI with the levels of various hormones was assessed using Pearson correlation analysis. There was no significant difference in mean age at diagnosis between the three groups; however, the bone age was significantly higher in the overweight and obesity groups than in the normal weight group (Phormones should be taken into account in girls with precocious puberty.

  16. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

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    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel gonadotropin-releasing-hormone receptor isolated from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takahashi, Toshio; Satake, Honoo; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates through interaction with a specific receptor. Previously, we isolated a GnRH homo-logue, oct-GnRH, from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). In the present study, we have identified a GnRH receptor (oct-GnRHR) specific for oct-GnRH from Octopus brain. Oct-GnRHR includes domains and motifs typical of vertebrate GnRH receptors. The intron-inserted positions are conserved between oct-GnRHR and the chordate GnRHR genes. The oct-GnRHR expressed in Xenopus (South African clawed frog) oocytes was responsive to oct-GnRH, but not to any other HPLC fractions of the Octopus brain extract. These results show that oct-GnRHR is an authentic receptor for oct-GnRH. Southern blotting of reverse-transcription PCR products revealed that the oct-GnRHR mRNA was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in several peripheral tissues. In situ hybridiz-ation showed that oct-GnRHR mRNA was expressed in some regions involved in autonomic functions, feeding, memory and movement. Oct-GnRH was shown to induce steroidogenesis of testosterone, progesterone and 17β-oestradiol in Octopus ovary and testis, where oct-GnRHR was abundantly expressed. These results suggest that oct-GnRH, like its vertebrate counterparts, acts as a multifunctional neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and hormone-like factor, both in Octopus central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and that both structure and functions of the GnRH family are, at least partially, evolutionarily conserved between octopuses and chordates. PMID:16367741

  18. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  19. Long-term medical management of endometriosis with dienogest and with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and add-back hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Allaire, Catherine; Alfaraj, Sukinah

    2017-03-01

    Endometriosis can recur after either surgical or medical therapy. Long-term medical therapy is implemented to treat symptoms or prevent recurrence. Dienogest and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues with hormone add-back therapy seem to be equally effective for long-term treatment of pain symptoms associated with endometriosis. There is insufficient evidence to support the superiority of one therapy over the other. However, add-back hormone therapy (HT) is recommended for patients using GnRH agonists. The treatment selection depends on therapeutic effectiveness, tolerability, drug cost, the physician's experience, and expected patient compliance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintenance therapy with dienogest following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for endometriosis-associated pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Jo; Kusuki, Izumi; Yamanaka, Kaoruko; Suganuma, Izumi

    2011-08-01

    To examine whether long-term administration of dienogest following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) therapy would prolong the relief of pelvic pain while reducing the amount of irregular uterine bleeding. This was a prospective, non-randomized clinical trial. Among the patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain associated with recurrent endometriosis, Group G (n=38) received GnRH-a for 4-6 months and then dienogest (1 mg/day) for 12 months. The dose of dienogest was increased to 1.5 or 2 mg/day when a patient had uncontrollable uterine bleeding {n=15 (39%)}. Group D (n=33) received only dienogest (2 mg/day) for 12 months. Pelvic pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Uterine bleeding was semi-quantified using a pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC). In Group G, GnRH-a significantly reduced the VAS score for pelvic pain, and alleviation was maintained during the 12-month therapy with dienogest. There was no significant difference in pain reduction between Group G and Group D. The PBAC score during the first 6 months on dienogest was significantly smaller in Group G than in Group D. Treatment with a GnRH-a followed by long-term dienogest therapy maintains the relief of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain achieved with GnRH-a therapy for at least 12 months. This regimen reduces the amount of irregular uterine bleeding that often occurs during the early phase of dienogest therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events after surgical castration versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in Chinese men with prostate cancer

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    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cardiovascular thrombotic risk after surgical castration (SC versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa in Chinese men with prostate cancer. All Chinese prostate cancer patients who were treated with SC or GnRHa from year 2000 to 2009 were reviewed and compared. The primary outcome was any new-onset of cardiovascular thrombotic events after SC or GnRHa, which was defined as any event of acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. The risk of new-onset cardiovascular thrombotic event was compared between the SC group and the GnRHa group using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for other potential confounding factors. A total of 684 Chinese patients was included in our study, including 387 patients in the SC group and 297 patients in the GnRHa group. The mean age in the SC group (75.3 ± 7.5 years was significantly higher than the GnRHa group (71.8 ± 8.3 years (P < 0.001. There was increased risk of new cardiovascular thrombotic events in the SC group when compared to the GnRHa group upon Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.014. Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.072, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.11, P< 0.001, hyperlipidemia (HR 2.455, 95% CI 1.53-3.93, P< 0.001, and SC (HR 1.648, 95% CI 1.05-2.59, P= 0.031 were significant risk factors of cardiovascular thrombotic events. In conclusion, SC was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events when compared to GnRHa. This is an important aspect to consider while deciding on the method of androgen deprivation therapy, especially in elderly men with known history of hyperlipidemia.

  2. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body image and depression in girls with idiopathic precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue

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    Min-Seon Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrecocious puberty (PP is associated with psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of body image and depression in girls with PP receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue therapy.MethodsFrom March to August 2013, 82 girls with PP receiving GnRH analogue therapy were enrolled. Height, weight, body mass index, and stages of pubertal development were assessed. Participants completed a series of questionnaires on their body image perception and pubertal self-assessment. The depression score was calculated using the Korean Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory.ResultsThe patients perceived their body to be more obese than the controls did. The mean depression score did not differ between the patients and controls. The mean depression scores according to Tanner stages (1: prepubertal, 2: early pubertal, and 3–5: mid to late pubertal stage by self-assessment were 5.2±3.6, 6.8±4.9, and 11.4±10.1 (P<0.05, respectively. The perception of overall body build and figure (% and the mean depression scores in patients were: dissatisfied (25.6%, 9.7±7.8 and satisfied (74.4%, 5.5±3.4 (P<0.05. In multiple linear regression analysis, self-T3 (Tanner stage 3–5 by self-awareness and dissatisfaction about overall body build and figure were found to significantly affect the depression score(P<0.05.ConclusionThe perception of pubertal status and satisfaction about height or weight are unrelated to objective physical findings. Patients with PP are prone to distorted perception about their body image and breast development. Such incorrect body image seems to contribute to depression score.

  4. Dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and standard dose human chorionic gonadotropin to improve oocyte maturity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel; Feinn, Richard; Engmann, Lawrence; Nulsen, John; Budinetz, Tara; Benadiva, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the percentage (%) of mature oocytes retrieved in patients with a previous history of >25% immature oocytes retrieved who were triggered with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce oocyte maturation. Retrospective cohort study. A university-based tertiary fertility center. Patients with a history of >25% immature oocytes retrieved in a prior in vitro fertilization cycle who were triggered with GnRH-a and hCG 5,000 IU or 10,000 IU in a subsequent cycle from January 2008 through February 2012. Dual trigger of GnRH-a and hCG 5,000 or 10,000 IU. Percent of mature oocytes retrieved and fertilization rate. The proportion of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher with a dual trigger compared with the subject's previous cycle (75.0%, interquartile range 55.6%-80.0% vs. 38.5%, interquartile range 16.7%-55.6%). The odds of a mature oocyte retrieved for patients who received a dual trigger was 2.51 times higher after controlling for stimulation protocol, hCG dose, gonadotropin dose, and oocyte retrieval time interval (odds ratio 2.51; confidence interval 1.06-5.96). The implantation, clinical, and ongoing pregnancy rates for the dual trigger were 11.8%, 26.1%, and 17.4%, respectively. In patients with a low percentage of mature oocytes retrieved who are triggered with a combination of GnRH-a and hCG, the % of mature oocytes retrieved improved. in vitro fertilization outcomes, however, remain poor, suggesting an underlying oocyte dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of stage of development and sex on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in in vitro hypothalamic perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G; Thyssen-Cano, S; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1998-04-01

    Marked sexual and ontogenic differences have been described in gonadotropin regulation in the rat. These could arise from events occurring both at the hypothalamic or hypophyseal levels. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the capacity of the hypothalamus in releasing GnRH in vitro, basally and in response to depolarization with KCl, during ontogeny in the rat. To that end we chose two well-defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of gonadotropin regulation, 15 and 30 days. We compared GnRH release from hypothalami of females, neonatal androgenized females and males. Mediobasal hypothalami were perifused in vitro, and GnRH measured in the effluent. Basal secretion of the decapeptide increased with age in the three groups with no sexual differences encountered. When studying GnRH release induced by membrane depolarization, no differences within sex or age were encountered. On the other hand FSH serum levels decreased with age in females and increased in males, and in neonatal androgenized females followed a similar pattern to that of females. LH levels were higher in infantile females than in age-matched males or androgenized females. Such patterns of gonadotropin release were therefore not correlated to either basal or K+-induced GnRH release from the hypothalamus. We conclude that sexual and ontogenic differences in gonadotropin secretion in the developing rat are not dependent on the intrinsic capability of the hypothalamus to release GnRH in response to membrane depolarization. The hormonal differences observed during development and between sexes are probably related to differences in the sensitivity of the GnRH neuron to specific secretagogue and neurotransmitter regulation, and/or to differences in hypophyseal GnRH receptors and gonadotrope sensitivity.

  6. The human gonadotropin releasing hormone type I receptor is a functional intracellular GPCR expressed on the nuclear membrane.

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    Michelle Re

    Full Text Available The mammalian type I gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R is a structurally unique G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR that lacks cytoplasmic tail sequences and displays inefficient plasma membrane expression (PME. Compared to its murine counterparts, the primate type I receptor is inefficiently folded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER leading to a further reduction in PME. The decrease in PME and concomitant increase in intracellular localization of the mammalian GnRH-RI led us to characterize the spatial distribution of the human and mouse GnRH receptors in two human cell lines, HEK 293 and HTR-8/SVneo. In both human cell lines we found the receptors were expressed in the cytoplasm and were associated with the ER and nuclear membrane. A molecular analysis of the receptor protein sequence led us to identify a putative monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS in the first intracellular loop of GnRH-RI. Surprisingly, however, neither the deletion of the NLS nor the addition of the Xenopus GnRH-R cytoplasmic tail sequences to the human receptor altered its spatial distribution. Finally, we demonstrate that GnRH treatment of nuclei isolated from HEK 293 cells expressing exogenous GnRH-RI triggers a significant increase in the acetylation and phosphorylation of histone H3, thereby revealing that the nuclear-localized receptor is functional. Based on our findings, we conclude that the mammalian GnRH-RI is an intracellular GPCR that is expressed on the nuclear membrane. This major and novel discovery causes us to reassess the signaling potential of this physiologically and clinically important receptor.

  7. Growth Hormone (GH) and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) in the Central Nervous System: A Potential Neurological Combinatory Therapy?

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    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Harvey, Steve; Arámburo, Carlos; Quintanar, José Luis

    2018-01-26

    This brief review of the neurological effects of growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord, neural retina, and brain tumors, summarizes recent information about their therapeutic potential as treatments for different neuropathologies and neurodegenerative processes. The effect of GH and GnRH (by independent administration) has been associated with beneficial impacts in patients with brain trauma and spinal cord injuries. Both GH and GnRH have demonstrated potent neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative action. Positive behavioral and cognitive effects are also associated with GH and GnRH administration. Increasing evidence suggests the possibility of a multifactorial therapy that includes both GH and GnRH.

  8. Long-term effect of vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, using Improvac, on hormonal profile and behaviour of male pigs.

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    Zamaratskaia, Galia; Rydhmer, Lotta; Andersson, H Kristina; Chen, Gang; Lowagie, Séverine; Andersson, Kjell; Lundström, Kerstin

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, Improvac (Pfizer Ltd.), on the levels of GnRH antibodies, testosterone, estrone sulphate (E1S) and androstenone, as well as skatole and indole in male pigs. Additionally, the long-term effect of immunocastration on social and sexual behaviour was studied. Male pigs were assigned to two treatment groups: a treatment group given two doses of Improvac (n=12) and a control group of entire male pigs (n=12). The pigs were kept either 16 or 22 weeks after vaccination. Blood samples were collected five or six times; prior to both first and second vaccination, then three or four times during the 16 or 22 week period after second vaccination. Immunocastration significantly reduced levels of testosterone and E1S in plasma, and levels of androstenone in fat (Pimplied by the directions for use.

  9. Regulatory Architecture of the LβT2 Gonadotrope Cell Underlying the Response to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

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    Frederique Ruf-Zamojski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The LβT2 mouse pituitary cell line has many characteristics of a mature gonadotrope and is a widely used model system for studying the developmental processes and the response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The global epigenetic landscape, which contributes to cell-specific gene regulatory mechanisms, and the single-cell transcriptome response variation of LβT2 cells have not been previously investigated. Here, we integrate the transcriptome and genome-wide chromatin accessibility state of LβT2 cells during GnRH stimulation. In addition, we examine cell-to-cell variability in the transcriptional response to GnRH using Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq technology. Analysis of a bulk RNA-seq data set obtained 45 min after exposure to either GnRH or vehicle identified 112 transcripts that were regulated >4-fold by GnRH (FDR < 0.05. The top regulated transcripts constitute, as determined by Bayesian massive public data integration analysis, a human pituitary-relevant coordinated gene program. Chromatin accessibility [assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq] data sets generated from GnRH-treated LβT2 cells identified more than 58,000 open chromatin regions, some containing notches consistent with bound transcription factor footprints. The study of the most prominent open regions showed that 75% were in transcriptionally active promoters or introns, supporting their involvement in active transcription. Lhb, Cga, and Egr1 showed significantly open chromatin over their promoters. While Fshb was closed over its promoter, several discrete significantly open regions were found at −40 to −90 kb, which may represent novel upstream enhancers. Chromatin accessibility determined by ATAC-seq was associated with high levels of gene expression determined by RNA-seq. We obtained high-quality single-cell Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq transcriptome data, with an average of >4,000 expressed genes

  10. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering and "freeze-all": in-depth analysis of genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Stouffs, Katrien; De Vos, Michel; Seneca, Sara; Tournaye, Herman; Blockeel, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    We report on the results of the whole-genome analysis performed in a patient who developed severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering in a "freeze-all" protocol. A 30-year-old patient with polycystic ovary syndrome who developed severe early-onset OHSS with clinical ascites, and slight renal and hepatic dysfunction was admitted for monitoring and treatment with cabergoline and intravenous albumin. Exome sequencing to assess for any known genetic predisposition for OHSS was performed. No known genetic variants associated with OHSS predisposition were found. Case reports of severe OHSS following a "freeze-all" strategy are starting to arise, showing that OHSS has not been completely eliminated with this approach. Further studies should be conducted to confirm if such cases may be due to genetic predisposition or not.

  11. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: tissue distributions, early ontogeny and effects of fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-12-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is classically known for its role in regulating teleost fish skin color change for environmental adaptation. Recent evidence suggests that MCH also has appetite-stimulating properties. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide family has dual roles in endocrine control of reproduction and energy status in fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are a commercially important aquaculture species inhabiting the shores of Atlantic Canada. In this study, we examine MCH and GnRH transcript expression profiles during early development as well as in central and peripheral tissues and quantify juvenile Atlantic cod MCH and GnRH hypothalamic mRNA expressions following food deprivation. MCH and GnRH3 cDNAs are maternally deposited into cod eggs, while MCH has variable expression throughout early development. GnRH2 and GnRH3 mRNAs "turn-on" during mid-segmentation once the brain is fully developed. For both MCH and GnRH, highest expression appears during the exogenous feeding stages, perhaps supporting their functions as appetite regulators during early development. MCH and GnRH transcripts are found in brain regions related to appetite regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus, hypothalamus), as well as the pituitary gland and the stomach, suggesting a peripheral function in food intake regulation. Atlantic cod MCH mRNA is upregulated during fasting, while GnRH2 and GnRH3 transcripts do not appear to be influenced by food deprivation. In conclusion, MCH might be involved in stimulating food intake in juvenile Atlantic cod, while GnRHs may play a more significant role in appetite regulation during early development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing Activity by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH. Targeted extracellular recordings were used to record firing activity from green fluorescent protein-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices before and during CRH treatment; recordings were done in the afternoon when estradiol has a positive feedback effect to increase GnRH neuron firing. In OVX mice, CRH did not affect the firing rate of GnRH neurons. In contrast, CRH exhibited dose-dependent stimulatory (30 nM) or inhibitory (100 nM) effects on GnRH neuron firing activity in OVX+E mice; both effects were reversible. The dose-dependent effects of CRH appear to result from activation of different receptor populations; a CRH receptor type-1 agonist increased firing activity in GnRH neurons, whereas a CRH receptor type-2 agonist decreased firing activity. CRH and specific agonists also differentially regulated short-term burst frequency and burst properties, including burst duration, spikes/burst, and/or intraburst interval. These results indicate that CRH alters GnRH neuron activity and that estradiol is required for CRH to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  13. The effect of dietary monensin on th luteinizing hormone response of prepuberal heifers given a multiple gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rhodes, R C

    1980-10-01

    Ten prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers (average weight 208 +/- 4 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 2.7 kg/head/day of ground milo containing 0 mg monensin sodium (C) or 2.7 kg/head/day of ground milo containing 200 mg monensin sodium (M). Both groups of animals (n = 5) received Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum throughout the trial. On day 21 of the feeding period all heifers were fitted with jugular cannulas. Immediately after cannulation, the heifers were injected IM with 100 microgram of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and blood was collected every 10 min for 4 hours. Four hours after the first GnRH challenge, a second 100-microgram GnRH injection was administered, and blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for an additional 5 hours. Serum was stored at -20 C until radioimmunoassayed for luteinizing hormone (LH). The amount of LH released after each GnRH injection was greater in the heifers fed M than in the controls (P less than .05). Peak LH after the first GnRH challenge was greater (P less than .05) in heifers fed M than in controls. The area under th first GnRH induced LH curve tended (P less than .20) to be greater for the M group than for the controls. Peak LH concentration was greater in heifers fed M than in control heifers, as the duration (P less than .05) and area under the second GnRH-induced LH curve. In prepuberal heifers, dietary monensin appears to increase hypophyseal capability of releasing LH after a first and second GnRH challenge.

  14. Morphological analysis of the early development of telencephalic and diencephalic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal systems in enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic medaka lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Islam, M Sadiqul; Abe, Hideki; Okubo, Kataaki; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Kaneko, Takeshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-01

    Teleosts possess two or three paralogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes: gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Some species have lost the gnrh1 and/or gnrh3 genes, whereas gnrh2 has been completely conserved in the teleost species analyzed to date. In most teleosts that possess gnrh1, GnRH1 peptide is the authentic GnRH that stimulates gonadotropin release, whereas GnRH2 and GnRH3, if present, are neuromodulatory. Progenitors of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons originate from olfactory placodes and migrate to their destination during early development. However, because of the relatively low affinity/specificity of generally available antibodies that recognize GnRH1 or GnRH3, labeling of these neurons has only been possible using genetic manipulation. We used a model teleost, medaka, which possesses all three paralogous gnrh genes, to analyze development of forebrain GnRH neurons composed of GnRH1 and GnRH3 neurons. Here, we newly generated transgenic medaka lines that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of promoters for gnrh1 or gnrh3, to detect GnRH neurons and facilitate immunohistochemical analysis of the neuronal morphology. We used a combination of immunohistochemistry and three-dimensional confocal microscopy image reconstructions to improve identification of neurites from GnRH1 or GnRH3 neuronal populations with greater precision. This led us to clearly identify the hypophysiotropic innervation of GnRH1 neurons residing in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA) from as early as 10 days post hatching. Furthermore, these analyses also revealed retinopetal projections of nonhypophysiotropic GnRH1 neurons in vPOA, prominent during early developmental stages, and multiple populations of GnRH3 neurons with different origins and migratory pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: oral contraceptive pills-dual gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist suppression with step-down gonadotropin protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    The identification of patients at high risk for excessive responses to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer is essential in the tailoring of safe and effective treatment strategies. Known factors associated with increased sensitivity to gonadotropins include polycystic ovary syndrome, young age, prior ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), high baseline antral follicle count, and high baseline ovarian volume. Although several treatment strategies have been proposed for these patients, this report describes the experience using the dual suppression with gonadotropin step-down protocol. This protocol uses oral contraceptive pretreatment in combination with a long gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist followed by a programmed step-down in gonadotropin dosing. Hormonal characteristics of dual suppression include an improved luteinizing hormone-to-follicle-stimulating hormone ratio and lower serum androgens, particularly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Clinical characteristics of the protocol include a lower cancellation rate and favorable clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates per initiated cycle while mitigating the risk of OHSS. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Use and Effectiveness of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists for Prophylactic Menstrual Suppression in Postmenarchal Women Who Undergo Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorvu, Philip D; Barton, Sara E; Duncan, Christine N; London, Wendy B; Laufer, Marc R; Lehmann, Leslie E; Marcus, Karen J

    2016-06-01

    To describe the rates of use and effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression in prevention of vaginal bleeding among young women who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective descriptive study. University-based pediatric HCT practice. Fifty-five postmenarchal women who underwent HCT between 2004 and 2011. Administration of GnRH agonists or other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression. Rates of use of GnRH agonists and other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression, and rates and descriptions of vaginal bleeding. Forty-six of the 55 patients had experienced regular or irregular vaginal bleeding before HCT and were considered to be at risk for thrombocytopenia-associated menorrhagia. Forty of the 46 (87%) received hormonal menstrual suppression. Thirty-three patients were treated with a GnRH agonist, 4 with combined hormonal contraceptive pills, 1 with a combined hormonal contraceptive patch, 1 with depot medroxyprogesterone, and 1 with oral norethindrone. Twenty-nine of the 33 patients (88%) who received a GnRH agonist had complete amenorrhea during HCT and 4 of 33 (12%) experienced some degree of vaginal bleeding. GnRH agonists appear effective in prevention of vaginal bleeding complications in most postmenarchal women who underwent HCT. Some patients who might benefit do not receive a GnRH agonist and multiple barriers exist in identification and treatment of them. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PROGESTERONE/ESTRADIOL RATIO IN THE LATE FOLLICULAR PHASE OF LONG GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE AGONIST CYCLES DID NOT DIFFER BETWEEN CONCEIVED AND NOT-CONCEIVED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a challenging debate on the effect of premature luteinization on the clinical outcome of ‘controlled ovarian hyperstimulation' (COH using long ‘gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist' (GnRHa cycles. Premature luteinization is defined as late follicular progesterone/estradiol ratio more than 1 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG administration. We carried out a retrospective case-control study on 75 conceived cases versus 75 not-conceived control women, receiving long GnRHa cycles in their first cycle of treatment. Premature luteinization developed in 15% of the case group vs. 22% of the control group. Neither the late follicular progesterone/estradiol (P/E2 ratio was significantly different between the two groups, nor the day 3 follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, serum estradiol level on the HCG day, total amount of human menopausal gonadotropins ampoules, number of follicles, retrieved oocytes and transferred embryos. Endometrial thickness was significantly more in the pregnant women than in the non-pregnant group. Premature luteinization seems not to adversely affect the clinical outcome of COH.

  18. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  19. Proliferation and apoptosis of male germ cells in captive Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriero, A; Medina, A; Mylonas, C C; Bridges, C R; Santamaria, N; Deflorio, M; Losurdo, M; Zupa, R; Gordin, H; de la Gandara, F; Belmonte Rìos, A; Pousis, C; De Metrio, G

    2009-12-01

    The effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) on proliferation and apoptosis of male germ cells were evaluated on Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) reared in captivity. Fish (n=19) were treated with a sustained-release delivery system loaded with GnRHa during the natural spawning season of 2004 and 2005 (June-July). Untreated Control fish (n=17) and adult wild spawners were used for comparison. Fish were sacrificed 2-8 d after GnRHa implantation and body weight and gonad weight were recorded, and gonads and blood were taken. Germ cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated through the immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated d'UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) method, respectively. Plasma 11 ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were measured using an ELISA method. Mean gonado-somatic index and seminiferous lobule diameter did not differ between GnRHa-treated and Control fish, and were significantly lower in captive-reared individuals than in wild spawners. Significant increases in 11-KT plasma levels and spermatogonial mitosis, along with a reduction of germ cell apoptosis were demonstrated in GnRHa-treated fish compared to Controls. The results suggest that GnRHa administration was effective in enhancing germ cell proliferation and reducing apoptosis in captive males through the stimulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) release and testicular 11-KT production.

  20. Oral delivery of oil-based formulation for a novel synthetic cationic peptide of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) antagonist for prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiying; Wang, Tao; Gao, Lijun; Quan, Dongqin

    2013-06-25

    LXT-101, a cationic peptide is a novel antagonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) for prostate cancer treatment. However, effective delivery of peptide drugs into the body by the oral route remains a major challenge due to their origin properties with high molecular weights, strong polarity and low stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In this study, we have developed a novel oral delivery of oil-based formulation in which therapeutic peptide LXT-101 are solubilized in oils and with this solution as oil phase, an optimum formulation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) was developed. The peptide stability with the SMEDDS formulation in artificial gastric and intestinal fluid was tested in vitro. On the other hand, the testosterone level and plasma concentration of LXT-101 in rats after oral administration of the SMEDDS formulation were investigated in vivo. The data in vitro indicated that LXT-101 in the SMEDDS formulation was stable over 8 h in artificial gastric and intestinal fluid. LXT-101 can be absorbed in vivo and suppression of testosterone maintained in castration level within 12 h can be achieved effectively after SMEDDS formulation administered orally at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. The approach can provide a potential way for delivery peptides by oral. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stimulation of the young poor responder: comparison of the luteal estradiol/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist priming protocol versus oral contraceptive microdose leuprolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Shefali M; Barbieri, Elizabeth; Kligman, Isaac; Schoyer, Katherine D; Davis, Owen K; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcomes in young poor responders treated with a luteal estradiol/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (E(2)/ANT) protocol versus an oral contraceptive pill microdose leuprolide protocol (OCP-MDL). Retrospective cohort. Academic practice. Poor responders: 186 women, aged <35 years undergoing IVF with either E(2)/ANT or OCP-MDL protocols. None. Clinical pregnancies, oocytes retrieved, cancellation rate. Patients in the E(2)/ANT group had a greater gonadotropin requirement (71.9 ± 22.2 vs. 57.6 ± 25.7) and lower E(2) level (1,178.6 ± 668 vs. 1,627 ± 889), yet achieved similar numbers of oocytes retrieved and fertilized, and a greater number of embryos transferred (2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 2.0 ± 1.1) with a better mean grade (2.14 ± .06 vs. 2.7 ± 1.8) compared with the OCP/MDL group. The E2/ANT group exhibited a trend toward improved implantation rates (30.5% vs. 21.1%) and ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle: 44 out of 117 (37%) versus 17 out of 69 (25%). Poor responders aged <35 years may be treated with the aggressive E(2)/ANT protocol to improve cycle outcomes. Both protocols remain viable options for this group. Adequately powered, randomized clinical comparison appears justified. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resurgence of Minimal Stimulation In Vitro Fertilization with A Protocol Consisting of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Agonist Trigger and Vitrified-Thawed Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang John

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-IVF consists of a gentle controlled ovarian stimulation that aims to produce a maximum of five to six oocytes. There is a misbelief that mini-IVF severely compromises pregnancy and live birth rates. An appraisal of the literature pertaining to studies on mini-IVF protocols was performed. The advantages of minimal stimulation protocols are reported here with a focus on the use of clomiphene citrate (CC, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH ago- nist trigger for oocyte maturation, and freeze-all embryo strategy. Literature review and the author’s own center data suggest that minimal ovarian stimulation protocols with GnRH agonist trigger and freeze-all embryo strategy along with single embryo transfer produce a reasonable clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in both good and poor responders. Additionally, mini-IVF offers numerous advantages such as: i. Reduction in cost and stress with fewer office visits, needle sticks, and ultrasounds, and ii. Reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Mini-IVF is re-emerging as a solution for some of the problems associated with conventional IVF, such as OHSS, cost, and patient discomfort.

  3. Comparison of the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin or progesterone on pregnancy per artificial insemination in repeat-breeder dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramian, B; Farzaneh, N; Talebkhan Garoussi, M; Mohri, M

    2011-04-01

    Three different treatments were compared to improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in repeat-breeder (RB) dairy cows. All cows (n=103) were assigned to one of four groups: (1) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); (2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); (3) once-used controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device; and (4) control. All treatments performed 5-6days after artificial insemination (AI) and milk samples were collected just before treatment for progesterone assays. There were no significant differences in milk fat progesterone concentration among trial groups. Cows were observed for estrus signs thrice daily. Pregnancy per AI on day 45 in hCG and CIDR groups were significantly higher than GnRH and control groups (60.0% and 56.0% vs. 26.9% and 29.6%, respectively), but there were no differences in P/AI between GnRH and control groups. There were also no significant differences between hCG and CIDR groups. Milk fat progesterone concentrations were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant cows in each group and only in the hCG group it was significantly lower in pregnant cows. In conclusion, treating repeat-breeder cows with hCG or once-used CIDR 5-6days after AI improved P/AI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A pilot study of the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy on brain activation pattern in a man with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulier, Virginie; Fonteille, Véronique; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Cordier, Bernard; Baron-Laforêt, Sophie; Boriasse, Emeline; Durand, Emmanuel; Stoléru, Serge

    2012-02-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, such as leuprorelin, are recommended in the patients with pedophilia at highest risk of offending. However, the cerebral mechanisms of the effects of these testosterone-decreasing drugs are poorly known. This study aimed to identify changes caused by leuprorelin in a pedophilic patient's brain responses to pictures representing children. Clinical, endocrine, and fMRI investigations were done of a man with pedophilia before leuprorelin therapy and 5 months into leuprorelin therapy. Patient was compared with an age-matched healthy control also assessed 5 months apart. Before therapy, pictures of boys elicited activation in the left calcarine fissure, left insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and left cerebellar vermis. Five months into therapy, all the above-mentioned activations had disappeared. No such activations and, consequently, no such decreases occurred in the healthy control. The results of this pilot study suggest that leuprorelin decreased activity in regions known to mediate the perceptual, motivational, and affective responses to visual sexual stimuli.

  5. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  6. The Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Combined with Add-Back Therapy on Quality of Life for Adolescents with Endometriosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler Gallagher, Jenny; Feldman, Henry A; Stokes, Natalie A; Laufer, Marc R; Hornstein, Mark D; Gordon, Catherine M; DiVasta, Amy D

    2017-04-01

    Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) to treat endometriosis can cause mood and vasomotor side effects. "Add-back therapy," the combination of low-dose hormones, limits side effects but research is limited to adults. We sought to characterize quality of life (QOL) before treatment and to compare an add-back regimen of norethindrone acetate (NA) with conjugated estrogens (CEE) to NA alone for preventing side effects of GnRHa therapy in female adolescents with endometriosis. Twelve-month double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Gynecology clinic in Boston, Massachusetts. Fifty female adolescents (aged 15-22 years) with surgically confirmed endometriosis initiating treatment with GnRHa. Subjects were randomized to: NA (5 mg/d) with CEE (0.625 mg/d) or NA (5 mg/d) with placebo. All subjects received leuprolide acetate depot every 3 months. The Short Form-36 v2 Health Survey, Beck Depression Inventory II, and Menopause Rating Scale were completed at repeated intervals. At baseline, subjects reported impaired physical health-related QOL compared with national norms (all P endometriosis initiating GnRHa therapy have impaired QOL. Treatment with GnRHa combined with add-back therapy led to improved QOL, with no worsening of mood or menopausal side effects. NA with CEE was superior to NA alone for improving physical health-related QOL. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of constant administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on reproductive activity in mares: preliminary evidence on suppression of ovulation during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B P; Peterson, K D; Silvia, P J

    1993-10-01

    During the breeding season, the effect of constant administration of an agonist analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; goserelin acetate) on reproductive activity of mares was determined. Twenty-four mares undergoing estrous cycles were allocated at random to 6 groups (n = 4/group) and, on May 29 (day 0), received no treatment (group 1, controls), 120 micrograms (group 2), 360 micrograms (group 3), 600 micrograms (group 4), or 1,200 micrograms (group 5) of GnRH agonist/d for 28 days via a depot implanted subcutaneously. The final group of mares (group 6) was treated with 120 micrograms of GnRH agonist/d for 84 days (3 occasions at 28-day intervals). During a pretreatment period (April 19 to May 29) and for 90 days after initiation of GnRH agonist treatment, follicular development and ovulation were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography of the reproductive tract at 2- to 3-day intervals. On each occasion a blood sample was collected for determination of luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone. Estrous behavior was monitored by teasing of mares with a stallion. Initiation of agonist treatment was random, relative to the stage of the estrous cycle, and all mares ovulated within 11 days before or after implantation. In 3 of 4 nontreated control mares, estrous cycles were observed throughout the study, with interovulatory intervals ranging from 18 to 26 days. In the remaining mare, concentration of progesterone was high after asynchronous double ovulation during the pretreatment period, suggestive of persistent corpus luteum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Ellen R; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  9. Developmental programming: Impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Megan M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147 d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F 2α , just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  10. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

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    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  12. Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor expression in primary breast cancer: comparison of immunohistochemical, radioligand and Western blot analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangia, Anita; Tommasi, Stefania; Reshkin, Stephan J; Simone, Giovanni; Stea, Baldassarre; Schittulli, Francesco; Paradiso, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    GnRH biological effect is mediated through specific GnRH membrane receptors (GnRH-receptor, GnRH-R) that have been demonstrated in human breast cancer by molecular and biochemical techniques. The A9E4 monoclonal antibody (moAb) against the epitope 1-29 of N-terminal of human GnRH-R has been proposed, suggesting the possibility to perform retrospective studies for the confirmation of clinical relevance of this receptor. The aim of the present study was to verify the performance of the A9E4 moAb when utilised for immunohistochemical analysis in 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples; furthermore, a comparison with results obtained with the radioligand biochemical assay (GnRH-Rbca) and with Western blot has been performed. The A9E4 specificity was preliminarily demonstrated by Western blot analysis in both MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. In both cell lines, only a protein of 60-64 kDa was demonstrated in the membrane and nuclear compartments. Immuno-reactivity for A9E4 was detected in the cytoplasm of morphologically normal adjacent glandular epithelia and in tumour cells. Cytoplasmic GnRH-R immuno-staining (GnRH-Rica) was shown in 55% of tumours but only 28% of these had a percentage of positive cells higher than >25%. A correlation between the percentage of positive GnRH-Rica cells and femtomoles of the GnRH-Rbca content was shown (c.c.=0.295, p=0.01). The mean content of GnRH-Rbca in the subgroup of tumours with >25% of cell positive at GnRH-Rica was significantly different with respect to that of negative GnRH-Rica tumours (25 fmol vs 11 fmol, respectively; p=0.03 by t-test). The immunohistochemical analysis of GnRH-R by A9E4 moAb in human breast cancer tissues seems to provide information that correlates with the standard biochemical assay. Retrospective clinical studies with GnRH-Rica on archival samples are strongly suggested to verify the prognostic-predictive relevance of this receptor in human breast cancer.

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering with concomitant administration of low doses of human chorionic gonadotropin or a freeze-all strategy in high responders

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    Meric Karacan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the live birth rates and moderate/severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS rates of 2 different approaches using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist triggering in high responder women. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and embryo transfer (ET outcomes in high responder women who underwent ovulation induction with a GnRH antagonist protocol between April 2011 and March 2015. In group 1 (n=74, GnRH agonist was used for ovulation triggering with the concomitant use of 1500 IU of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval followed by fresh ET and standard luteal support. In group 2 (n=48, GnRH agonist was used for triggering after freezing all embryos and subsequent frozen/thawed embryo transfer (FET; this approach is considered the “freeze-all” approach. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The clinical pregnancy rates for group 1 was 45.9% and group 2 was 43.8% (p=0.812, chi-squared test and live birth rates for group 1 was 40.5% and for group 2 41.7% (p=0.902, chi-squared test were comparable between groups. In group 1, late-onset OHSS was observed (one severe case and one moderate case in 2 patients (2.7%. In group 2, none of the patients experienced moderate/severe OHSS. Conclusion: The live birth rate with GnRH agonist triggering and concomitant use of 1500 IU of hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval was similar to that obtained with the freeze-all approach and FET in a subsequent cycle. The administration of a low dose of hCG in GnRH agonist trigger cycles caused moderate/severe OHSS in 2.7% of the patients.

  14. Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty

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    Ji Woo Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeLong-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.MethodsThis retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.ResultsSix serious side effects (0.9% were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621. Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.ConclusionSterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

  15. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy is associated with earlier spermatogenesis compared to combined gonadotropin therapy in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

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    Jiang-Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH infusion and combined gonadotropin therapy (human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin [HCG/HMG] are effective to induce spermatogenesis in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH. However, evidence is lacking as to which treatment strategy is better. This retrospective cohort study included 202 patients with CHH: twenty had received pulsatile GnRH and 182 had received HCG/HMG. Patients had received therapy for at least 12 months. The total follow-up time was 15.6 ± 5.0 months (range: 12-27 months for the GnRH group and 28.7 ± 13.0 months (range: 12-66 months for the HCG/HMG group. The median time to first sperm appearance was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-10.4 in the GnRH group versus 18 months (95% CI: 16.4-20.0 in the HCG/HMG group (P 1 × 10 6 ml−1 was 43.7% ± 20.4% (16 samples in the GnRH group versus 43.2% ± 18.1% (153 samples in the HCG/HMG group (P = 0.921. Notably, during follow-up, the GnRH group had lower serum testosterone levels than the HCG/HMG group (8.3 ± 4.6 vs 16.2 ± 8.2 nmol l−1 , P < 0.001. Our study found that pulsatile GnRH therapy was associated with earlier spermatogenesis and larger testicular size compared to combined gonadotropin therapy. Additional prospective randomized studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  16. Use of a Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog to Treat Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty Is Not Associated with Changes in Bone Structure in Postmenarchal Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Renata; Melo, Anderson S; Iannetta, Odilon; Marchini, Júlio S; Paula, Francisco J; Martinelli, Carlos E; Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina J S; Ferriani, Rui A; Martins, Wellington P; Reis, Rosana M

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate bone quantity and quality in postmenarchal adolescents treated for idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) in childhood with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) and to determine the serum concentrations of bone remodeling markers. This cross-sectional study included 53 postmenarchal adolescent girls who were divided into 2 groups: 27 adolescents who were treated with GnRHa in childhood for idiopathic CPP (the CPP group) and 26 women who presented with physiological development of secondary sex traits (the control group). None. Weight, height, body mass index, age at menarche, time since menarche, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), bone quality, and serum insulin, glucose, osteocalcin, and carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen concentrations were compared in the 2 groups. BMD data were analyzed by using both dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and osteosonography, and body composition was measure with the use of DXA and electrical bioimpedance. BMD and bone quality did not differ significantly between the CPP and control groups when analyzed by using DXA or osteosonography. Serum osteocalcin concentration was significantly lower (P = .02) in the CPP than in the control group. Insulin was higher in the CPP group, and hyperinsulinemia was an independent predictor of bone quantity and quality assessed by using osteosonography. Body mass index and percent fat were determined by using DXA, and the duration of use of GnRHa treatment and the time since GnRHa discontinuation were not independent predictors of bone quantity and quality. Postmenarchal adolescents treated with GnRHa for CPP in childhood did not show a reduction in bone quantity or quality. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Luteal Coasting and Individualization of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Dose after Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Triggering for Final Oocyte Maturation—A Retrospective Proof-of-Concept Study

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    Barbara Lawrenz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian stimulation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol with the use of GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation is the state-of-the-art treatment in patients with an expected or known high response to avoid or at least reduce significantly the risk for development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Due to a shortened LH surge after administration of GnRH agonist in most patients, the luteal phase will be characterized by luteolysis and luteal phase insufficiency. Maintaining a sufficient luteal phase is crucial for achievement of a pregnancy; however, the optimal approach is still under debate. Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG within 72 h rescues the corpora lutea function; however, the so far often used 1,500 IU still bear the risk for development of OHSS. The recently introduced concept of “luteal coasting” individualizes the luteal phase support by monitoring the progesterone concentrations and administering a rescue dosage of hCG when progesterone concentrations drop significantly. This retrospective proof-of-concept study explored the correlation between hCG dosages ranging from 375 up to 1,500 IU and the progesterone levels in the early and mid-luteal phases as well as the likelihood of pregnancy, both early and ongoing. The chance of pregnancy is highest with progesterone level ≥13 ng/ml at 48 h postoocyte retrieval. Among the small sample size of 52 women studied, it appears that appropriate progesterone levels can be achieved with hCG dosages as low as 375 IU. This may well optimize the chance of pregnancy while reducing the risk of OHSS associated with higher doses of hCG supplementation in the luteal phase.

  18. Different gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist doses for the final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection

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    Emre Goksan Pabuccu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Efficacy of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRH-a for ovulation in high-responders. Aims: The aim of the current study is to compare the impact of different GnRH-a doses for the final oocyte maturation on cycle outcomes and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS rates in high-responder patients undergoing ovarian stimulation. Settings And Designs: Electronic medical records of a private in vitro fertilization center, a retrospective analysis. Subjects and Methods: A total of 77 high-responder cases were detected receiving GnRH-a. Group I consisted of 38 patients who received 1 mg of agonist and Group II consisted of 39 patients who received 2 mg of agonist. Statistical Analysis: In order to compare groups, Student′s t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson′s Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test were used where appropriate. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Number of retrieved oocytes (17.5 vs. 15.0, P = 0.510, implantation rates (46% vs. 55.1%, P = 0.419 and clinical pregnancy rates (42.1% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.744 were similar among groups. There were no mild or severe OHSS cases detected in Group I. Only 1 mild OHSS case was detected in Group II. Conclusion: A volume of 1 or 2 mg leuprolide acetate yields similar outcomes when used for the final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients.

  19. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy is associated with earlier spermatogenesis compared to combined gonadotropin therapy in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiang-Feng; Liu, Zhao-Xiang; Nie, Min; Wang, Xi; Xu, Hong-Li; Huang, Bing-Kun; Zheng, Jun-Jie; Min, Le; Kaiser, Ursula Brigitte; Wu, Xue-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) infusion and combined gonadotropin therapy (human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin [HCG/HMG]) are effective to induce spermatogenesis in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). However, evidence is lacking as to which treatment strategy is better. This retrospective cohort study included 202 patients with CHH: twenty had received pulsatile GnRH and 182 had received HCG/HMG. Patients had received therapy for at least 12 months. The total follow-up time was 15.6 ± 5.0 months (range: 12-27 months) for the GnRH group and 28.7 ± 13.0 months (range: 12-66 months) for the HCG/HMG group. The median time to first sperm appearance was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-10.4) in the GnRH group versus 18 months (95% CI: 16.4-20.0) in the HCG/HMG group (P 1 × 10 6 ml-1 was 43.7% ± 20.4% (16 samples) in the GnRH group versus 43.2% ± 18.1% (153 samples) in the HCG/HMG group (P = 0.921). Notably, during follow-up, the GnRH group had lower serum testosterone levels than the HCG/HMG group (8.3 ± 4.6 vs 16.2 ± 8.2 nmol l-1 , P < 0.001). Our study found that pulsatile GnRH therapy was associated with earlier spermatogenesis and larger testicular size compared to combined gonadotropin therapy. Additional prospective randomized studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  20. An evaluation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue administered to gilts and sows on subsequent reproductive performance and piglet birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Goossens, Lieve; Jourquin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of peforelin (Maprelin®), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue, administration in gilts, primiparous and pluriparous sows in a high productive farm on sow reproductive performance and piglet quality at birth. In a 400 sow herd, gilts, primiparous and pluriparous sows were randomly allocated to 2 groups: peforelin treated (peforelin = P-group) or no treatment (control = C-group). Animals were injected 48 h after the last altrenogest treatment (gilts) or 24 h post weaning (sows). Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI), estrus rate (ER), farrowing efficiency index (FEI), farrowing rate (FR), number of total (TBP), live (LBP) and stillborn piglets (SBP), mummies (MM) and live piglet index (LPI) were assessed and compared between treatment groups. To assess piglet quality at birth, 6033 piglets from 426 litters were weighed individually within 24 h after birth (BW; birth weight). No significant difference between treatment groups could be observed for WEI, TBP, LBP, SBP and MM. The ER was significantly ( P  = 0.0119) higher (93.2 %) in the P-group as compared to the C-group (87.2 %). Peforelin treatment did not affect farrowing rate. Both FEI and LPI were significantly ( P =  0.0078) better in the P-group as compared to the C-group. Overall, no effect of peforelin treatment on piglet birth weight could be observed, although specific subcategories (1st parity and older (5+ parity) sows) did have a significant impact of treatment on birth weight. During late summer (August-September) all treated gilts and sows took advantage from peforelin treatment with a significant improvement of piglet birth weight. Peforelin treatment had a significant impact on ER, FEI and LPI. Moreover, piglet birth weight improved for specific sow subcategories (1st parity and older sows) and for all gilts and sows during the late summer infertility period.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering with concomitant administration of low doses of human chorionic gonadotropin or a freeze-all strategy in high responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Meric; Erdem, Erkan; Usta, Akin; Arvas, Ayse; Cebi, Ziya; Camlibel, Teksen

    2017-06-01

    To compare the live birth rates and moderate/severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rates of 2 different approaches using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering in high responder women. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) outcomes in high responder women who underwent ovulation induction with a GnRH antagonist protocol between April 2011 and March 2015. In group 1 (n=74), GnRH agonist was used for ovulation triggering with the concomitant use of 1500 IU of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) immediately after oocyte retrieval followed by fresh ET and standard luteal support. In group 2 (n=48), GnRH agonist was used for triggering after freezing all embryos and subsequent frozen/thawed embryo transfer (FET); this approach is considered the "freeze-all" approach. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. The clinical pregnancy rates for group 1 was 45.9% and group 2 was 43.8% (p=0.812, chi-squared test) and live birth rates for group 1 was 40.5% and for group 2 41.7% (p=0.902, chi-squared test) were comparable between groups. In group 1, late-onset OHSS was observed (one severe case and one moderate case) in 2 patients (2.7%). In group 2, none of the patients experienced moderate/severe OHSS. Conclusion: The live birth rate with GnRH agonist triggering and concomitant use of 1500 IU of hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval was similar to that obtained with the freeze-all approach and FET in a subsequent cycle. The administration of a low dose of hCG in GnRH agonist trigger cycles caused moderate/severe OHSS in 2.7% of the patients.

  2. Structure-function studies of five natural, including catfish and dogfish, gonadotropin-releasing hormones and eight analogs on reproduction in Thai catfish (Clarias macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamvongchon, S; Rivier, J E; Sherwood, N M

    1992-11-20

    Five distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their analogs, six of which are newly designed, were used to study reproduction in Thai catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Determination was made for the percentage of fish that ovulated within 16-18 h; the percentage of eggs fertilized; and the percentage of larva that hatched and survived for 7 days. The results show, firstly, that natural chicken GnRH-II, which is identical with catfish GnRH-II, was significantly more effective at a dose of 300 micrograms/kg than the control injection for the induction of ovulation. Dogfish GnRH at the same dose was also significantly more effective than the control, but was not significantly different from chicken (catfish) GnRH-II for ovulation induction. The novel catfish GnRH-I, mammalian GnRH and salmon GnRH were not effective at 100, 150 or 300 micrograms/kg in Thai catfish. Secondly, 5 of 8 analogs of GnRH at a dose of 20 micrograms/kg resulted in a significantly higher percentage of ovulating fish compared with the control fish. Among these five analogs, the most effective were the two analog forms of chicken GnRH-II (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt and D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt), followed by the salmon GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt), a dogfish GnRH analog (D-Arg6,Pro9 NEt) and the mammalian GnRH analog (D-Ala6,Pro9 NEt). Not significantly different from the controls were the two catfish GnRH-I analogs and one of the dogfish (D-Nal6,Pro9 NEt) analogs. The six new analogs had not been previously tested in any animal. Thirdly, the number of fish ovulating was the same whether GnRH was administered in one or two injections.

  3. Low dose exposure to Bisphenol A alters development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 neurons and larval locomotor behavior in Japanese Medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, T; Smith, N; Lee, E K; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that chronic low dose exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, may disrupt normal brain development and behavior mediated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. While it is known that GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus regulate reproductive physiology and behavior, functional roles of extra-hypothalamic GnRH neurons remain unclear. Furthermore, little is known whether BPA interacts with extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 neural systems in vulnerable developing brains. Here we examined the impact of low dose BPA exposure on the developing GnRH3 neural system, eye and brain growth, and locomotor activity in transgenic medaka embryos and larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with GFP. Fertilized eggs were collected daily and embryos/larvae were chronically exposed to 200ng/ml of BPA, starting at 1 day post fertilization (dpf). BPA significantly increased fluorescence intensity of the GnRH3-GFP neural population in the terminal nerve (TN) of the forebrain at 3dpf, but decreased the intensity at 5dpf, compared with controls. BPA advanced eye pigmentation without affecting eye and brain size development, and accelerated times to hatch. Following chronic BPA exposure, 20dpf larvae showed suppression of locomotion, both in distance covered and speed of movement (47% and 43% reduction, respectively). BPA-induced hypoactivity was accompanied by decreased cell body sizes of individual TN-GnRH3 neurons (14% smaller than those of controls), but not of non-GnRH3 neurons. These novel data demonstrate complex neurobehavioral effects of BPA on the development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons in teleost fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially available GnRH vaccines have been shown to suppress testicular function by interrupting the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in many species. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine in elephant bulls for suppressing the HPG axis and mitigating musth-related aggressive behavior. Five adult Asian elephant bulls (22-55 years old) were immunized with a GnRH vaccine starting with an initial injection 2-4 months before the predicted musth period, and followed by three boosters at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for hormone and antibody titer analysis. An increase in GnRH antibody titers was observed in all bulls after the second or third booster, and titers remained elevated for 2-3 months after the final booster. Musth was attenuated and shortened in three bulls and postponed completely in two. We conclude that GnRH vaccination is capable of suppressing symptoms of musth in adult bull elephants. With appropriate timing, GnRH vaccination could be used to control or manage musth and aggressive behavior in captive elephant bulls. However, more work is needed to identify an optimal dose, booster interval, and vaccination schedule for complete suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue triptorelin on the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause in premenopausal women with breast cancer: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mastro, Lucia; Boni, Luca; Michelotti, Andrea; Gamucci, Teresa; Olmeo, Nina; Gori, Stefania; Giordano, Monica; Garrone, Ornella; Pronzato, Paolo; Bighin, Claudia; Levaggi, Alessia; Giraudi, Sara; Cresti, Nicola; Magnolfi, Emanuela; Scotto, Tiziana; Vecchio, Carlo; Venturini, Marco

    2011-07-20

    Premenopausal patients with breast cancer are at high risk of premature ovarian failure induced by systemic treatments, but no standard strategies for preventing this adverse effect are yet available. To determine the effect of the temporary ovarian suppression obtained by administering the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue triptorelin during chemotherapy on the incidence of early menopause in young patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The PROMISE-GIM6 (Prevention of Menopause Induced by Chemotherapy: A Study in Early Breast Cancer Patients-Gruppo Italiano Mammella 6) study, a parallel, randomized, open-label, phase 3 superiority trial, was conducted at 16 sites in Italy and enrolled 281 patients between October 2003 and January 2008. The patients were premenopausal women with stage I through III breast cancer who were candidates for adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Assuming a 60% rate of early menopause in the group treated with chemotherapy alone, it was estimated that 280 patients had to be enrolled to detect a 20% absolute reduction in early menopause in the group treated with chemotherapy plus triptorelin. The intention-to-treat analysis was performed by including all randomized patients and using imputed values for missing data. Before beginning chemotherapy, patients were randomly allocated to receive chemotherapy alone or combined with triptorelin. Triptorelin was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 3.75 mg at least 1 week before the start of chemotherapy and then every 4 weeks for the duration of chemotherapy. Incidence of early menopause (defined as no resumption of menstrual activity and postmenopausal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol 1 year after the last cycle of chemotherapy). The clinical and tumor characteristics of the 133 patients randomized to chemotherapy alone and the 148 patients randomized to chemotherapy plus triptorelin were similar. Twelve months after the last

  6. Efficacy of luteal estrogen administration and an early follicular Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist priming protocol in poor responders undergoingin vitrofertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwajeong; Choi, Hyun Joung; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Min Jung; Cha, Sun Hwa; Yi, Hyun Jeong

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether luteal estrogen administration and an early follicular Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (E/G-ant) priming protocol improves clinical outcomes in poor responders to controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer, and identified underlying mechanisms. This restrospective study consisted of 65 poor responders who underwent the E/G-ant priming protocol. Sixty-four other poor responders undergoing conventional protocols without pretreatment were included as the control group. Clinical outcomes were compared between 2 groups. The E/G-ant priming protocol group exhibited improvements over the control group in terms of the number of retrieved oocytes (3.58±2.24 vs. 1.70±1.45; P =0.000), mature oocytes (2.68±2.11 vs. 1.65±1.23; P =0.000), fertilized oocytes (2.25±1.74 vs. 1.32±1.26; P =0.001), good embryos (1.62±0.91 vs. 1.14±0.90, P =0.021). Day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 8.40±4.84 vs. 16.39±13.56; P =0.000) and pre-ovulation progesterone levels (0.67 vs. 1.28 ng/mL; P =0.016) were significantly higher in the control group than in the E/G-ant priming group. The overall rate of positive human chorionic gonadotropin tests was higher in the E/G-ant priming group than in the control group (32.3% vs.16.1%; P =0.039). Also, clinical pregnancy rate (26.2% vs. 12.5%; P =0.048) and the rate of live births (23.1% vs. 7.1%; P =0.023) were significantly higher in the E/G-ant priming group than in the control group. The E/G-ant priming protocol would lead to promising results in poor responders to IVF by suppressing endogenous FSH and by preventing premature luteinization.

  7. Novel Sperm and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone-based Recombinant Fusion Protein: Achievement of 100% Contraceptive Efficacy by Co-immunization of Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Vidisha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Wadhwa, Neerja; Singh, Rita; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Improvements in long-term female contraception can be achieved by vaccinating with sperm-derived proteins. Here, recombinant proteins comprising either (i) N- (amino acid residues 1-80) or C- (amino acid residues 76-126) terminal fragments of mouse sperm protein 17 (Sp17) fused to the promiscuous T non-B cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT), amino acid residues 830-844 followed by di-lysine linker (KK) (TT-KK-Sp17 N or TT-KK-Sp17 C , respectively) or (ii) mouse equatorin (amino acid residues 21-185) fused to the T non-B cell epitope of bovine RNase (amino acid residues 94-104) were expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunization of female FVB/J mice, using alum as an adjuvant, led to the generation of high antibody titers against the above proteins. Antibodies against both N- and C-terminal fragments of Sp17 reacted with the entire capacitated mouse spermatozoa, whereas those against equatorin reacted exclusively with the equatorial region. Despite the reactivity of all immune sera, only sera from mice immunized with TT-KK-Sp17 N and TT-KK-Sp17 C significantly reduced mouse in vitro fertilization. Mating studies of the immunized females with un-immunized male mice revealed the highest infertility in the TT-KK-Sp17 C -immunized group. In an attempt to further boost the immune response, the C-terminal fragment of Sp17 was expressed as fusion protein with a tandem repeat of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (Sp17 C -GnRH 2 ). Immunization of both male and female mice with Sp17 C -GnRH 2 led to higher contraceptive efficacy compared to mice immunized with TT-KK-Sp17 C . Interestingly, mating studies wherein partners were both immunized with Sp17 C -GnRH 2 showed a complete failure of female mice to conceive. Thus, immunization of both males and females with Sp17 C -GnRH 2 has the potential to increase contraceptive efficacy. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1048-1059, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Computer simulation of the free energy of peptides with the local states method: analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the random coil and stable states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, H; Koerber, S C; Rivier, J E; Hagler, A T

    1994-07-01

    The Helmholtz free energy F (rather than the energy) is the correct criterion for stability; therefore, calculation of F is important for peptides and proteins that can populate a large number of metastable states. The local states (LS) method proposed by H. Meirovitch [(1977) Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 45, p. 389] enables one to obtain upper and lower bounds of the conformational free energy, FB (b,l) and FA (b,l), respectively, from molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo samples. The correlation parameter b is the number of consecutive dihedral or valence angles along the chain that are taken into account explicitly. The continuum angles are approximated by a discretization parameter l; the larger are b and l, the better the approximations; while FA can be estimated efficiently, it is more difficult to estimate FB. The method is further developed here by applying it to MD trajectories of a relatively large molecule (188 atoms), the potent "Asp4-Dpr10" antagonist [cyclo(4/10)-(Ac-delta 3Pro1-D-pFPhe2-D-Trp3-Asp4-Tyr5-D-Nal6-Leu7-Arg8 -Pro9- Dpr10-NH2)] of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). The molecule was simulated in vacuo at T = 300 K in two conformational states, previously investigated [J. Rizo et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, (1992) Vol. 114, p. 2860], which differ by the orientation of the N-terminal tail, above (tail up, TU) and below (tail down, TD) the cyclic heptapeptide ring. As in previous applications of the LS method, we have found the following: (1) While FA is a crude approximation for the correct F, results for the difference, delta FA = FA (TD)-FA (TU) converge rapidly to 5.6 (1) kcal/mole as the approximation is improved (i.e., as b and l are increased), which suggests that this is the correct value for delta F; therefore TD is more stable than TU. (The corresponding difference in entropy, T delta SA = 1.3(2) kcal/mole, is equal to the value obtained by the harmonic approximation.) (2) The lowest approximation, which has

  9. Enzymatic removal of polysialic acid from neural cell adhesion molecule interrupts gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron-glial remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Parkash, Jyoti; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-01-02

    There is abundant evidence to prove that the astrocytes are highly dynamic cell type in CNS and under physiological conditions such as reproduction, these cells display a remarkable structural plasticity especially at the level of their distal processes ensheathing the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) axon terminals. The morphology of GnRH axon terminals and astrocytes in the median eminence region of hypothalamus show activity dependent structural plasticity during different phases of estrous cycle. In the current study, we have assessed the functional contribution of ∞-2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) on neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in this neuronal-glial plasticity using both in vitro and in vivo model systems. In vivo experiments were carried out after stereotaxic injection of endoneuraminidase enzyme (endo-N) near median eminence region of hypothalamus to specifically remove PSA residues on NCAM followed by localization of GnRH, PSA-NCAM and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) by immunostaining. Using in vitro model, structural remodeling of GnV-3 cells, (a conditionally immortalized GnRH cell line) co-cultured with primary astrocytes was studied after treating the cells with endo-N. Marked morphological changes were observed in GnRH axon terminals in proestrous phase rats and control GnV-3 cells as compared to endo-N treatment i.e. after removal of PSA. The specificity of endo-N treatment was also confirmed by studying the expression of PSA-NCAM by Western blotting in cultures treated with and without endo-N. Removal of PSA from surfaces with endo-N prevented stimulation associated remodeling of GnRH axon terminals as well as their associated glial cells under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. The current data confirms the permissive role of PSA to promote dynamic remodeling of GnRH axon terminals and their associated glia during reproductive cycle in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists versus standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, Frank; Borgmann, Hendrik; Blümle, Anette; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Schmucker, Christine; Sikic, Danijel; Roelle, Catharina; Schmidt, Stefanie; Wahba, Amr; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2015-11-13

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared to standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer. The international review team included methodologists of the German Cochrane Centre and clinical experts. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, trial registries and conference books for randomised controlled trials (RCT) for effectiveness data analysis, and randomised or non-randomised controlled studies (non-RCT) for safety data analysis (March 2015). Two authors independently screened identified articles, extracted data, evaluated risk of bias and rated quality of evidence according to GRADE. 13 studies (10 RCTs, 3 non-RCTs) were included. No study reported cancer-specific survival or clinical progression. There were no differences in overall mortality (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.93), treatment failure (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.17) or prostate-specific antigen progression (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.06). While there was no difference in quality of life related to urinary symptoms, improved quality of life regarding prostate symptoms, measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), with the use of GnRH antagonists compared with the use of standard androgen suppression therapy (mean score difference -0.40, 95% CI -0.94 to 0.14, and -1.84, 95% CI -3.00 to -0.69, respectively) was found. Quality of evidence for all assessed outcomes was rated low according to GRADE. The risk for injection-site events was increased, but cardiovascular events may occur less often by using GnRH antagonist. Available evidence is hampered by risk of bias, selective reporting and limited follow-up. There is currently insufficient evidence to make firm conclusive statements on the efficacy of GnRH antagonist compared to standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer. There is need for further high-quality research on GnRH antagonists with long-term follow-up. CRD42012002751

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists versus standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer A systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, Frank; Borgmann, Hendrik; Blümle, Anette; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd; Schmucker, Christine; Sikic, Danijel; Roelle, Catharina; Schmidt, Stefanie; Wahba, Amr; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists compared to standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer. Setting The international review team included methodologists of the German Cochrane Centre and clinical experts. Participants We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, trial registries and conference books for randomised controlled trials (RCT) for effectiveness data analysis, and randomised or non-randomised controlled studies (non-RCT) for safety data analysis (March 2015). Two authors independently screened identified articles, extracted data, evaluated risk of bias and rated quality of evidence according to GRADE. Results 13 studies (10 RCTs, 3 non-RCTs) were included. No study reported cancer-specific survival or clinical progression. There were no differences in overall mortality (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.93), treatment failure (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.17) or prostate-specific antigen progression (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.06). While there was no difference in quality of life related to urinary symptoms, improved quality of life regarding prostate symptoms, measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), with the use of GnRH antagonists compared with the use of standard androgen suppression therapy (mean score difference −0.40, 95% CI −0.94 to 0.14, and −1.84, 95% CI −3.00 to −0.69, respectively) was found. Quality of evidence for all assessed outcomes was rated low according to GRADE. The risk for injection-site events was increased, but cardiovascular events may occur less often by using GnRH antagonist. Available evidence is hampered by risk of bias, selective reporting and limited follow-up. Conclusions There is currently insufficient evidence to make firm conclusive statements on the efficacy of GnRH antagonist compared to standard androgen suppression therapy for advanced prostate cancer. There is need for further high-quality research on

  12. Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Lin, Meng-Chin A; Mock, Allan; Yang, Ming; Wayne, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene) is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r) are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while Kiss2 plays an

  13. Effects of kisspeptin1 on electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Wayne, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (product of the kiss1 gene) is the most potent known activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor are highly expressed in the hypothalamus of vertebrates, and low doses of kisspeptin have a robust and long-lasting stimulatory effect on the rate of action potential firing of hypophysiotropic gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) neurons in mice. Fish have multiple populations of GnRH neurons distinguished by their location in the brain and the GnRH gene that they express. GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulb are neuromodulatory and do not play a direct role in regulating pituitary-gonadal function. In medaka fish, the electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons is modulated by visual cues from conspecifics, and is thought to act as a transmitter of information from the external environment to the central nervous system. TN-GnRH3 neurons also play a role in sexual motivation and arousal states, making them an important population of neurons to study for understanding coordination of complex behaviors. We investigated the role of kisspeptin in regulating electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons in adult medaka. Using electrophysiology in an intact brain preparation, we show that a relatively brief treatment with 100 nM of kisspeptin had a long-lasting stimulatory effect on the electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of GnRH neurons. Dose-response analysis suggests a relatively narrow activational range of this neuropeptide. Further, blocking action potential firing with tetrodotoxin and blocking synaptic transmission with a low Ca(2+)/high Mg(2+) solution inhibited the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on electrical activity, indicating that kisspeptin is acting indirectly through synaptic regulation to excite TN-GnRH3 neurons. Our findings provide a new perspective on kisspeptin's broader functions within the central nervous system, through its

  14. Effects of kisspeptin1 on electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in medaka (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhao

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin (product of the kiss1 gene is the most potent known activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor are highly expressed in the hypothalamus of vertebrates, and low doses of kisspeptin have a robust and long-lasting stimulatory effect on the rate of action potential firing of hypophysiotropic gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1 neurons in mice. Fish have multiple populations of GnRH neurons distinguished by their location in the brain and the GnRH gene that they express. GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN associated with the olfactory bulb are neuromodulatory and do not play a direct role in regulating pituitary-gonadal function. In medaka fish, the electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons is modulated by visual cues from conspecifics, and is thought to act as a transmitter of information from the external environment to the central nervous system. TN-GnRH3 neurons also play a role in sexual motivation and arousal states, making them an important population of neurons to study for understanding coordination of complex behaviors. We investigated the role of kisspeptin in regulating electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons in adult medaka. Using electrophysiology in an intact brain preparation, we show that a relatively brief treatment with 100 nM of kisspeptin had a long-lasting stimulatory effect on the electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of GnRH neurons. Dose-response analysis suggests a relatively narrow activational range of this neuropeptide. Further, blocking action potential firing with tetrodotoxin and blocking synaptic transmission with a low Ca(2+/high Mg(2+ solution inhibited the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on electrical activity, indicating that kisspeptin is acting indirectly through synaptic regulation to excite TN-GnRH3 neurons. Our findings provide a new perspective on kisspeptin's broader functions within the central nervous system

  15. Response of lactating dairy cows with or without purulent vaginal discharge to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prostaglandin F2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2018-02-15

    Purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) is a common uterine disease in dairy cattle that has negative effects on reproductive performance. Reproductive management programs that synchronize ovulation use gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce ovulation and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to induce luteolysis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ovarian response to treatment with GnRH and the odds of bearing a corpus luteum or being inseminated in dairy cows with or without PVD. Another objective was to determine the hazard of insemination after administration of PGF2α in dairy cows with or without PVD. Primiparous (n = 291) and multiparous (n = 402) cows were evaluated for PVD using a Metricheck device at 46 ± 3 and 35 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) (study day 0), respectively. On study day 14, primiparous (n = 107) and multiparous (n = 197) cows were treated with GnRH and subsequent ovulation was recorded. Primiparous (n = 178) and multiparous (n = 368) cows not inseminated by study day 21 were administered PGF2α and response to PGF2α treatment was determined by detection of estrus. Furthermore, cows were categorized by the presence of a CL or being inseminated by study days 14, 21, and 35. Overall prevalence of PVD was 28.5% and 13.4% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. Projected 305-d milk yield was less (P PVD+ multiparous cows compared with PVD- multiparous cows, however, no (P = 0.26) difference was detected between primiparous PVD+ and PVD- cows. Ovulatory response to GnRH treatment was 51.8% and 47.8% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. Primiparous PVD- cows tended (P = 0.06) to be less likely to ovulate to GnRH than primiparous PVD+ cows, whereas multiparous PVD+ cows were less (P = 0.04) likely to ovulate to GnRH than PVD- multiparous cows. The odds of bearing a corpus luteum or being inseminated by study days 14, 21, or 35 was not associated with PVD in primiparous cows. In contrast, the odds of bearing a corpus luteum

  16. A Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Gnrh1 Enhancer-Derived Noncoding RNA Regulates Gnrh1 Gene Expression in GnRH Neuronal Cell Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly P Huang

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, a neuropeptide released from a small population of neurons in the hypothalamus, is the central mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and is required for normal reproductive development and function. Evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements in the mouse, rat, and human Gnrh1 gene include three enhancers and the proximal promoter, which confer Gnrh1 gene expression specifically in GnRH neurons. In immortalized mouse hypothalamic GnRH (GT1-7 neurons, which show pulsatile GnRH release in culture, RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR revealed that expression of a novel long noncoding RNA at Gnrh1 enhancer 1 correlates with high levels of GnRH mRNA expression. In GT1-7 neurons, which contain a transgene carrying 3 kb of the rat Gnrh1 regulatory region, both the mouse and rat Gnrh1 enhancer-derived noncoding RNAs (GnRH-E1 RNAs are expressed. We investigated the characteristics and function of the endogenous mouse GnRH-E1 RNA. Strand-specific RT-PCR analysis of GnRH-E1 RNA in GT1-7 cells revealed GnRH-E1 RNAs that are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions from distinct 5' start sites, are 3' polyadenylated, and are over 2 kb in length. These RNAs are localized in the nucleus and have a half-life of over 8 hours. In GT1-7 neurons, siRNA knockdown of mouse GnRH-E1 RNA resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of the Gnrh1 primary transcript and Gnrh1 mRNA. Over-expression of either the sense or antisense mouse GnRH-E1 RNA in immature, migratory GnRH (GN11 neurons, which do not express either GnRH-E1 RNA or GnRH mRNA, induced the transcriptional activity of co-transfected rat Gnrh1 gene regulatory elements, where the induction requires the presence of the rat Gnrh1 promoter. Together, these data indicate that GnRH-E1 RNA is an inducer of Gnrh1 gene expression. GnRH-E1 RNA may play an important role in the development and maturation of GnRH neurons.

  17. A Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 1 (Gnrh1) Enhancer-Derived Noncoding RNA Regulates Gnrh1 Gene Expression in GnRH Neuronal Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Polly P; Brusman, Liza E; Iyer, Anita K; Webster, Nicholas J G; Mellon, Pamela L

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a neuropeptide released from a small population of neurons in the hypothalamus, is the central mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and is required for normal reproductive development and function. Evolutionarily conserved regulatory elements in the mouse, rat, and human Gnrh1 gene include three enhancers and the proximal promoter, which confer Gnrh1 gene expression specifically in GnRH neurons. In immortalized mouse hypothalamic GnRH (GT1-7) neurons, which show pulsatile GnRH release in culture, RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR revealed that expression of a novel long noncoding RNA at Gnrh1 enhancer 1 correlates with high levels of GnRH mRNA expression. In GT1-7 neurons, which contain a transgene carrying 3 kb of the rat Gnrh1 regulatory region, both the mouse and rat Gnrh1 enhancer-derived noncoding RNAs (GnRH-E1 RNAs) are expressed. We investigated the characteristics and function of the endogenous mouse GnRH-E1 RNA. Strand-specific RT-PCR analysis of GnRH-E1 RNA in GT1-7 cells revealed GnRH-E1 RNAs that are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions from distinct 5' start sites, are 3' polyadenylated, and are over 2 kb in length. These RNAs are localized in the nucleus and have a half-life of over 8 hours. In GT1-7 neurons, siRNA knockdown of mouse GnRH-E1 RNA resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of the Gnrh1 primary transcript and Gnrh1 mRNA. Over-expression of either the sense or antisense mouse GnRH-E1 RNA in immature, migratory GnRH (GN11) neurons, which do not express either GnRH-E1 RNA or GnRH mRNA, induced the transcriptional activity of co-transfected rat Gnrh1 gene regulatory elements, where the induction requires the presence of the rat Gnrh1 promoter. Together, these data indicate that GnRH-E1 RNA is an inducer of Gnrh1 gene expression. GnRH-E1 RNA may play an important role in the development and maturation of GnRH neurons.

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger increases the number of oocytes and embryos available for cryopreservation in cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Kelly, Amelia G; Stone, Logan D; Witzke, Justine D; Lekovich, Jovana P; Elias, Rony T; Schattman, Glenn L; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-01

    To compare the oocyte and embryo yield associated with GnRH-agonist triggers vs. hCG triggers in cancer patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for fertilization preservation. Retrospective cohort study. Academic center. Cancer patients undergoing COS with letrozole and gonadotropins or gonadotropin-only protocols for oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or hCG trigger. Number of metaphase II (MII) oocytes or two-pronuclei (2PN) embryos available for cryopreservation were primary outcomes. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the effect of trigger type on the primary outcomes, after controlling for confounders of interest. A total of 341 patients were included, 99 (29.0%) in the GnRH-agonist group and 242 (71%) in the hCG group. There was no difference in the baseline demographics of patients receiving GnRH-agonist or hCG triggers. Within the letrozole and gonadotropins group (n = 269), the number (mean ± SD, 11.8 ± 5.8 vs. 9.9 ± 6.0) and percentage of MII oocytes (89.6% vs. 73.0%) available for cryopreservation was higher with GnRH-agonist triggers compared with hCG triggers. Similar results were noted with GnRH-agonist triggers in the gonadotropin-only group (n = 72) (i.e., a higher number [13.3 ± 7.9 vs. 9.3 ± 6.0] and percentage of MII oocytes [85.7% vs. 72.8%] available for cryopreservation). Multivariate linear regression demonstrated approximately three more MII oocytes and 2PN embryos available for cryopreservation in the GnRH-agonist trigger group, irrespective of cancer and COS protocol type. Utilization of a GnRH-agonist trigger increases the number of MII oocytes and 2PN embryos available for cryopreservation in cancer patients undergoing COS for fertility preservation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-generational effects of parental low dose BPA exposure on the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone3 system and larval behavior in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, T; Smith, N L; Sherva, K M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) may disrupt normal brain function and behavior mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. Previous studies have shown that low dose BPA (200ng/ml) exposure during embryogenesis altered development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 systems and non-reproductive locomotor behavior in medaka. Effects of parental low-dose BPA exposure on the development of GnRH3 systems and locomotor behavior of offspring are not well known. This study examines whether the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of BPA in parents (F0 generation) are carried over to their offspring (F1 generation) using stable transgenic medaka embryos/larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Parental fish were exposed to BPA (200ng/ml) for either life-long or different developmental time windows. Fertilized F1 eggs were collected and raised in egg/fish water with no environmental exposure to BPA. All experiments were performed on F1 embryos/larvae, which were grouped based on the following parental (F0) BPA exposure conditions - (i) Group 1 (G1): through life; (ii) G2: during embryogenesis and early larval development [1-14days post fertilization (dpf)]; (iii) G3: during neurogenesis (1-5dpf); and (iv) G4: during sex differentiation (5-14dpf). Embryos from unexposed vehicle treated parents served as controls (G0). G1 embryos showed significantly reduced survival rates and delayed hatching time compared to other groups, while G4 embryos hatched significantly earlier than all other groups. At 3 dpf, the GnRH3-GFP intensity was increased by 47% in G3 embryos and decreased in G4 embryos by 59% compared to controls. At 4dpf, G1 fish showed 42% increased intensity, while GFP intensity was reduced by 44% in G3 subjects. In addition, the mean brain size of G1, G3 and G4 embryos were smaller than that of control at 4dpf. At 20dpf, all larvae from BPA-treated parents showed significantly decreased

  20. Psychosocial functioning of adolescents with idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for gestational age during three years of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Stroop, Rutger; Kamp, Gerdine A; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M; Sinnema, Gerben

    2005-01-01

    To examine psychosocial functioning of medically referred adolescents with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or persistent short stature born small for gestational age (SGA) during 3 years of combined growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment. Thirty-eight adolescents participated in a controlled trial with GH/GnRHa treatment or no intervention. Each year the adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and structured interviews. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze data. The adolescents of the treatment group showed a worse outcome than the adolescents of the control group on 3 of 16 variables: perceived competence of scholastic (p anxiety (p parents did not report changes in their children during treatment. The observation of some adverse psychological consequences as experienced by the adolescents indicates that it is useful to monitor psychosocial functioning during a combined GH/GnRHa treatment in adolescents with ISS or SGA. It is uncertain whether the hypothesized positive effects of the expected gain in final height by adulthood can sufficiently counterbalance possible short-term negative effects. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Oct-GnRH, the first protostomian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide and a critical mini-review of the presence of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Hiroyuki; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    In protostome and deuterosome invertebrates, neurosecretory cells play major roles in the endocrine system. The optic glands of cephalopods are indicators of sexual maturation. In mature octopuses, optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotropic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the octopus, Octopus vulgaris, and was named oct-GnRH. The discovery of oct-GnRH has triggered structural determinations and predictions of other mollusc GnRH-like peptides in biochemical and in silico studies. Interestingly, cephalopods studied so far are characterized by a single molecular form of oct-GnRH with a C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence, which is critical for gonadotropin-releasing activity in vertebrates. Other molluscan GnRH-like peptides lack the C-terminal -Pro-Gly-NH2 sequence but have -X-NH2 or -Pro-Gly although all protostome GnRH-like peptides have yet to be sequenced. In marine molluscs, relationships between GnRH-like peptides and sex steroids have been studied to verify the hypothesis that molluscs have vertebrate-type sex steroid system. However, it is currently questionable whether such sex steroids are present and whether they play endogenous roles in the reproductive system of molluscs. Because molluscs uptake and store steroids from the environment and fishes release sex steroids into the external environment, it is impossible to rule out the contamination of vertebrate sex steroids in molluscs. The function of key enzymes of steroidogenesis within molluscs remains unclear. Thus, evidence to deny the existence of the vertebrate-type sex steroid system in molluscs has been accumulated. The elucidation of substances, which regulate the maturation and maintenance of gonads and other reproductive functions in molluscs will require rigorous and progressive scientific study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute administration of melatonin at two opposite circadian stages does not change responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone and ACTH in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccotti, P; Terzolo, M; Torta, M; Vignani, A; Schena, M; Piovesan, A; Angeli, A

    1987-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of a single oral administration of 100 mg melatonin (MT) vs placebo (PL) on the pituitary release of LH, FSH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) after GnRH + TRH and on the adrenocortical release of cortisol, aldosterone and progesterone after ACTH in healthy adult males. We carried out a double blind study in 6 volunteers in winter, at two opposite stages of the circadian cycle: 08:00 and 20:00 h. Injection of GnRH (100 micrograms), TRH (200 micrograms) and ACTH (10 micrograms of the synthetic ACTH 1-17 analogue, Alsactide) was performed one h after MT or PL ingestion. Plasma MT levels were 200-4,000-fold higher after MT than PL thus confirming the effective gastrointestinal absorption of the pineal hormone. The hormonal patterns were superimposable after MT and PL. A higher response of PRL, FSH and cortisol was observed in the evening vs morning protocols independently of previous MT or PL. Our data demonstrate that the acute oral administration of a pharmacological dose of MT at two opposite circadian stages is ineffective to change a variety of pituitary and adrenocortical responses in human male subjects. The circadian chronosusceptibility of pituitary and adrenocortical cells to specific stimuli deserves interest to future investigation.

  3. Effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy on idiopathic central precocious puberty in Chinese girls: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinsheng; Tang, Jiulai

    2017-02-22

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) without organic abnormality is called idiopathic CPP (ICPP). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy on ICPP-affected girls in the Chinese population. 286 girls, diagnosed with ICPP were initially enrolled into this trial, and among them 225 eligible patients were randomized to receive a combinational GnRH analog treatment supplemented with either a placebo or pomegranate extract on a daily basis for a period of 3 months. Their demographics, secondary sexual characteristics and hormone profiles were analyzed at baseline and end of trial. After 3 months of treatment, demographic profiles including bone age, growth velocity and height standard deviation score for bone age, and secondary sexual characteristics including uterus and ovary volume, as well as serum hormone profiles including estradiol, peak luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 were all significantly improved in girls receiving a combinational treatment of both GnRH analog and pomegranate extract. Daily consumption of pomegranate extract was able to supplement and improve the treatment outcomes of the GnRH analog therapy for ICPP in Chinese girls.

  4. Effect of feed restriction and initial body weight on growth performance, body composition, and hormones in male pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K L; Mullan, B P; Kim, J C; Payne, H G; Dunshea, F R

    2016-09-01

    Pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) have increased carcass fatness compared to entire males; however, the timing of this increase in fatness after the second immunization against GnRF has not been determined. An experiment was conducted to identify and compare the growth performance, body composition, and physiological changes in immunocastrated males (IC males) at different BW and feeding levels. A total of 64 pigs were used in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the treatments being 1) sex (entire males or IC males), 2) initial BW (45.9 kg [light] or 78.3 kg [heavy]), and 3) feeding regime (2.5 times maintenance [restricted] or ad libitum). The pigs were individually housed, and the diets were fed for 4 wk after the second immunization against GnRF until slaughter at either 68.4 kg BW (light) or 105.8 kg BW (heavy). Immunocastrated males on a restricted feed intake had a lower ADG compared to entire males from d 15 to 28 and d 0 to 28 ( 0.011 and 0.011, respectively). Fat deposition was not affected by sex from d 0 to 14, but from d 15 to 28 IC males deposited 45 g/d more fat than entire males ( = 0.025). Immunocastrated male pigs fed ad libitum deposited 87 g/d more fat from d 15 to 28 than entire males fed ad libitum ( = 0.036). However, there was no difference in fat deposition between IC males and entire males when feed intake was restricted from d 15 to 28. Plasma urea nitrogen levels were greater in IC males compared to entire males from d 7 after the second immunization against GnRF ( 0.05 for d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28). Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 were lower for IC males compared to entire males on d 3, 7, 10, and 28 ( 0.05 for all days). The following conclusions were made: 1) when pigs are immunized at a light BW (50 kg) and/or are on a restricted feed intake, they have a reduced propensity to deposit fat; however, the restriction in feed intake adversely affects growth rate. 2) The majority of fat deposition for males

  5. Aberrant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression and its regulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hattangady, Namita G; Ye, Ping; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Ito-Saito, Takako; Sugawara, Akira; Ohba, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Rainey, William E; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-03-25

    Aberrant expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been reported in human adrenal tissues including aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the details of its expression and functional role in adrenals are still not clear. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the mean level of GnRHR mRNA was significantly higher in APAs than in human normal adrenal (NA) (P=0.004). GnRHR protein expression was detected in human NA and neoplastic adrenal tissues. In H295R cells transfected with GnRHR, treatment with GnRH resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP11B2 reporter activity. Chronic activation of GnRHR with GnRH (100nM), in a cell line with doxycycline-inducible GnRHR (H295R-TR/GnRHR), increased CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production. These agonistic effects were inhibited by blockers for the calcium signaling pathway, KN93 and calmidazolium. These results suggest GnRH, through heterotopic expression of its receptor, may be a potential regulator of CYP11B2 expression levels in some cases of APA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Triggering final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in breast cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation: an extended experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jhansi; Turan, Volkan; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Moy, Fred; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the cycle outcomes and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), when oocyte maturation was triggered by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in breast cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation. One hundred twenty-nine women aged ≤ 45 years, diagnosed with stage ≤ 3 breast cancer, with normal ovarian reserve who desired fertility preservation were included in the retrospective cohort study. Ovarian stimulation was achieved utilizing letrozole and gonadotropins. Oocyte maturation was triggered with GnRHa or hCG. Baseline AMH levels, number of oocytes, maturation and fertilization rates, number of embryos, and the incidence of OHSS was recorded. The serum AMH levels were similar between GnRHa and hCG groups (2.7 ± 1.9 vs. 2.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.327). There was one case of mild or moderate OHSS in the GnRHa group compared to 12 in the hCG group (2.1 % vs. 14.4 %, p = 0.032). The maturation and fertilization rates, and the number of cryopreserved embryos were significantly higher in the GnRHa group. GnRHa trigger improved cycle outcomes as evidenced by the number of mature oocytes and cryopreserved embryos, while significantly reducing the risk of OHSS in breast cancer patients undergoing fertility preservation.

  7. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  8. Milt-Egg Ratio in Artificial Fertilization of Pangasiid Catfish Injected by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Analog (GnRH-a and Domperidone Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Subagja

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the level of gonadotropin hormone treatments combined with latency time to induce ovulation in Pangasius djambal was conducted in the Research Instalation of Germ Plasm, Cijeruk, Bogor. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of GnRH-a and domperidone mixture on the milt production and fertilization rates of Pangasius djambal, and to determine the optimal milt-egg ratio required for artificial fertilization. Different doses of hormone i.e: 0,3; 0,5 and 0,7 ml kg"1 body weight combined with latency time of 12, 24 and 48 h after inducing hormone were applied to increase milt-production. Milt dilution was 10"1, 10~2, 10"3, 10"4, 10"5, 10"6 and 10"7and evaluated for hatching rate and normality of larvae. The results showed that mean milt production was 4,3 ml/kg body weight, and there was interaction between hormone dose of 0,5 ml/kg of body weight and latency time 12 and 24 h that giving hatching rate of 77 to 83% ( p Key words : Fertilization, milt production, domperidone, Pangasius djambal   ABSTRAK Suatu studi penyuntikan hormon gonadotropin dengan perbedaan dosis dan waktu laten terhadap spesies Pangasius djambal telah dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Plasma Nutfah Air Tawar, Cijeruk, Bogor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hormon GnRH-a dan domperidon terhadap produktivitas semen ikan jantan dan viabilitasnya pada pembuahan buatan. Tujuan lainnya untuk menentukan perbandingan optimal antara jumlah spermatozoa dengan telur dalam fertilisasi buatan. Dosis hormon perlakuan untuk peningkatan produksi semen yaitu 0,3; 0,5 dan 0,7 ml.kg"1 bobot badan yang di kombinasikan dengan waktu inkubasi jantan 12, 24 dan 24 jam setelah penyuntikan hormon. Semen diencerkan mulai dari 10"', 10"2, 10"3, 10"4, 10~5, 10'6 dan 10"7, dan dilakukan pembuahan terhadap telur. Daya tetas dan abnormalitas larva dievaluasi. Hasil analisis menunjukan produksi semen rata-rata 4,3 ml/kg bobot badan, ada interaksi antara dosis hormon 0

  9. Capillary electrophoresis in classical and carrier ampholytes-based background electrolytes applied to separation and characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Poitevin, M.; Koval, Dušan; Busnel, J. M.; Peltre, G.; Kašička, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1267, SI (2012), s. 231-238 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : CABCE * isoelectric background electrolytes * peptide hormones Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  10. Promotion of Human Trophoblasts Invasion by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) I and GnRH II via Distinct Signaling Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing; MacCalman, Colin D.; Wang, Yan-ling; Leung, Peter C. K.

    2009-01-01

    The potential roles of GnRH I and GnRH II have been assigned in promoting the invasive capacity of human trophoblasts by regulating matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, type I tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, and urokinase plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor protease systems during human placentation, and GnRH II has been shown to be more potent than GnRH I. However, the mechanisms for the differential effects of these two hormones remain unclear. In this study, ...

  11. Effect of a single injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on testicular blood flow measured by color doppler ultrasonography in male Shiba goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Ahmed, Eman; Karen, Aly; Nagaoka, Kentaro; El Sayed, Mohamed; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Gen

    2015-05-01

    Although color Doppler ultrasonography has been used to evaluate testicular blood flow in many species, very little has been done in goat. Eight male Shiba goats were exposed to a single intramuscular injection of either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH group; 1 µg/kg BW) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG group; 25 IU/kg BW). Plasma testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and inhibin (INH) were measured just before (0 hr) and at different intervals post injection by radioimmunoassay. Testis volume (TV) and Doppler indices, such as resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the supratesticular artery, were measured by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. The results indicated an increase in testicular blood flow in both groups, as RI and PI decreased significantly (P<0.05), but this increase was significant higher and earlier in hCG group (1 hr) than in the GnRH group (2 hr). A high correlation was found for RI and PI with both T (RI, r= -0.862; PI, r= -0.707) and INH in the GnRH group (RI, r=0.661; PI, r=0.701). However, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between E2 and both RI (r= -0.610) and PI (r= -0.763) in hCG group. In addition, TV significantly increased and was highly correlated with RI in both groups (GnRH, r= -0.718; hCG, r= -0.779). In conclusion, hCG and GnRH may improve testicular blood flow and TV in Shiba goats.

  12. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration or a controlled internal drug-releasing insert after timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Kwan; Choi, In Soo; Kang, Hyun Gu; Hur, Tai Young; Kim, Ill Hwa

    2016-12-30

    This study investigated the effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration (Experiment 1) and a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert (Experiment 2) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the pregnancy rates of dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 569 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following short-term synchronization with prostaglandin F 2α were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 307) or injection of 100 µg of gonadorelin on day 5 (GnRH, n = 262). In Experiment 2, 279 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following Ovsynch were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 140) or CIDR insert treatment from days 3.5 to 18 (CIDR, n = 139). The probability of pregnancy following TAI did not differ between the GnRH (34.4%) and control (31.6%, p > 0.05) groups. However, the probability of pregnancy following TAI was higher (odds ratio: 1.74, p < 0.05) in the CIDR group (51.1%) than in the control group (39.3%). Overall, CIDR insert treatment at days 3.5 to 18 increased pregnancy rates relative to non-treated controls, whereas a single GnRH administration on day 5 did not affect the pregnancy outcomes of dairy cows.

  13. Decreased gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity is associated with decreased fertility and dysregulation of food intake in the female GPR-4 transgenic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Francisca; la Fleur, Susanne E; Weiner, Richard I; Dallman, Mary F; El Majdoubi, Mohammed

    2005-09-01

    Expression of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase in GnRH neurons in the GPR-4 transgenic rat resulted in decreased LH levels and pulse frequency and diminished fertility. We have characterized changes in fertility, adiposity, and reproductive and metabolic hormones with age. Although LH levels were decreased in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old GPR-4 females relative to wild-type (WT) controls, GPR-4 females did not become anovulatory until 6 months of age. No differences were observed in FSH, estradiol, or androstenedione levels in 3-, 6-, or 9-month-old GPR-4 and WT females. At 9 months of age, GPR-4 females had significantly increased abdominal and sc fat depot weights that were associated with increased leptin and insulin levels not observed in WT females. We tested the hypothesis that metabolic changes observed at 9 months of age were the result of dysregulation of the mechanisms controlling energy balance. Two-month-old female GPR-4 rats placed on a high-energy diet gained weight at a rate significantly greater than WT females and, after 24 d, developed the same metabolic phenotype observed in 9-month-old GRP-4 females (increased abdominal and sc fat associated with elevated leptin and insulin concentrations). Overeating did not correlate with changes in estradiol or androstenedione levels. We conclude that decreased GnRH neuronal activity is closely associated with decreased reproductive function and dysregulation of food intake.

  14. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration or a controlled internal drug-releasing insert after timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Kwan; Choi, In Soo; Kang, Hyun Gu; Hur, Tai Young

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration (Experiment 1) and a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert (Experiment 2) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the pregnancy rates of dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 569 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following short-term synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 307) or injection of 100 µg of gonadorelin on day 5 (GnRH, n = 262). In Experiment 2, 279 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following Ovsynch were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 140) or CIDR insert treatment from days 3.5 to 18 (CIDR, n = 139). The probability of pregnancy following TAI did not differ between the GnRH (34.4%) and control (31.6%, p > 0.05) groups. However, the probability of pregnancy following TAI was higher (odds ratio: 1.74, p < 0.05) in the CIDR group (51.1%) than in the control group (39.3%). Overall, CIDR insert treatment at days 3.5 to 18 increased pregnancy rates relative to non-treated controls, whereas a single GnRH administration on day 5 did not affect the pregnancy outcomes of dairy cows. PMID:27030200

  15. Pattern of induced estrus and conception rate following Ovsynch and Ovsynch based gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatments initiated on day 6 of estrous cycle in repeat breeding crossbred cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N.; Kathiresan, D.; Ahmed, F. A.; Lalrintluanga, K.; Mayengbam, P.; Gali, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the estrus response, incidence of accessory corpus luteum formation and fertility following different hormonal protocols in repeat breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 24 repeat breeding crossbred cows allotted into four groups. Cows of Group I was not given any treatment, Group II was treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection on day 6 post-estrus, Group III was treated with Ovsynch protocol, and Group IV was treated with Ovsynch based GnRH treatment. Estrus responses such as duration, onset, percentage, and intensity of estrus were recorded during the study. The incidence of accessory corpus luteum was recorded per rectally on day 7 after first and additional GnRH of Ovsynch treatment. The conception rate for all groups was calculated by the absence of estrus and on day 45 after artificial insemination (AI) per rectum. Serum samples were collected at AI and day 12 post-AI in Group I and II. Serum samples were also collected at GnRH, Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), timed AI (TAI) and day 12 post-TAI in Group III and IV. Results: Ovsynch and Ovsynch based GnRH treatments are resulted in 100.00% induction of estrus after the PGF2α injection. Onset of induced estrus after the PGF2α injection for Group III and IV was recorded as 48.750±0.713 and 51.472±1.989 h, respectively, and it was not significant. There was no significant difference in duration of estrus among the groups. The incidence of intermediate estrus intensity was found to be highest. All the cows showed the incidence of formation of accessory corpus luteum subsequent to GnRH treatment on day 6 of the estrous cycle in Group II, III, and IV. The conception rate was 0.00%, 16.67%, 50.00%, and 50.00% in Group I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Conclusion: Ovsynch and Ovsynch based GnRH treatments initiated on day 6 of estrous cycle capable of responding with a higher percentage of ovulation and formation of accessory

  16. Estrogen receptor beta and 2-arachydonoylglycerol mediate the suppressive effects of estradiol on frequency of postsynaptic currents in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of metestrous mice: an acute slice electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra eBálint

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons are controlled by 17β-estradiol (E2 contributing to the steroid feedback regulation of the reproductive axis. In rodents, E2 exerts a negative feedback effect upon GnRH neurons throughout the estrus-diestrus phase of the ovarian cycle. The present study was undertaken to reveal the role of estrogen receptor subtypes in the mediation of the E2 signal and elucidate the downstream molecular machinery of suppression. The effect of E2 administration at low physiological concentration (10 pM on GnRH neurons in acute brain slices obtained from metestrous GnRH-GFP mice was studied under paradigms of blocking or activating estrogen receptor subtypes and interfering with retrograde 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG signaling. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that E2 significantly diminished the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in GnRH neurons (49. 62±7.6% which effect was abolished by application of the ERα/β blocker Faslodex (1 µM. Pretreatment of the brain slices with cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (1 µM and intracellularly applied endocannabinoid synthesis blocker THL (10 µM significantly attenuated the effect of E2 on the sPSCs. E2 remained effective in the presence of TTX indicating a direct action of E2 on GnRH cells. The ERβ specific agonist DPN (10 pM also significantly decreased the frequency of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs in GnRH neurons. In addition, the suppressive effect of E2 was completely blocked by the selective ERβ antagonist PHTPP (1 µM indicating that ERβ is required for the observed rapid effect of the E2. In contrast, the ERα agonist PPT (10 pM or the membrane-associated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 agonist G1 (10 pM had no significant effect on the frequency of mPSCs in these neurons. AM251 and THL significantly abolished the effect of E2 whereas AM251 eliminated the action of DPN on the mPSCs. These

  17. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine for inducing anoestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides Valades, Gabriela; Ganswindt, Andre; Annandale, Henry; Schulman, Martin L; Bertschinger, Henk J

    2012-08-25

    In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Between May 2009-June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM) on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa) 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine for four years (2004-2007). All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls) showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces) were significantly higher (Pelephants. These results indicate that irregular oestrous cycles occur amongst free

  18. A Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trial of A Single Luteal Use of Long-Acting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Degarelix in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization: Long Antagonist Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G. Papanikolaou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA drawback of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF is that they have limited flexibility in cycle programming. This proof of concept study explored the efficacy of a single-dose, long-acting GnRH antagonist IVF protocol. Trial registration number is NCT03240159, retrospectively registered on March 08, 2017.Materials and methodsThe efficacy of a single-dose long-acting antagonist, degarelix, was explored initially in healthy donors and subsequently in infertile patients. In the first part, five healthy oocyte donors underwent ovarian stimulation with this new protocol: in the late luteal phase, at day 24, a bolus injection of degarelix was administered subcutaneously to control the LH surge in the follicular phase. Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins was initiated subsequently from day 7 to day 10. End points were first to inhibit the LH surge later in the follicular phase and, second, to retrieve mature oocytes for IVF. In the second part, five infertile women received the same bolus injection of degarelix administered during the luteal phase at day 24. Different gonadotropin starting days (day 2 through day 8 were tested in order to observe possible differences in ovarian stimulation. In these infertile patients, fresh embryo transfers were performed to assess the pregnancy efficacy of this protocol on pregnancy outcomes and to address any possible negative effects on endometrium receptivity.ResultsIn the first part of the study, all donors were effectively downregulated with a single luteal dose of 0.5 ml of degarelix for up to 22 days until the final oocyte maturation triggering day. Mature oocytes were retrieved after 36 h from all patients and all produced 2–7 blastocysts. In the second part, all five infertile patients achieved sufficient LH downregulation and completed ovarian stimulation without any LH surge. All patients (except one with freeze all strategy had

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Leung, Peter CK

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the

  20. Repeat dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing In Vitro fertilization cycles provides a better cycle outcome - a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Deepika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Is a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa trigger to induce final oocyte maturation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol sufficient to provide optimal oocyte maturity? Design: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. Setting: This study was carried out at a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: A total of 125 patients diagnosed with PCOS defined as per the ESHRE/ASRM Rotterdam criteria (2003 undergoing IVF in antagonist protocol were randomized into two groups. Group A: single dose of GnRHa 0.2 mg, 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval, and Group B: 0.2 mg GnRHa 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval + repeat dose of 0.1 mg 12 h following the 1st dose. 12 h post-trigger, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone (P4, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH values were estimated. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as proportions where applicable. Independent sample t-test was used for continuous variables which were normally distributed and Mann–Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables where appropriate. Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs was calculated. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the post-trigger LH, P4, and FSH values at 12 h as predictors of oocyte maturity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome: maturity rate of the oocytes. Secondary outcomes: oocyte yield, fertilization rate, availability of good quality embryos on day 3, blastocyst conversion, OHSS rates, post-trigger serum LH (IU/L, FSH (IU/L, and P4 (ng/mL levels implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: A higher number of mature (metaphase II oocytes were obtained in Group B compared to Group A (OR of 0.47; CI: 0.38–0

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 excites firing and increases GABAergic miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons of the male mice via activation of nitric oxide (NO and suppression of endocannabinoid signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Farkas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, a metabolic signal molecule, regulates reproduction, although, the involved molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, yet. Therefore, responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons to the GLP-1 analog Exendin-4 and elucidation of molecular pathways acting downstream to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R have been challenged. Loose patch-clamp recordings revealed that Exendin-4 (100 nM–5 μM elevated firing rate in hypothalamic GnRH-GFP neurons of male mice via activation of GLP-1R. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements demonstrated increased excitatory GABAergic miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs frequency after Exendin-4 administration, which was eliminated by the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin-3(9-39 (1 μM. Intracellular application of the G-protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S (2 mM impeded action of Exendin-4 on mPSCs, suggesting direct excitatory action of GLP-1 on GnRH neurons. Blockade of nitric-oxide (NO synthesis by L-NAME (100 μM or NPLA (1 μM or intracellular scavenging of NO by CPTIO (1 mM partially attenuated the excitatory effect of Exendin-4. Similar partial inhibition was achieved by hindering endocannabinoid pathway using CB1 inverse-agonist AM251 (1 μM. Simultaneous blockade of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms eliminated action of Exendin-4 suggesting involvement of both retrograde machineries. Intracellular application of the TRPV1-antagonist AMG9810 (10 μM or the FAAH-inhibitor PF3845 (5 μM impeded the GLP-1-triggered endocannabinoid pathway indicating an anandamide-TRPV1-sensitive control of 2-AG production. Furthermore, GLP-1 immunoreactive axons innervated GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus suggesting that GLP-1 of both peripheral and neuronal sources can modulate GnRH neurons. RT-qPCR study confirmed the expression of GLP-1R and nNOS mRNAs in GnRH-GFP neurons. Immuno-electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS protein in Gn

  2. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue test in healthy prepubertal girls aged 10 months to 6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben T; Schjørring, Mia Elbek; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    of age is challenging, as no reference interval exists for this age group. The objective is to determine the normal FSH and LH response to a GnRH test in healthy prepubertal girls below 6 years of age. DESIGN AND METHODS: A standardized GnRH test, baseline reproductive hormones, clinical evaluation...... and bone age were determined in all participants. Forty-eight healthy normal-weight girls aged 3.5 ± 0.2 years (range: 0.8-5.9 years) were included. Serum concentrations of LH and FSH were measured before and 30 min after the gonadorelin injection. RESULTS: The 30-min LH responses (mean ± 2 s.d.) were 5.......2 ± 4.0 and 2.9 ± 2.5 IU/L and the FSH responses were 23.3 ± 16.2 and 14.5 ± 10.3 IU/L in girls aged 0.8-3.0 years and 3.0-5.9 years respectively. This corresponds to upper cut-off limits for LH of 9.2 IU/L (FSH ratio was 0.23 ± 0.19 (range 0...

  3. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  4. Increased Progesterone/Estradiol Ratio on the Day of hCG Administration Adversely Affects Success of In Vitro Fertilization–Embryo Transfer in Patients Stimulated with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist and Recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Che Ou

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Premature luteinization, defined as late follicular P/E2 ratio of > 1 in long GnRHa cycles with rFSH stimulation, adversely affected ovarian responses and clinical outcomes. It seems unrelated to preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH elevation and LH/hCG content of gonadotropins and could be associated with poor ovarian response and the presence of dysmature follicles. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:1 68-1 74

  5. Dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to genistein on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone and volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in postpubertal castrated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, K A; Hughes, C L

    1993-01-01

    Estrogen exposure during critical periods of development promotes androgenization of the brain, which is reflected in altered morphology, behavior, and cyclic hormone secretion in females. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that neonatal female rats injected with pharmaceutical or naturally occurring estrogens had decreased GnRH-induced LH secretion and increased volume of the SDN-POA as 42 day castrates. The current experiment defines the dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen genistein (G) on pituitary sensitivity to GnRH and SDN-POA volume. Litters of rat pups received subcutaneous injections of either corn oil, 1, 10, 100, 200, 400, 500, or 1000 micrograms of G on days 1 to 10 of life. The litters were ovariectomized and weaned on day 21. On day 42 blood was drawn from right atrial catheters immediately prior to, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min following a single injection of 50 ng/kg of GnRH. Only the 10 micrograms dose of G was associated with increased pituitary response to GnRH, while progressive increases in exposure levels of G were associated with decreasing LH secretion. The SDN-POA volume was increased in only the 500 micrograms and 1000 micrograms exposure groups compared to controls. The results confirm that low doses of G have nonandrogenizing, pituitary-sensitizing effects, while higher doses of G mimic the more typical effects of estrogens. The use of both morphologic and physiologic end points more completely defines the reproductive consequences of environmental estrogen exposure during critical periods of CNS development.

  6. Quality of life and psychosocial and physical well-being among 1,023 women during their first assisted reproductive technology treatment: secondary outcome to a randomized controlled trial comparing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and GnRH agonist protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftager, Mette; Sylvest, Randi; Schmidt, Lone; Bogstad, Jeanette; Løssl, Kristine; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Zedeler, Anne; Bryndorf, Thue; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    To compare self-reported quality of life, psychosocial well-being, and physical well-being during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in 1,023 women allocated to either a short GnRH antagonist or long GnRH agonist protocol. Secondary outcome of a prospective phase 4, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Four times during treatment a questionnaire on self-reported physical well-being was completed. Further, a questionnaire on self-reported quality of life and psychosocial well-being was completed at the day of hCG testing. Fertility clinics at university hospitals. Women referred for their first ART treatment were randomized in a 1:1 ratio and started standardized ART protocols. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue; 528 women allocated to a short GnRH antagonist protocol and 495 women allocated to a long GnRH agonist protocol. Self-reported quality of life, psychosocial well-being, and physical well-being based on questionnaires developed for women receiving ART treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar, and response rates were 79.4% and 74.3% in the GnRH antagonist and GnRH agonist groups, respectively. Self-reported quality of life during ART treatment was rated similar and slightly below normal in both groups. However, women in the GnRH antagonist group felt less emotional (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.69), less limited in their everyday life (AOR 0.74), experienced less unexpected crying (AOR 0.71), and rated quality of sleep better (AOR 1.55). Further, women receiving GnRH agonist treatment felt worse physically. Women in a short GnRH antagonist protocol rated psychosocial and physical well-being during first ART treatment better than did women in a long GnRH agonist protocol. However, the one item on self-reported general quality of life was rated similarly. NCT00756028. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. [[Page... veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate by subcutaneous... provides for the veterinary prescription use of IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid...

  8. Immunization of pigs against chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II and lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III: effects on gonadotropin secretion and testicular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, A; Khan, S; Berghman, L; Kirby, J D; Wettemann, R P; Vizcarra, J A

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of active immunization against 2 GnRH isoforms on gonadotropin secretion and testicular function in pigs. Synthetic chicken (c) GnRH-II and lamprey (l) GnRH-III peptides, with the common pGlu-His-Trp-Ser sequence at the N-terminal omitted, were conjugated to BSA. Forty-eight male piglets were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Pigs on treatment 1 were actively immunized against cGnRH-II, whereas pigs on treatment 2 were actively immunized against lGnRH-III. Control pigs on treatment 3 were actively immunized against the carrier protein (BSA), and pigs on treatment 4 were castrated and actively immunized against BSA. The BSA conjugate was emulsified in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant and diethylaminoethyldextran. Primary immunization was given at 13 wk of age (WOA) with booster immunizations given at 16 and 19 WOA. Body weight and plasma samples were collected weekly beginning at 11 WOA. Treatments did not affect BW during the experimental period. Antibody titers were increased in animals immunized against cGnRH-II and lGnRH-III (P immunized pigs (treatment x week; P Immunized animals had concentrations of LH (P pigs were exsanguinated. Testes were removed immediately; Leydig cells were isolated and treated with 0, 1, or 10 ng/mL of LH. There was an LH x GnRH treatment effect on testosterone concentrations (P immunization protocol and doses of LH. Taken together, these data suggest that immunization against GnRH isoforms decreased gonadotropin secretion compared with control barrows. Additionally, immunization against cGnRH-II and lGnRH-III reduced the ability of Leydig cells to respond to LH challenges.

  9. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  10. A novel "delayed start" protocol with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist improves outcomes in poor responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Hakan; Tran, Nam D; Zamah, A Musa; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether delaying the start of ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist improves ovarian response in poor responders. Retrospective study. Academic medical center. Thirty patients, who responded poorly and did not get pregnant with conventional estrogen priming antagonist IVF protocol. Delayed-start antagonist protocol (estrogen priming followed by early follicular-phase GnRH antagonist treatment for 7 days before ovarian stimulation). Number of dominant follicles and mature oocytes retrieved, mature oocyte yield, and fertilization rate. The number of patients who met the criteria to proceed to oocyte retrieval was significantly higher in the delayed-start protocol [21/30 (70%)] compared with the previous conventional estrogen priming antagonist cycle [11/30 (36.7%)]. The number of dominant follicles was significantly higher in the delayed-start (4.2 ± 2.7) compared with conventional (2.4 ± 1.3) protocol. In patients who had oocyte retrieval after both protocols (n = 9), the delayed start resulted in shorter ovarian stimulation (9.4 ± 1.4 days vs. 11.1 ± 2.0 days), higher number of mature oocytes retrieved (4.9 ± 2.0 vs. 2.2 ± 1.1), and a trend toward increased fertilization rates with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI; 86 ± 17% vs. 69 ± 21%) compared with conventional protocol. After delayed start, the average number of embryos transferred was 2.8 ± 1.4 with implantation rate of 9.8% and clinical pregnancy rate of 23.8%. The delayed-start protocol improves ovarian response in poor responders by promoting and synchronizing follicle development without impairing oocyte developmental competence. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contraceptive efficacy of recombinant fusion protein comprising zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 fragment and gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukha, Ananta Prasad; Minhas, Vidisha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Contraceptive vaccines have been used for the management of wildlife population. In the present study, we have examined the contraceptive potential of Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein comprising of 'promiscuous' T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker (KK), dog ZP3 fragment (aa residues 307-346), triglycine spacer (GGG), T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase; aa residues 94-104), GnRH, T cell epitope of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (CSP; aa residues 362-383), and GnRH. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified refolded protein revealed a dominant ∼12 kDa band, which in Western blot reacted with mouse polyclonal antibodies against dog ZP3 fragment and mouse monoclonal antibodies against GnRH. Immunization of female FvB/J mice following two booster schedule with the above recombinant protein supplemented with alum led to high antibody titres against the immunogen as well as ZP3 and GnRH as determined by ELISA. The immune sera reacted with zona pellucida of mouse oocyte and also inhibited in-vitro fertilization. The qRT-PCR studies showed decrease in the ovarian GnRH receptor in mice immunized with the recombinant fusion protein. Mating studies revealed high contraceptive efficacy of the recombinant protein as in two independent experiments, 90% of the immunized female mice failed to conceive. Following one booster immunization schedule, 50% of the immunized female mice failed to conceive. However, in adjuvanted controls, all the female mice became pregnant. To conclude, the recombinant protein described herein has a good potential to be developed as candidate contraceptive vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Paclitaxel conjugation with the analog of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone as a targeting moiety

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Marie; Dvořáková, Marcela; Hanusová, V.; Nemethová, I.; Skálová, L.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 415, 1-2 (2011), s. 175-180 ISSN 0378-5173 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Paclitaxel * GnRH * Targeted drug delivery Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.350, year: 2011

  13. Effect of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cGnRH-II) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Stage 3: 3 x 2 = 6. Stage 4: 0. Total eggs = 20. 5 + 24 + 6 = 35. 35/20 = 1.8. Mean GV stage: 1.9. Fish 1 petri 2. Stage 1: 3 x 1 = 3. Stage 2: 14 x 2 = 28 ..... Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 58: 120-127. Gothilf Y, Zohar Y (1991). Clearance of different forms of GnRH from the circulation of the gilthead seabream, ...

  14. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  15. Tritium labeling of gonadotropin releasing hormone in its proline and histidine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauschenz, E.; Bienert, M.; Egler, H.; Pleiss, U.; Niedrich, H.; Nikolics, K.

    1981-01-01

    3,4-dehydroproline9-GnRH prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis was tritiated catalytically under various conditions yielding 3H-GnRH with specific radioactivities in the range from 35-60 Ci/mmol and full LH releasing activity in vitro. Using palladium/alumina catalyst, the tritiation of the double bond occurs within ten minutes. Investigation of the tritium distribution between the amino acid residues showed a remarkably high incorporation of tritium into the histidine residue (11 to 37%). On the basis of this observation, the tritium labeling of GnRH and angiotensin I by direct catalytic hydrogen-tritium exchange was found to be useful for the labeling of these peptides at remarkably high specific radioactivity

  16. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Treatment in Postmenopausal Women with Hyperandrogenism of Ovarian Origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, Esther S.; van Beek, Andre P.; Verburg, Frederik A. J.; Roos, Annemieke; Land, Jolande A.

    Context: The most frequent cause of virilization in postmenopausal women is excessive androgen production of ovarian origin. Bilateral oophorectomy is usually performed, even in cases of benign tumors or hyperthecosis. This is the first report of a case series of long-term GnRH-agonist treatment of

  17. Response to the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist leuprolide in immature female sheep androgenized in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS, female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T-females are hypergonadotropic, exhibit neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, hyperinsulinemia and cycle defects. Hypergonadotropism and multifollicular morphology may in part be due to developmentally regulated increase in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and may culminate in increased ovarian estradiol production. In this study, we utilized a GnRH agonist, leuprolide, to determine the developmental impact of prenatal testosterone exposure on pituitary-gonadal function and to establish if prenatal exposure produces changes in the reproductive axis similar to those described for women with PCOS. Eight control and eight T-females were injected intravenously with 0.1 mg of leuprolide acetate per kilogram of body weight at 5, 10 and 20 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected by means of an indwelling jugular vein catheter at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 hours after leuprolide. Area under the curve (AUC of LH response to leuprolide increased progressively between the three ages studied (P<0.05. AUC of LH in T-females was higher than in control females of the same age at 5 and 10 weeks of age (P<0.05, but similar at 20 weeks of age. AUC of estradiol response was lower at 10 but higher at 20 weeks of age in T-females compared to controls of the same age (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment alters the pituitary and ovarian responsiveness in a manner comparable to that observed in women with PCOS.

  18. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity, endogeneous cardiac glycoside-like factors (s) and natriuretic hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous factors crossreacting with antidigoxin antibodies (digoxin-like immunoreactive substances=DLIS) have been found in several tissues and body fluids of animals and humans, using commercially avaiable digoxin RIA or EIA methods. Detectable DLIS concentration were found in blood and urine extracts of adults (normal healthy controls, hypertensive patients and salt loaded healthy subjects), while higher levels were generally observed in plasma samples of pregnant women, newborns and patients with renal insufficiency. The chemical characteristics of this endogenous factor are, at present, unknown, although it has been suggested that DLIS could be a substance with low molecular weight. Experimental studies and theoretical consideration suggest that DLIS, in addition to reacting with antibodies, might also bind to the specific cellular receptor of the cardiac glycosides and thus inhibit the membrane Na + /K + ATPase (sodium pump). Therefore, it has been suggested that DLSI is an endogeneous modulator of the membrane sodium-potassium pump and it could play a role in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes muscular tone of myocardial and also in pathogenesis of hypertension

  19. The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; McGuire, Nicolette L.; Calisi, Rebecca M.; Perfito, Nicole; Bentley, George E.

    2008-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the reproductive physiology and behavior of vertebrates by stimulating synthesis and release of gonadotropin from the pituitary gland. In 2000, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), was discovered in quail and found to be an inhibiting factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH homologs are present in the brains of vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and fish. These peptides, categorized as RF amide-...

  20. Effect of gonadotropin releasing factor suppression with an immunological on growth performance, estrus activity, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of market gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Flowers, W L; Kyle, J M; Johnson, S S; King, V L; Spruill, J L; Thompson, D P; Schroeder, A L; Boler, D D

    2014-10-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the administration of an anti-gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) analog on suppression of estrus, consistency of feed intake, and growth performance in market gilts and to investigate the impact the physiological changes would have on carcass characteristics and fresh meat quality. Gonadotropin releasing factor stimulates the anterior pituitary to release luteinizing hormone that acts on the ovary to induce follicle development and indirectly initiates ovulation. Improvest (Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) contains an incomplete version of naturally occurring GnRF and causes the production of anti-GnRF antibodies that bind to the GnRF receptor and thus render GnRF inactive. This in turn suppresses estrus in female pigs. Gilts were initially separated into 10 blocks based on age and then within each block allotted to a pen (n = 114; 5 pigs/pen) based on BW. Gilts received the first dose at 12 wk of age and the second dose at 16 wk of age, were exposed to a boar daily from 20 to 26 wk of age, and were slaughtered at 26 wk of age (10 wk after second dose). Meat quality was analyzed on the 2 gilts closest to pen average ending live weight in 5 of the 10 blocks. Pen served as the experimental unit for all data analysis. During the 15-wk finishing period, ADG was 0.03 kg greater (P gilts administered GnRF suppression (treated) compared with untreated gilts (control). The majority of improvements in growth performance were observed from 16 to 20 wk of age (4 wk after second dose), as ADG was 0.07 kg greater (P gilts compared with control gilts. Ovarian weights were reduced (P gilts exhibiting puberty were reduced by 87.80% (P gilts compared with control gilts. Back fat depth was 3.78 mm greater (P gilts compared with control gilts. With the exception of subjective color, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.12) in meat quality parameters between treated and control gilts. Subjective color was darker (P = 0.03) in treated gilts compared with control gilts

  1. Substance P immunoreactivity exhibits frequent colocalization with kisspeptin and neurokinin B in the human infundibular region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hrabovszky

    Full Text Available Neurons synthesizing neurokinin B (NKB and kisspeptin (KP in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus represent important upstream regulators of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurosecretion. In search of neuropeptides co-expressed in analogous neurons of the human infundibular nucleus (Inf, we have carried out immunohistochemical studies of the tachykinin peptide Substance P (SP in autopsy samples from men (21-78 years and postmenopausal (53-83 years women. Significantly higher numbers of SP-immunoreactive (IR neurons and darker labeling were observed in the Inf of postmenopausal women than in age-matched men. Triple-immunofluorescent studies localized SP immunoreactivity to considerable subsets of KP-IR and NKB-IR axons and perikarya in the infundibular region. In postmenopausal women, 25.1% of NKB-IR and 30.6% of KP-IR perikarya contained SP and 16.5% of all immunolabeled cell bodies were triple-labeled. Triple-, double- and single-labeled SP-IR axons innervated densely the portal capillaries of the infundibular stalk. In quadruple-labeled sections, these axons formed occasional contacts with GnRH-IR axons. Presence of SP in NKB and KP neurons increases the functional complexity of the putative pulse generator network. First, it is possible that SP modulates the effects of KP and NKB in axo-somatic and axo-dendritic afferents to GnRH neurons. Intrinsic SP may also affect the activity and/or neuropeptide release of NKB and KP neurons via autocrine/paracrine actions. In the infundibular stalk, SP may influence the KP and NKB secretory output via additional autocrine/paracrine mechanisms or regulate GnRH neurosecretion directly. Finally, possible co-release of SP with KP and NKB into the portal circulation could underlie further actions on adenohypophysial gonadotrophs.

  2. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing...... hormone and testosterone values are normally low....

  3. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone...... received HCG and 45 underwent orchiopexy without hormonal therapy. Groups were otherwise equal. RESULTS: Patients who underwent surgery only had a higher number of spermatogonia per tubule than those in whom hormonal treatment was unsuccessful (p... after surgery alone (p = 0.06). Gonadotropin releasing hormone and HCG influenced germ cells equally. CONCLUSIONS: In 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism gonadotropin releasing hormone or HCG given for testicular descent may suppress the number of germ cells....

  4. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing...

  5. Neurobiological study of fish brains gives insights into the nature of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1-3 neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi eKarigo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that up to three different molecular species of GnRH peptides encoded by different paralogs of gnrh genes are expressed by anatomically distinct groups of GnRH neurons in the brain of one vertebrate species. They are called gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3. Recent evidence from molecular, anatomical, and physiological experiments strongly suggests that each GnRH system functions differently. Here, we review recent advancement in the functional studies of the three different GnRH neuron systems, mainly focusing on the electrophysiological analysis of the GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic animals. The introduction of GFP transgenic animals for the electrophysiological analysis of GnRH neurons greatly advanced our knowledge on their anatomy and electrophysiology, especially of gnrh1 neurons, which has long defied detailed electrophysiological analysis of single neurons because of their small size and scattered distribution. Based on the results of recent studies, we propose that different electrophysiological properties, especially the spontaneous patterns of electrical activities and their time-dependent changes, and the axonal projections characterize the different functions of GnRH1-3 neurons; GnRH1 neurons act as hypophysiotropic neuroendocrine regulators, and GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons act as neuromodulators in wide areas of the brain.

  6. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus human chorionic gonadotropin in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hassaan Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare GnRH agonist to hCG for triggering ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Materials & methods: Eighty five infertile women with PCOS participated in a randomized allocation concealed prospective trial and had induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. GnRH agonist 0.2 mg subcutaneously (group 1 or hCG 10,000 IU intramuscularly (group 2 was given to trigger ovulation. Primary outcome was mid-luteal serum progesterone, while secondary outcomes were ovulation rates and clinical pregnancy rates along 3 cycles. Results: No difference was found between group 1 and group 2 regarding mean serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rates in each cycle. Cumulative pregnancy rates were similar (17.14% versus 20% respectively; P = 0.332. Ovulation rates were 80% versus 68.6% (P = 0.413; 94.3% versus 90.9% (P = 0.669; 97.1% versus 93.7% (P = 0.603 in the two groups respectively. However, a significant rise in number of patients with mid-luteal serum progesterone >10 ng/mL was noted in the 3rd cycle between both groups, (P < 0.0001 for group 1 while P = 0.007 for group 2. Conclusion: Triggering ovulation with GnRH-a after treatment with clomiphene citrate in PCOS, in view of its known protective effect against OHSS, may be an effective physiological alternative to conventional hCG without compromising luteal function and pregnancy rates after repeated cycles of treatment.

  8. Treatment of lactating dairy cows with gonadotropin-releasing hormone before first insemination during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of the experiments were to compare ovarian responses, pregnancy per artificial insemination, and pattern of insemination of 2 estrus detection-based presynchronization protocols before first artificial insemination (AI) during heat stress. In experiment 1, primiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,358) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 60±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0): (1) treatment with 100 µg of GnRH on study d 0 (Gpresynch), or (2) no treatment on study d 0 (control). In experiment 2, multiparous lactating dairy cows (n=1,971) from 3 dairies were assigned randomly to 2 treatments at 49±3 (±SD) DIM (study d 0), similar to experiment 1. In both experiments, PGF2α injections were administered 14 d apart starting on study d 7 for all cows. Cows not inseminated after detection of estrus were submitted to a timed artificial insemination protocol at study d 35. In a subgroup of cows from 2 dairies, concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected on study d 0 and 7. Furthermore, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography on study d -14, 0, and 7 to determine cyclic status and ovulation in response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, progesterone concentration was not different on d 0, but progesterone was increased for Gpresynch compared with control cows on study d 7 (3.6±0.3 vs. 2.7±0.4 ng/mL), respectively. Ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 was increased for Gpresynch compared with control (50.6 vs. 15.2%). Control cows were inseminated at a faster rate than Gpresynch cows [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval=0.80 to 1.00], and the interaction between treatment and dairy affected pregnancy per artificial insemination at 36 and 94 d post-artificial insemination. In experiment 2, concentrations of progesterone did not differ on study d 0 or 7, despite ovulation risk from study d 0 to 7 being greater in Gpresynch than control cows (46.9 vs. 23.8%). The interaction between treatment and dairy affected hazard of insemination with Gpresynch cows from dairy 1 (AHR=1.21; 1.05 to 1.41) being inseminated faster than control cows. Hazard of pregnancy was affected by treatment because Gpresynch cows became pregnant at a faster rate than control cows (AHR=1.25; 1.04 to 1.50). In conclusion, GnRH-based presynchronization protocols initiated before the end of the voluntary waiting period may have benefits in reproductive efficiency of estrus detection-based programs during heat stress. In addition, treatment with GnRH decreased the prevalence of anovular cows at the initiation of PGF2α injections. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaginal Expulsion of a Submucosal Myoma During Treatment with Long-Acting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Wen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Spontaneous expulsion of submucosal myomas might occur after the administration of GnRH agonist; hence, it may be an acceptable alternative for symptomatic females without sexual exposure.

  10. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Hong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males, but unnecessary in females. The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males, but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  11. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2015-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially

  12. Cellular localization of luteinizing hormone receptor immunoreactivity in the ovaries of immature, gonadotropin-primed and normal cycling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovský, A; Chen, T T; Wimalasena, J; Caudle, M R

    1993-06-01

    In this study we used two monoclonal antibodies against purified LH receptor (LHR) to localize and quantify LHR in ovarian compartments during follicular development, using gonads from immature, gonadotropin-primed, and normal cycling rats. In early preantral follicles, LHR immunoreactivity (LHRI) was identified in vascular endothelium and subsequently appeared in vascular pericytes. In healthy small antral (200-550-microns) follicles, LHRI continued to be present in thecal pericytes, but not in cells of the theca interna. However, in small antral follicles undergoing atresia, a dramatic decrease in thecal vessel LHRI with a concomitant increase in LHRI in hypertrophied theca was observed. In healthy antral follicles, LHRI of thecal cells was not observed until the cells reached medium (550-microns) size. High LHRI was occasionally observed in macrophage-like cells adjacent to the oocyte of large preantral follicles and among granulosa layers of medium-sized antral follicles. In the membrana granulosa, LHRI first appeared in cumulus cells of medium-sized antral follicles and subsequently spread to the entire granulosa cell population of large (750 microns) antral follicles. Treatment of immature rats with eCG markedly enhanced LHRI in theca and granulosa cells of all antral follicles, while eCG/hCG-treated (pseudopregnant) rats showed lack of LHRI in follicles and interstitial glands, but not in corpora lutea (CL). Within degenerating CL in the cycling ovary, compared to fresh and mature CL, a significant decrease occurred in intracellular LHRI. Our observations indicate that 1) vascular pericytes may play a role in follicular development; 2) LHR expression in granulosa may require an interaction of macrophages, oocytes, and cumulus cells; and 3) thecal hypertrophy accompanied by enhanced LHR expression occurs on follicles undergoing atresia.

  13. Biosynthesis and release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in rat pancreatic islets in organ culture. Effects of age, glucose, and streptozotocin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolva, L O; Welinder, B S; Hanssen, K F

    1983-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity (TRH-IR) was measured in isolated islets and in medium from rat pancreatic islets maintained in organ culture. TRH-IR in methanol extracts of both islets and culture medium was eluted in the same position as synthetic TRH by ion-exchange and gel......-IR into the culture medium was observed from islets of both 5-d-old (newborn) and 30-d-old (adult) rats with a maximum on the second day of culture (28.7 +/- 7.0 and 13.3 +/- 3.6 fmol/islet per d, respectively). The content of TRH-IR was higher in freshly isolated islets from newborn rats (22.4 +/- 2.3 fmol....../islet) than in adult rat islets, which, however, increased their content from 1.3 +/- 0.5 to 7.0 +/- 0.5 fmol/islet during the first 3 d of culture. Adult rat islets maintained in medium with 20 mM glucose released significantly more TRH-IR than islets in 3.3 mM glucose medium (13.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 0...

  14. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    , luteinizing hormone and testosterone values are normally low. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the number of spermatogonia per tubule at orchiopexy in 72 consecutive boys with cryptorchidism who underwent simultaneous testicular biopsy. In 19 patients gonadotropin releasing hormone was unsuccessful, while 8...

  15. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth...

  16. A randomized controlled trial of three years growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in children with idiopathic short stature and intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Kamp; D. Mul (Dick); J.J.J. Waelkens (Johan); M. Jansen (Maarten); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); L. Verhoeven-Wind; M. Frölich (Marijke); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed the effectiveness and safety of 3 yr combined GH and GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in a randomized controlled study in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Gonadal suppression, GH reserve, and

  17. Roles of estradiol and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in controlling negative and positive feedback associated with the luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, J H; Esbenshade, K L; Ziecik, A J

    1991-09-01

    Ovariectomized gilts (n = 63) were given estradiol benzoate (estradiol), antiserum to neutralize endogenous GnRH, and pulses of a GnRH agonist (GnRH-A) to stimulate release of LH. GnRH-A was given as 200-ng pulses hourly from 0 to 54 h and as 100- or 200-ng pulses every 30 or 60 min from 54 to 96 h after estradiol. Estradiol alone suppressed LH from 6 to 54 h and elicited an LH surge that peaked at 72 h. When GnRH-A was given every 30-60 min from 0 to 96 h, estradiol suppressed LH for 6-12 h, but then LH returned to pre-estradiol concentrations. When pulses of GnRH-A were given only between 54 and 96 h after estradiol, the surge of LH was related positively to dose and frequency of GnRH-A. We conclude that 1) estrogen acts at the hypothalamus to inhibit release of GnRH for 54 h and then causes a synchronous release of GnRH; 2) estrogen acts at the pituitary to block its response to GnRH for 6-12 h and enhances the accumulation of releasable LH; and 3) magnitude of the LH surge is dependent on the amount of GnRH stimulation.

  18. Metabolic Health in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age Treated With Growth Hormone and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog : Results of a Randomized, Dose-Response Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Manouk; Lem, Annemieke J.; van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; van der Hulst, Flip J. P. C. M.; Neijens, Floor S.; Noordam, Cees; Odink, Roelof J.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Schroor, Eelco J.; Westerlaken, Ciska; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Previously we showed that pubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA) with a poor adult height (AH) expectation can benefit from treatment with GH1 mg/m(2) per day (similar to 0.033 mg/kg/d) in combination with 2 years of GnRH analog (GnRHa) and even more so with a double GH

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance

  20. Food restriction-induced changes in gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone-immunoreactive cells are associated with sexual motivation and food hoarding, but not sexual performance and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Klingerman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3 and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH of energetically-challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with add-back treatment is as effective and tolerable as dienogest in preventing pain recurrence after laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Seo, Jong-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-11-01

    This study was performed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of GnRH agonist with add-back therapy versus dienogest treatment for preventing pelvic pain recurrence after laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. Sixty-four reproductive-aged women who underwent laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis received post-operative medical treatment with either GnRH agonist plus 17β-estradiol and norethisterone acetate (n = 28) or dienogest (n = 36) for 6 months. The pre- to post-treatment changes in pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale, and changes in quality-of-life and menopausal symptoms were measured by questionnaire. Visual analogue scale pain score decreased significantly for both treatments with no significant differences between groups. Neither physical, psychological, social, and environmental components of quality-of-life nor menopausal rating scale score were significantly different between the two groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine declined significantly in both treatment groups (-2.5 % for GnRH agonist plus add-back and -2.3 % for dienogest), with no significant difference between the two groups. GnRH agonist and add-back therapy using 17β-estradiol and norethisterone acetate are as effective and tolerable as dienogest for the prevention of pelvic pain recurrence after laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis.

  2. Increasing estradiol benzoate, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and impediments for successful estradiol-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocols in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Borsato, M; Silva, F L M; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2015-06-01

    With the objective to optimize fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P4), we performed 2 experiments (Exp.) in dairy cows. In Exp. 1 (n=44), we hypothesized that increased EB (EB3=3 mg vs. EB2=2 mg) on d 0 would improve synchronization of ovarian follicle wave emergence. Likewise, in Exp. 2 (n=82), we hypothesized that a GnRH treatment on d -3 (early in a follicular wave on d 0) versus d -7 (presence of a dominant follicle on d 0) would better synchronize wave emergence. Moreover, results from both experiments were combined to identify reasons for the lack of synchronization. All cows were treated with EB at the time of introduction of a P4 implant (d 0). On d 7, cows were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2α; on d 8, the implant was removed and cows were given 1mg of estradiol cypionate. All cows received FTAI on d 10. In both experiments, daily ultrasound evaluations were performed and, in Exp. 2, circulating P4 was evaluated during the protocol. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) was determined on d 31 and 59 after FTAI. In Exp. 1, EB dose did not change time to wave emergence, but EB3 compared with EB2 decreased the percentage of cows with a corpus luteum on d 7 (19.8 vs. 55.3%) and time to ovulation (10.4 vs. 10.9 d). In Exp. 2, although we detected a tendency for delayed follicle wave emergence after the start of the FTAI protocol in cows ovulating to GnRH given on d -7, there was no difference in percentage of cows with a synchronized wave emergence (~80%). Regardless of treatment, more cows with P4<0.1 ng/mL, compared with P4≥0.1 and <0.22 ng/mL at the time of AI, ovulated to the protocol (81.2 vs. 58.0%) and had increased P/AI (47.4 vs. 21.4%). An analysis of data from both experiments showed that only 73.8% (93/126) of cows had synchronized wave emergence, and only 77.8% (98/126) of cows ovulated at the end of the protocol. Fertility was much greater in cows that had emergence of a new wave synchronized and ovulated to end of the protocol [P/AI 61.3% (46/75)] compared with cows that failed to present one or both of the outcomes above [15.7% (8/51)]. Thus, although current FTAI protocols using EB and P4 produce P/AI between 30 and 40% for lactating dairy cows, there remains room for improvement because less than 60% (75/126) of the cows were correctly synchronized. Starting the FTAI protocol without the dominant follicle or increasing the dose of EB to 3mg was not effective in increasing synchronization rate. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ovarian characteristics and timed artificial insemination pregnancy risk after presynchronization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 7 days before PGF2α in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to determine the benefit of including GnRH and PGF2α (PG) as a part of a presynchronization option before enrolling cows in a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows in one herd were assigned weekly at calving from January 2012 to August 2014 to a completely randomized design consisting of two presynchronization treatments. Cows in the Presynch-11 (n = 290) control were administered two PGF2α injections (Presynch PG-1 and Presynch PG-2) 14 days apart starting at 39 ± 4 days postpartum (study Days 0 and 14). Cows receiving the experimental presynchronization treatment (Gsynch-11, n = 287) were treated with GnRH (pre-GnRH) on study Day 7 and PG (pre-PG) on study Day 14. On study Day 25, all cows were enrolled in the Ovsynch-56 timed AI program: GnRH-1 on study Day 25, PG on study Day 32, GnRH-2 on study Day 34, 56 hours after PG, and timed AI on study Day 35, 16 hours after GnRH-2. In a subsample of 255 cows, ovarian structures were monitored for size and ovulation, and blood samples were collected on study Days 7, 14, 25, 32, 34, and 41 to measure progesterone. Concentrations of progesterone were greater (P 96%), ovulation to GnRH-2 (>90%), and synchronization risk (>88%) did not differ between treatments, but incidence of multiple ovulation after GnRH-2 was larger (P = 0.036) in Presynch-11 than Gsynch-11 cows (28.4% vs. 15.9%), respectively. Pregnancy per AI at 32 days (36.4% vs. 35.1%) and 60 days (30.0% vs. 29.0%) after AI did not differ between Gsynch-11 and Presynch-11 cows, respectively, but was suppressed during summer months in both treatments to less than 70% of the pregnancy per AI of nonsummer months. Because more than 90% of the cows were ovular as treatments were applied, the GnRH treatment of Gsynch-11 could not be assessed for its benefit in anovular cows. The Gsynch-11 presynchronization treatment performed comparably with the standard Presynch-11 program and provides a viable presynchronization option for use before first AI in dairy herds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced calcium signaling between melatonin-sensitive and melatonin-insensitive neonatal rat gonadotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Vaněček, Jiří

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2000), s. 1017-1026 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/97/0513; GA ČR GA309/99/0215; GA AV ČR IAA5011705; GA AV ČR KSK2011602 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.790, year: 2000

  5. Rapid elimination kinetics of free PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 after initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist treatment of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulmert, David; Vickers, Andrew J; Scher, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    The utility of conventional prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements in blood for monitoring rapid responses to treatment for prostate cancer is limited because of its slow elimination rate. Prior studies have shown that free PSA (fPSA), intact PSA (iPSA) and human kallikrein-related peptidase...... of tPSA, fPSA, iPSA and hK2 after rapid induction of castration with degarelix (Firmagon(®)), a novel GnRH antagonist....

  6. Molecular Cloning, Genomic Organization and Developmental Regulation of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors from Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Søndergaard, Leif; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    1998-01-01

    of receptor mRNA, while adult flies contain higher levels, with males having about five times more receptor mRNA than female flies. Southern blot analyses show thatDrosophilacontains only one copy of the receptor gene, which is located at position 27A2-B1 of chromosome 2. This paper is the first report...... in the rat gene, suggesting that theDrosophilaand mammalian GnRH receptor genes are evolutionarily related. Northern blot analyses show that theDrosophilareceptor gene is progressively expressed during larval development with a prominent maximum at the 3rd instar larval stage. Pupae contain low amounts...

  7. Microarray studies in high and low RFI cattle reveal a potential role for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in regulating feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a heritable feed efficiency measure. Mechanisms underlying variation in feed efficiency are currently poorly understood. To address this issue, two divergent cohorts consisting of High (H) and Low (L) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in forty-eight Angus-si...

  8. A transgenic boar model to elucidate the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and its receptor in regulating testes and sperm function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boar subfertility represents a major limitation to swine production, reducing conception rate and litter size. Critical to reproductive function, the classical form of GnRH (GnRH1) promotes secretion of the gonadotropins; however, the second mammalian isoform (GnRH2) is a poor stimulator of gonadotr...

  9. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G

    2007-01-01

    . PATIENT(S): Patients under observation previously had been recruited into two concurrently performed, independent, randomized controlled trials (comparing hCG with GnRH-agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation in GnRH-antagonist multiple-dose protocols in normal responder patients) encompassing...... a total of 228 participants. Surplus embryos or oocytes at the pronuclear stage were cryopreserved in 53 patients after hCG administration and 32 patients after GnRH-agonist administration on the basis of patient choice, pronuclear/embryo availability, and local laws. INTERVENTION(S): Transfer of frozen......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...

  10. Comparison of gene expression profiles in granulosa and cumulus cells after ovulation induction with either human chorionic gonadotropin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa.......To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa....

  11. Bone mineral density and body composition before and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in children with central precocious and early puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMajor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children

  12. Genetic targeting of green fluorescent protein to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons: characterization of whole-cell electrophysiological properties and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, K J; Song, W J; Sampson, T L; Wuarin, J P; Saunders, J T; Dudek, F E; Moenter, S M

    2000-01-01

    GnRH neurons form the final common pathway for central control of reproduction, with regulation achieved by changing the pattern of GnRH pulses. To help elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pulsatile GnRH release, we generated transgenic mice in which the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter was genetically targeted to GnRH neurons. The expression of GFP allowed identification of 84-94% of immunofluorescently-detected GnRH neurons. Conversely, over 99.5% of GFP-expressing neurons contained immunologically detectable GnRH peptide. In hypothalamic slices, GnRH neurons could be visualized with fluorescence, allowing for identification of individual GnRH neurons for patch-clamp recording and subsequent morphological analysis. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that all GnRH neurons studied (n = 23) fire spontaneous action potentials. Both spontaneous firing (n = 9) and action potentials induced by injection of depolarizing current (n = 17) were eliminated by tetrodotoxin, indicating that voltage-dependent sodium channels are involved in generating action potentials in these cells. Direct intracellular morphological assessment of GnRH dendritic morphology revealed GnRH neurons have slightly more extensive dendrites than previously reported. GnRH-GFP transgenic mice represent a new model for the study of GnRH neuron structure and function, and their use should greatly increase our understanding of this important neuroendocrine system.

  13. Conditional Viral Tract Tracing Delineates the Projections of the Distinct Kisspeptin Neuron Populations to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Siew Hoong; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin neurons play an essential role in the regulation of fertility through direct regulation of the GnRH neurons. However, the relative contributions of the two functionally distinct kisspeptin neuron subpopulations to this critical regulation are not fully understood. Here we analyzed the specific projection patterns of kisspeptin neurons originating from either the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle (RP3V) or the arcuate nucleus (ARN) using a cell-specific, viral-mediated tract-tracing approach. We stereotaxically injected a Cre-dependent recombinant adenovirus encoding farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein into the ARN or RP3V of adult male and female mice expressing Cre recombinase in kisspeptin neurons. Fibers from ARN kisspeptin neurons projected widely; however, we did not find any evidence for direct contact with GnRH neuron somata or proximal dendrites in either sex. In contrast, we identified RP3V kisspeptin fibers in close contact with GnRH neuron somata and dendrites in both sexes. Fibers originating from both the RP3V and ARN were observed in close contact with distal GnRH neuron processes in the ARN and in the lateral and internal aspects of the median eminence. Furthermore, GnRH nerve terminals were found in close contact with the proximal dendrites of ARN kisspeptin neurons in the ARN, and ARN kisspeptin fibers were found contacting RP3V kisspeptin neurons in both sexes. Together these data delineate selective zones of kisspeptin neuron inputs to GnRH neurons and demonstrate complex interconnections between the distinct kisspeptin populations and GnRH neurons.

  14. Comparing stimulation requirements and final outcome between early follicular and mid luteal pituitary suppression in the long gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Abdulmagid; Harira, Mervat; Elshazly, Sherine; Nouh, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    To compare stimulation requirements and ICSI outcome when agonist treatment is started in the early follicular phase or in mid luteal phase of the cycle. 181 infertile patients were randomly assigned to: group A (N=66) and group B (N=115). GnRH-a (Triptorelin) subcutaneous daily injections started on day 20-22 of the previous cycle till pituitary suppression is achieved where gonadotropins stimulation commenced. In group A, agonist treatment was started on the first or second days of the cycle, in group B it was started on day 20-22 of the cycle. The agonist treatment was continued till the day of (hCG) administration. The stimulation requirements were similar in the two groups. The days of t agonist treatment required to reach pituitary suppression were higher in group A: 12.5±6.4 than in group B, 11±4.5. Days of stimulation (10.4±1.7 and 10.3±1.6) and number of gonadotropin vials (40.1±8.7and 39.3±9.5) did not differ between both groups. The mean number of oocytes retrieved, mean number of embryos produced (11.7±7.4 and 13.3±9.3) (5.9±4.2and 6±5.2) were similar in both groups. The rates of fertilization and cleavage were similar in the two groups. Pregnancy rates were similar in both groups. The clinical pregnancy rates per cycle was 31.8% and 33%, while pregnancy rates per embryo transfer was 36.2 % and 36.5% in groups A and B respectively. Starting pituitary suppression with GnRH agonist in the early follicular phase or mid luteal phase were comparable regarding stimulation requirements and final outcomes.

  15. A gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist trigger of ovulation with aggressive luteal phase support for patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ting Liang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Aggressive luteal support with low dose hCG following a GnRH agonist trigger can result in a comparable pregnancy rate to that with the use of a traditional hCG ovulation trigger. However, OHSS can still occur in patients with risk factors. Therefore, other OHSS prevention strategies should be considered.

  16. Pregnancy following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment within three months in an infertile woman with bladder endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Jen Tan

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Robot-assisted complete resection of deep-infiltrating endometriosis and bladder repair immediately followed by GnRHa therapy and medical assistance improves reproductive outcomes efficiently in women with endometriosis-associated infertility.

  17. Effects of Asn318 and Asp87Asn318 mutations on signal transduction by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor and receptor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, W M; Guo, C H; Conn, P M

    1996-02-01

    GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) contains Asn87 and Asp318 instead of the more frequently observed Asp87 and Asn318 found in other G protein-coupled receptors. In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to introduce Asn318 and Asp87Asn318 into GnRH-R. The effect on coupling and regulation of GnRH-R was studied by stable expression of wild and mutant mouse GnRH-R in the lactotropic GH3 cells; these normally release PRL in response to TRH stimulation. The responses to Buserelin (a metabolically stable GnRH analog) in three different cell lines, M1, N8, and ND1 (expressing wild-type, Asn318 mutant, and Asp87Asn318 mutant mouse GnRH-R, respectively) were compared with that observed in the previously characterized GGH3-1' cells, which stably express rat GnRH-R. The Asn318 and Asp87Asn318 mutations had no measurable effect on ligand binding, but abolished the initial down-regulation of receptor that was observed in M1 and GGH3-1' cells, suggesting that the normal location of Asn87 and Asp318 in GnRH-R is involved in the regulation of GnRH-R. In N8 and ND1 cells, Buserelin-stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) production was attenuated, but the release of both cAMP and PRL was stimulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These mutations apparently impaired the coupling between GnRH-R and G proteins involved in IP production, but not those involved in cAMP release. In M1 cells, Buserelin stimulation produced a significant increase in IP production, but neither cAMP nor PRL release was significantly stimulated. These findings are consistent with the previous suggestion that GnRH-stimulated PRL release is mediated by a cAMP second messenger system in transfected GGH3 cells.

  18. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and [D-Ala6,Des-Gly10]GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or [3H]inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism

  19. Annual Change of Reproductive Hormones in Female Angora Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Pehlivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, annual changes of melatonin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen, testosterone and progesterone were studied on 6 heads of 1.5 years old female Angora goat. To determine hormones concentrations, blood samples were taken from jugular vein of each goat in every month for a year. The blood samples were centrifuged at 4000xg for 5 min. and serum was stored at -20°C until analyses time. Hormones analyses in the serum were performed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA method. Monthly climatic values and photoperiod were obtained from the Turkish State Meteorological Service and temperature-humidity index was calculated with climatic values. In the study, in order to determine any possible differences in the observed hormones concentrations with respect to months, repeated measures ANOVA analysis was performed. As a result of statistical analysis, there were no significant differences among the months for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone concentration, while significant differences were found among the months for melatonin, luteinizing hormone and progesterone, and estrogen concentration in female Angora goats. According the results of this study, could be concluded that the releases of reproductive hormones examined in female Angora goats was seasonally dependent.

  20. Determination of acidity constants and ionic mobilities of polyprotic peptide hormones by CZE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Kašička, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 18 (2013), s. 2655-2665 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acid dissociation constant * gonadotropin-releasing hormones * ionization constant * peptides * pK(a) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  1. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  2. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...... = .02) from baseline within the GnRHa group. Depressive symptoms were associated with increases in neocortical SERT binding in the GnRHa group relative to placebo (p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply both serotonergic signaling and estradiol in the mechanisms by which sex-steroid hormone fluctuations...

  3. Gonadothropin-releasing hormone agonist as a treatment of choice for central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R.L. Batubara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Precocious puberty is defi ned as pubertal development which occurs too early. The age limit in this term is based on the onset of puberty in normal population. Some points have to be taken into account, such as ethnicity, gender, nutritional conditions, and secular trends. In girls, precocious puberty is defi ned by breast development occured before 8 years old. In boys, precocious puberty is defi ned as gonadarche or pubarche before 9 years of age. The clinical course of precocious puberty varies widely, ranging from alternating, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive    form. The rapidly progressive forms of idiopathic central precocious puberty need to be treated because it may result in early epiphyseal closure and short fi nal height, and also pyschosocial problems in the affected children and the family. The aims of treatment are to arrest physical maturation, prevent early menarche, and also improve adult height combined with normal body proportions. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is the treatment of choice for central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue has suppressive effect on the pituitarygonadal axis, therefore it suppresses LH secretion. This leads to the return of estradiol and testosterone to prepubertal levels. Treatment using gonadotropin releasing horomone analogue is shown to reduce breast size, pubic hair, ovarian and uterine size in girls, and decrease testicular size in boys. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue is effective in halting progression of secondary sexual characteristics development, presenting menstrual cycle, slowing bone-age advancement, and also improving fi nal height. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:287-92Keywords: gonadache, GRH analogue, pubarche , precocious puberty

  4. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandekar, S.P.; Vanage, G.R.; Arbatti, N.J.; Sheth, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibinlike material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. (author)

  5. A randomized prospective trial comparing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist/recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) versus GnRH-agonist/rFSH in women pretreated with oral contraceptives before in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmat, Larry I; Chantilis, Samuel J; Hurst, Bradley S; Dickey, Richard P

    2005-02-01

    To compare the effects of oral contraceptive (OC) pill pretreatment in recombinant FSH/GnRH-antagonist versus recombinant FSH/GnRH-agonist stimulation in in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients, and to evaluate optimization of retrieval day. Prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Private practice and university centers. Eighty patients undergoing IVF who met the appropriate inclusion criteria. Four study centers recruited 80 patients. The OC regimen began on cycle days 2 to 4 and was discontinued on a Sunday after 14 to 28 days. The recombinant FSH regimen was begun on the following Friday. The GnRH-agonist group was treated with a long protocol; the GnRH-antagonist was initiated when the lead follicle reached 12 to 14 mm. When two follicles had reached 16 to 18 mm, hCG was administered. The primary outcome measures were the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes, day of the week for oocyte retrieval, and total dose and days of stimulation of recombinant FSH. Secondary efficacy variables included pregnancy and implantation rate; serum E(2) levels on stimulation day 1; serum E(2), P, and LH levels on the day of hCG administration; follicle size on day 6 and day of hCG administration; the total days of GnRH-analogue treatment; total days on OC; total days from end of OC to oocyte retrieval; and the cycle cancellation rate. Patient outcomes were similar for the days of stimulation, total dose of gonadotropin used, two-pronuclei embryos, pregnancy (44.4% GnRH-antagonist vs. 45.0% GnRH-agonist, P=.86) and implantation rates (22.2% GnRH-antagonist vs. 26.4% GnRH-agonist, P=.71). Oral contraceptive cycle scheduling resulted in 78% and 90% of retrievals performed Monday through Friday for GnRH-antagonist and GnRH-agonist. A one day delay in OC discontinuation and recombinant FSH start would result in over 90% of oocyte retrievals occurring Monday through Friday in both groups. The OC pretreatment in recombinant FSH/GnRH-antagonist protocols provides a patient-friendly regimen and can be optimized for weekday retrievals. No difference was seen in number of 2PN embryos, cryopreserved embryos, embryos transferred, implantation and pregnancy rates between the two stimulation protocols.

  6. Early luteal phase endocrine profile is affected by the mode of triggering final oocyte maturation and the luteal phase support used in recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone-gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vitro fertilization cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatemi, Human M; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; van Vaerenbergh, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To assess endocrine differences during early luteal phase according to mode of triggering final oocyte maturation with or without luteal phase support (LPS).......To assess endocrine differences during early luteal phase according to mode of triggering final oocyte maturation with or without luteal phase support (LPS)....

  7. Biphasic action of cyclic adenosine 3',5'- monophosphate in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog-stimulated hormone release from GH3 cells stably transfected with GnRH receptor complementary deoxyribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, D; Arora, V; Awara, W M; Conn, P M

    1996-03-01

    GH3 cells are a PRL-secreting adenoma cell line derived from pituitary lactotropes. These cells have been stably transfected with rat GnRH receptor complementary DNA to produce four cell lines: GGH(3)1', GGH(3)2', GGH(3)6', and GGH(3)12'. In response to either GnRH or Buserelin (a metabolically stable GnRH agonist), these cell lines synthesize PRL in a cAMP-dependent manner. Only GGH(3)6' cells desensitize in response to persistent treatment with 10(-7) g/ml Buserelin. GGH(3)1', GGH(3)2', and GGH(3)12' cells, however, can be made refractory to Buserelin stimulation by raising cAMP levels either by the addition of (Bu)2cAMP to the medium or by treatment with cholera toxin. In GGH(3) cells, low levels of cAMP fulfill the requirements for a second messenger, whereas higher levels appear to mediate the development of desensitization. The observation that in GGH(3)6' cells, cAMP production persists after the onset of desensitization is consistent with the view that the mechanism responsible for desensitization is distal to the production of cAMP. Moreover, the absence of any significant difference in the amount of cAMP produced per cell in GGH(3)2', GGH(3)6', or GGH(3)12' cells suggests that elevated cAMP production per cell does not explain the development of desensitization in GGH(3)6' cells. We suggest that Buserelin-stimulated PRL synthesis in GGH(3)6' cells is mediated by a different cAMP-dependent protein kinase pool(s) than that in nondesensitizing GGH(3) cells. Such a protein kinase A pool(s) may be more susceptible to degradation via cAMP-mediated mechanisms than the protein kinase pools mediating the Buserelin response in nondesensitizing GGH(3) cells. A similar mechanism has been reported in other systems.

  8. Breakthrough in neuroendocrinology by discovering novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids: 1. Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) across vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2014-09-01

    Bargmann-Scharrer's discovery of "neurosecretion" in the first half of the 20th century has since matured into the scientific discipline of neuroendocrinology. Identification of novel neurohormones, such as neuropeptides and neurosteroids, is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Our studies over the past two decades have significantly broadened the horizons of this field of research by identifying novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids in vertebrates that have opened new lines of scientific investigation in neuroendocrinology. Since the discovery of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in mammals at the beginning of 1970s, it was generally believed that GnRH is the only hypothalamic neuropeptide regulating gonadotropin release in vertebrates. In 2000, however, we discovered a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotropin release in quail and termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). It now appears that GnIH is highly conserved across vertebrates, including humans, and serves a number of behavioral and physiological functions other than regulation of reproduction, providing enormous opportunity for investigators from a wide array of disciplines to study this neuropeptide. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and its contribution to the progress of neuroendocrinology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human ovaries contain immunoreactive oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Dawood, F S; Dawood, M Y

    1983-12-01

    Ovarian tissues (n = 26) obtained at surgery were assayed for oxytocin (OT) concentrations in different parts of the ovary by a specific and sensitive RIA after homogenization and extraction with 0.4 M acetic acid. Chromatography of the extract on a Sephadex G-25 column revealed a single peak identical to synthetic OT, as measured by RIA. Corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle had 10.8-53.0 ng immunoreactive OT/g tissue (n = 7), while those of early pregnancy had a concentration of 106.0 ng/g (n = 1). Ovarian stromal tissue had either undetectable or lower concentrations of OT (0-21.0 ng/g; n = 5) than the corpus luteum from the same ovary. While a luteoma of term pregnancy (n = 1), a benign cystadenoma (n = 2), and an endometriotic cyst (n = 1) had no detectable immunoreactive OT, the concentrations of immunoreactive OT were 20.0 ng/g in a thecoma, 1.4, 20.0, and 60.0 ng/g in preovulatory follicles (n = 3), and 41.0 and 37.0 ng/g in polycystic ovaries (n = 2). In one patient with premature ovarian failure, the ovaries had 9.0 ng/g and undetectable immunoreactive OT. These findings indicate the presence of immunoreactive OT in human ovaries, with significant concentrations in the corpus luteum and preovulatory follicles. It is probable that these tissues produce OTs or an OT-like material which may function as an ovarian luteolytic agent.

  10. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map......Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women......'s vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...

  11. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandekar, S.P.; Vanage, G.R.; Arbatti, N.J.; Sheth, A.R. (Institute for Research in Reproduction, Parel, Bombay (India))

    1983-12-01

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibin-like material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. 23 refs.

  12. Hormone Use for Therapeutic Amenorrhea and Contraception During Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Katherine; Merideth, Melissa A.; Stratton, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing population of women who have or will undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant for a variety of malignant and benign conditions. Gynecologists play an important role in addressing the gynecologic and reproductive health concerns for these women throughout the transplant process. As women undergo cell transplantation, they should avoid becoming pregnant and are at risk of uterine bleeding. Thus, counseling about and implementing hormonal treatments such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, combined hormonal contraceptives, and progestin-only methods help to achieve therapeutic amenorrhea and can serve as contraception during the peritransplant period. In this commentary, we summarize the timing, risks and benefits of the hormonal options just prior, during and for the year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:26348182

  13. Evaluation of the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-ant) and agonist (GnRH-a) in the prevention of postoperative adhesion formation in a rat model with immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Asli Goker; Guvenal, Tevfik; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Yildirim, Yasemin; Ozogul, Candan; Koyuncu, Faik Mumtaz; Koltan, Semra Oruc

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effects of GnRH antagonist (GnRH-ant) and agonist (GnRH-a) in the prevention of postoperative pelvic adhesions by a visual scoring system and immunohistochemical methods in a rat uterine horn model. Controlled experimental animal study. Animal laboratory at an academic research environment. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats. Rats were randomized into three groups. One week before the operation the rats received either GnRH-ant or GnRH-a or saline solution; they then underwent surgical laparotomy, and both uterine horns were traumatized by a scalpel. Three weeks later, all rats were sacrificed and extension and severity of the adhesions in each group were scored by a visual scoring system. Adhesion tissues were evaluated immunohistochemically for vitronectin and u-PAR. Scores of extend and severity of adhesions and staining of vitronectin and u-PAR. The extent of adhesion scores were 1.85 ± 0.86, 0.78 ± 1.05, and 0.42 ± 0.64, and the severity of adhesion scores were 1.71 ± 0.91, 0.57 ± 0.85, 0.50 ± 0.75 for control, GnRH-ant, and GnRH-a groups, respectively. The extent and severity of adhesions were significantly lower in both GnRH-ant and GnRH-a groups when compared with the control group. Adhesion extent scores in the GnRH-a group were lower than in the GnRH-ant group, but this difference was not significant. vitronectin and u-PAR staining were significantly greater in both the GnRH-ant and GnRH-a groups than in the control group. GnRH-ant as well as GnRH-a reduced postoperative adhesion formation in a rat model. This finding was supported immunohistochemically by vitronectin and u-PAR staining. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Ejdrup Bredkjaer, Helle; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...... IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients after a GnRH antagonist protocol. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction was performed with either 10,000 IU hCG or 0.5 mg GnRHa (buserelin) supplemented with 1,500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte retrieval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcome...... in the two groups. RESULT(S): No significant differences were seen regarding positive hCG/ET rate (48% and 48%), ongoing pregnancy rate (26% and 33%), delivery rate (24% and 31%), and rate of early pregnancy loss (21% and 17%) between the GnRHa and 10,000 IU hCG groups, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): A small...

  15. Serum concentrations of type I and III procollagen propeptides in healthy children and girls with central precocious puberty during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog and cyproterone acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Juul, A

    1993-01-01

    Serum levels of type I and III procollagen propeptides (s-PICP and s-PIIINP) were measured in 466 healthy school children and in 23 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) during GnRH analog and cyproterone acetate therapy, using two commercially available RIAs. In normal children, s-PICP and s...

  16. Efficacy and Safety Investigation of Kuntai Capsule for the Add-back Therapy of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonist Administration to Endometriosis Patients: A Randomized, Double-blind, Blank- and Tibolone-controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Kuntai capsule is effective on the peri-menopausal symptoms induced by postoperative GnRH-a administration to EMS patients, although its clinical effect might be a few weeks later than Tibolone. Kuntai capsule might be a little safer than Tibolone tablet.

  17. Prognostic factors and status of hormone receptors and angiogenic factors in uterine carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, Tomomaro; Nakai, Hidekatsu

    2014-03-01

    To determine novel prognostic factors and treatment modalities for uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS). We performed immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, progesterone receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-β in a clinicopathological study of 15 UCS patients. No significant differences were found between the sarcomatous and carcinomatous components with respect to expression of ER-α, ER-β and progesterone receptor. However, VEGF was significantly more frequently expressed in the carcinomatous component, while PD-ECGF and PDGFR-β were significantly more frequently expressed in the sarcomatous component. Only one patient showed gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression in the sarcomatous component. Moreover, ER-β expression in resected specimens, increased serum levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA)-125 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and thrombocytosis were determined as significant UCS prognostic factors. Combination of anti-VEGF therapy and anti-PD-ECGF or anti-PDGFR-β therapy would be expected in advanced or recurrent UCS. Furthermore, careful monitoring for early detection of recurrence should be performed when UCS patients showed preoperative increase in serum CA-125 levels, CRP and platelet counts, and ER-β expression in biopsied or surgically resected specimens. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein for identifying patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. A comparative study with C-terminal (109-141)- and N-terminal (1-86)-region-specific PTHrP radioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Mitsuko; Murakami, Minoru; Fukuchi, Minoru (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    1994-11-01

    We evaluated the circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) in 115 healthy subjects and 122 patients with malignant diseases by using radioassay systems (RAS) specific for the C-terminal (109-141) fragment of PTHrP (C-RAS) and for the N-terminal(1-86) (N-RAS). PTHrP levels in healthy controls ranged from 1.5 to 38.2 (mean: 24.5) pmol/L with the C-RAS and from 0.9 to 2.5 (mean: 1.7) pmol/L with the N-RAS. The ratio of circulating N-terminal fragment (N) to C-terminal fragment (C) of PTHrP was calculated to be about 1 : 14.4 in the healthy subjects. Of the 122 patients with malignant diseases, 40 (32.8%) had circulating PTHrP levels undetectable with the N-RAS, but only 11 (9.0%) patients had levels undetectable with the C-RAS. Of the former 122 patients, 41 (33.6%) had high PTHrP as determined with the C-RAS, and 10 (8.2%) had high PTHrP as determined with the N-RAS. The former of these included only 8 (19.5%) humoral hypercalcemia malignancy(HHM) patients, while the latter included 8 (80.0%) HHM patients. The circulating N to C ratio was about 1 : 70.7 in the HHM patients. The N and C obtained with the different RASs showed a close correlation (r=0.86). The values also showed a close correlation with serum Ca; r=0.75 for C-RAS and r=0.81 for N-RAS. In addition, the correlation between the PTHrP reading obtained with the different RASs and serum Cr were: r=0.42 with C-RAS and r=0.26 with N-RAS. The circulating form of immunoreactive PTHrP fragments is therefore comprised mainly of PTHrP (109-141). In contrast, circulating concentrations of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment are very low, but detection of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment with the N-RAS is a more useful indicator of HHM with fewer false positive results and is less likely to be influenced by renal function than the detection of the PHPrP (109-141) fragment with C-RAS. (author).

  19. Circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein for identifying patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. A comparative study with C-terminal (109-141)- and N-terminal (1-86)-region-specific PTHrP radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Mitsuko; Murakami, Minoru; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) in 115 healthy subjects and 122 patients with malignant diseases by using radioassay systems (RAS) specific for the C-terminal (109-141) fragment of PTHrP (C-RAS) and for the N-terminal(1-86) (N-RAS). PTHrP levels in healthy controls ranged from 1.5 to 38.2 (mean: 24.5) pmol/L with the C-RAS and from 0.9 to 2.5 (mean: 1.7) pmol/L with the N-RAS. The ratio of circulating N-terminal fragment (N) to C-terminal fragment (C) of PTHrP was calculated to be about 1 : 14.4 in the healthy subjects. Of the 122 patients with malignant diseases, 40 (32.8%) had circulating PTHrP levels undetectable with the N-RAS, but only 11 (9.0%) patients had levels undetectable with the C-RAS. Of the former 122 patients, 41 (33.6%) had high PTHrP as determined with the C-RAS, and 10 (8.2%) had high PTHrP as determined with the N-RAS. The former of these included only 8 (19.5%) humoral hypercalcemia malignancy(HHM) patients, while the latter included 8 (80.0%) HHM patients. The circulating N to C ratio was about 1 : 70.7 in the HHM patients. The N and C obtained with the different RASs showed a close correlation (r=0.86). The values also showed a close correlation with serum Ca; r=0.75 for C-RAS and r=0.81 for N-RAS. In addition, the correlation between the PTHrP reading obtained with the different RASs and serum Cr were: r=0.42 with C-RAS and r=0.26 with N-RAS. The circulating form of immunoreactive PTHrP fragments is therefore comprised mainly of PTHrP (109-141). In contrast, circulating concentrations of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment are very low, but detection of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment with the N-RAS is a more useful indicator of HHM with fewer false positive results and is less likely to be influenced by renal function than the detection of the PHPrP (109-141) fragment with C-RAS. (author)

  20. Kisspeptin signaling in the amygdala modulates reproductive hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N; Anastasovska, Jelena; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Shengyun; Hu, Minghan; Jayasena, Channa N; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Matthews, Paul M; O'Byrne, Kevin T; Bell, Jimmy D; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2016-05-01

    Kisspeptin (encoded by KISS1) is a crucial activator of reproductive function. The role of kisspeptin has been studied extensively within the hypothalamus but little is known about its significance in other areas of the brain. KISS1 and its cognate receptor are expressed in the amygdala, a key limbic brain structure with inhibitory projections to hypothalamic centers involved in gonadotropin secretion. We therefore hypothesized that kisspeptin has effects on neuronal activation and reproductive pathways beyond the hypothalamus and particularly within the amygdala. To test this, we mapped brain neuronal activity (using manganese-enhanced MRI) associated with peripheral kisspeptin administration in rodents. We also investigated functional relevance by measuring the gonadotropin response to direct intra-medial amygdala (MeA) administration of kisspeptin and kisspeptin antagonist. Peripheral kisspeptin administration resulted in a marked decrease in signal intensity in the amygdala compared to vehicle alone. This was associated with an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. In addition, intra-MeA administration of kisspeptin resulted in increased LH secretion, while blocking endogenous kisspeptin signaling within the amygdala by administering intra-MeA kisspeptin antagonist decreased both LH secretion and LH pulse frequency. We provide evidence for the first time that neuronal activity within the amygdala is decreased by peripheral kisspeptin administration and that kisspeptin signaling within the amygdala contributes to the modulation of gonadotropin release and pulsatility. Our data suggest that kisspeptin is a 'master regulator' of reproductive physiology, integrating limbic circuits with the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and reproductive hormone secretion.

  1. Premenstrual Exacerbation of Life-Threatening Asthma: Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alun L Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the severity of asthma during various phases of the menstrual cycle has been frequently suspected. However, the hormonal changes that might affect mediators of bronchospasm have yet to be elucidated. The case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from longstanding asthma with life-threatening exacerbations is reported. The patient was treated with buserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue, which created a temporary chemical menopause and thus permitted diagnosis of a premenstrual exacerbation of asthma and offered insight into potential therapy. GnRH analogues may therefore be of value in assessing women with severe asthma suspected to vary with the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogens and progestins at the same time as treatment with GnRH analogue may be of value in determining the role of these hormones in the pathogenesis of menstrually related exacerbations of asthma.

  2. Morphological Features of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current immunohistochemical study used the antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to observe the immunoreactive elements in the mouse pancreas. The results indicated the presence of immunoreactive nerve fibers and endocrine cells. The immunopositive nerve fibers appeared as thick and thin bundles; thick ...

  3. Fluoride Exposure, Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian Axis Hormones in Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming Xu; Zhou, Guo Yu; Zhu, Jing Yuan; Gong, Biao; Hou, Jia Xiang; Zhou, Tong; Duan, Li Ju; Ding, Zhong; Cui, Liu Xin; Ba, Yue

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fluoride exposure on the functions of reproductive and endocrine systems have attracted widespread attention in academic circle nowadays. However, it is unclear whether the gene-environment interaction may modify the secretion and activity of hypothalamus-pituitary- ovarian (HPO) axis hormones. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of fluoride exposure and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism on reproductive hormones in Chinese women. A cross sectional study was conducted in seven villages of Henan Province, China during 2010-2011. A total of 679 women aged 18-48 years were recruited through cluster sampling and divided into three groups, i.e. endemic fluorosis group (EFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG), and control group (CG) based on the local fluoride concentration in drinking water. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were determined respectively and the FSHR polymorphism was detected by real time PCR assay. The results provided the preliminary evidence indicating the gene-environment interaction on HPO axis hormones in women. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  5. Cockroach allatostatin-immunoreactive neurons and effects of cockroach allatostatin in earwigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S M; Stay, B; Chan, K; Jackson, E S

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to allatostatin I of the cockroach Diploptera punctata was used to demonstrate the presence of allatostatin-immunoreactive cells and fiber tracts in the neuroendocrine system of the earwig Euborellia annulipes. The corpora cardiaca cells were not immunoreactive, nor were the neurosecretory endings of fiber tracts from the brain to the corpora cardiaca. No immunoreactive material was detected in the corpus allatum, although the corpus allatum contained neurosecretory endings, and some cells of the brain, including medial and lateral protocerebral cells, showed immunoreactivity. In addition, the recurrent and esophageal nerves were allatostatin-positive. The last abdominal ganglion contained immunoreactive somata, and immunoreactive axons of the proctodeal nerve innervated the rectum, anterior intestine, and posterior midgut. We did not detect reactive endocrine cells in the midgut. Allatostatin I at concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-7) M did not inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by E. annulipes corpora allata in vitro. This was true for glands of low activity from 2-day females and brooding females, as well as for relatively high activity glands from 10-day females. In contrast, 10(-7) M allatostatin I significantly and reversibly decreased hindgut motility. Motility was decreased in hindguts of high endogenous motility from 2-day females and in those of relatively low activity from brooding females. These results support the notion that a primary function of allatostatin might be to reduce gut motility.

  6. Decreased serotonin transporter immunoreactivity in the human hypothalamic infundibular nucleus of overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eBorgers

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: That serotonin plays a role in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy metabolism has been known for a long time. Serotonin transporters (SERT play a crucial role in serotonin signalling by regulating its availability in the synaptic cleft. The neuroanatomy underlying serotonergic signalling in humans is largely unknown, and until now, SERT immunoreactivity in relation to body weight has not been investigated.Objective: To clarify the distribution of SERT immunoreactivity throughout the human hypothalamus and to compare SERT immunoreactivity in the infundibular nucleus (IFN, the human equivalent of the arcuate nucleus, in lean and overweight subjects. Design: First, we investigated the distribution of serotonin transporters (SERT over the rostro-caudal axis of six postmortem hypothalami by means of immunohistochemistry. Second, we estimated SERT immunoreactivity in the IFN of lean and overweight subjects. Lastly, double-labelling of SERT with Neuropeptide Y (NPY and melanocortin cell populations was performed to further identify cells showing basket-like SERT staining. Results: SERT-immunoreactivity was ubiquitously expressed in fibers throughout the hypothalamus and was the strongest in the IFN. Immunoreactivity in the IFN was lower in overweight subjects (p=0.036. Basket-like staining in the IFN was highly suggestive of synaptic innervation. A very small minority of cells showed SERT double labelling with NPY, agouti-related protein and α−melanocyte stimulating hormone. Conclusions: SERT is ubiquitously expressed in the human hypothalamus. Strong SERT immunoreactivity, was observed in the IFN a region important for appetite regulation, in combination with lower SERT immunoreactivity in the IFN of overweight and obese subjects, may point towards a role for hypothalamic SERT in human obesity.

  7. Somatostatin-Immunoreactive Pancreaticoduodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund Luna, Iben; Monrad, Nina; Binderup, Tina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological, and bio......OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms in the pancreas and duodenum with predominant or exclusive immunoreactivity for somatostatin (p-dSOMs) are rare, and knowledge on tumour biology, treatment, survival and prognostic factors is limited. This study aimes to describe clinical, pathological...

  8. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, S.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Pinborg, A.

    2015-01-01

    sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol......Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic...... resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 +/- 3 days post intervention. At both...

  9. Reproduction-associated immunoreactive peptides in the nervous systems of prosobranch gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, J L; Gallardo, C S; Ram, M L; Croll, R P

    1998-12-01

    Antibodies against reproductive peptides of Aplysia and Lymnaea were used to localize homologous immunoreactive peptides in the nervous systems of three prosobranch species: Busycon canaliculatum, Concholepas concholepas, and Tegula atra. Positive control experiments in L. stagnalis demonstrated the broad species range of the anti-egg-laying hormone (anti-ELH) antibody used in this study, and showed binding of anti-alpha-caudodorsal-cell peptide (anti-alpha-CDCP) to the same cells in cerebral and buccal ganglia. Dot immunoassays with synthetic ELH confirmed the reactivity and sensitivity (concholepas and T atra, ELH-like immunoreactivity was found in cerebral ganglia, and in T. atra in fibers in the cerebral ganglia and cerebral-pedal connectives. Thus, cerebral ganglia are the major locus of the ELH-like immunoreactivity in prosobranchs.

  10. biochemical studies o the effect of gonadotropin hormones on the growth of six organs of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.; Abd-ElGhaney, I.Y.; El-kolaly, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    a major share of the control of sexual functions in both the male and female begins with secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus. this hormone simulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete two other hormones called gonadotropin hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). in this present study five groups of young rats (two weeks old ) were arranged, each group consisted of 8 rats and subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup one consisted of four male and subgroup two consisted of four female rats. the first group was the non-injected control group , while the other groups were injected intravenous with variable doses of FSH and LH at time intervals of one week for five weeks. After injection of FSH and LH hormones, blood samples were obtained from each rat and FSH and LH hormones were measured using immunoradiometric assay technique.at the end of the injection schedule of FSH and LH the male sex assay technique.At the end of the injection schedule of FSH and LH the male sex organs (testes) and the female organs (ovaries) were dissected, isolated and weighted for each rat . Comparing the sex organs of the injected groups with that of non - injected group , significant variations in weight , morphology and size were observed according to the dose of FSH and LH injected. From this study the effect of gonadotropin hormones therapy on the growth of sex organs was observed

  11. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  12. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  13. morphological features of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    glandular cells. TH immunoreactive fibers are considered to be extrinsic in origin, arising from the cell bodies in the celiac ganglia (Beckman 1986). Observations made in the rat have showed that neurones in the celiac ganglia that innervate the pancreas are immunopositive for TH (Hökfelt et al. 1977; Schultzberg et a l .

  14. Zerumbone improved immunoreactivity of neuropeptides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this investigation was to explore the improvement effect of oral administration of zerumbone on the density of protein gene product; calcitonin gene related peptide and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve fibers against monosodium iodoacetate induced osteoarthritis changes in rat's knee synovial ...

  15. Serotonin Immunoreactive Cells and Nerve Fibers in the Mucosa of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxytryptamine) immunoreactivity in the pyloric mucosa of the rat stomach. The immunoreactive elements included the endocrine cells, mast cells and mucosal nerve fibers in the lamina propria. The immunopositive endocrine cells were oval in ...

  16. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were...

  17. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Koppolu, Bhanu prasanth; Smith, Sean G.; Zaharoff, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells) and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application. PMID:27187416

  18. Canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-09-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats can be challenging. Several diagnostic tests have been evaluated over the years, but the majority have been shown to be of limited utility owing to poor performance or limited availability or because invasive procedures are required. Assays for the measurement of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI for dogs and fPLI for cats) were first developed over a decade ago and now include Spec cPL and SNAP cPL for dogs and Spec fPL and SNAP fPL for cats. Owing to their high sensitivity and specificity for pancreatitis compared with those of other serum tests, concentrations of cPLI and fPLI have been demonstrated to be the serum tests of choice for evaluation of dogs and cats, respectively, suspected of having pancreatitis. False-positive and false-negative results can occur, and recognition of the limitations of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assays is important. As there is currently no gold standard for antemortem diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats, the combination of a complete history and physical examination, measurement of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and ultrasonographic examination of the pancreas is the best approach for an accurate noninvasive diagnosis of pancreatitis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Nonsupplemented luteal phase characteristics after the administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, recombinant luteinizing hormone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilization patients after ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and GnRH antagonist cotreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); M. Ludwig (Michael); R.E. Felberbaum; K. Diedrich; S. Bustion; E. Loumaye; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReplacing GnRH agonist cotreatment for the prevention of a premature rise in LH during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by the late follicular phase administration of GnRH antagonist may render supplementation of the luteal phase redundant, because

  20. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Chae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI, and lipid levels in these girls.MethodsOne hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2. We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH≥5 (IU/L (group 1 and LH<5 (IU/L (group 2 through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test.ResultsBody mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004. Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122. Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023. SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH.ConclusionSerum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  1. EVALUATION OF THYROID HORMONES AND AS INFLUENCED BY TREATMENT WITH DESLORELIN IN PALLAS' CATS (OTOCOLOBUS (FELIS) MANUL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaski, Kristina M; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate a variety of physiologic functions including metabolism, growth, and reproductive cycling, and these other hormones can impact the thyroid function via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For instance, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, deslorelin, used in nondomestic carnivores for contraception and behavioral control, down-regulates reproductive hormones through this mechanism and so may impact thyroid function. Due to clinical concerns of hypothyroidism in a bachelor group of adult male Pallas' cats (Otocolobus (Felis) manul) which also had deslorelin implants, serum samples from treated captive (n = 8) individuals, untreated captive (n = 25), and free-ranging (n = 9) individuals were analyzed for thyroid hormone concentrations. Total and free thyroxine (TT4 and FT4), total and free tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and FT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured although, due to sample volume limitations, not every hormone could be analyzed for every sample. Of these hormones, only FT4 was found statistically different between the deslorelin-treated and untreated groups. As samples were unevenly distributed across season, true comparison between seasons could not be made. The values reported for the untreated captive and free-ranging group, while representing a small sample size, can serve as a baseline assessment when evaluating the thyroid status of captive Pallas' cats.

  2. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R, GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis across species. Identification of the regulatory mechanisms governing GnIH expression and release is important in understanding the physiological role of the GnIH system. A nocturnal hormone, melatonin, appears to act directly on GnIH neurons through its receptor to induce expression and release of GnIH in quail, a photoperiodic bird. Recently, a similar, but opposite, action of melatonin on the inhibition of expression of mammalian GnIH was shown in hamsters and sheep, photoperiodic mammals. These results in photoperiodic animals demonstrate that GnIH expression is photoperiodically modulated via a melatonin-dependent process. Recent findings indicate that GnIH may be a mediator of stress-induced reproductive disruption in birds and mammals, pointing to a broad role for this neuropeptide in assessing physiological state and modifying reproductive effort accordingly. This paper summarizes the advances made in our knowledge regarding the regulation of GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic birds and mammals. This paper also discusses the neuroendocrine integration of environmental signals, such as photoperiods and stress, and internal signals, such as GnIH, melatonin and glucocorticoids, to control avian and mammalian reproduction.

  3. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker. PMID:26879952

  4. [Anthology of the first clinical studies with hypothalamic hormones: a story of successful international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schally, Andrew V; Gual, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Our early pioneering clinical trials in Mexico with natural and synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) also known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH), were reviewed. Highly purified TRH of porcine origin was shown to stimulate Thyrotropin (TSH) release in hypothyroid cretins. Subsequent tests with synthetic TRH also demonstrated significant increases in plasma TSH in normal men and women as well as in patients with primary hypothyroidism and other endocrine disorders. Even more extensive clinical studies were carried out with highly purified natural porcine LH-RH. Subjects with normal basal serum levels of gonadotropins, low levels (men and women pretreated with steroids) and high levels (e.g. post menopausal women) all responded to LH-RH with a release of LH and FSH. The results of these early studies with the natural LH-RH were confirmed by the use of synthetic LH-RH. These investigations made in Mexico with TRH and LH-RH preceded all other clinical studies by a wide margin. Subsequently various clinical investigations with LH-RH agonists and antagonists were also carried out. All these studies played a major role in introducing hypothalamic-releasing hormones into clinical medicine.

  5. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-02-16

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker.

  6. Multi-immunoreaction-based dual-color capillary electrophoresis for enhanced diagnostic reliability of thyroid gland disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nain; Kim, Su-Kang; Kang, Seong Ho

    2017-08-04

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion plays a critical role in regulating thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones (i.e., thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)). A novel multi-immunoreaction-based dual-color capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique was investigated in this study to assess its reliability in diagnosing thyroid gland disease via simultaneous detection of TSH, T3, and T4 in a single run of CE. Compared to the conventional immunoreaction technique, multi-immunoreaction of biotinylated streptavidin antibodies increased the selectivity and sensitivity for individual hormones in human blood samples. Dual-color laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection-based CE performed in a running buffer of 25mM Na 2 B 4 O 7 -NaOH (pH 9.3) allowed for fast, simultaneous quantitative analysis of three target thyroid hormones using different excited wavelengths within 3.2min. This process had excellent sensitivity and detection limits of 0.05-5.32 fM. The results showed 1000-100,000 times higher detection sensitivity than previous methods. Method validation with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for application with human blood samples showed that the CE method was not significantly different at the 98% confidence level. Therefore, the developed CE-LIF method has the advantages of high detection sensitivity, faster analysis time, and smaller sample amount compared to the conventional methods The combined multi-immunoreaction and dual-color CE-LIF method should have increased diagnostic reliability for thyroid gland disease compared to conventional methods based on its highly sensitive detection of thyroid hormones using a single injection and high-throughput screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthi Ravindranathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA, viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs. Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application.

  8. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox RV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  9. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Dietary Bacillus licheniformis on Gut Physical Barrier, Immunity, and Reproductive Hormones of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Du, Wei; Lei, Kai; Wang, Baikui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Weifen

    2017-09-01

    Previous study showed that dietary Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) administration contributes to the improvement of laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In this study, we aimed to further evaluate its underlying mechanisms. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (28 weeks of age) were randomized into four groups, each group with six replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet and the treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, and 0.06% B. licheniformis powder (2 × 10 10  cfu/g) for an 8-week trial. The results demonstrate that B. licheniformis significantly enhance the intestinal barrier functions via decreasing gut permeability, promoting mucin-2 transcription, and regulating inflammatory cytokines. The systemic immunity of layers in B. licheniformis treatment groups is improved through modulating the specific and non-specific immunity. In addition, gene expressions of hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, are also regulated by B. licheniformis. Meanwhile, compared with the control, B. licheniformis significantly increase gonadotropin-releasing hormone level, but markedly reduce ghrelin and inhibin secretions. Overall, our data suggest that dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis can improve the intestinal barrier function and systemic immunity and regulate reproductive hormone secretions, which contribute to better laying performance and egg quality of hens.

  11. A boy with Prader-Willi syndrome: unmasking precocious puberty during growth hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Natasha G; Radaeli, Rafael F; Silva, Mariana M X; Romero, Camila M; Carrilho, Alexandre J F; Bessa, Danielle; Macedo, Delanie B; Oliveira, Maria L; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Mazzuco, Tânia L

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder frequently characterized by obesity, growth hormone deficiency, genital abnormalities, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Incomplete or delayed pubertal development as well as premature adrenarche are usually found in PWS, whereas central precocious puberty (CPP) is very rare. This study aimed to report the clinical and biochemical follow-up of a PWS boy with CPP and to discuss the management of pubertal growth. By the age of 6, he had obesity, short stature, and many clinical criteria of PWS diagnosis, which was confirmed by DNA methylation test. Therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement (0.15 IU/kg/day) was started. Later, he presented psychomotor agitation, aggressive behavior, and increased testicular volume. Laboratory analyses were consistent with the diagnosis of CPP (gonadorelin-stimulated LH peak 15.8 IU/L, testosterone 54.7 ng/dL). The patient was then treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa). Hypothalamic dysfunctions have been implicated in hormonal disturbances related to pubertal development, but no morphologic abnormalities were detected in the present case. Additional methylation analysis (MS-MLPA) of the chromosome 15q11 locus confirmed PWS diagnosis. We presented the fifth case of CPP in a genetically-confirmed PWS male. Combined therapy with GnRHa and rhGH may be beneficial in this rare condition of precocious pubertal development in PWS.

  12. Hormonal status of diabetes mellitus patients with microcirculation disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubyatnikova, G.A.; Zhumatova, M.G.; Goryajnova, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the study of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and anti-insular hormones show their correlation with homorheological disorders in patients with diabetic angiopathies. The results obtained indicate a possble involvement of the anti-insular hormones in the development of vascular changes in diabetes mellitus

  13. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  14. Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates GH release while inhibiting ghrelin- and sGnRH-induced LH release from goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Caleb L; Chang, John P

    2013-06-01

    Goldfish GH-releasing hormone (gGHRH) has been recently identified and shown to stimulate GH release in goldfish. In goldfish, neuroendocrine regulation of GH release is multifactorial and known stimulators include goldfish ghrelin (gGRLN19) and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), factors that also enhance LH secretion. To further understand the complex regulation of pituitary hormone release in goldfish, we examined the interactions between gGHRH, gGRLN19, and sGnRH on GH and LH release from primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells in perifusion. Treatment with 100nM gGHRH for 55min stimulated GH release. A 5-min pulse of either 1nM gGRLN19 or 100nM sGnRH induced GH release in naïve cells, and these were just as effective in cells receiving gGHRH. Interestingly, gGHRH abolished both gGRLN19- and sGnRH-induced LH release and reduced basal LH secretion levels. These results suggest that gGHRH does not interfere with sGnRH or gGRLN19 actions in the goldfish somatotropes and further reveal, for the first time, that GHRH may act as an inhibitor of stimulated and basal LH release by actions at the level of pituitary cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  16. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinal hormone (LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05. Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.

  17. Immunoreactive trypsin and neonatalscreening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travert, G.; Laroche, D.; Blandin, C.; Pasquet, C.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in dried blood spots from 160.822 five-day-old babies as a part of a regionwide neonatal screening program for cystic fibrosis. A second test was performed for 492 babies in whom blood IRT levels were found greater than 900 μg/l; retesting revealed persistent elevation in 55. Sweat testing confirmed cystic fibrosis in 43 babies, but results were normal in 12. During the course of this study, a total of 51 cystic fibrosis babies were identified: 43 by newborn screening, 6 because they had meconium ileus; so, early diagnosis was achieved in 49 cases out of 51. Two newborn babies did not have elevated IRT and they were missed by the screening test. Our results confirm that elevated blood IRT is characteristic of newborn babies with cystic fibrosis and show that this test has an excellent specificity (99.7%) and a good sensitivity (95%) when used as a neonatal screening test [fr

  18. Cytokeratin 20 immunoreactivity in renal oncocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, G A; Warhol, M J; Multhaupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    Cytokeratins (CKs) are a group of 20 antigenically distinct intermediate filaments, generally confined to epithelia and their neoplasms. Immunostaining for CKs, in particular coordinate staining for CK7 and CK20, has become a useful tool in diagnostic pathology. Although studies defining CK distribution in neoplasms identify 0--7.7% of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) positive for CK20, none has described the incidence of CK20 immunopositivity in renal oncocytomas (ROs). Distinction between RCC and RO may be difficult but this distinction is clinically significant, prompting us to establish the incidence of CK20 positivity in RO. We selected fifteen surgical cases of RO from our archives and studied their immunoreactivity for CKs including CK7 and CK20; 12/15 (80%) were positive for CK20, with variation in the number of cells staining. There was also variation in the distribution of CKs within the cells, including diffuse cytoplasmic, perinuclear, and a punctate or dot-like pattern. Such punctate staining corresponds to cytoplasmic balls of intermediate filaments and has been described with CAM 5.2 in RO and CK20 in Merkel cell carcinomas. Our findings suggest that CK20 immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for distinguishing RCCs from ROs. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:919-920, 2001)

  19. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  20. Mapping of neurokinin-like immunoreactivity in the human brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narvaez Jose

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we have studied the distribution of immunoreactive fibers and cell bodies containing neurokinin in the adult human brainstem with no prior history of neurological or psychiatric disease. Results Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon. Moreover, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the inferior colliculus, the raphe obscurus, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and in the midline of the anterior medulla oblongata. In general, immunoreactive fibers containing neurokinin were observed throughout the whole brainstem. In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus. Conclusion The widespread distribution of immunoreactive structures containing neurokinin in the human brainstem indicates that neurokinin might be involved in several physiological mechanisms, acting as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator.

  1. Recombinant luteinizing hormone priming in multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization in downregulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, F; Caserta, D; Montanino, M; Berlinghieri, V; Bielli, W; Carfagna, P; Carra, M C; Costantino, A; Lisi, R; Poverini, R; Ciardo, F; Rago, R; Marci, R; Moscarini, M

    2012-09-01

    Follicle development is controlled amongst other factors by pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) that act in synergy in completing follicle maturation. Exogenous gonadotropins, combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, have been successfully used in patients with ovulatory disorders undergoing assisted reproduction. There is some evidence of a beneficial role of androgens or LH administration before FSH stimulation. This study was designed to verify whether the addition of LH in the early follicular phase, in downregulated patients undergoing follicular stimulation for assisted reproduction, would add benefits in terms of general outcomes and pregnancy rates. We compared two groups of patients one of which was treated with recombinant FSH (rFSH) alone and the other with rFSH plus recombinant LH (rLH), in the early follicular phase only. The number of eggs recovered was higher in the group treated with FSH only; however, the number of embryos available at transfer was similar in the two groups and, more importantly, the number of Grades I and II embryos was higher in the group pretreated with LH. Similarly, although biochemical pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rates were similar in both groups, a beneficial role of LH priming was demonstrated by the higher implantation rate achieved in these patients.

  2. DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellows CF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Gagliardi1, Monica Goswami1, Roberto Passera2, Charles F Bellows11Department of Surgery and Pathology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Division of Nuclear Medicine Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria San Giovanni Battista, Turin, ItalyIntroduction: Microtubule-associated doublecortin and CaM kinase-like-1 (DCLK1 is a novel candidate marker for intestinal stem cells. The aim of our study was to assess DCLK1 immunoreactivity in colorectal carcinogenesis and its correlation with prognosis.Methods: DCLK1 immunostaining was performed in colorectal tissue from 71 patients, including 18 adenomatous polyps, 40 primary adenocarcinomas, and 14 metastatic lesions. Each case was evaluated by a combined scoring method based on the intensity of staining (score 0–3 and the percentage of tissue staining positive (score 0–3. Immunoexpression for DCLK1 was considered as positive when the combined score was 2–6 and negative with a score of 0–1.Results: Overall, 14/18 (78% of polyps, 30/40 (75% of primary adenocarcinomas, and 7/14 (50% of distant metastases were positive for DCLK1. In adenomatous polyps and primary cancer there was no association between DCLK1 staining score and tumor pathology. However, after curative colorectal cancer resection, patients whose tumor had a high (≥5 combined staining score had increased cancer-specific mortality compared to patients with low (0–4 staining score (hazard ratio 5.89; 95% confidence interval: 1.22–28.47; P = 0.027.Conclusion: We found that DCLK1 is frequently expressed in colorectal neoplasia and may be associated with poor prognosis. Further studies are necessary to validate the use of DCLK1 as a prognostic marker.Keywords: DCLK1, DCAMKL-1, gastrointestinal stem cell, cancer stem cell, adenomatous polyps, liver metastasis, immunohistochemistry

  3. Identification of immunoreactive FSH and LH cells in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus during the ontogeny and sexual differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Matías; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Shimizu, Akio; Pozzi, Andrea G; Meijide, Fernando J; Vazquez, Graciela Rey; Maggese, M Cristina

    2006-10-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) expressing cells were detected in pituitary, brain and ovary of the Perciform cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. This detection was carried out by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot techniques using antisera of the Cyprinodontiform Fundulus heteroclitus raised against the conservative region of the teleost betaFSH and the betaLH subunits. The estimated molecular weights were 24 kDa for LH and 19 and 15 kDa for FSH. In the adult pituitary, both cell types were distributed along mid and ventral zones of the proximal pars distalis (PPD, mid-immunoreactive cells), and along the ventral and dorsal external border of the pars intermedia (PI, high-immunoreactive cells). Double IHC showed that FSH and LH are mainly expressed in different pituitary cells. FSH cells were detected in the pituitary around day 21 after hatching (ah) (prior to sex differentiation), while LH cells were detected by day 60 ah (during the sexual differentiation period). A correlation between gonadal sex differentiation and FSH was demonstrated in a 15 days organ culture system. FSH and LH neurons were localized in the nucleus lateralis tuberis and their fibers project through the ventral hypothalamus, preoptic area and neurohypophysis. FSH neurons differentiated on day 21 ah, while LH neurons appeared on day 15 ah. In the ovary, the immunoreactivity for both FSH and LH was restricted to the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and early vitellogenic oocytes.

  4. Glucagon and glucagonlike immunoreactivity (GLI), ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faloona, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of glucagon and the problems concerning incubation damage of the labelled hormone and cross-reactivity with GLI are described. The commercially available 125 I-glucagon is purified by sephadex G-25 gel filtration. The requirements for the assay are described. The separation of bound and free-labelled glucagon is performed by adsorption using dextran-coated charcoal. A range of 50 to 240 pg per ml plasma was assayed. The assay of GLI, using a specific GLI-antiserum is identical to the procedure described for glucagon

  5. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  6. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C.

    2017-01-01

    The social environment can have profound effects on an individual’s physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone) and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females’ endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females’ hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females’ androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for circulating

  7. METABOLIC PROFILE OF COW BLOOD UNDER THE TREATMENT OF OVARIES HYPOFUNCTION BY HORMONAL AND PHYTO-PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyat S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the correction of reproductive function of cows with ovarian hypofunction practices use a number of hormones. Recently, to stimulate reproductive function using herbal medicines that have gonadotropic effect or stimulate secretion of steroid hormones who try to use to increase fertility. Therefore, we carried out an attempt to develop a method of regulation of reproductive function of the ovaries of cows using combination therapies that can provide effective treatment by studying the biochemical parameters of animals. The cows were divided depending on the treatment to control and two experimental groups of 5 animals in each group. Groups were formed by the following treatment regimens indicated pathology. Cows control group treated by next scheme: day 1 — intramuscular injection drug in vitro at a dose of 10 ml; day 2 —PMSG intramuscular administration of the drug at a dose of 500 IU; day 3 —intramuscular injection drug Surfahon at a dose of 50 mg. Cows from experimental group 1 was injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on herbal (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia; Animals from second experimental group were injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on phyto-substances (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Surfahon. Analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum of cows with ovarian hypofunction found low concentrations of estradiol-17-β and progesterone. Between the control and experimental groups concentration of progesterone and estradiol-17-β differ within 10%, which indicates the same level of disease in all animals selected. Level carotene, ascorbic acid and cholesterol in all groups was within the physiological norm and differed slightly. It was established that the treatment of cows with hypofunction ovaries in the experimental group 1 progesterone level 7 days after treatment was 11.5, and 2 - on 41,4% (p <0,01 higher than in the control group animals, indicating that the revitalization of the

  8. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  9. Adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) immunoreactivity in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, J; van den Ingh, H F; Khan, P M; Bosman, F T

    1986-04-15

    Immunoreactive adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) was studied in 91 human colorectal adenocarcinomas. The expression of ADCP was correlated with that of secretory component (SC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with the histological grade and the Dukes' stage of the carcinomas. The histological grade was scored semi-quantitatively according to 5 structural and 4 cytological variables. ADCP expression was observed in 3 different staining patterns, namely: (1) diffuse cytoplasmic (77% of the carcinomas); (2) granular cytoplasmic (13%); and (3) membrane-associated (66%). These patterns were observed alone or in combination. Eleven percent of the carcinomas exhibited no ADCP immunoreactivity. Linear regression analysis showed that the expression of ADCP correlates with that of SC and CEA. However, no significant correlation emerged between the histological parameters or the Dukes' stage and any of the immunohistological parameters. Comparison of the histological characteristics of carcinomas exhibiting little or no ADCP immunoreactivity with those showing extensive immunoreactivity, showed that membranous ADCP immunoreactivity occurs more frequently in well-differentiated carcinomas. Structural parameters showed a better correlation with membranous ADCP expression than the cytological variables. It is concluded that membranous expression of ADCP and CEA are indicators of a high level of differentiation as reflected primarily in the structural characteristics of the tumor.

  10. Protein profiles and immunoreactivities of Acanthamoeba morphological groups and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumidonming, Wilawan; Koehsler, Martina; Leitsch, David; Walochnik, Julia

    2014-11-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan found in a wide variety of habitats. A classification of Acanthamoeba into currently eighteen genotypes (T1-T18) has been established, however, data on differences between genotypes on the protein level are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare protein and immunoreactivity profiles of Acanthamoeba genotypes. Thirteen strains, both clinical and non-clinical, from genotypes T4, T5, T6, T7, T9, T11 and T12, representing three morphological groups, were investigated for their protein profiles and IgG, IgM and IgA immunoreactivities. It was shown that protein and immunoreactivity profiles of Acanthamoeba genotypes T4, T5, T6, T7, T9, T11 and T12 are clearly distinct from each other, but the banding patterns correlate to the morphological groups. Normal human sera revealed anti-Acanthamoeba antibodies against isolates of all investigated genotypes, interestingly, however only very weak IgM and virtually no IgA immunoreactivity with T7 and T9, both representing morphological group I. The strongest IgG, IgM and IgA immunoreactivities were observed for genotypes T4, T5 and T6. Differences of both, protein and immunological patterns, between cytopathic and non-cytopathic strains, particularly within genotype T4, were not at the level of banding patterns, but rather in expression levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Manduca allatotropin and localization of Manduca allatotropin-immunoreactive cells in earwigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Susan M; Kwok, Rodney; Seymour, Michelle L; Shaon Rahman, U; Tobe, Stephen S

    2005-09-01

    Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT) was first isolated on the basis of its ability to stimulate production of juvenile hormone in that insect. We examined whether this neuropeptide affects corpus allatum activity and visceral muscle contraction in adult females of the earwig, Euborellia annulipes. We also assessed the presence of allatotropin-like material in tissues using immunocytochemistry. Manse-AT at 1 nM to 10 muM stimulated juvenile hormone production in vitro by glands of low activity from 2-day virgin females. In glands of high activity from 12-day mated females, 1 and 100 nM allatotropin were effective, but 10 muM was not. Similarly, hindguts of 2-day and 12-day females significantly increased in motility in vitro in response to Manse-AT. A monoclonal antibody to Manse-AT was used to demonstrate allatotropin-like material throughout the nervous system of 2-day, virgin females. Immunoreactivity was most pronounced within varicosities of the corpora cardiaca and perisympathetic organs. No immunofluorescence was observed in gut tissue. Lastly, we showed that extract of retrocerebral complexes also enhanced in vitro hindgut motility from 2-day virgin females, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate material similar to M. sexta allatotropin in female earwigs and that such peptides may modulate juvenile hormone biosynthesis and visceral muscle contractions. Sensitivity to the peptides may change with physiological stage.

  12. The characteristics of vasa gene from Japanese sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas) and its response to the external hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Meili; Wen, Haishen; Ni, Meng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Senhao

    2015-08-01

    The RNA helicase Vasa is an important regulator of primordial germ cell development. Its function in mature fish, especially the hormone-related differences in maturing male fish has seldom been documented. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of the vasa gene was cloned from Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas, and it was named jsb-vasa. Homology analysis showed that jsb-vasa was closely related to its teleost homologs. The spatial distribution of jsb-vasa indicated that it was only highly expressed in testis, showing its germ cell-specific expression pattern. During the testicular development cycle, jsb-vasa was highly expressed during early period of spermatogenesis, and reduced when spermatogenesis advanced. In addition, the jsb-vasa gene expression was significantly inhibited at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after injecting hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and GnRHa (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue), indicating that jsb-vasa gene may play an important role in spermatogenesis of Japanese sea bass, and be under the regulation of external sex hormones.

  13. Effect of short-term and prolonged stress on the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus and GnRHR in the pituitary of ewes during various physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, M; Łapot, M; Antkowiak, B; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Paluch, M; Przekop, F

    2016-11-01

    Using an ELISA assay, the levels of GnRH and GnRHR were analysed in the preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk/median eminence (SME); and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of non-breeding and breeding sheep subjected to short-term or prolonged stress. The ELISA study was supplemented with an analysis of plasma LH concentration. Short-term footshock stimulation significantly increased GnRH levels in hypothalamus in both seasons. Prolonged stress elevated or decreased GnRH concentrations in the POA and the VM, respectively during anoestrus, and lowered GnRH amount in the POA-hypothalamus of follicular-phase sheep. An up-regulation of GnRHR levels was noted in both, anoestrous and follicular-phase animals. In the non-breeding period, a prolonged stress procedure increased GnRHR biosynthesis in the VM and decreased it in the SME and AP, while in the breeding time the quantities of GnRHR were significantly lower in the whole hypothalamus. In follicular-phase ewes the fluctuations of GnRH and GnRHR levels under short-term and prolonged stress were reflected in the changes of LH secretion, suggesting the existence of a direct relationship between GnRH and GnRH-R biosynthesis and GnRH/LH release in this period. The study showed that stress was capable of modulating the biosynthesis of GnRH and GnRHR; the pattern of changes was dependent upon the animal's physiological state and on the time course of stressor application. The obtained results indicate that the disturbances of gonadotropin secretion under stress conditions in sheep may be due to a dysfunction of GnRH and GnRHR biosynthetic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of adding a gonadotropin-releasing-hormone treatment at the beginning and a second prostaglandin F2α treatment at the end of an estradiol-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows during cool or hot seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Barbosa, L F S P; Costa, W M; Carvalho, M A P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-02-01

    Our hypothesis was that fertility could be increased in a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol based on estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) by combining GnRH with E2-benzoate at the start of the protocol to increase circulating P4 during preovulatory follicle development and by using 2 prostaglandin F2α (PGF) treatments at the end to decrease P4 near TAI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=1,808) were randomly assigned during the cool or hot season of the year to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 3 treatments: (1) control: controlled internal drug-release insert + 2mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, PGF on d -4, controlled internal drug-release insert withdrawal + 1.0mg of E2-cypionate on d -2, and TAI on d 0; (2) 2PGF: identical to control protocol with addition of a second PGF treatment on d -2; (3) GnRH: identical to 2PGF protocol with addition of a 100-μg GnRH treatment on d -11. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. Season had major effects on many reproductive measures, with cool season greater than hot season in percentage of cows with corpus luteum (CL) at PGF (62.9 vs. 56.2%), ovulatory follicle diameter (15.7 vs. 14.8mm), expression of estrus (86.7 vs. 79.9%), ovulation following the protocol (89.7 vs. 84.3%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI; 45.4 vs. 21.4%). The GnRH protocol increased percentage of cows with CL (control=56.9%; 2PGF=55.8%; GnRH=70.5%) and P4 at PGF (control=3.28±0.22; 2PGF=3.35±0.22; GnRH=3.70±0.21ng/mL), compared with control and 2PGF protocols. The GnRH protocol increased P/AI at the pregnancy diagnosis at 32d [37.3% (219/595)] and 60d [31% (179/595)] after TAI, compared with control [30.0% (177/604); 25.1% (145/604)], with intermediate results with 2PGF protocol [33.2% (196/609); 28.0% (164/609)]. The positive effects of GnRH treatment on P/AI were only detected during the cool season (GnRH=50.9%; 2PGF=44.2%; control=41.0%) and not during the hot season. In addition, the effect of GnRH was only observed in cows with low P4 (<3ng/mL) at the start of the protocol and not in cows that began the protocol with high P4. Furthermore, presence of CL at PGF interacted with follicle diameter such that cows with a CL at PGF had greater P/AI if they ovulated larger rather than smaller follicles near TAI. Thus, fertility to TAI can be improved by inducing ovulation at the beginning of an E2/P4-based protocol using GnRH treatment, particularly during the cool season of the year and in cows with low P4 at the start of the protocol. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunoreactivity of synthetic peptides derived from proteins of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Serpa Brandão, Rafael Melo Santos; Soares Martins, Liline Maria; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro; Faria, Angélica Rosa; Soares Leal, Maria José; da Silva, Adalberto Socorro; Wanke, Bodo; dos Santos Lazéra, Márcia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; de Souza Cavalcante, Ricardo; do Monte, Semiramis Jamil Hadad

    2014-01-01

    To determine the immunoreactivity of synthetic Cryptococcus-derived peptides. A total of 63 B-cell epitopes from previously identified Cryptococcus gattii immunoreactive proteins were synthesized and evaluated as antigens in ELISAs. The peptides were first evaluated for their ability to react against sera from immunocompetent subjects carrying cryptococcal meningitis. Peptides that yielded high sensitivity and specificity in the first test were then retested with sera from individuals with other fungal pathologies for cross-reactivity determination. Six of 63 synthetic peptides were recognized by antibodies in immunoassays, with a specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 78% and low cross-reactivity. We successfully determined the immunoreactivity of selected synthetic peptides of C. gattii derived proteins.

  16. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion and gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels in the ovariectomized GPR-4 transgenic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majdoubi, Mohammed; Paruthiyil, Sreenivasan; Weiner, Richard I

    2003-12-01

    Genetic targeting of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4D1 (PDE4D1) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the GPR-4 transgenic rat resulted in decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency in castrated female and male rats. A similar decrease in the intrinsic GnRH pulse frequency was observed in GT1 GnRH cells expressing the PDE4D1 phosphodiesterase. We have extended these findings in ovariectomized (OVX) GPR-4 rats by asking what effect transgene expression had on pulsatile LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion, plasma and pituitary levels of LH and FSH, and levels of the alpha-glycoprotein hormone subunit (alpha-GSU), LH-beta and FSH-beta subunit mRNAs. In OVX GPR-4 rats the LH pulse frequency but not pulse amplitude was decreased by 50% compared to wild-type littermate controls. Assaying the same samples for FSH, the FSH pulse frequency and amplitude were unchanged. The plasma and anterior pituitary levels of LH in the GPR-4 rats were significantly decreased by approximately 45%, while the plasma but not anterior pituitary level of FSH was significantly decreased by 25%. As measured by real-time RT-PCR, the mRNA levels for the alpha-GSU in the GPR-4 rats were significantly decreased by 41%, the LH-beta subunit by 38% and the FSH-beta subunit by 28%. We conclude that in the castrated female GPR-4 rats the decreased GnRH pulse frequency results in decreased levels of LH and FSH and in the alpha- and beta-subunit mRNA levels. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I feedback regulation of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in the pig: evidence for a pituitary site of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, C R; Hausman, G J

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the control of growth hormone (GH) and LH secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts, 65 ± 6 kg body weight and 140 days of age received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (n = 4), 25 μg (n = 4) or 75 μg (n = 4) IGF-I and jugular blood samples were collected. In EXP II, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old prepuberal gilts (n = 6) were challenged with 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM [Ala15]-h growth hormone-releasing hormone-(1-29)NH2 (GHRH), or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 1000 nM GHRH. Secreted GH was measured at 4 and 24 h after treatment. In EXP III, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old barrows (n = 5) were challenged with 10, 100 or 1000 nM gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 100 nM GnRH. Secreted LH was measured at 4 h after treatment. In EXP I, serum GH and LH concentrations were unaffected by ICV IGF-I treatment. In EXP II, relative to control all doses of GHRH increased (P 0.1). In conclusion, under these experimental conditions the results suggest that the pituitary is the putative site for IGF-I modulation of GH and LH secretion. Further examination of the role of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion is needed to understand the inhibitory and stimulatory action of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion.

  18. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  19. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Romero-Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly

  20. Parathyroid hormone and the hypercalcemia of immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, S; Canterbury, J M; Reiss, E

    1977-09-01

    Serial measurements of serum calcium and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) were performed in two young patients with hypercalcemia of immobilization. Serum PTH was elevated in both patients. With mobilization, both serum PTH and serum calcium returned to normal levels and remained so during six months of follow-up. The hyperparathyroidism of immobilization is an unexplained, reversible disorder that should be treated by medical measures and aggresive attempts at early mobilization.

  1. Effect of litter separation on 24-hour rhythmicity of plasma prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in lactating rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinali Daniel P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work describes the effect of a 48-h litter separation on 24-h patterns of plasma prolactin, FSH and LH concentration in female lactating rabbits kept under a 16:8 light-dark photoperiod (lights on at 0800 h. Methods Groups of 6–7 female lactating rabbits maintained with their litters or separated from them for 48 h were killed by decapitation on day 11 post-partum, at 6 different time points throughout a 24-h cycle, starting at 0900 h. Plasma levels of prolactin, FSH and LH were measured by specific double antibody radio-immunoassays. Results Plasma level of prolactin in control and separated does changed in a similar way throughout the day, showing two maxima, at 0500–0900 h and at 1700–2100 h, respectively. Litter separation significantly augmented plasma FSH and LH and disrupted their 24-h rhythmicity. Conclusion Since previous studies had shown that litter separation for short periods of time augmented sexual receptivity and fertility of the doe, the changes in FSH and LH reported may influence the massive release of gonadotropin releasing hormone, LH and FSH triggered by mating or artificial insemination in litter-separated mothers.

  2. Generation of a Xenopsin-immunoreactive peptide by pepsinization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XP-IR was present only in pepsinised bovine milk Analysis of pepsinised bovine milk by gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, both resolved a single peak of immunoreactivity with identical chromatographic characteristic to synthetic Xenopsin. These data indicate the generation of a ...

  3. Bombesin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Yanaihara, N

    1981-01-01

    With immunocytochemical methods, nerve cells have been detected in Hydra attenuata containing bombesin-like immunoreactivity. These nerve cells are located in ectoderm of all body regions of the animal and are especially abundant in basal disk and tentacles. Radioimmunoassay of extracts of hydra ...

  4. Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Carraway, R E; Rökaeus, A

    1981-01-01

    Neurotensin-like immunoreactivity is found in nerve fibers present in all body regions of hydra. The nerve fibers are especially numerous in the ectoderm at the bases of the tentacles and in the ectoderm at a site just above the foot. Radioimmunoassays of acetic-acid extracts of hydra, using vari...

  5. Analysis of p53- immunoreactivity in astrocytic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinkarenko T.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available P53 is an antioncogene with the frequently occured mutations in human tumor cells, leading to corresponding protein overexpression which can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Researches dedicated to the investigation of possibilities of using this technique gave controversial results. The authors investigated features of p53 protein expression in astrocytic brain tumors with different degrees of malignancy. Analyzed the relationship of the expression level of p53 by tumor cells with clinical parameters and Ki-67 proliferation index (PI as well. Tissues were collected from 52 cases with diagnosed astrocytic brain tumors. The sections were immunohistochemically stained with p53 and Ki-67. For each marker, 1000 tumor cells were counted and the ratio of positive tumor cells was calculated using software package ImageJ 1,47v. In normal brain tissue p53- expression was not identified. p53-immunoreactive tumor cells were detected in 25% (1/4 pilocytic astrocytomas, 33.3% (2/6 of diffuse astrocytomas, 53.8% (7/13 anaplastic astrocytomas, 58.6% (17/29 glioblastomas. A high proportion of p53-immunoreactive cells (> 30% was observed only in glioblastomas. The level of p53-imunoreactivity was not related to the age, gender and Grade WHO (p> 0,05. Spearman correlation coefficient between the relative quantity of ki-67- and p53-immunoreactive nuclei showed weak direct correlation (0.023, but the one was not statistically significant (p> 0,05. The level of p53-imunoreactivity is not dependent from age and sex of patients, Grade (WHO and proliferative activity (p>0,05 but the high level of p53-immunoreactive cells (>30% is found in glioblastoma specimens only, that may be due to the accumulation of mutations in DNA of tumor cells. There is insignificant weak relationship between relative quantities of ki-67- and p53-immunoreactive tumor cells (p>0,05.

  6. Clustering of tau-immunoreactive pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A; McKee, Ann C; Alvarez, Victor E; Cairns, Nigel J

    2017-02-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder which may result from repetitive brain injury. A variety of tau-immunoreactive pathologies are present, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuropil threads (NT), dot-like grains (DLG), astrocytic tangles (AT), and occasional neuritic plaques (NP). In tauopathies, cellular inclusions in the cortex are clustered within specific laminae, the clusters being regularly distributed parallel to the pia mater. To determine whether a similar spatial pattern is present in CTE, clustering of the tau-immunoreactive pathology was studied in the cortex, hippocampus, and dentate gyrus in 11 cases of CTE and 7 cases of Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) without CTE. In CTE: (1) all aspects of tau-immunoreactive pathology were clustered and the clusters were frequently regularly distributed parallel to the tissue boundary, (2) clustering was similar in two CTE cases with minimal co-pathology compared with cases with associated ADNC or TDP-43 proteinopathy, (3) in a proportion of cortical gyri, estimated cluster size was similar to that of cell columns of the cortico-cortical pathways, and (4) clusters of the tau-immunoreactive pathology were infrequently spatially correlated with blood vessels. The NFT and NP in ADNC without CTE were less frequently randomly or uniformly distributed and more frequently in defined clusters than in CTE. Hence, the spatial pattern of the tau-immunoreactive pathology observed in CTE is typical of the tauopathies but with some distinct differences compared to ADNC alone. The spread of pathogenic tau along anatomical pathways could be a factor in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  7. Negative feedback as an obligatory antecedent to the estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone surge in ovariectomized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, J S; Price-Taras, E A; Kraeling, R R; Rampacek, G B; Barb, C R

    1989-09-01

    In ovariectomized pigs, estradiol treatment induces a preovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, but only after serum LH concentrations are suppressed for 48 h. This inhibition of LH release is attributable in large part to inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. The present report examines the dependency of the estradiol-induced LH surge on this preceding phase of negative feedback. Ten ovariectomized gilts were given an i.m. injection of estradiol benzoate (10 micrograms/kg BW). Beginning at the time of estradiol treatment, 5 of these gilts received 1-microgram GnRH pulses i.v. every 45 min for 48 h, i.e. during the period of negative feedback. The remaining 5 control gilts received comparable infusions of vehicle. Estradiol induced the characteristic biphasic LH response in control gilts. On the other hand, the inhibitory LH response to estradiol was prevented and the ensuing LH surge was blocked in 4 of the 5 gilts given GnRH pulses during the negative feedback phase. These results indicate that suppressing release of GnRH and/or LH is an important antecedent to full expression of the LH surge in ovariectomized pigs. Assimilation of this observation with the existing literature provides novel insights into the neuroendocrine control of LH secretion in castrated and ovary-intact gilts.

  8. Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Gao, Sisi; Valle, Shelley; Bittner, Stephanie; Hutton, Pierce; Meddle, Simone L.; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy deficiency can suppress reproductive function in vertebrates. As the orchestrator of reproductive function, endocrine activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis is potentially an important mechanism mediating such effects. Previous experiments in wild-caught birds found inconsistent relationships between energy deficiency and seasonal reproductive function, but these experiments focused on baseline HPG axis activity and none have investigated the responsiveness of this axis to endocrine stimulation. Here, we present data from an experiment in Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) challenges to investigate whether energy deficiency modulates the plasma testosterone responsiveness of the HPG axis. Wild-caught birds were either ad libitum fed or energetically constrained via chronic food restriction during photoinduced reproductive development. Energy deficiency did not significantly affect the development of reproductive morphology, the baseline endocrine activity of the HPG axis, or the plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Energy deficiency did, however, decrease the plasma testosterone responsiveness to LH challenge. Collectively, these observations suggest that energy deficiency has direct gonadal effects consisting of a decreased responsiveness to LH stimulation. Our study, therefore, reveals a mechanism by which energy deficiency modulates reproductive function in wild birds in the absence of detectable effects on baseline HPG axis activity. PMID:26333925

  9. Impaired specific immunoreactivity in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, G H; Rutten, V P; van den Ingh, T S; Hoek, A; Müller, K E; Wensing, T

    1997-05-01

    In this study, hepatic lipidosis in cows was experimentally induced by offering an energy surplus during the dry period. Liver triacylglycerol (TAG) was 16% in the experimental group. In the control group fed the same diet in restricted quantities, liver TAG was about 7%. The animals of both groups were vaccinated with tetanus vaccine at Day 3 after parturition. It was demonstrated that the cows with high liver TAG percentages had lower humoral and cellular (P lipidosis may be due to impaired immunoreactivity.

  10. Biomolecular immunoreactivity factor in antibody labelling design for potent radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Biomolecular factors' importance in optimum immunoconjugate design when high specific labelling is attempted is discussed. High specific labelling allows a small dose to be administered avoiding saturating antigen binding sites and to compensate for loss of bivalency etc. upon fragmentation. Clinical therapeutic and diagnostic applications result in adverse toxicity and poor scintigraphic resolution from the corrupted distribution upon labelling. DTPA is a strong chelator and forms a tight sequestering cryptate structure of small dimensions with the radioactive metals Tc-99m and In-111. Size severely affects permeability with reticuloendothelial accumulation. Compact scaled radiolabels are advantageous as potent payload moieties for radiotherapy as well as imaging. The antibody binding site requires close surface contact with its epitope to effect the specificity of immunoreaction. Binding site exposure to coupling chemistry can be directed via affinity purification methodology. The globular antibody with an amphiphilic structure presents conformed surface chemistry and is relatively inert requiring excess reaction stoichiometry. Radiolabelled antibodies to calcitonin (a 32 aminoacid polypeptide ectopic lung tumor antigen) in a solid phase immunoreactivity assay demonstrate 48 hours for 90% uptake. Site directed radiolabelling is of interest in preservation of immunoreactivity in protein engineering. 19 refs., 8 figs

  11. Response to selection for photoperiod responsiveness on the density and location of mature GnRH-releasing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigdor, Mauricio; Sullivan, Shannon D; Heideman, Paul D

    2005-05-01

    Natural variation in neuroendocrine traits is poorly understood, despite the importance of variation in brain function and evolution. Most rodents in the temperate zones inhibit reproduction and other nonessential functions in short winter photoperiods, but some have little or no reproductive response. We tested whether genetic variability in reproductive seasonality is related to individual differences in the neuronal function of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone network, as assessed by the number and location of mature gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons under inhibitory and excitatory photoperiods. The experiments used lines of Peromyscus leucopus previously developed by selection from a wild population. One line contained individuals reproductively inhibited by short photoperiod, and the other line contained individuals nonresponsive to short photoperiod. Expression of mature gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactivity in the brain was detected using SMI-41 antibody in the single-labeled avidin-biotin-peroxidase-complex method. Nonresponsive mice had 50% more immunoreactive GnRH neurons than reproductively inhibited mice in both short- and long-day photoperiods. The greatest differences were in the anterior hypothalamus and preoptic areas. In contrast, we detected no significant within-lines differences in the number or location of immunoreactive GnRH neurons between photoperiod treatments. Our data indicate that high levels of genetic variation in a single wild population for a specific neuronal trait are related to phenotypic variation in a life history trait, i.e., winter reproduction. Variation in GnRH neuronal activity may underlie some of the natural reproductive and life history variation observed in wild populations of P. leucopus. Similar genetic variation in neuronal traits may be present in humans and other species.

  12. CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, LEUKOCYTES SECRETE IMMUNOREACTIVE ADRENAL CORTICOTROPIN HORMONE (ACTH). (R823881)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  14. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit of the Chinese soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, and its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung-Tsun; Shen, San-Tai; Lin, Yao-Sung; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2005-04-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone family. These hormones are composed of two dissimilar subunits, alpha and beta. Very little information is available regarding the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of FSHbeta in reptilian species. For better understanding of the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of FSH molecule, we have isolated and sequenced the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, Family of Trionychidae) FSHbeta precursor molecule by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. The cloned Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta cDNA consists of 602-bp nucleotides, including 34-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 206-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSHbeta subunit with a signal peptide of 20 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 111 amino acids. Twelve cysteine residues, forming six disulfide bonds within beta-subunit and two putative asparagine-linked glycosylation sites, are also conserved in the Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta subunit. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Chinese soft-shell turtle FSHbeta shares identities of 97% with Reeves's turtle (Family of Bataguridae), 83-89% with birds, 61-70% with mammals, 63-66% with amphibians and 40-58% with fish. By contrast, when comparing the FSHbeta with the beta-subunits of the Chinese soft-shell turtle luteinizing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, the homologies are as low as 38 and 39%, respectively. A phylogenetic tree including reptilian species of FSHbeta subunits, is presented for the first time. Out of various tissues examined, FSHbeta mRNA was only expressed in the pituitary gland and can be up-regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary tissue culture as estimated by fluorescence real-time PCR analysis.

  15. Immunoreactivity examination of patients with testicular tumours treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanits, Klara; Kuhn, Endre; Csere, Tibor

    1985-01-01

    Results of the immunoreactivity study of 72 patients receiving radiotherapy are presented. Tuberculin and DNCB (2,4 dinitrochlorobenzol) reactivity tests were performed before, during and 3 years after the radiation therapy and at the time when metastases appeared. The number of positive reactions decreased slightly in both tuberculin and DNCB groups, though not significantly. Metastatic patients showed a significant decrease of reactivity against DNCB as compared with the results obtained before the treatment. In 5,6% of patients herpes zoster was registered. No other infections occured. It was found that immunosuppression caused by the radiation treatment does not influence the later fate of patients with testicular tumours. (author)

  16. Interlaboratory comparison of radioimmunological parathyroid hormone determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    An inter-laboratory study of serum immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) determination using standardized sera has been performed in order to check the value of the assays for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroid states. The results demonstrate: (1) that most of the cooperating laboratories (eleven of twelve) were able to discriminate between normal and grossly elevated PTH-values; (2) that direct comparison of values from different laboratories indicates very poor agreement; (3) that PTH values cannot be interpreted without a description of the characteristics of the assay used; (4) that the introduction of standard sera is advantageous and should be undertaken; (5) that determination of iPTH in serum samples is far from being a routine method when compared with radioimmunoassays for hormones like insulin, growth hormone, etc.; the difficulties being due to lack of standradized reagents and peculiarities in the metabolism of the hormone. (orig.) [de

  17. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yom-Din

    Full Text Available In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st, we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT in female and males, respectively of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes

  18. Presence of atriopeptin-like immunoreactivity in human and rat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Tokarev, D; Kostálová, L; Strbák, V

    1996-08-01

    Maternal milk is a significant source of hormones and other bioactive substances. They might be involved either in the control of mammary gland function or in the regulation of growth and development of the neonate. Atriopeptin (atrial natriuretic factor, ANF) is a peptide with strong diuretic, natriuretic and vasorelaxant actions, and it has been suggested to play an important role in the circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life. The aim of this study was to determine whether ANF is present in maternal milk, using radioimmunological analysis. The levels of ANF-like substance in human milk were found to be in the range of 0.3-3.0 pg/ml, those in rat milk between 37-117 pg/ml. The measured concentrations of ANF were proportional to the volume of the extracted milk. Serial dilutions of the extracts yielded curves which were not totally parallel to the human alpha-ANF standard curve. Our data indicate that, during the first days after delivery, ANF levels in human milk are higher than those in later periods of lactation. This pilot study provides the first description of the presence of atriopeptin in milk. Though a detailed characterization of milk ANF-like immunoreactivity is needed, a biological significance of present findings seems possible.

  19. The role of gastric glucagon immunoreactivity in pancreatectomized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikei, S; Mori, K; Sakamoto, Y; Ishii, J; Watanabe, O; Inoue, M; Akagi, M

    1980-09-01

    Immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) or glucagon immunoreactivity is known to be increased in the plasma of insulin-deprived pancreatectomized dogs, most of it originating in the stomach. We attempted to clarify the extent to which gastric IRG is involved in glycogenolysis in the liver of insulin-deprived, pancreatectomized dogs. Mongrel dogs underwent total pancreatectomy. IRG levels in portal vein blood increased to 760 +/- 186 pg/ml on the 4th postoperative day while the insulin levels were negligible. On the 4th postoperative day some of the dogs underwent total gastrectomy. IRG levels in the portal vein blood of pancreatectomized dogs decreased from 760 +/- 186 pg/ml to 135 +/- 44 pg/ml one hour after gastrectomy. Glucose containing insulin was then infused into both pancreatectomized and pancreatectomized-gastrectomized grups of dogs. Glycogen synthesis in the liver during glucose and insulin infusion was much the same in both groups. However, glycogen degradation after glucose and insulin infusion was completely suppressed in pancreatectomized dogs without a stomach while pancreatectomized dogs alone showed marked glycogenolysis in the liver. No difference in portal IRI and blood sugar level was found in both groups while a marked difference in portal IRG were observed. These findings indicate that the IRG released from the stomach plays a significant role i glycogen metabolism in pancreatectomized dogs.

  20. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  2. Presence and distribution of serotonin immunoreactivity in the cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gallus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the presence and distribution of serotonin in the cyprid of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite were investigated by immunohistochemical methods. Serotonin-like immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the central nervous system only. Various clusters of immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies are distributed in the brain (protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, optical lobes, and at least, four pairs of neuronal cell bodies were detected in the centrally positioned neuropil of the posterior ganglion. Rich plexuses of immunoreactive nerve fibers in the neuropil area were also observed. Furthermore, bundles of strongly immunoreactive nerve fibers surrounding the gut wall were localized, and immunoreactive nerve terminals in the antennules and compound eyes were observed. These data demonstrate the presence of a serotonin-like immunoreactive substance in the barnacle cyprids; furthermore, its immunolocalization in the cephalic nerve terminals allows us to postulate the involvement of this bioactive molecule in substrate recognition during the settlement process.

  3. RNA interference of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone gene induces arousal in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Ubuka

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH was originally identified in quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of pituitary gonadotropin synthesis and release. However, GnIH neuronal fibers do not only terminate in the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function but also extend widely in the brain, suggesting it has multiple roles in the regulation of behavior. To identify the role of GnIH neurons in the regulation of behavior, we investigated the effect of RNA interference (RNAi of the GnIH gene on the behavior of white-crowned sparrows, a highly social songbird species. Administration of small interfering RNA against GnIH precursor mRNA into the third ventricle of male and female birds reduced resting time, spontaneous production of complex vocalizations, and stimulated brief agonistic vocalizations. GnIH RNAi further enhanced song production of short duration in male birds when they were challenged by playbacks of novel male songs. These behaviors resembled those of breeding birds during territorial defense. The overall results suggest that GnIH gene silencing induces arousal. In addition, the activities of male and female birds were negatively correlated with GnIH mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus. Density of GnIH neuronal fibers in the ventral tegmental area was decreased by GnIH RNAi treatment in female birds, and the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons that received close appositions of GnIH neuronal fiber terminals was negatively correlated with the activity of male birds. In summary, GnIH may decrease arousal level resulting in the inhibition of specific motivated behavior such as in reproductive contexts.

  4. [Puberty-delaying hormone therapy in adolescents with gender identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2013-01-01

    The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.

  5. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  6. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  7. Effect of rabbit doe-litter separation on 24-hour changes of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin release in female and male suckling pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinali Daniel P

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The daily pattern of nursing of the rabbit pup by the doe is the most important event in the day for the newborn and is neatly anticipated by them. Such anticipation presumably needs a close correlation with changes in hormones that will allow the pups to develop an appropriate behavior. Although a number of circadian functions have been examined in newborn rabbits, there is no information on 24-h pattern of gonadotropin release or on possible sex-related differences in gonadotropin or prolactin (PRL release of pups. This study examined the 24-h changes of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and prolactin (PRL in 11 days old suckling female and male rabbits left with the mother or after short-term (i.e., 48 h doe-litter separation. Methods Animals were kept under controlled light-dark cycles (16 h – 8 h; lights on at 08:00 h. On day 9 post partum, groups of 6–7 female or male rabbit pups were separated from their mothers starting at 6 different time intervals in the 24 h cycle. Pups were killed 48 h after separation. At each time interval groups of male or female pups that stayed with the mother were killed as controls. Plasma, LH, FSH and PRL levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Results In pups kept with their mother plasma FSH and LH maxima occurred at the first and second part of the light phase (at 13:00 and 17:00 – 21:00 h, respectively (females or as two peaks for each of the hormones (at 13:00 and 01:00 h (males. PRL release was similar in female and male rabbit pups kept with their mother, showing a 24-h pattern with two peaks, at 13:00 and 01:00 h, respectively. Mean 24-h values of gonadotropins and PRL did not differ between sexes. Isolation of pups for 48 h augmented circulating gonadotropin and PRL levels and distorted hormone 24-h pattern to a similar extent in both sexes. Conclusion Significant sex differences in 24-h changes in LH and FSH, but not in PRL

  8. GnRH neurons of young and aged female rhesus monkeys co-express GPER but are unaffected by long-term hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Michelle M; Gore, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is caused by changes in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that controls reproduction. Hypophysiotropic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus orchestrate the activity of this axis and are regulated by hormonal feedback loops. The mechanisms by which GnRH responds to the primary regulatory sex steroid hormone, estradiol (E2), are still poorly understood in the context of menopause. Our goal was to determine whether the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is co-expressed in adult primate GnRH neurons and whether this changes with aging and/or E2 treatment. We used immunofluorescence double-labeling to characterize the co-expression of GPER in GnRH perikarya and terminals in the hypothalamus. Young and aged rhesus macaques were ovariectomized and given long-term (~2-year) hormone treatments (E2, E2 + progesterone, or vehicle) selected to mimic currently prescribed hormone replacement therapies used for the alleviation of menopausal symptoms in women. We found that about half of GnRH perikarya co-expressed GPER, while only about 12% of GnRH processes and terminals in the median eminence (ME) were double-labeled. Additionally, many GPER-labeled processes were in direct contact with GnRH neurons, often wrapped around the perikarya and processes and in close proximity in the ME. These results extend prior work by showing robust co-localization of GPER in GnRH in a clinically relevant model, and they support the possibility that GPER-mediated E2 regulation of GnRH occurs both in the soma and terminals in nonhuman primates.

  9. [Immunoreaction and blood transfusion--chairmen's introductory remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushita, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Although blood transfusion is an extremely important therapeutic procedure that usually proceeds without complications, there are some risks associated with donated blood. Investigations into the causes of transfusion reactions and their prevention are important issues for transfusion therapy. In addition to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for infectious diseases and the irradiation of blood to prevent post-transfusion GVHD, prestorage leukocyte reduction and diversion of the first part of the donation of blood were recently introduced into transfusion therapy. This symposium, entitled "Immunoreaction and blood transfusion", reviewed the immune responses associated with blood transfusion, which is probably the most frequent medical procedure performed in allogeneic organ transplantation, with four themes provided by the four featured invited speakers: transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transfusion-transmitted infectious disease surveillance, and transfusion-related immunomodulation.

  10. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  11. GnRH Neuron Activity and Pituitary Response in Estradiol-Induced vs Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surges in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marina A; Burger, Laura L; DeFazio, R Anthony; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-02-01

    During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon, coincident with a daily luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced. We hypothesized GnRH neuron activity is greater during the proestrous-preovulatory surge than the estradiol-induced surge. GnRH neuron activity was monitored by extracellular recordings from fluorescently tagged GnRH neurons in brain slices in the late afternoon from diestrous, proestrous, and OVX+E mice. Mean GnRH neuron firing rate was low on diestrus; firing rate was similarly increased in proestrous and OVX+E mice. Bursts of action potentials have been associated with hormone release in neuroendocrine systems. Examination of the patterning of action potentials revealed a shift toward longer burst duration in proestrous mice, whereas intervals between spikes were shorter in OVX+E mice. LH response to an early afternoon injection of GnRH was greater in proestrous than diestrous or OVX+E mice. These observations suggest the lower LH surge amplitude observed in the OVX+E model is likely not attributable to altered mean GnRH neuron activity, but because of reduced pituitary sensitivity, subtle shifts in action potential pattern, and/or excitation-secretion coupling in GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  12. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  13. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  14. The hormonal effects of long-term DDT exposure on malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Lou Thompson, Mary; Dyer, Silke; Robins, T.G.; Omar, Shaheed; Riebow, John; Molekwa, Josef; Kruger, Phillip; Millar, R.

    2004-01-01

    DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] compounds, used in many developing countries, including South Africa, for the control of malaria vectors, have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in vitro and in vivo. The study hypothesis was that male malaria vector-control workers highly exposed to DDT in the past should demonstrate clinically significant exposure-related anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects that should be reflected in abnormalities in reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study of 50 workers from three camps situated near the Malaria Control Center (MCC) in Tzaneen was performed. Tests included blood sampling before and after a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge (100 μg). Serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD and basal and post-GnRH challenge hormone levels, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol (E2), and inhibin, were measured. The mean number of years worked at the MCC was 15.8±7.8 years and the mean serum DDT was 94.3±57.1 μg/g of lipid. Mean baseline E2 levels (62.4±29.9 pg/mL) exceeded the laboratory reference range. Associations between DDT exposure measures (years worked at the MCC and DDT compounds) and hormonal outcomes were weak and inconsistent. The most important finding was a positive relationship of baseline E2 and baseline testosterone with DDT compounds, especially with p'p'-DDT and -DDD. The strongest association found, adjusted for age and SHBG, was between baseline estradiol and p'p'-DDT (β-circumflex=1.14±0.33 pg/mL/μg/g lipid, P=0.001, R 2 =0.31, n=46). An overall anti-androgenic mechanism best explains the results, but with a number of inconsistencies. Associations might be due to chance, as multiple comparisons were made. The results therefore do not suggest an overt anti-androgenic or estrogenic effect of long-term DDT exposure on hormone levels, but correlations do exist in a manner that is not

  15. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is common in the enteric nervous system in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Catharina

    2016-05-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines and TH immunoreactivity is indicative of cells synthesising either adrenaline/noradrenaline or dopamine. In this study, the distribution of TH immunoreactivity was examined in two distantly related teleost species, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). In both species, TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicose nerve fibres were common in the myenteric plexus of the intestine. However, no TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were seen in the sculpin stomach. The TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies seemed to constitute a larger proportion of the total enteric population in shorthorn sculpin (50 ± 5 %, n = 3067 cells) compared with zebrafish (14 ± 2 %, n = 10,163 cells). In contrast, in sculpin, the TH-immunoreactive cells were smaller than the average enteric nerve cell bodies, whereas in zebrafish, the relationship was the opposite. In developing zebrafish larvae, TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were common (approx. 75 % of the total population) at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf), but decreased in numbers between 3 and 7 dpf. In conclusion, in contrast to previous studies, TH-immunoreactive intrinsic neurons are common in the fish gut. Their role and function need to be further characterized in order to understand the potential importance of this enteric subpopulation in controlling various gut functions.

  16. Induction of chronic growth hormone deficiency by anti-GH serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Smith, A. T.; Ellis, S.; Evans, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The observations reported indicate that the growth rate of neonatal rats can be specifically inhibited for at least 78 days following the administration of antisera against growth hormone (GH) for only four days after birth. The inhibition can be correlated with a marked deficit of tibial growth promoting activity in the pituitary but not with the plasma concentrations of immuno-reactive GH.

  17. Use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors as alternatives to luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs or anti-androgens for prostate downsizing before brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hee Joon; Mian, Omar; Vaidya, Dhananjay; DeWeese, Theodore L; Song, Daniel Y

    2017-10-10

    Prostate hypertrophy, median lobe hypertrophy, and pubic arch interference (PAI) are relative contraindications to brachytherapy because of potential morbidity and technical considerations. GnRH analogs or non-steroidal anti-androgens are currently utilized to achieve prostatic downsizing prior to brachytherapy. However, such agents have been associated with effects on body habitus, metabolism, and quality of life. In contrast, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) are far less frequently associated with these morbidities. Patients with large gland size, median lobe hypertrophy, or PAI were offered 5-ARI therapy. Repeat transrectal ultrasound was performed at 3 or 4 months, followed by brachytherapy if resolution was achieved. If downsizing was inadequate, patients were offered continuation of 5-ARI for additional 3 months, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRH) agonist or antiandrogen therapy, or other curative treatment. Of 59 patients with follow-up available, 42 (71%) were deemed to have adequate downsizing; 37 (63%) after 3 to 4 months of 5-ARI and 5 (8%) after 7 to 8 months. Seventeen patients (29%) received other treatments because of inadequate effect. Median volume reduction was 20%. Of 41 patients undergoing brachytherapy, 4 (9.7%) required temporary catheterization because of obstruction. Median follow-up after implantation was 25 months (range, 1-64). Median time for return to International Prostate Symptom Score ≤5 of baseline score was 7 months (interquartile ratio, 6-13). All but 1 patient who received brachytherapy remain biochemically controlled. 5-ARI monotherapy is an alternative for downsizing in patients with hypertrophy or PAI, with more than 70% achieving adequate downsizing without use of GnRH analogs or antiandrogens. Patients who received brachytherapy experienced typical rates of postimplant urinary morbidity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Kisspeptin Stimulates Growth Hormone Release by Utilizing Neuropeptide Y Pathways and Is Dependent on the Presence of Ghrelin in the Ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foradori, Chad D; Whitlock, Brian K; Daniel, Jay A; Zimmerman, Arthur D; Jones, Melaney A; Read, Casey C; Steele, Barbara P; Smith, Jeremy T; Clarke, Iain J; Elsasser, Theodore H; Keisler, Duane H; Sartin, James L

    2017-10-01

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, recent findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Here we show that central delivery of kisspeptin causes a robust rise in plasma GH in fasted but not fed sheep. Kisspeptin-induced GH secretion was similar in animals fasted for 24 hours and those fasted for 72 hours, suggesting that the factors involved in kisspeptin-induced GH secretion are responsive to loss of food availability and not the result of severe negative energy balance. Pretreatment with the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBO 3304, blocked the effects of kisspeptin-induced GH release, implicating NPY as an intermediary. Kisspeptin treatment induced c-Fos in NPY and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) cells of the arcuate nucleus. The same kisspeptin treatment resulted in a reduction in c-Fos in somatostatin (SS) cells in the periventricular nucleus. Finally, blockade of systemic ghrelin release or antagonism of the ghrelin receptor eliminated or reduced the ability of kisspeptin to induce GH release, suggesting the presence of ghrelin is required for kisspeptin-induced GH release in fasted animals. Our findings support the hypothesis that during short-term fasting, systemic ghrelin concentrations and NPY expression in the arcuate nucleus rise. This permits kisspeptin activation of NPY cells. In turn, NPY stimulates GHRH cells and inhibits SS cells, resulting in GH release. We propose a mechanism by which kisspeptin conveys reproductive and hormone status onto the somatotropic axis, resulting in alterations in GH release. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  20. Interactions between Two Different G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Reproductive Hormone-Producing Cells: The Role of PACAP and Its Receptor PAC1R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Kanasaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH—both gonadotropins—from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin. Prolactin, which is also known as luteotropic hormone and is released from pituitary lactotrophs, stimulates milk production in mammals. Prolactin is also regulated by hypothalamic factors, and it is thought that prolactin synthesis and release are principally under inhibitory control by dopamine through the dopamine D2 receptor. In addition, although it remains unknown whether it is a physiological regulator, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH is a strong secretagogue for prolactin. Thus, GnRH, LH and FSH, and prolactin are mainly regulated by hypothalamic kisspeptin, GnRH, and TRH, respectively. However, the synthesis and release of these hormones is also modulated by other neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a hypothalamic peptide that was first isolated from sheep hypothalamic extracts based on its ability to stimulate cAMP production in anterior pituitary cells. PACAP acts on GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs and lactotrophs, resulting in the modulation of their hormone producing/secreting functions. Furthermore, the presence of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R has been demonstrated in these cells. We have examined how PACAP and PAC1R affect GnRH- and pituitary hormone-secreting cells and interact with their principle regulators. In this review, we describe our understanding of the role of PACAP and PAC1R in the regulation of Gn

  1. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  2. Influence of feeding on serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner JM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jörg M Steiner, Craig G Ruaux, David A Williams Gastrointestinal Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Measurement of serum concentration of pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI has been shown to be highly specific for exocrine pancreatic function and sensitive for the diagnosis of canine pancreatitis. Currently, it is recommended that food be withheld for at least 12 hours before collecting a blood sample for analysis from dogs. However, it is unknown whether feeding has any influence on serum canine PLI concentration. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of feeding on serum canine PLI concentrations in healthy dogs. Food was withheld from eight healthy adult Beagle dogs for at least 17 hours and a baseline serum sample (0 minutes was collected. Dogs were fed and serum samples were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 minutes. There was no significant difference in serum canine PLI concentrations at any time after feeding (P=0.131. We conclude that feeding has no significant influence on serum canine PLI concentrations. Keywords: dog, pancreatic function, pancreatitis, biomarker, diagnostic test

  3. Immunoreactivity of granular cell lesions of skin, mucosa, and jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Courtney, R M; Crissman, J D

    1989-10-01

    Granular cell lesions from many different sites share similar light and electron microscopic features. Immunologically, however, these lesions do not appear to be a homogenous group. This study determines the extent of immunologic heterogeneity of granular cell lesions from a wide variety of sites in skin, mucosa, and jaw. Thirty-one granular cell lesions (26 granular cell tumors [GCT] and five other granular cell lesions) from 18 different sites were evaluated immunohistochemically for keratins, vimentin, desmin, muscle actin, ACT, HLA-DR, and S-100 protein. Paraffin-embedded sections were utilized with an avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique. Except for ameloblastomas, all lesions were negative for keratin and positive for vimentin. All lesions were negative for desmin and actin. Positive ACT reactivity was found in one of seven GCT of tongue, a colonic lesion, a nose lesion, and a granular cell ameloblastic fibroma. All lesions were positive for HLA-DR except a few in which fixation appeared inadequate. S-100 immunoreactivity was found in all lesions except the congenital epulis, a GCT of the skin of the nose, a colonic lesion, and the odontogenic tumors. The antigenic profile of GCT of skin and mucosa is consistent with Schwann cell origin. However, some GCT and other granular cell lesions appear to be derived from macrophages, epithelial cells, or other cells. The expression of HLA-DR by granular cells is believed to be unrelated to cellular origin but rather to some common immunologic function.

  4. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spivak, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Fuchs, E.; Quinn, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SIE) and hemoglobin levels were measured in 152 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Anemia was present in 18% of asymptomatic patients who tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 50% of patients with a condition related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 75% of patients with AIDS. The mean SIE level for untreated AIDS patients was greater than for patients who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus or patients with an AIDS-related condition but not outside the normal range for SIE, and the incremental increase in SIE level for a given decline in hemoglobin level was much less in AIDS patients than in patients with uncomplicated iron deficiency anemia. Forty-two patients were treated with zidovudine, and the hemoglobin level fell 10 g/L or more in 48%. The data indicate that SIE level is inappropriately low in anemic AIDS patients. The ability of these patients to produce erythropoietin is intact and can be expressed with zidovudine therapy. However, even very high levels of SIE fail to stimulate erythropoiesis adequately

  5. Islet-1 Immunoreactivity in the Developing Retina of Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Álvarez-Hernán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1 has been widely used as a marker of neuronal differentiation in the developing visual system of different classes of vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. In the present study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of Isl1-immunoreactive cells during Xenopus laevis retinal development and its relation to the formation of the retinal layers, and in combination with different markers of cell differentiation. The earliest Isl1 expression appeared at St29-30 in the cell nuclei of sparse differentiating neuroblasts located in the vitreal surface of the undifferentiated retina. At St35-36, abundant Isl1-positive cells accumulated at the vitreal surface of the neuroepithelium. As development proceeded and through the postmetamorphic juveniles, Isl1 expression was identified in subpopulations of ganglion cells and in subsets of amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells. These data together suggest a possible role for Isl1 in the early differentiation and maintenance of different retinal cell types, and Isl1 can serve as a specific molecular marker for the study of retinal cell specification in X. laevis.

  6. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in rat occipital cortex after callosotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lepore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal steroidogenesis can be influenced by direct neural links between the central nervous system and the gonads. It is known that androgen receptor (AR is expressed in many areas of the rat brain involved in neuroendocrine control of reproduction, such as the cerebral cortex. It has been recently shown that the occipital cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on testicular stereoidogenesis by a pituitary-independent neural mechanism. Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T secretion of hemigonadectomized rats. The present study was undertaken to analyze the possible corticocortical influences regulating male reproductive activities. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact animals as control; 2 rats undergoing sham callosotomy; 3 posterior callosotomy; 4 gonadectomy and posterior callosotomy. Western blot analysis showed no remarkable variations in cortical AR expression in any of the groups except in group I where a significant decrease in AR levels was found. Similarly, both immunocytochemical study and cell count estimation showed a lower AR immunoreactivity in occipital cortex of callosotomized rats than in other groups. In addition, there was no difference in serum T and LH concentration between sham-callosotomized and callosotomized rats. In conclusion, our results show that posterior callosotomy led to a reduction in AR in the right occipital cortex suggesting a putative inhibiting effect of the contralateral cortical area.

  7. Sleep deprivation reduces neuroglobin immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo-Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Escobar, Carolina; Santiago-García, Juan; Garcia-Garcia, Fabio

    2013-02-13

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a protein located in the mammal's brain, is involved in oxygen transport and free radical scavenging inside the neurons. Ngb colocalizes with choline acetyltransferase in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and in the pontine tegmental nucleus, both involved in the sleep-wake cycle regulation. Some studies have shown that free radicals accumulated during prolonged wakefulness are removed during sleep. Therefore, Ngb could act as a regulator of free radicals generated during prolonged wakefulness in the brain. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged wakefulness affects Ngb immunoreactivity because of increases in the oxidative stress induced by continuous neuronal activity. For this purpose, male adult Wistar rats were implanted with electrodes for sleep recordings and were divided into control and sleep-deprived groups. Sleep deprivation was carried out for 24 h by gentle handling of the animals. Sleep-wake activity was determined during the deprivation period or 24 h of control conditions. Subsequently, both groups of animals were killed and their brains were obtained and processed for Ngb immunohistochemical analysis and detection of lipid peroxidation. Our data found no evidence of increased oxidative stress in the brains of sleep-deprived animals compared with the controls. The number of Ngb-positive cells was decreased in the sleep-deprived animals in all analyzed areas of the brain compared with the control group. Our results suggest that Ngb could be involved in sleep regulation, independent of its role in the control of oxidative stress.

  8. Correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity to bacillus proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jing Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate correlation between ocular Demodex infestation and serum immunoreactivity.METHODS:Demodex counting of 68 inpatients was performed based on eight lashes sampling. Serum immunoreactivity to two 62-kDa and 83-kDa proteins derived from B oleronius was determined by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: These 68 patients without facialrosacea or blepharitis were age matched(P=0.888and gender matched(P=0.595regarding serum immunoreactivity or ocular Demodex infestation. According to the eyelash, creep mite infection was divided into positive and negative groups, age-matched(P=0.590and sex-matched(P=0.329. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex infestation(P=0.925. There were 27 patients with positive serum immunoreactivity in 38 patients with Demodex infestation(71%, and there were 21 patients in 30 patients without Demodex infestation(70%. There was no significant correlation between serum immunoreactivity and Demodex counting(P=0.758. CONCLUSION: It is unnecessary to perform serum analysis when Demodex can be found in asymptomatic individuals. But treatment of reducing lashes Demodex infestation is necessary when patient with blepharitis was detected Demodex in eye lashes and positive serum immunoreactivity.

  9. DMRTC2, PAX7, BRACHYURY/T and TERT Are Implicated in Male Germ Cell Development Following Curative Hormone Treatment for Cryptorchidism-Induced Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Defective mini-puberty results in insufficient testosterone secretion that impairs the differentiation of gonocytes into dark-type (Ad spermatogonia. The differentiation of gonocytes into Ad spermatogonia can be induced by administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, GnRHa (Buserelin, INN. Nothing is known about the mechanism that underlies successful GnRHa treatment in the germ cells. Using RNA-sequencing of testicular biopsies, we recently examined RNA profiles of testes with and without GnRHa treatment. Here, we focused on the expression patterns of known gene markers for gonocytes and spermatogonia, and found that DMRTC2, PAX7, BRACHYURY/T, and TERT were associated with defective mini-puberty and were responsive to GnRHa. These results indicate novel testosterone-dependent genes and provide valuable insight into the transcriptional response to both defective mini-puberty and curative GnRHa treatment, which prevents infertility in man with one or both undescended (cryptorchid testes.

  10. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6663) • Hormone Health Network information about menopause —— www.hormone.org/Menopause —— www.hormone.org/MenopauseMap • MedlinePlus (National Institutes of ... in Spanish at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  11. Effects of triclosan on hormones and reproductive axis in female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio): Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Guo, Xiangmeng; Chen, Wanguang; Sun, Yaowen; Fan, Chaojie

    2017-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a member of the class of compounds called pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), is a broad antibacterial and antifungal agent found in a lot of consumer products. However, TCS hormone effect mechanism in teleost female fish is not clear. Female Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 1/20, 1/10 and 1/5 LC 50 TCS (96h LC 50 of TCS to carp) under semi-static conditions for 42days. Vitellogenin (Vtg), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), testosterone(T), estrogen receptor (Er), gonadotropin (GtH), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile, we also examined the mRNA expressions of aromatase, GtHs-β, GnRH, and Er by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results indicated that 1/5 LC 50 TCS induced Vtg in hepatopancreas of female carps by interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at multiple potential loci through three mechanisms: (a) TCS exposure enhanced the mRNA expression of hypothalamus and gonadal aromatase which converts androgens into estrogens, subsequently increasing serum concentrations of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (b) TCS treatment increased GnRH and GtH-β mRNA expression and secretion, causing the disturbance of reproductive endocrine and the increase of E 2 to induce Vtg in hepatopancreas; (c) TCS exposure enhanced synthesis and secretion of Er, then it bound to Er to active Vtg synthesis. These mechanisms showed that TCS may induce Vtg production in female Yellow River carp by Er-mediated and non-Er-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissecting the Roles of Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone in Mammals: Studies Using Pharmacological Tools and Genetically Modified Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Silvia; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is essential for perpetuation of the species and, hence, is controlled by a sophisticated network of regulatory factors of central and peripheral origin that integrate at the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. Among the central regulators of reproduction, kisspeptins, as major stimulatory drivers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretion, have drawn considerable interest in the last decade. However, the dynamic, if not cyclic (in the female), nature of reproductive function and the potency of kisspeptins and other stimulatory signals of the HPG axis make tenable the existence of counterbalance inhibitory mechanisms, which may keep stimulation at check and would allow adaptation of reproductive maturation and function to different endogenous and environmental conditions. In this context, discovery of the gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in birds, and its mammalian homolog, RFRP, opened up the exciting possibility that this inhibitory signal might operate centrally to suppress, directly or indirectly, GnRH/gonadotropin secretion, thus reciprocally cooperating with other stimulatory inputs in the dynamic regulation of the reproductive hypothalamic–pituitary unit. After more than 15 years of active research, the role of GnIH/RFRP in the control of the HPG axis has been documented in different species. Yet, important aspects of the physiology of this system, especially regarding its relative importance and actual roles in the control of key facets of reproductive function, remain controversial. In the present work, we aim to provide a critical review of recent developments in this area, with special attention to studies in rodent models, using pharmacological tools and functional genomics. In doing so, we intend to endow the reader with an updated view of what is known (and what is not known) about the physiological role of GnIH/RFRP signaling in the control of mammalian reproduction. PMID:26779117

  13. FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Spencer, A N

    1984-01-01

    with several antisera to oxytocin/vasopressin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. The morphology and location of most FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Polyorchis coincides with two identified neuronal systems, which have been recently discovered from neurophysiological studies....... immunoreactivity was found in neurons of the ectodermal nerve nets of the manubrium and tentacles, in neurons of the sensory epithelium, and in neurons at the periphery of the sphincter muscle. Strong immunoreactivity was also present in processes and perikarya of the whole outer nerve ring, in the ocellar nerves...

  14. FMRFamide- and neurotensin-immunoreactive elements in the intestine of some polyclad and triclad flatworms (Turbellaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punin MYu; Markosova, T G

    2000-01-01

    By means of immunohistochemistry with antisera to tetrapeptide FMRFamide and regulatory peptides neurotensin and calcitonin intestines of marine turbellarians Notoplana atomata, N. humilis (Polycladida) and Procerodes littoralis (Tricladida) were investigated. In all flatworms polymorphous cells and processes reacting with antibodies to FMRFamide and neurotensin but not with calcitonin were revealed. These cell elements are localized both in the epithelium and beneath it. FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells and processes of investigated turbellarians and neurotensin-immunoreactive elements in P. littoralis obviously belong to the nervous system, while intraepithelial neurotensin-immunoreactive cells of polyclads share some morphological features with endocrine-like cells.

  15. Review: Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the brain and pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eUbuka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH was first identified in the Japanese quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brains of birds including songbirds, and mammals including humans. The identified avian and mammalian GnIH peptides universally possess an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q motif at their C-termini. Mammalian GnIH peptides are also designated as RFamide-related peptides from their structures. The receptor for GnIH is the G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147, which is thought to be coupled to Gαi protein. Cell bodies of GnIH neurons are located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area (DMH in mammals. GnIH neurons in the PVN or DMH project to the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function. GPR147 is expressed in the gonadotropes and GnIH suppresses synthesis and release of gonadotropins. It was further shown in immortalized mouse gonadotrope cell line (LT2 cells that GnIH inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH induced gonadotropin subunit gene transcriptions by inhibiting adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA dependent ERK pathway. GnIH neurons also project to GnRH neurons in the preoptic area, and GnRH neurons express GPR147 in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH may inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons as well as directly acting on the gonadotropes. GnIH also inhibits reproductive behavior possibly by acting within the brain. GnIH expression is regulated by a nocturnal hormone melatonin and stress in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH may play a role in translating environmental information to inhibit reproductive physiology and behavior of birds and mammals. Finally, GnIH has therapeutic potential in the treatment of reproductive cycle and hormone-dependent diseases, such as precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostatic and

  16. Comparative study between phenol and imidazole derivatives in radiolabeling of some steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    A phenol or imidazole ring is rarely present in steroid hormones, So, the molecule of steroid hormone requires chemical modification by addition of an iodinable residue like phenol or imedazole. So that the comparative study between phenol derivatives, include tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and tyramine, and imidazole derivatives, like histamine and histedine methyl ester (HME), for radiolabeling of some steroid hormones include estradiol and testosterone is the aim of the present study. The conjugation step was carried using mixed anhydride method and followed by radioiodination using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Purification step was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimization and validation of the tracer were carried out. Immunoreactivity of the all obtained tracers was check by using specific polyclonal antibodies. The results indicated that imidazols derivatives are more suitable from immunoreactivity view and storage period.

  17. Biochemical analysis of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material from human blood

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    Dennert Kate

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA-4 was initially described as a membrane-bound molecule that inhibited lymphocyte activation by interacting with B7.1 and B7.2 molecules on antigen presenting cells. Alternative splicing of mRNA encoding the CTLA-4 receptor leads to the production of a molecule (sCTLA-4 that lacks a membrane anchor and is therefore secreted into the extracellular space. Despite studies finding that people with autoimmune disease more frequently express high levels of sCTLA-4 in their blood than apparently healthy people, the significance of these findings is unclear. Methods Molecules isolated from blood using CTLA-4 specific antibodies were analyzed with ligand binding assays, mass spectroscopy, and biochemical fractionation in an effort to increase our understanding of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material. Results Mass spectroscopy analysis of the molecules recognized by multiple CTLA-4-specific antibodies failed to identify any CTLA-4 protein. Even though these molecules bind to the CTLA-4 receptors B7.1 and B7.2, they also exhibit properties common to immunoglobulins. Conclusion We have identified molecules in blood that are recognized by CTLA-4 specific antibodies but also exhibit properties of immunoglobulins. Our data indicates that what has been called sCTLA-4 is not a direct product of the CTLA-4 gene, and that the CTLA-4 protein is not part of this molecule. These results may explain why the relationship of sCTLA-4 to immune system activity has been difficult to elucidate.

  18. Comparison of immunoreactive serum trypsinogen and lipase in Cystic Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd-Still, J.D.; Weiss, S.; Wessel, H.; Fong, L.; Conway, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is 1 in 2,000. Early detection and treatment of CF may necessitate newborn screening with a reliable and cost-effective test. Serum immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) an enzyme produced by the pancreas, is detectable by radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. Recently, it has been shown that IRT is elevated in CF infants for the first few months of life and levels become subnormal as pancreatic insufficiency progresses. Other enzymes produced by the pancreas, such as lipase, are also elevated during this time. The author's earlier work confirmed previous reports of elevated IRT levels in CF infants. The development of a new RIA for lipase (nuclipase) has enabled comparison of these 2 pancreatic enzymes in C.F. Serum IRT and lipase determinations were performed on 2 groups of CF patients; infants under 1 year of age, and children between 1 and 18 years of age. Control populations of the same age groups were included. The results showed that both trypsin (161 +- 92 ng/ml, range 20 to 400) and lipase (167 +- 151 ng/ml, range 29 to 500) are elevated in CF in the majority of infants. Control infants had values of IRT ranging from 20 to 29.5 ng/ml and lipase values ranging from 23 to 34 ng/ml. IRT becomes subnormal in most CF patients by 8 years of age as pancreatic function insufficiency increases. Lipase levels and IRT levels correlate well in infancy, but IRT is a more sensitive indicator of pancreatic insufficiency in older patients with CF

  19. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Del-Bel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group. The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group; intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control. Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury.

  20. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  1. LH independent testosterone production is mediated by the interaction between GnRH-II and its receptor in the boar testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second mammalian isoform of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-II) functions quite differently from the classical form (GnRH-I), being an ineffective modulator of gonadotropin release. Not all species that produce GnRH-II maintain a full length GnRH-II receptor (GnRHR-II). Instead, GnRH-II can...

  2. LH-independent testosterone secretion is mediated by the interaction between GNRH2 and its receptor within porcine testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike the classical gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH1), the second mammalian isoform (GNRH2) is an ineffective stimulant of gonadotropin release. Species that produce GNRH2 may not maintain a functional GNRH2 receptor (GNRHR2) due to coding errors. A full length GNRHR2 gene has been identified ...

  3. Dual Actions of Mammalian and Piscine Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormones, RFamide-Related Peptides and LPXRFamide Peptides, in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Ubuka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that decreases gonadotropin synthesis and release by directly acting on the gonadotrope or by decreasing the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. GnIH is also called RFamide-related peptide in mammals or LPXRFamide peptide in fishes due to its characteristic C-terminal structure. The primary receptor for GnIH is GPR147 that inhibits cAMP production in target cells. Although most of the studies in mammals, birds, and fish have shown the inhibitory action of GnIH in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG axis, several in vivo studies in mammals and many in vivo and in vitro studies in fish have shown its stimulatory action. In mouse, although the firing rate of the majority of GnRH neurons is decreased, a small population of GnRH neurons is stimulated by GnIH. In hamsters, GnIH inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH release in the breeding season when their endogenous LH level is high but stimulates LH release in non-breeding season when their LH level is basal. Besides different effects of GnIH on the HPG axis depending on the reproductive stages in fish, higher concentration or longer duration of GnIH administration can stimulate their HPG axis. These results suggest that GnIH action in the HPG axis is modulated by sex-steroid concentration, the action of neuroestrogen synthesized by the activity of aromatase stimulated by GnIH, estrogen membrane receptor, heteromerization and internalization of GnIH, GnRH, and estrogen membrane receptors. The inhibitory and stimulatory action of GnIH in the HPG axis may have a physiological role to maintain reproductive homeostasis according to developmental and reproductive stages.

  4. The adipokinetic hormone receptor modulates sexual behavior, pheromone perception and pheromone production in a sex-specific and starvation-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Sebastien eLebreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food availability and nutritional status shape the reproductive activity of many animals. In rodents, hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, restore energy homeostasis not only through regulating e.g. caloric intake and energy housekeeping, but also through modulating sex drive. We investigated whether the insect homologue of the GnRH receptor, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR modulates sexual behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster depending on nutritional status. We found that AKHR regulates male, but not female sexual behavior in a starvation-dependent manner. Males lacking AKHR showed a severe decrease in their courtship activity when starved, as well as an increase in mating duration when fed. AKHR expression is particularly strong in the subesophageal zone (SEZ, Ito et al. 2014. We found axonal projections from AKHR-expressing neurons to higher brain centers including specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Among the glomeruli that received projections were those dedicated to detecting the male specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Accordingly, responses to cVA were dependent on the nutritional status of flies. AKHR was also involved in the regulation of the production of cuticular pheromones, 7,11-heptacosadiene and 7-tricosene. This effect was observed only in females and depended on their feeding state. AKHR has therefore a dual role on both pheromone perception and production. For the first time our study shows an effect of AKHR on insect sexual behavior and physiology. Our results support the hypothesis of a conserved role of the GnRH/AKH pathway on a nutritional state-dependent regulation of reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  5. Diurnal variation of. beta. -endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, I.A.; Perry, M.L.S.; Carrasco, M.A.; Dias, R.D. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias); Orsingher, O.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1984-09-01

    ..beta..-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ..beta..-endorphin immunoreactive material.

  6. Immunoreactivity of lactic acid-treated mare's milk after simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Joanna; Szyc, Anna; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The similarity of mare's milk to breast milk makes it an interesting substrate for the creation of dairy beverages. The aim of this study was to determine the immunoreactivity of the digested mare's milk products carried out by lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei LCY, Streptococcus thermophilus MK10 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bi30. Simulation of digestion with saliva, pepsin and pancreatin/bile salts was carried out. The immunoreactivity of the milk proteins was assessed by competitive ELISA. The separation of proteins was studied using a tricine SDS-PAGE method. It has been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation significantly decreases the immunoreactivity of β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein and bovine serum albumin. The level of reduction was connected to the type of bacterial strain. The simulated digestion processes caused the decline of immunoreactivity, and the decreases obtained in the experiment were as follows: lactoferrin: 95%, β-lactoglobulin: 94%, β-casein: 93%, α-lactalbumin: 82%, α-casein: 82%, bovine serum albumin: 76% and κ-casein: 37%. The results of the study indicated that microbial fermentation with tested strains is a valuable method for reducing the immunoreactivity of mare's milk proteins. However, further studies with other bacterial strains are needed to gain a higher level of elimination or total reduction of mare's milk immunoreactivity to possibly introduce fermented mare's milk into the diet of patients with immune-mediated digestive problems.

  7. Canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations associated with intervertebral disk disease in 84 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, R O; White, G; Schueler, R L; Steiner, J M; Wassef, A

    2018-01-22

    To determine the differences in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity between dogs with intervertebral disc herniation and healthy control dogs. Eighty-four client-owned dogs with intervertebral disc herniation, diagnosed by neurologic examination and imaging, and 18 healthy control dogs. Samples of whole blood were collected within 90 minutes of admission. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were measured by a commercial immunoassay and evaluated for association with intervertebral disc herniation, signalment, neurolocalisation and the preadmission administration of glucocorticosteriods or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were statistically increased in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation (Pcanine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations was re-evaluated between 2 and 4 weeks later, and 15 had resolution of clinical signs and values less than 200 μg/L. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were not significantly correlated with clinical gastrointestinal disease, neurolocalisation or the preadmission administration of corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These results suggest that serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations are significantly elevated in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Morphometric characteristics of neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokuća, Dragan; Puskas, Laslo; Puskas, Nela; Erić, Mirela

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and precisely define the morphology of neurons immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Five human brains were used for immunohistochemical investigation of the shape and laminar distribution of NPY neurons in serial section in the supramarginal and angular gyrus. Immunoreactivity to NPY was detected in all six layers of the cortex of human IPL. However a great number of NPY immunoreactive neurons were found in the white matter under the IPL cortex. The following types of NPY immunoreactive neurons were found: Cajal-Retzius, pyramidal, inverted pyramidal, "double bouquet" (bitufted), rare type 6, multipolar nonspinous, bipolar, voluminous "basket", and chandelier cells. These informations about morphometric characteristics of NPY immunoreactive neurons in cortical layers, together with morphometric data taken from brains having schizophrenia or Alzheimer's-type dementia may contribute to better understanding patogenesis of these neurological diseases. The finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons immunoreactive to NPY points to the need for further investigations because of great importance of these cells in neurogenesis and involvement in mentioned diseases instead of their rarity.

  9. The organization of melanopsin-immunoreactive cells in microbat retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs respond to light and play roles in non-image forming vision, such as circadian rhythms, pupil responses, and sleep regulation, or image forming vision, such as processing visual information and directing eye movements in response to visual clues. The purpose of the present study was to identify the distribution, types, and proportion of melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR cells in the retina of a nocturnal animal, i.e., the microbat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. Three types of melanopsin-IR cells were observed in the present study. The M1 type had dendritic arbors that extended into the OFF sublayer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL. M1 soma locations were identified either in the ganglion cell layer (GCL, M1c; 21.00% or in the inner nuclear layer (INL, M1d; 5.15%. The M2 type had monostratified dendrites in the ON sublayer of the IPL and their cell bodies lay in the GCL (M2; 5.79%. The M3 type was bistratified cells with dendrites in both the ON and OFF sublayers of the IPL. M3 soma locations were either in the GCL (M3c; 26.66% or INL (M3d; 4.69%. Additionally, some M3c cells had curved dendrites leading up towards the OFF sublayer of the IPL and down to the ON sublayer of the IPL (M3c-crv; 7.67%. Melanopsin-IR cells displayed a medium soma size and medium dendritic field diameters. There were 2-5 primary dendrites and sparsely branched dendrites with varicosities. The total number of the neurons in the GCL was 12,254.17 ± 660.39 and that of the optic nerve axons was 5,179.04 ± 208.00 in the R. ferrumequinum retina. The total number of melanopsin-IR cells was 819.74 ± 52.03. The ipRGCs constituted approximately 15.83% of the total RGC population. This study demonstrated that the nocturnal microbat, R. ferrumequinum, has a much higher density of melanopsin-IR cells than documented in diurnal animals.

  10. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  11. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  12. Decreased orexin (hypocretin) immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and pontine nuclei in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Waters, Karen A; Rodriguez, Michael L; Machaalani, Rita

    2015-08-01

    Infants at risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been shown to have dysfunctional sleep and poor arousal thresholds. In animal studies, both these attributes have been linked to impaired signalling of the neuropeptide orexin. This study examined the immunoreactivity of orexin (OxA and OxB) in the tuberal hypothalamus (n = 27) and the pons (n = 15) of infants (1-10 months) who died from SIDS compared to age-matched non-SIDS infants. The percentage of orexin immunoreactive neurons and the total number of neurons were quantified in the dorsomedial, perifornical and lateral hypothalamus at three levels of the tuberal hypothalamus. In the pons, the area of orexin immunoreactive fibres were quantified in the locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), laterodorsal tegmental (LDT), medial parabrachial, dorsal tegmental (DTg) and pontine nuclei (Pn) using automated methods. OxA and OxB were co-expressed in all hypothalamic and pontine nuclei examined. In SIDS infants, orexin immunoreactivity was decreased by up to 21 % within each of the three levels of the hypothalamus compared to non-SIDS (p ≤ 0.050). In the pons, a 40-50 % decrease in OxA occurred in the all pontine nuclei, while a similar decrease in OxB immunoreactivity was observed in the LC, LDT, DTg and Pn (p ≤ 0.025). No correlations were found between the decreased orexin immunoreactivity and previously identified risk factors for SIDS, including prone sleeping position and cigarette smoke exposure. This finding of reduced orexin immunoreactivity in SIDS infants may be associated with sleep dysfunction and impaired arousal.

  13. Leptin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system, digestive organs, and gonads of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Anurucpreeda, Panat; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-06-01

    Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin. With WB, a leptin-like peptide, having a molecular weight of 15kDa, was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, parts of the gastro-intestinal tract, hepatopancreas, adipocytes and gonads. By ID, leptin immunoreactivity (leptin-ir) was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia and intersegmental commissural nerve fibers of abdominal ganglia. In the gastrointestinal tract, there was intense leptin-ir in the apical part of the epithelial cells of the cardiac and pyloric parts of the stomach. In the midgut and hindgut, the leptin-ir was detected in epithelial cells and basal cells located near the basal lamina of the epithelium. In addition, there was leptin-ir in the Restzellen cells in the hepatopancreas which produce digestive enzymes. In the ovary, the strong intensity of a leptin-ir was detected in the cytoplasm of middle to late stage oocytes, whereas no positive staining was detected in follicular cells. An intense leptin-ir was detected in spermatocytes and sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules in the testes of small and orange claw males. Taken together, the detection of the leptin-ir in several organs implicates the existence of a leptin-like peptide in various organs of the freshwater prawn; and like in vertebrates this peptide may be an important hormonal factor in controlling feeding and reproductive process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Temperature dependence of immunoreactions using shear horizontal surface acoustic wave immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogai, Takashi; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the temperature dependence of immunoreactions, which are antibody-antigen reactions, on a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) immunosensor is described. The immunosensor is based on a reflection-type delay line on a 36° Y-cut 90° X-propagation quartz substrate, where the delay line is composed of a floating electrode unidirectional transducer (FEUDT), a grating reflector, and a sensing area between them. In order to evaluate the temperature dependence of immunoreactions, human serum albumin (HSA) antigen-antibody reactions are investigated. The SH-SAW immunosensor chip is placed in a thermostatic chamber and the changes in the SH-SAW velocity resulting from the immunoreactions are measured at different temperatures. As a result, it is observed that the HSA immunoreactions are influenced by the ambient temperature and that higher temperatures provide more active reactions. In order to analyze the immunoreactions, an analytical approach using an exponential fitting method for changes in SH-SAW velocity is employed.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of hormonal secretion of the gonadal axis in patients with puberty metrorrhagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balova, V.; Maleeva, A.; Khristov, L. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Thirty two girls aged 10 to 16 years, admitted to the Institute of Obstetries and Genecology, are investigated. The concentration levels of gonadal axis hormones are determined, and the obtained results are compared with the hormonal concentrations in normal girls of comparable age. It is established that the luteinizing hormone level is considerably and statistically significantly increased (P> 0.001), exceeding as much as four times average the level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (LH:FSH = 4:1), whereas in normal conditions there is a 2:1 ratio. Presumably, in cases of puberty metrorrhagia the uterine bleedings are associated with enhanced and disturbed secretion of Gonadotropic hormones, occurring as a result of the altered immunoreactivity of the organism.

  16. Differential Effects of Continuous Exposure to the Investigational Metastin/Kisspeptin Analog TAK-683 on Pulsatile and Surge Mode Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone in Ovariectomized Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Tomomi; OHKURA, Satoshi; WAKABAYASHI, Yoshihiro; KUROIWA, Takenobu; NAGAI, Kiyosuke; ENDO, Natsumi; TANAKA, Akira; MATSUI, Hisanori; KUSAKA, Masami; OKAMURA, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine if the estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is influenced by the constant exposure to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, that had been established to depress the pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in goats. Ovariectomized goats subcutaneously received TAK-683 (TAK-683 group, n=6) or vehicle (control group, n=6) constantly via subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump. Five days after the start of the treatment, estradiol was infused intravenously in both groups to evaluate the effects on the LH surge. Blood samples were collected at 6-min intervals for 4 h prior to the initiation of either the TAK-683 treatment or the estradiol infusion, to determine the profiles of pulsatile LH secretion. They were also collected at 2-h intervals from –4 h to 32 h after the start of estradiol infusion for analysis of LH surges. The frequency and mean concentrations of LH pulses in the TAK-683 group were remarkably suppressed 5 days after the start of TAK-683 treatment compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). On the other hand, a clear LH surge was observed in all animals of both groups. There were no significant differences in the LH concentrations for surge peak and the peak time of the LH surge between the TAK-683 and control groups. These findings suggest that the effects of continuous exposure to kisspeptin or its analog on the mechanism(s) that regulates the pulsatile and surge mode secretion of GnRH/LH are different in goats. PMID:24047956

  17. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  18. The median eminence : an electron microscopic study with special reference to gonadotropin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Stoeckart (Rob)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractAdaptation of an organism to changes in the external and internal environment is in vertebrates brought about by two more or less separate integrative systems: the nervous system and the endocrine system. The nervous system is primarily equipped for rapid and short lived responses,

  19. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... effective January 27, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew Lucia, Center for Veterinary Medicine... and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 522 is amended as follows... veterinarian. Pigs should be slaughtered no earlier than 3 weeks and no later than 10 weeks after the second...

  20. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  1. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex: Comparison of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggan, Stephen M; Stoyak, Samuel R; Verrico, Christopher D; Lewis, David A

    2010-09-01

    We recently showed that measures of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) mRNA and protein were significantly reduced in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area 9 in schizophrenia subjects relative to matched normal comparison subjects. However, other studies have reported unaltered or higher measures of CB1R levels in schizophrenia. To determine whether these discrepancies reflect differences across brain regions or across subject groups (eg, presence of depression, cannabis exposure, etc), we used immunocytochemical techniques to determine whether lower levels of CB1R immunoreactivity are (1) present in another DLPFC region, area 46, in the same subjects with schizophrenia, (2) present in area 46 in a new cohort of schizophrenia subjects, (3) present in major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects, or (4) attributable to factors other than a diagnosis of schizophrenia, including prior cannabis use. CB1R immunoreactivity levels in area 46 were significantly 19% lower in schizophrenia subjects relative to matched normal comparison subjects, a deficit similar to that observed in area 9 in the same subjects. In a new cohort of subjects, CB1R immunoreactivity levels were significantly 20 and 23% lower in schizophrenia subjects relative to matched comparison and MDD subjects, respectively. The lower levels of CB1R immunoreactivity in schizophrenia subjects were not explained by other factors such as cannabis use, suicide, or pharmacological treatment. In addition, CB1R immunoreactivity levels were not altered in monkeys chronically exposed to haloperidol. Thus, the lower levels of CB1R immunoreactivity may be common in schizophrenia, conserved across DLPFC regions, not present in MDD, and not attributable to other factors, and thus a reflection of the underlying disease process.

  2. Effects of the Maillard Reaction on the Immunoreactivity of Amandin in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Guneet S; Liu, Changqi; Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2017-10-01

    Amandin is the major storage protein and allergen in almond seeds. Foods, containing almonds, subjected to thermal processing typically experience Maillard browning reaction. The resulting destruction of amino groups, protein glycation, and/or denaturation may alter amandin immunoreactivity. Amandin immunoreactivity of variously processed almond containing foods was therefore the focus of the current investigation. Commercial and laboratory prepared foods, including those likely to have been subjected to Maillard browning, were objectively assessed by determining Hunter L * , a * , b * values. The L * values for the tested samples were in the range of 31.75 to 85.28 consistent with Maillard browning. Three murine monoclonal antibodies, 4C10, 4F10, and 2A3, were used to determine the immunoreactivity of the targeted samples using immunoassays (ELISA, Western blot, dot blot). The tested foods did not exhibit cross-reactivity indicating that the immunoassays were amandin specific. For sandwich ELISAs, ratio (R) of sample immunoreactivity to reference immunoreactivity was calculated. The ranges of R values were 0.67 to 15.19 (4C10), 1.00 to 11.83 (4F10), and 0.77 to 23.30 (2A3). The results of dot blot and Western blot were consistent with those of ELISAs. Results of these investigations demonstrate that amandin is a stable marker protein for almond detection regardless of the degree of amandin denaturation and/or destruction as a consequence of Maillard reaction encountered under the tested processing conditions. Foods containing almond are often subjected to processing prior to consumption. Amandin, the major allergen in almond, may experience Maillard reaction. Understanding the change in amandin immunoreactivity as a result of Maillard reaction is important for amandin detection and production of hypoallergenic food products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1984-01-01

    Paraffin sections of brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri were immunostained with an antiserum to FMRF-amide. Immunoreactivity was visible in a large number of neurons in the posterior part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in long neuronal processes extending cranially from...... the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material...

  4. Hypothyroidism in adult male rats alters posttranscriptional mechanisms of luteinizing hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renata Marino; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Brunetto, Erika Lia; Goulart-Silva, Francemilson; Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2013-04-01

    Studies in men are not consistent regarding the effects of thyroid hormone on the production of gonadotropins. In hypothyroidism consequent to diverse causes, an increase or no change in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) have been reported. The attempt to explain the mechanisms involved in this pathology using rats as an experimental model also seems to repeat this divergence, since hypothyroidism has been shown to induce hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a hypergonadotropic state, or not to affect the basal levels of LH. Notably, the promoter region of the gene encoding the Lh beta subunit and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing factor) does not contain a thyroid responsive element. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis that, in male rats, posttranscriptional mechanisms of LH synthesis are altered in hypothyroidism. We also attempted to determine if hypothyroidism directly affects testicular function in male rats. Male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were thyroidectomized or sham-operated. After 20 days, they were decapitated, and the pituitaries were collected and analyzed for Lh mRNA, LH content, poly(A) tail length, and polysome profile. The testes were collected and analyzed for Lh receptor mRNA, LH receptor content, and histology using morphometric analyses. The testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate were weighed, and serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, thyrotropin (TSH), and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured. Hypothyroidism was associated, in the pituitary, with an increase in Lh mRNA expression, a reduction in Lh mRNA poly(A) tail length, a reduction in the number of LH transcripts associated with polysomes. Pituitary LH was decreased but serum LH was increased from 102 to 543 pg/mL. Despite this, serum testosterone concentrations were decreased from 1.8 to 0.25 ng/mL. A decreased germinative epithelium height of the testes and a reduced weight of androgen-responsive tissues were observed (ventral prostrate: 74 vs. 23 mg/100 g body weight [BW

  5. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...

  6. Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podbielska, Maria; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Levery, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    -acetylation of the 2-hydroxy-fatty acid. The immuno-reactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to these acetylated glycolipids was examined in central nervous system (CNS) infectious disease, noninflammatory disorders, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening for lipid binding in MS and other neurological disease...

  7. Impact of Maillard Reaction on Immunoreactivity and Allergenicity of the Hazelnut Allergen Cor a 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwan, M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Fiedorowicz, E.; Kostyra, H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies exist on the influence of processing methods on structural changes and allergenic potential of hazelnut proteins. This study focused on the effect of glycation (Maillard reaction) on the immunoreactivity and degranulation capacity of the purified hazelnut 7S globulin, Cor a 11. After

  8. CHANGES IN PKC-GAMMA IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN MOUSE HIPPOCAMPUS INDUCED BY SPATIAL DISCRIMINATION-LEARNING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERZEE, EA; COMPAAN, JC; DEBOER, M; LUITEN, PGM

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we examined changes in immunoreactivity (ir) for the gamma-isoform of protein kinase C (PKCgamma) in mouse hippocampus in relation to spatial memory processes employing the monoclonal antibody 36G9 raised against purified PKCgamma. Learning and memory were assessed by

  9. Occurrence of substance P-like immunoreactive nerve fibers in Krause corpuscles of the dog's tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, H; Nishikawa, S; Wakisaka, S; Matsuo, S; Takano, Y; Akai, M

    1988-01-01

    Substance P-like immunoreactive (SPLI) nerve fibers were demonstrated in the Krause corpuscles of the dog's tongue using the indirect immunofluorescence method and cholinesterase histochemistry. SPLI nerve fibers were often in contact with Krause end bulbs and occasionally entered them. From this result it was suggested that substance P might be involved in sensory mechanism of the Krause apparatus.

  10. Implications of lipid moiety in oligomerization and immunoreactivities of GPI-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jihyoun; Wang, Yetao; Kinoshita, Taroh; Maeda, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) enriches GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) in lipid rafts by intimate interaction of its lipid moiety with sphingolipids and cholesterol. In addition to such lipid-lipid interactions, it has been reported that GPI may interact with protein moiety linked to GPI and affect protein conformations because GPI delipidation reduced immunoreactivities of protein. Here, we report that GPI-APs that have not undergone fatty acid remodeling exhibit reduced immunoreactivities in Western blotting, similar to delipidated proteins, compared with normal remodeled GPI-APs. In contrast, immunostaining in flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation did not show significant differences between remodeled and unremodeled GPI-APs. Moreover, detection with premixed primary/secondary antibody complexes or Fab fragments eliminated this difference in Western blotting. These results indicate that normally remodeled GPI enhanced oligomerization of GPI-APs and that inefficient oligomerization of unremodeled GPI-APs was responsible for reduced immunoreactivities. Moreover, the reduction in immunoreactivities of delipidated GPI-APs was most likely caused by the same effect. Finally, by chemical cross-linking of surface proteins in living cells and cell killing assay using a pore-forming bacterial toxin, we showed that enhanced oligomerization by GPI-remodeling occurs under a physiological membrane environment. Thus, this study clarifies the significance of GPI fatty acid remodeling in oligomerization of GPI-APs and provides useful information for technical studies of these cell components. PMID:23378600

  11. Immunoreactivity of adsorbed anti human chorionic gonadotropin studied with an optical waveguide interferometric sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Kooyman, R.P.H.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A study on the immunoreactivity of adsorbed αhCG molecules as a function of substrate hydrophobicity and protein coverage is presented. The experiments were performed with a planar waveguide interferometrical immunosensor. The substrate hydrophobicity and the antibody density were found to be of

  12. The effect of steroid treatment on lipocortin immunoreactivity of rat brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, K G; Haar, J G Ter; de Leij, Louis; Zuiderveen, F; Parente, L; Solito, E; Molenaar, W M

    Lipocortin-1, lipocortin-2 and lipocortin-5 were immunohistochemically assessed in rats. Apart from animals receiving no treatment, other animals received pretreatment with methylprednisolone, or the 21-aminosteroid U-74389F. Whereas Hpocortin immunoreactivity was absent in the greater part of the

  13. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    Using immunocytochemistry, gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity is found in sensory nerve cells in the ectoderm of the mouth region of hydra and in nerve cells in the endoderm of all body regions of the sea anemone tealia. These results are corroborated by radioimmunoassay: One hydra contains at lea...

  14. Rett Syndrome Mutant Neural Cells Lacks MeCP2 Immunoreactive Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Carlos; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Moraleda, Jose M; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctions of MeCP2 protein lead to various neurological disorders such as Rett syndrome and Autism. The exact functions of MeCP2 protein is still far from clear. At a molecular level, there exist contradictory data. MeCP2 protein is considered a single immunoreactive band around 75 kDa by western-blot analysis but several reports have revealed the existence of multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands above and below the level where MeCP2 is expected. MeCP2 immunoreactive bands have been interpreted in different ways. Some researchers suggest that multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands are unidentified proteins that cross-react with the MeCP2 antibody or degradation product of MeCP2, while others suggest that MeCP2 post-transcriptional processing generates multiple molecular forms linked to cell signaling, but so far they have not been properly analyzed in relation to Rett syndrome experimental models. The purpose of this study is to advance understanding of multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands in control neural cells and p.T158M MeCP2e1 mutant cells. We have generated stable wild-type and p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. Application of N- and C- terminal MeCP2 antibodies, and also, RFP antibody minimized concerns about nonspecific cross-reactivity, since they react with the same antigen at different epitopes. We report the existence of multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands in control cells, stable wild-type and p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. Also, MeCP2 immunoreactive bands differences were found between wild-type and p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. Slower migration phosphorylated band around 70kDa disappeared in p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. These data suggest that threonine 158 could represent an important phosphorylation site potentially involved in protein function. Our results clearly indicate that MeCP2 antibodies have no cross-reactivity with similar epitopes on others proteins, supporting the idea that MeCP2 may

  15. Rett Syndrome Mutant Neural Cells Lacks MeCP2 Immunoreactive Bands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bueno

    Full Text Available Dysfunctions of MeCP2 protein lead to various neurological disorders such as Rett syndrome and Autism. The exact functions of MeCP2 protein is still far from clear. At a molecular level, there exist contradictory data. MeCP2 protein is considered a single immunoreactive band around 75 kDa by western-blot analysis but several reports have revealed the existence of multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands above and below the level where MeCP2 is expected. MeCP2 immunoreactive bands have been interpreted in different ways. Some researchers suggest that multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands are unidentified proteins that cross-react with the MeCP2 antibody or degradation product of MeCP2, while others suggest that MeCP2 post-transcriptional processing generates multiple molecular forms linked to cell signaling, but so far they have not been properly analyzed in relation to Rett syndrome experimental models. The purpose of this study is to advance understanding of multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands in control neural cells and p.T158M MeCP2e1 mutant cells. We have generated stable wild-type and p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. Application of N- and C- terminal MeCP2 antibodies, and also, RFP antibody minimized concerns about nonspecific cross-reactivity, since they react with the same antigen at different epitopes. We report the existence of multiple MeCP2 immunoreactive bands in control cells, stable wild-type and p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. Also, MeCP2 immunoreactive bands differences were found between wild-type and p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. Slower migration phosphorylated band around 70kDa disappeared in p.T158M MeCP2e1-RFP mutant expressing cells. These data suggest that threonine 158 could represent an important phosphorylation site potentially involved in protein function. Our results clearly indicate that MeCP2 antibodies have no cross-reactivity with similar epitopes on others proteins, supporting the

  16. Loss of nonphosphorylated neurofilament immunoreactivity in temporal cortical areas in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, R; Sahu, S K; Van Hoesen, G W; Zaheer, A

    2009-05-05

    The distribution of immunoreactive neurons with nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI32) was studied in temporal cortical areas in normal subjects and in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). SMI32 immunopositive neurons were localized mainly in cortical layers II, III, V and VI, and were medium to large-sized pyramidal neurons. Patients with AD had prominent degeneration of SMI32 positive neurons in layers III and V of Brodmann areas 38, 36, 35 and 20; in layers II and IV of the entorhinal cortex (Brodmann area 28); and hippocampal neurons. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were stained with Thioflavin-S and with an antibody (AT8) against hyperphosphorylated tau. The NFT distribution was compared to that of the neuronal cytoskeletal marker SMI32 in these temporal cortical regions. The results showed that the loss of SMI32 immunoreactivity in temporal cortical regions of AD brain is paralleled by an increase in NFTs and AT8 immunoreactivity in neurons. The SMI32 immunoreactivity was drastically reduced in the cortical layers where tangle-bearing neurons are localized. A strong SMI32 immunoreactivity was observed in numerous neurons containing NFTs by double-immunolabeling with SMI32 and AT8. However, few neurons were labeled by AT8 and SMI32. These results suggest that the development of NFTs in some neurons results from some alteration in SMI32 expression, but does not account for all, particularly, early NFT-related changes. Also, there is a clear correlation of NFTs with selective population of pyramidal neurons in the temporal cortical areas and these pyramidal cells are specifically prone to formation of paired helical filaments. Furthermore, these pyramidal neurons might represent a significant portion of the neurons of origin of long corticocortical connection, and consequently contribute to the destruction of memory-related input to the hippocampal formation.

  17. Functional Characterization and Signaling Systems of Corazonin and Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone in the Green Shore Crab, Carcinus maenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides play a central role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and hormones in orchestrating arthropod physiology. The post-genomic surge in identified neuropeptides and their putative receptors has not been matched by functional characterization of ligand-receptor pairs. Indeed, until very recently no G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs had been functionally defined in any crustacean. Here we explore the structurally-related, functionally-diverse gonadotropin-releasing hormone paralogs, corazonin (CRZ and red-pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs in the crab, Carcinus maenas. Using aequorin luminescence to measure in vitro Ca2+ mobilization we demonstrated receptor-ligand pairings of CRZ and RPCH. CRZR-activated cell signaling in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 0.75 nM and comparative studies with insect CRZ peptides suggest that the C-terminus of this peptide is important in receptor-ligand interaction. RPCH interacted with RPCHR with extremely high sensitivity (EC50 20 pM. Neither receptor bound GnRH, nor the AKH/CRZ-related peptide. Transcript distributions of both receptors indicate that CRZR expression was, unexpectedly, restricted to the Y-organs (YO. Application of CRZ peptide to YO had no effect on ecdysteroid biosynthesis, excepting a modest stimulation in early post-molt. CRZ had no effect on heart activity, blood glucose levels, lipid mobilization or pigment distribution in chromatophores, a scenario that reflected the distribution of its mRNA. Apart from the well-known activity of RPCH as a chromatophorotropin, it also indirectly elicited hyperglycemia (which was eyestalk-dependent. RPCHR mRNA was also expressed in the ovary, indicating possible roles in reproduction. The anatomy of CRZ and RPCH neurons in the nervous system is described in detail by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Each peptide has extensive but non-overlapping distribution in the CNS, and neuroanatomy

  18. Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Ji, Kyunghee; Jo, Areum; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-06-15

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) belong to the group of triester organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which have been used in a wide range of consumer products. These chemicals have been frequently detected in effluents, surface water, and fish, and hence their potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem are of concern. The present study was conducted to investigate the reproduction-related effects and possible molecular mechanisms of TDCPP and TPP using a 21 day reproduction test employing adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 21 d of exposure to TDCPP or TPP, significant decrease in fecundity along with significant increases of plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations, vitellogenin (VTG) levels, and E2/testosterone (T) and E2/11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) ratios were observed. The transcriptional profiles of several genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis changed as well after the exposure, but the trend was sex-dependent. In male fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone2 (GnRH2), GnRHR3, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19B, estrogen receptor α (ERα), ER2 β1, and follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) were upregulated in the brain, while luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) and androgen receptor (AR) were downregulated. Corresponding to the upregulation of FSHβ and downregulation of LHβ in the brain, FSHR was upregulated and LHR was downregulated in the testis. Among the genes that regulate the steroidogenesis pathway, transcription of hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGRA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) decreased, while transcription of CYP11A, CYP17, and CYP19A increased. In female fish, transcription ofGnRH2 and GnRHR3 decreased, but FSHβ, LHβ, CYP19B, ERα, ER2β1, and AR transcription increased in the brain. In the ovary, FSHR and LHR were significantly upregulated, and most steroidogenic genes were significantly upregulated. The observed

  19. The effect of oral 5-HTP administration on 5-HTP and 5-HT immunoreactivity in monoaminergic brain regions of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn-Bullock, Christina P; Welshhans, Kristy; Pallas, Sarah L; Katz, Paul S

    2004-05-01

    5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is the rate-limiting precursor in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) biosynthesis, is used as an oral supplement to enhance serotonin levels in humans. To evaluate its effects on serotonin levels and localization, 5-hydroxytryptophan was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats either orally or via intraperitoneal injection. 5-Hydroxytryptophan-immunoreactivity was co-localized with serotonin-immunoreactivity in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus of control animals and this was not changed in animals given 5-hydroxytryptophan. Oral 5-HTP administration increased the intensity of both 5-HTP and serotonin immunoreactivity in raphe neurons. However, 5-HTP treatment also caused ectopic 5-hydroxytryptophan-immunoreactivity and serotonin-immunoreactivity in normally dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra par compacta. Serotonin-immunoreactivity was confined to neurons that also displayed amino acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity, but in a small percentage of substantia nigra neurons, serotonin immunoreactivity was not co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity. The intensity of the immunoreactivity to serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the substantia nigra was maximal within 2h of 5-hydroxytryptophan administration and returned to control levels by 24h. This time course mirrored changes in HPLC measurements of 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the urine. 5-Hydroxytryptophan administration did not cause ectopic appearance of either serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptophan in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus. These results suggest that a single oral dose of 5-HTP increases the 5-HTP and serotonin content of serotonergic neurons and causes the transient ectopic appearance of serotonin in some normally non-serotonergic neurons.

  20. Distribution and Origin of VIP-, SP-, and Phospholipase Cβ2 -Immunoreactive Nerves in the Tongue of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Osamu; Ando, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Asanuma, Naokazu; Okumura, Masayo; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kondo, Eiji; Yagasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have found a few intralingual ganglionic cells that were immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the frog. A recent study reported a large number of such cells, and the possibility of the release of substance P (SP) from these. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, origin, and colocalization of VIP- and SP- immunoreactive nerves in the tongue of the bullfrog, R. catesbeiana. In addition, the study also examined the colocalization of SP and phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2 ) in the tongue and jugular ganglion. VIP immunoreactivity was seen in unipolar cells that were sparse in nerve bundles in the submucosal and muscle layers. The density of VIP-immunoreactive cells was approximately 4.8 cells/mm(3) . Their fibers terminated in the vicinity of the epithelial basal layer of the fungiform papillae. SP immunoreactivity was not seen in the VIP-immunoreactive cells, but was observed in pseudounipolar cells in the jugular ganglion. The SP fibers terminated close to the free surface, showing spindle- and button-like profiles. Transection of glossopharyngeal nerve resulted in the persistence of VIP-immunoreactive cells and the disappearance of SP-immunoreactive fibers in the tongue. SP immunoreactivity was co-expressed with PLCβ2 in both the tongue and jugular ganglia. No PLCβ2 immunoreactivity was seen in cells comprising the epithelial taste disk. These findings indicate that the origin of VIP nerve fibers are unipolar cells in the tongue, and SP and PLCβ2 fibers originate from pseudounipolar cells that may be able to release SP primarily in the jugular ganglion. Anat Rec, 299:929-942, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and transforming growth factor β-3 gene polymorphism in breeder hens of Mazandaran native fowls. Babak Enayati and Ghodrat Rahimi-Mianji*. Laboratory for Molecular Genetics and Animal Biotechnology, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of ...

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the ...

  3. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links ...

  4. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  5. Hormone treatment of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these hormones. PMID:21485752

  6. Effect of Surgical and Immunological Castration on Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    . Cloud, Minnesota, USA. Summary: Welfare concerns are growing regarding surgical castration (SC) in pets, necessitating the need for non-surgical alternatives. Administration of vaccines against gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  7. Disease: H00255 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a homozygous mutation in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. ... JOURNAL ... J Clin Endocrinol Metab 8...Statement on congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism--pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. ... JOURNAL ... Nat Rev Endocrino

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... literature. BAMS has been found in several different populations. Related Information What information about a genetic condition ... nasal development may affect gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, which are nerve cells that control the release ...

  9. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone selectively stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Nguyen-Thi, Kim T; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tiede, Stephan; Plate, Christian; Bodó, Eniko; Knuever, Jana; Funk, Wolfgang; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    In amphibians, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates skin melanophores by inducing secretion of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. However, it is unknown whether this tripeptide neurohormone exerts any direct effects on pigment cells, namely, on human melanocytes, under physiological conditions. Therefore, we have investigated whether TRH stimulates pigment production in organ-cultured human hair follicles (HFs), the epithelium of which expresses both TRH and its receptor, and/or in full-thickness human skin in situ. TRH stimulated melanin synthesis, tyrosinase transcription and activity, melanosome formation, melanocyte dendricity, gp100 immunoreactivity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression in human HFs in a pituitary gland-independent manner. TRH also stimulated proliferation, gp100 expression, tyrosinase activity, and dendricity of isolated human HF melanocytes. However, intraepidermal melanogenesis was unaffected. As TRH upregulated the intrafollicular production of "pituitary" neurohormones (proopiomelanocortin transcription and ACTH immunoreactivity) and as agouti-signaling protein counteracted TRH-induced HF pigmentation, these pigmentary TRH effects may be mediated in part by locally generated melanocortins and/or by MC-1 signaling. Our study introduces TRH as a novel, potent, selective, and evolutionarily highly conserved neuroendocrine factor controlling human pigmentation in situ. This physiologically relevant and melanocyte sub-population-specific neuroendocrine control of human pigmentation deserves clinical exploration, e.g., for preventing or reversing hair graying.

  10. Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Page B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy. PMID:19853217

  11. High feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity in a cat with pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J M; Steiner, J M; Williams, D A; Van Alstine, W G; Blevins, W

    1997-06-15

    A 1.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was examined because of vomiting and icterus. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included high alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities and high total bilirubin concentration. During abdominal ultrasonography, the left limb and body of the pancreas appeared hypoechoic, and a small quantity of peritoneal effusion was seen. The liver was diffusely hyperechoic, with echogenicity similar to that of the spleen, indicating hepatic lipidosis. Feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity was high, suggesting that the cat also had pancreatitis. The cat was treated with crystalloid fluids and was fed a protein-restricted diet via a percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy tube. The cat's condition continued to deteriorate despite medical treatment, and it was euthanatized. Necropsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of acute pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis. This case suggests that measurement of trypsin-like immunoreactivity may be useful in cats suspected of having pancreatitis.

  12. Different pattern of haemagglutinin immunoreactivity of equine influenza virus strains isolated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśnik Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunoreactivity of haemagglutinin (HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus was compared among the strains isolated in Poland, using H3 monoclonal antibody. A stronger signal in immunoblot reaction was observed for A/equi/Pulawy/2008 HA polypeptides compared to A/equi/Pulawy/2006, despite the fact that both strains are phylogenetically closely related and belong to Florida clade 2 of American lineage. The strongest signal, observed in the case of A/equi/Pulawy/2008, seemed to be connected with the presence of G135, I213, E379, and/or V530 instead of R135, M213, G379, and I530 present in A/equi/Pulawy/2006 HA sequence. This implies that point mutations within amino acid sequences of HA polypeptides of equine influenza virus may change their immunoreactivity even when they are not located within five basic antigenic sites.

  13. Alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive deposits in human and animal prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïk, S; Privat, N; Adjou, K T; Sazdovitch, V; Dormont, D; Duyckaerts, C; Hauw, J J

    2002-05-01

    Prion related disorders are associated with the accumulation of a misfolded isoform (PrPsc) of the host-encoded prion protein, PrP. There is strong evidence for the involvement of unidentified co-factors in the PrP to PrPsc conversion process. In this study, we show alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive deposits in the central nervous system of various prion diseases (sporadic, iatrogenic and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, and experimental scrapie of hamsters). alpha-Synuclein accumulated close to PrPsc deposits but we did not observe strict colocalization of prion protein and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivities particularly in PrPsc plaques. alpha-Synuclein is thought to be a key player in some neurodegenerative disorders, is able to interact with amyloid structures and has known chaperone-like activities. Our results, in various prion diseases, suggest a role for alpha-synuclein in regulating PrPsc formation.

  14. Immunoreactivity of specific epitopes of PrPSc is enhanced by pretreatment in a hydrated autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T; Momotani, E; Kimura, K; Yuasa, N

    1996-01-01

    An abnormal protein (PrPSc) accumulates in animals affected with scrapie. Immunoblotting procedures have been used widely to detect PrPSc. Blotted membranes were subjected to pretreatment in a hydrated autoclave, and the subsequent immunoreactivity of PrPSc was examined. The immunoreactivity of PrPSc to antisera against the synthetic peptides of the mouse PrP amino acid sequences 199 to 208 and 213 to 226 was enhanced by the pretreatment. However, the reactivity to antisera of peptide sequences 100 to 115 and 165 to 174 was not affected. The antibody-binding ability of the specific epitopes which are located close to the C-terminal end of PrP27-30 the proteinase-resistant portion of PrPSc, was enhanced by pretreatment in a hydrated autoclave. This pretreatment increased the sensitivity of PrPSc, and it would be useful for diagnosis of scrapie. PMID:8807215

  15. Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Franceschini, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Kiss1 mRNA and its corresponding peptide products, kisspeptins, are expressed in two restricted brain areas of rodents, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The concentration of mature kisspeptins may not directly correlate with Kiss1 mRNA levels, becaus...... kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in both nuclei and both sexes of rats and mice and quantified kisspeptin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. We also determined Kiss1 mRNA levels and measured kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in colchicine pretreated rats. Overall, we find higher levels of kisspeptin...

  16. Early Hormonal Treatment Affects Body Composition and Body Shape in Young Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Maartje; de Mutsert, Renée; Wiepjes, Chantal M; Twisk, Jos W R; den Heijer, Martin; Rotteveel, Joost; Klink, Daniël T

    2018-02-01

    Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and whether transgender persons obtain the desired body phenotype. To examine the change in body shape and composition from the start of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) until 22 years of age and to compare these measurements at 22 years with those of age-matched peers. 71 transwomen (birth-assigned boys) and 121 transmen (birth-assigned girls) who started treatment from 1998 through 2014 were included in this retrospective study. GnRHa treatment was started and cross-sex hormonal treatment was added at 16 years of age. Anthropometric and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data were retrieved from medical records. Linear mixed model regression was performed to examine changes over time. SD scores (SDS) were calculated to compare body shape and composition with those of age-matched peers. Change in waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and total lean body mass (LBM) during hormonal treatment. SDS of measures of body shape and composition compared with age-matched peers at 22 years of age. In transwomen, TBF increased (+10%, 95% CI = 7-11) while total LBM (-10%, 95% CI = -11 to -7) and WHR (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.02) decreased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-0.5) for WHR, and 0.0 (95% CI = -0.2 to 0.3) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -1.0 (95% CI = -1.3 to -0.7) for WHR, and +2.2 (95% CI = 2.2-2.4) for TBF. In transmen, TBF decreased (-3%, 95% CI = -4 to -1), while LBM (+3%, 95% CI = 1-4) and WHR (+0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) increased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-0.8) for WHR, and -1.1 (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.9) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -0.5 (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3) for WHR, and +1.8 (95% CI = 1.6-1.9) for TBF. Knowing body

  17. Detection of 2 immunoreactive antigens in the cell wall of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Baca, Estela; Hernández-Mendoza, Gustavo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Toriello, Conchita; López-Romero, Everardo; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    The cell wall of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex contains highly antigenic molecules which are potentially useful for the diagnosis and treatment of sporotrichosis. In this study, 2 immunoreactive antigens of 60 (Gp60) and 70 kDa (Gp70) were detected in the cell wall of the yeast morphotypes of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix globosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of processing and storage on almond (Prunus dulcis L.) amandin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengna; Liu, Changqi; Roux, Kenneth H; Gradziel, Thomas M; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2017-10-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess amandin immunoreactivity in processed and long-term stored almonds. The results demonstrated that amandin immunoreactivity is stable in variously processed almond seeds. Using the ELISA, amandin immunoreactivity could be detected in commercial whole raw and processed (blanched, sliced, dry roasted, and indicated combinations thereof) almond seeds stored for eleven years and eight months, defatted almond seed flours from several almond varieties/hybrids and their borate saline buffer-solubilized protein extracts stored for ten years and seven months, and several almond varieties grown in different California counties (full fat flours and their defatted flour counterparts). Roasting Nonpareil whole full fat almond seeds, full fat flour, and defatted flour at 170°C for 20min each with 2, 5, 10, and 20% w/w corn syrup or sucrose did not prevent amandin detection by ELISA. Similarly, amandin detection in select food matrices spiked with Nonpareil almond protein extract was not inhibited. In conclusion, amandin is a stable target protein for almond detection under the tested processing and storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Iracelia Torres de Toledo e

    1977-01-01

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125 I and porcine insulin 125 I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  20. Detection of pantothenic acid-immunoreactive neurons in the rat lateral septal nucleus by a newly developed antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, Arturo; Yajeya, Javier; Gonzalez, Noelia; Husson, Marianne; Geffard, Michel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The available immunohistochemical techniques have documented restricted distribution of vitamins in the mammalian brain. The aim of the study was to develop a highly specific antiserum directed against pantothenic acid to explore the presence of this vitamin in the mammalian brain. According to ELISA tests, the anti-pantothenic acid antiserum used showed a good affinity (10-8 M) and specificity. The antiserum was raised in rabbits. Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the mapping of pantothenic acid-immunoreactive structures was carried out in the rat brain. Pantothenic acid-immunoreactive perikarya were exclusively found in the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus. These cells were generally small, round, fusiform or pyramidal and showed 2-3 long (50-100 μm) immunoreactive dendrites. Any immunoreactive axons containing pantothenic acid were detected. The very restricted anatomical distribution of the pantothenic acid suggests that this vitamin could be involved in some specific neurophysiological mechanisms.

  1. Concurrent decrease of vasopressin and protein kinase C-alpha immunoreactivity during the light phase in the vole suprachiasmatic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Van der Zee, EA; Gerkema, MP

    1998-01-01

    Vasopressin (AVP) is a major neuropeptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the mammalian hypothalamic circadian pacemaker. Protein kinase C alpha is a putatively coupled intracellular messenger. Mean numbers of AVP- and protein kinase C alpha- immunoreactive neurons were determined in the

  2. Distribution of obestatin and ghrelin in human tissues: immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and mammary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönberg, Malin; Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Magnusson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin are two peptides derived from the same prohormone. It is well established that ghrelin is produced by endocrine cells in the gastric mucosa. However, the distribution of human obestatin immunoreactive cells is not thoroughly characterized. A polyclonal antibody...... that specifically recognizes human obestatin was produced. Using this antibody and a commercial antibody vs ghrelin, the distribution of obestatin and ghrelin immunoreactive cells was determined in a panel of human tissues using immunohistochemistry. The two peptides were detected in the mucosa...... of the gastrointestinal tract, from cardia to ileum, and in the pancreatic islets. Interestingly, epithelial cells in the ducts of mammary glands showed distinct immunoreactivity for both ghrelin and obestatin. By double immunofluorescence microscopy, it was shown that all detected cells were immunoreactive for both...

  3. Expression and ontogeny of growth hormone (Gh) in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Wanping; Shi, Shuxia; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a single-chain polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland and is an important regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates including teleosts. In this study, a polyclonal antiserum against ricefield eel Gh was generated and the expression of Gh at the mRNA and protein levels was analyzed. Both RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that Gh was predominantly expressed in the pituitary glands of ricefield eels. The immunoreactive Gh signals were localized to the multicellular layers of the adenohypophysis adjacent to the neurohypophysis in ricefield eels. Ontogenetic analysis showed that immunoreactive Gh signals could be detected in the pituitary glands of ricefield eel embryos as early as 3 days post-fertilization. During the sex change from female to male, the levels of the immunoreactive Gh signals in the pituitary glands of the ricefield eels peaked at the intersexual stage. These results suggest that Gh in the pituitary glands may be associated with embryonic development before hatching, as well as with the sex change in the adult ricefield eels, possibly via the classical endocrine manner.

  4. Hormone treatment of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Joffe, Russell T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between alterations of various hormonal systems and psychiatric disorders, both in endocrine and psychiatric patients. This has led to clinical and research studies examining the efficacy of the different hormones for treatment of depression. These data will be reviewed with particular regard to the thyroid, gonadal, pineal, and adrenal cortex hormones. The data generally provide limited, but varying evidence for the antidepressant efficacy of these ho...

  5. Growth Hormone and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    given to children or Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide containing adolescents as substitution therapy to treat is 191 aminoacids that is secreted by the...thyroid hormones and sexual hormones time on an evident beneficial action of GH together with an appropiate nutrition , therapy has been obtained in...of GH (Tresguerres 1996) reduction in muscular and bone mass together IGFI is a peptide of 70 aminoacids that shows with an increase in body fat

  6. Serum antibody immunoreactivity to equine zona protein after SpayVac vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, Tracy A; Schoenecker, Kathryn A; Kane, Albert J; Ransom, Jason I; Bruemmer, Jason E

    2015-07-15

    Immunocontraception with porcine ZP (pZP) can be an effective means of fertility control in feral horses. Previous studies suggest that antibodies produced after pZP vaccination may both inhibit fertilization and cause follicular dysgenesis. Zonastat-H, PZP-22, and SpayVac are three pZP vaccines proposed for use in horses. Although all these vaccines contain the pZP antigen, variations in antigen preparation and vaccine formulation lead to differences in antigenic properties among them. Likewise, despite numerous efficacy and safety studies of Zonastat-H and PZP-22, the contraceptive mechanisms of SpayVac remain unclear. The preparation of pZP for SpayVac is thought to include more nonzona proteins, making it less pure than the other two vaccines. This may result in increased antigenicity of the vaccine. We therefore investigated the immunoreactivity of serum antibodies from SpayVac-vaccinated mares to equine zona protein. Western blot analyses revealed an immunoreactivity of these antibodies to protein isolated from mature equine oocytes, ZP, follicular tissues, and ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to locate the binding of serum antibodies to the ZP of immature oocytes in ovarian stromal tissue. We also found serum antibodies from SpayVac-treated mares to be predominantly specific for zona protein 3. Collectively, our results suggest a model where serum antibodies produced in response to SpayVac vaccination are immunoreactive to equine zona protein in vitro. Our study lends insight into the contraceptive mechanisms underlying the infertility observed after SpayVac vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Types of hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both. Sometimes testosterone is also added. Menopause and Hormones Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hormone Replacement Therapy Menopause Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  8. Development of the kits for RIA simultaneous determination of polypeptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybinski, Z.

    1982-12-01

    A simple and universal modification of chloramine T technique has been developed for the radioactive iodination of several polypeptide hormones such as insulin, human growth hormone (HGH), human TSH, synthetic human gastrin and beta-endorphine. The prepared products proved to have good immunoreactivity suitable for RIA purposes. The technique is inexpensive and quick. A new procedure has also been worked out utilizing horse myeloperoxidase in solid state as catalyser. The hormones iodinated with this technique show better parameters (e.g. longer stability, better binding to antibody, more favourable adsorption on dextran-coated charcoal); however the specific activities achieved were lower. The possibilities of simultaneous measurement of insulin and HGH have been studied. In this connection, a comparatively simple method for the determination of the endogenous anti-insulin antibodies was developed and used for the control of patients with diabetes and for the checking of new insulin preparations. However, the technique requires relatively sophisticated equipment and computerized calculations

  9. Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Sundler, F; Rehfeld, J F

    1980-01-01

    5 fmole and one tealia at least 2 nmole gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity. Reactivities towards gastrin and CCK antisera with different specificities suggest that the coelenterate gastrin/CCK-like peptide contains the C-terminal amino-acid sequence common to mammalian gastrin and CCK. In addition...... the radioimmunochemical data indicate that the coelenterate peptide also contains an amino-acid sequence that resembles the sequence 20-30 of porcine CCK-33, but that no other sequences of gastrin are present. Thus, it is probably more CCK-like than gastrin-like....

  10. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS......-like immunoreactivity was observed in most of the brain lobes. High abundance of FMRFamidergic perikarya was found in the dorsal basal, the central palliovisceral, and the olfactory lobes, whereas none were observed in the middle suboesophageal mass. Single individual perikarya are located within the optic lobes...

  11. Presence of dynorphin-like immunoreactivity but not opiate binding in Walker-256 tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, H.U.; Conroy, W.G.; Isom, G.E.; Malven, P.V.; Yim, G.K.W.

    1985-07-15

    Walker-256 tumor tissue was removed from rats on day 8 of tumor growth. An acidified methanol extract of the tumor tissue was assayed for immunoreactive (ir) dynorphin-A 1-17 (DYN-17) and ir-dynorphin-A (DYN-8). Levels of ir-DYN-17 and ir-DYN-8 were nearly 4- and 8-fold higher, respectively, in tumors versus normal muscle. However, tumor homogenates did not exhibit specific /sup 3/H-naloxone binding. These results indicate that although the Walker-256 carcinosarcoma may produce opioids, it is unlikely that these ectopic substances have direct opioid actions on the tumor itself. 34 references, 1 figure.

  12. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Luteinizing hormone - blood. In: Chernecky ... Jeelani R, Bluth MH. Reproductive function and pregnancy. In: ...

  14. Heart, lipids and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Winhofer, Yvonne; Krššák, Martin; Krebs, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases. © 2017 The authors.

  15. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  16. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  17. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans and other haplorrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Conley, Tiffini; Sudduth, Jessica; Erwin, Joseph M.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the distribution of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 or area Tpt) of humans and nonhuman haplorrhine primates. NPY has been implicated in learning and memory and the density of NPY-expressing cortical neurons and axons is reduced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the role that NPY plays in both cognition and neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that the density of cortical and interstitial neurons expressing NPY was increased in humans relative to other primate species. The study sample included great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), Old World monkeys (pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, and baboon) and New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and capuchin). Stereologic methods were used to estimate the density of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in layers I-VI of area Tpt and the subjacent white matter. Adjacent Nissl-stained sections were used to calculate local densities of all neurons. The ratio of NPY-ir neurons to total neurons within area Tpt and the total density of NPY-ir neurons within the white matter were compared among species. Overall, NPY-ir neurons represented only an average of 0.006% of the total neuron population. While there were significant differences among species, phylogenetic trends in NPY-ir neuron distributions were not observed and humans did not differ from other primates. However, variation among species warrants further investigation into the distribution of this neuromodulator system. PMID:23042407

  18. Light microscopic image analysis system to quantify immunoreactive terminal area apposed to nerve cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. C.; D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Polyakov, I.; Daunton, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    The present report describes a desktop computer-based method for the quantitative assessment of the area occupied by immunoreactive terminals in close apposition to nerve cells in relation to the perimeter of the cell soma. This method is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines incorporated in NIH-Image public domain software. Pyramidal cells of layer V of the somatosensory cortex outlined by GABA immunolabeled terminals were chosen for our analysis. A Leitz Diaplan light microscope was employed for the visualization of the sections. A Sierra Scientific Model 4030 CCD camera was used to capture the images into a Macintosh Centris 650 computer. After preprocessing, filtering was performed on the power spectrum in the frequency domain produced by the FFT operation. An inverse FFT with filter procedure was employed to restore the images to the spatial domain. Pasting of the original image to the transformed one using a Boolean logic operation called 'AND'ing produced an image with the terminals enhanced. This procedure allowed the creation of a binary image using a well-defined threshold of 128. Thus, the terminal area appears in black against a white background. This methodology provides an objective means of measurement of area by counting the total number of pixels occupied by immunoreactive terminals in light microscopic sections in which the difficulties of labeling intensity, size, shape and numerical density of terminals are avoided.

  19. Melatonin immunoreactivity in the photosynthetic prokaryote Rhodospirillum rubrum: implications for an ancient antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, L C; Poeggeler, B; Alvares, F L; Ogden, G B; Reiter, R J

    1995-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a spiral anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium that can exist under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The organism thrives in the presence of light or complete darkness and represents one of the oldest species of living organisms, possibly 2-3.5 billion years old. The success of this prokaryotic species may be attributed to the evolution of certain indole compounds that offer protection against life-threatening oxygen radicals produced by an evolutionary harsh environment. Melatonin, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is an indolic highly conserved molecule that exists in protists, plants, and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of an immunoreactive melatonin in the kingdom Monera and particularly in the photosynthetic bacterium, R. rubrum, under conditions of prolonged darkness or prolonged light. Immunoreactive melatonin was measured during both the extended day and extended night. Significantly more melatonin was observed during the scotophase than the photophase. This study marks the first demonstration of melatonin in a bacterium. The high level of melatonin observed in bacteria may provide on-site protection of bacterial DNA against free radical attack.

  20. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-immunoreactive signals in murine enteric glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Mitsue; Iizuka, Seiichi; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro; Aiso, Sadakazu; Nakahara, Jin

    2016-11-28

    To investigate the possible involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in maturation of enteric glial cells (EGCs). Immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to analyze EGC markers in myenteric plexus (MP) as well as cultured MP cells and EGCs using TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. We detected TRPV1-immunoreactive signals in EGC in the MP of wild-type (WT) but not KO mice. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive signals was lower at postnatal day (PD) 6 in KO mice, though the difference was not clear at PD 13 and PD 21. When MP cells were isolated and cultured from isolated longitudinal muscle-MP preparation from WT and KO mice, the yield of KO EGC was lower than that of WT EGC, while the yield of KO and WT smooth muscle cells showed no difference. Addition of BCTC, a TRPV1 antagonist, to enriched EGC culture resulted in a decrease in the protein ratio of GFAP to S100B, another EGC/astrocyte-specific marker. These results address the possibility that TRPV1 may be involved in the maturation of EGC, though further studies are necessary to validate this possibility.

  1. Increases in Doublecortin Immunoreactivity in the Dentate Gyrus following Extinction of Heroin-Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P. Hicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus play a role in various forms of learning and memory. However, adult born neurons in the DG, while still at an immature stage, exhibit unique electrophysiological properties and are also functionally implicated in learning and memory processes. We investigated the effects of extinction of drug-seeking behavior on the formation of immature neurons in the DG as assessed by quantification of doublecortin (DCX immunoreactivity. Rats were allowed to self-administer heroin (0.03 mg/kg/infusion for 12 days and then subjected either to 10 days of extinction training or forced abstinence. We also examined extinction responding patterns following heroin self-administration in glial fibrillary acidic protein thymidine kinase (GFAP-tk transgenic mice, which have been previously demonstrated to show reduced formation of immature and mature neurons in the DG following treatment with ganciclovir (GCV. We found that extinction training increased DCX immunoreactivity in the dorsal DG as compared with animals undergoing forced abstinence, and that GCV-treated GFAP-tk mice displayed impaired extinction learning as compared to saline-treated mice. Our results suggest that extinction of drug-seeking behavior increases the formation of immature neurons in the DG and that these neurons may play a functional role in extinction learning.

  2. Orcokinin-like immunoreactivity in central neurons innervating the salivary glands and hindgut of ixodid ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladislav, Roller; Ladislav, Šimo; Akira, Mizoguchi; Mirko, Slovák; Yoonseong, Park; Dušan, Žitňan

    2015-05-01

    Orcokinins are conserved neuropeptides within the Arthropoda but their cellular distribution and functions in ticks are unknown. We use an antibody against the highly conserved N-terminal (NFDEIDR) of mature orcokinin peptides to examine their distribution in six ixodid species: Amblyomma variegatum, Dermacentor reticulatus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Numerous immunoreactive neurons (~100) were detected in various regions of the synganglion (central nervous system) in all examined tick species. Immunoreactive projections of two prominent groups of efferent neurons in the post-oesophageal region were examined in detail: (1) neurons innervating the salivary glands; (2) neurons innervating the hindgut. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), we detected orcokinin peaks in extracts of the synganglia and hindguts but not in the salivary glands of I. scapularis females. Our data provide further evidence of the presence of orcokinin in ixodid ticks and establish a morphological basis for functional studies of identified peptidergic neuronal networks.

  3. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) immunoreactivity in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legan, Mateja; Tevžič, Spela; Tolar, Ana; Luzar, Boštjan; Marolt, Vera Ferlan

    2011-03-01

    GLUT-1 is a transmembrane glucose transport protein that allows the facilitated transport of glucose into cells, normally expressed in tissues which depend mainly on glucose metabolism. Enhanced expression of GLUT-1 can also be found in a large spectrum of carcinomas. This study aimed to investigate GLUT-1 expression in gallbladder tissue: from normal tissue samples, hyperplasias, low-grade and high-grade dysplasias to gallbladder carcinomas. In all, 115 archived samples of gallbladder tissue from 68 patients, presented after cholecystectomy, were immunohistochemically stained for GLUT-1. According to the intensity of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity, samples were divided into negative (stained 0-10% of cells stained), positive with weak to moderate (10-50%) and positive with strong (>50%) GLUT-1 expression. The GLUT-1 immunoreactivity of the samples showed a characteristic increase from premalignant lesions to carcinomas. Normal gallbladder tissue samples did not express GLUT-1 (100%). Weak expression was shown only focally in hyperplasias, but to a greater extent with low-grade dysplasias (20%), high-grade dysplasias (40%) and carcinomas (51.8%). Normal gallbladder tissue is GLUT-1 negative. GLUT-1 expression in carcinoma tissue is significantly higher than in dysplastic lesions. Strong GLUT-1 expression indicates 100% specificity for detecting gallbladder carcinomas. Therefore, GLUT-1 is a candidate as a diagnostic as well as a tissue prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  4. Depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system by cysteamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, S.M.; Landry, D.; Millard, W.J.; Badger, T.M.; Arnold, M.A.; Martin, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Selective neurotoxins have been of value in providing a means for specifically interfering with the actions of endogenous neurotransmitter candidates. Others have shown cysteamine (CSH) to deplete the gastrointestinal tract and hypothalamus of rats of immunoreactive somatostatin, suggesting a toxic action of that compound directed against somatostatin-containing cells. The present study further defines the actions of cysteamine on somatostatin in the central nervous system. (CNS). Cysteamine hydrochloride administered subcutaneously results in a depletion of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) in the retina, brain, and cervical spinal cord of rats. The effect is demonstrable at doses of 30 mg/kg of body weight and above, occurs within 2 to 4 hr of a single injection of the drug, and is largely reversible within 1 week. The mean depletion of SLI observed within the CNS varies from 38% in cerebral cortex to 65% in cervical spinal cord 24 hr following administration of CSH, 300 mg/kg of body weight, s.c. By gel permeation chromatography, all molecular weight forms of SLI are affected, with the largest reductions in those forms that co-chromatograph with synthetic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. These results indicate that CSH has a generalized, rapid, and largely reversible effect in depleting SLI from the rat CNS

  5. Verbascoside promotes the regeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-qing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine hydroxylase is a key enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Change in tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the nigrostriatal system is closely related to the occurrence and development of Parkinson′s disease. Verbascoside, an extract from Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata has been shown to be clinically effective in treating Parkinson′s disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. It is hypothesized that the effects of verbascoside on Parkinson′s disease are related to tyrosine hydroxylase expression change in the nigrostriatal system. Rat models of Parkinson′s disease were established and verbascoside (60 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally once a day. After 6 weeks of verbascoside treatment, rat rotational behavior was alleviated; tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein expression and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the rat right substantia nigra were significantly higher than the Parkinson′s model group. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which verbascoside treats Parkinson′s disease is related to the regeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra.

  6. Transient appearance of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in the midline epithelial seam of the human fetal secondary palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Yukio; Shibata, Shunichi; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen

    2012-07-01

    Transient immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase, which mediates the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine, in the midline epithelial seam between the bilateral palatal shelves was investigated in human fetuses. Horizontal or frontal paraffin sections of two human fetuses at 9 and 15 weeks of gestation were used to examine the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in regions of the entire head other than the brain. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 protein, calretinin, cytokeratin 14, and vimentin was examined using adjacent or near sections. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells were large and densely distributed in the midline epithelial seam at the site of palatal fusion in fetuses at 9 weeks but not in fetuses at 15 weeks, in which the midline epithelial seam had already disappeared. No expression of S100 protein, calretinin, or vimentin was detected, but the midline epithelial seam was positive for cytokeratin 14. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was not detected in epithelia during the process of palatal fusion in mice from E 14.0 to 15.0. These findings indicate that tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the midline epithelial seams are nonneural epithelial cells and suggest that the tyrosine hydroxylase is a novel factor involved in normal palatal formation, especially the fate of the midline epithelial seam in humans.

  7. Limited hydrolysis combined with controlled Maillard-induced glycation does not reduce immunoreactivity of soy protein for all sera tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jordan; Greenberg, Yana; Sriramarao, P; Ismail, Baraem P

    2016-12-15

    Combining proteolysis and Maillard-induced glycation was investigated to reduce the immunoreactivity of soy protein. Soy protein was hydrolyzed by Alcalase following response surface methodology utilizing three variables, temperature, time, and enzyme:substrate ratio, with the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and percent reduction in immunoreactivity as response variables. Western blots and ELISA were used to evaluate immunoreactivity using human sera. Data were fitted to appropriate models and prediction equations were generated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions. The hydrolysate produced under optimized conditions was subjected to glycation with dextran. Hydrolysate produced under optimal conditions had 7.8% DH and a percent reduction in immunoreactivity ranging from 20% to 52%, depending on the sera used. Upon glycation, immunoreactivity was further reduced only when using serum that had the highest soy-specific IgE. This work revealed limitations and provided premises for future studies intended to prove the potency of the combined modification approach to produce a hypoallergenic protein ingredient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parathyroid hormone: radioimmunoassay and clinical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawker, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), which has had widespread clinical use for five years, is described in detail. The iPTH results in large groups of patients are reported, and are discussed in relation to the specificity of the assay and in relation to other assays. The assay has excellent precision and is highly proficient in discrimination of groups of patients. Ninety-three percent of 412 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were confidently separated from normal subjects or patients with hypercalcemia owing to other causes, while 86 percent of 160 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iPTH values more than 2 S.D. above the normal mean. Results in patients with ectopic hyperparathyroidism were lower than in primary hyperparathyroidism although these groups showed considerable overlap. The antiserum used in this assay for iPTH appears to be specific for the carboxy-terminal region of the secreted or intact form of PTH but recognizes predominantly the secreted form rather than carboxy-terminal fragments believed to be in the circulation. It does not recognize amino terminal fragments. The assay is useful in selective venous catheterization for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue

  9. Inhibitory action of tongue sole LPXRFa, the piscine ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, on the signaling pathway induced by tongue sole kisspeptin in COS-7 cells transfected with their cognate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yang, Guokun; Liu, Quan; Qin, Jingkai; Xu, Yongjiang; Li, Wensheng; Liu, Xuezhou; Shi, Bao

    2017-09-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) acts as a positive regulator of reproduction by acting on gonadotropes and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Despite its functional significance, the intricate web of intracellular signal transduction pathways in response to Kiss is still far from being fully understood in teleosts. Accordingly, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Kiss action and its possible interaction with LPXRFa signaling in this study. In vitro functional analysis revealed that synthetic tongue sole Kiss2 decapeptide increased the cAMP responsive element-dependent luciferase (CRE-luc) activity in COS-7 cells transfected with its cognate receptor, while this stimulatory effect was markedly reduced by two inhibitors of the adenylate cyclase (AC)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Similarly, Kiss2 also significantly stimulated serum responsive element-dependent luciferase (SRE-luc) activity, whereas this stimulatory effect was evidently attenuated by two inhibitors of the phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. In addition, LPXRFa-2 suppressed Kiss2-elicited CRE-luc activity in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, Kiss2 utilizes both AC/PKA and PLC/PKC pathways to exert its functions via its cognate receptor and LPXRFa may antagonize the action of Kiss2 by inhibiting kisspeptin signaling. As far as we know, this study is the first to characterize the half-smooth tongue sole kisspeptin and LPXRFa signaling pathway in COS-7 cells transfected with their cognate receptors and provides novel information on the interaction between LPXRFa system and kisspeptin system in teleosts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE. AND SOMATOSTATIN TO. DECREASED GROWTH HORMONE. SECRETION IN ELDERLY MEN. Steven G Soule, Peter Macfarlane, Naomi S Levitt,. Robert P Millar. Objective. The pathophysiology of the decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations that may occur with.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of ganglia in the rat stomach serosa, containing neurons immunoreactive for gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Ganglia, not previously described, were identified in the rat stomach serosa along the minor curvature. The ganglia consisted of varying number of cell bodies lying in clusters along or within nerve bundles. The ganglia were shown to contain GRP and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies...... and also some NPY immunoreactive fibers, whereas they were devoid of somatostatin immunoreactivity. Nerve ligation experiments indicated that the ganglia are intrinsic to the stomach....

  12. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... Information A LISTING OF THE FDA-APPROVED MEDICINES PRODUCT FDA RATING MANUFACTURER Unithroid® AB (Stevens)*+ L-Thyroxin ...

  13. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood in people with certain types of hypoparathyroidism (condition in which the body does not produce ... are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  14. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause an infection under the skin ( abscess ). Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is common and most often goes away ...

  15. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  16. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  17. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  18. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is different from hormone therapy to treat menopause symptoms. Hormones and Breast Cancer The hormones estrogen and progesterone ... other tissues such as fat and skin. After menopause, the ovaries stop producing these hormones. But the body continues to make a small ...

  19. Detailed characterisation of STC-1 cells and the pGIP/Neo sub-clone suggests the incretin hormones are translationally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Pan, Xiaobei; Marco-Ramell, Anna; Meharg, Caroline; Green, Brian D

    2017-10-01

    STC-1 is a heterogeneous plurihormonal cell line producing several prominent gut peptide hormones. pGIP/Neo is a genetically selected sub-clone of STC-1 with augmented levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Morphometric parameters, hormone concentrations, mRNA transcripts, hormone immunocytochemistry and nutrient utilisation/production of these two cell lines were compared. Proglucagon-derived peptides (Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and - 2(GLP-2)) were lower in sub-clone cells than progenitor cells. High Content Analysis found altered intracellular GLP-1, GIP, cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY) levels and differing hormone co-localisation. The proportion pGIP/Neo cells containing GIP immunoreactivity (82%) was greater than STC-1 (65%), as were the proportion with 'GIP only', 'GLP-1+GIP' or 'GIP+PYY' immunoreactivity. Most surprisingly mRNA transcripts of the proglucagon and GIP genes were inversely correlated to the levels of their translated peptides. This strongly suggests that proglucagon and GIP are encoded on 'translationally regulated genes' - a characteristic possessed by other endocrine hormones. Metabolomic profiling revealed differences in cellular nutrient utilisation/production and that under normal culture conditions both cell lines exhibit signs of overflow metabolism. These studies provide an insight into the metabolism and properties of these valuable cells, suggesting for the first time that incretin hormone genes are translationally regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Homogeneous MGMT immunoreactivity correlates with an unmethylated MGMT promoter status in brain metastases of various solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ingold

    Full Text Available The O(6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT promoter methylation status is a predictive parameter for the response of malignant gliomas to alkylating agents such as temozolomide. First clinical reports on treating brain metastases with temozolomide describe varying effects. This may be due to the fact that MGMT promoter methylation of brain metastases has not yet been explored in depth. Therefore, we assessed MGMT promoter methylation of various brain metastases including those derived from lung (n = 91, breast (n = 72 kidney (n = 49 and from malignant melanomas (n = 113 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR and MGMT immunoreactivity. Fifty-nine of 199 brain metastases (29.6% revealed a methylated MGMT promoter. The methylation rate was the highest in brain metastases derived from lung carcinomas (46.5% followed by those from breast carcinoma (28.8%, malignant melanoma (24.7% and from renal carcinoma (20%. A significant correlation of homogeneous MGMT-immunoreactivity (>95% MGMT positive tumor cells and an unmethylated MGMT promoter was found. Promoter methylation was detected in 26 of 61 (43% tumors lacking MGMT immunoreactivity, in 17 of 63 (27% metastases with heterogeneous MGMT expression, but only in 5 of 54 brain metastases (9% showing a homogeneous MGMT immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrate that a significant number of brain metastases reveal a methylated MGMT-promoter. Based on an obvious correlation between homogeneous MGMT immunoreactivity and unmethylated MGMT promoter, we hypothesize that immunohistochemistry for MGMT may be a helpful diagnostic tool to identify those tumors that probably will not benefit from the use of alkylating agents. The discrepancy between promoter methylation and a lack of MGMT immunoreactivity argues for assessing MGMT promoter methylation both by immunohistochemical as well as by molecular approaches for diagnostic purposes.

  1. Temporal localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor beta1 in normal equine skin and in full-thickness dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, Christine L; Barber, Spencer M; Gordon, John R

    2002-01-01

    To describe the localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in both normal skin and full-thickness dermal wounds of the limb and the thorax of the horse. Six full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the lateral aspect of one metacarpal region and on the midthoracic area of each horse. Sequentially collected tissue specimens from wound margins were assessed for TGF-beta1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Four horses (2 to 4 years of age). A neutralizing monoclonal anti-human TGF-beta1 antibody was used to detect the spatial expression of TGF-beta1 protein by immunohistochemical localization in biopsies obtained before wounding and at 12 and 24 hours, and 5, 10, and 14 days. No differences in localization of immunoreactive TGF-beta1 were detected between limb and thorax, for either intact skin or wounds. Unwounded epidermis stained moderately for TGF-beta1 protein throughout all layers, whereas the dermis was relatively devoid of immunoreactivity. During the acute stage of repair, migrating epithelium lost its stain, whereas cells of epidermal appendages remained strongly immunoreactive. The epithelium recovered its TGF-beta1 immunoreactivity during wound remodeling, although cells of the stratum corneum remained negative. Macrophages of the inflammatory exudate had positive cytoplasmic staining that diminished with time. Immunoreactivity of granulation tissue fibroblasts was evident early on and increased throughout the repair process. TGF-beta1 is constitutively expressed in normal, unwounded equine epithelium. Its expression is upregulated within the skin on injury and is associated with the cells involved in wound repair. A more precise understanding of the temporal and spatial expression of TGF-beta1 during wound repair in horses should provide the groundwork for possible future manipulations of both normal and aberrant tissue repair. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  2. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Changes in RFamide-Related Peptide-1 (RFRP-1)-Immunoreactivity During Postnatal Development and the Estrous Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sara R; Andersen, Mille D; Overgaard, Agnete

    2014-01-01

    and their distinct roles in vivo. In this study, we raised an antiserum selective for RFRP-1 and defined the distribution of RFRP-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Next, we analyzed the level of RFRP-1-ir during postnatal development in males and females and investigated changes in RFRP-1-ir during....... The number of RFRP-1-ir neurons and the density of cellular immunoreactivity were unchanged from juvenile to adulthood in male rats during the postnatal development. However, both parameters were significantly increased in female rats from peripuberty to adulthood, demonstrating prominent gender difference...

  4. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  5. Radioimmunoassay for the middle region of human parathyroid hormone: comparison of two radioiodinated synthetic peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, M.E.; Marx, S.J. (National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1985-01-01

    Two synthetic peptides were evaluated to develop radioligands for midregion-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH). Both radioligands were tested using three anti-PTH sera of proven clinical utility. While each of these midregion-directed antisera showed unique specificity, they all reacted with high affinity with both radioligands and none of them discriminated significantly between the two synthetic midregion peptides. Analysis of data on the relation of serum calcium and hPTH midregion immunoreactivity showed a useful separation of groups (all nonazotemic) with primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, primary hypoparathyroidism and secondary hypoparathyroidism.

  6. Disappearance of 125I-labelled rat growth hormone in nephrectomized and sham operated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.L.C.; Stacy, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    125 I-labelled rat growth hormone (GH) was injected i.v. into rats immediately after nephrectomy or a sham operation. Serial blood samples were then taken for 2 hr from an indwelling arterial cannula. The rates of removal of trichloracetic acid precipitable radioactivity and immunoreactive 125 I-GH were both significantly decreased in the nephrectomized rats. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of plasma samples taken at 5 min and 120 min confirmed the observation that GH was removed from the circulation more slowly in the anephric rat. It is concluded that in the rat the kidney contributes significantly to the clearance of GH from the blood. (orig.) [de

  7. Radioimmunoassay for the middle region of human parathyroid hormone: comparison of two radioiodinated synthetic peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, M.E.; Marx, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two synthetic peptides were evaluated to develop radioligands for midregion-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH). Both radioligands were tested using three anti-PTH sera of proven clinical utility. While each of these midregion-directed antisera showed unique specificity, they all reacted with high affinity with both radioligands and none of them discriminated significantly between the two synthetic midregion peptides. Analysis of data on the relation of serum calcium and hPTH midregion immunoreactivity showed a useful separation of groups (all nonazotemic) with primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, primary hypoparathyroidism and secondary hypoparathyroidism. (Auth.)

  8. Labelling of human follicle stimulant hormone with 125I, for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.; Werner, R.S.; Lerario, A.C.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    An efficient labeling of human Follicle Stimulant Harmone is essential to development of sensitive radioimmunoassays. Iodination by Chloramine T method frequently is subject to severe iodination damage and some preparations are unaccetable for radioimmunoassays. Modifications to the Hunter method, changing incubation time, reaction temperature and reducing Chloramine T amount used in the reaction, were performed in obtaining a more effective labeling. FSH-125 I fraction obtained from Sephadex G-75 column purification presented excellent immunoreactivity and quality control of the steps of the reaction demonstrated a high percentage (90%) of intact Follicle Stimulant Hormone [pt

  9. Losses of immunoreactive parvalbumin amacrine and immunoreactive alphaprotein kinase C bipolar cells caused by methylmercury chloride intoxication in the retina of the tropical fish Hoplias malabaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonci D.M.O.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the effects of methylmercury (MeHg on amacrine and on ON-bipolar cells in the retina, experiments were performed in MeHg-exposed groups of adult trahiras (Hoplias malabaricus at two dose levels (2 and 6 µg/g, ip. The retinas of test and control groups were processed by mouse anti-parvalbumin and rabbit anti-alphaprotein kinase C (alphaPKC immunocytochemistry. Morphology and soma location in the inner nuclear layer were used to identify immunoreactive parvalbumin (PV-IR and alphaPKC (alphaPKC-IR in wholemount preparations. Cell density, topography and isodensity maps were estimated using confocal images. PV-IR was detected in amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer and in displaced amacrine cells from the ganglion cell layer, and alphaPKC-IR was detected in ON-bipolar cells. The MeHg-treated group (6 µg/g showed significant reduction of the ON-bipolar alphaPKC-IR cell density (mean density = 1306 ± 393 cells/mm² compared to control (1886 ± 892 cells/mm²; P < 0.001. The mean densities found for amacrine PV-IR cells in MeHg-treated retinas were 1040 ± 56 cells/mm² (2 µg/g and 845 ± 82 cells/mm² (6 µg/g, also lower than control (1312 ± 31 cells/mm²; P < 0.05, differently from the data observed in displaced PV-IR amacrine cells. These results show that MeHg changed the PV-IR amacrine cell density in a dose-dependent way, and reduced the density of alphaKC-IR bipolar cells at the dose of 6 µg/g. Further studies are needed to identify the physiological impact of these findings on visual function.

  10. A fibroblast-associated antigen: Characterization in fibroblasts and immunoreactivity in smooth muscle differentiated stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Celis, Julio E.; van Deurs, Bo

    1992-01-01

    Fibroblasts with smooth muscle differentiation are frequently derived from human breast tissue. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry of a fibroblast-associated antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1B10, was analyzed with a view to discriminating smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts...... major brands migrating at apparent Mr of 38,000, 45,000, and 80,000, in addition to many minor bands between Mr 45,000 and 97,000, including Mr 52,000. The Mr 45,000 and 38,000 were associated with the cell membrane and Mr 52,000 as well as Mr 38,000 were associated with the lysosomes. The 1B10...... immunoreactivity was specific to fibroblasts and smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts within the context of vascular smooth muscle cells....

  11. beta. -endorphin-like and. alpha. -MSH-like immunoreactivities in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, T.; Rainero, I.; De Gennaro, T.; Oggero, R.; Mostert, M.; Dattola, P.; Pinessi, L. (Univ. of Turin (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    We measured with radioimmunoassay the {beta}-endorphin-like and {alpha}-MSH-like immunoreactivities in milk and plasma of 8 lactating women. Mean {beta}-endorphin concentrations ({plus minus} SD) were 16.6 {plus minus} 6.7 fmol/ml in milk and 9.9 {plus minus} 4.1 fmol/ml in plasma. {alpha}-MSH concentrations were 39.4 {plus minus} 15.5 pg/ml in milk and 18.2 {plus minus} 8.4 pg/ml in plasma. The concentrations of both peptides in milk were significantly higher than in plasma. No significant correlation between milk and plasma concentrations of these peptides was found.

  12. Plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity and its variations in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golanov, E.V.; Fufacheva, A.A.; Parin, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper determines the level of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-elir) in the blood plasma of baboons and studies its changes in certain situations. For radioimmunoassay of beta-ELIR in the blood plasma, a standard kit and the appropriate technique were used. The background plasma beta-ELIR level of the baboons, in a state of quiet wakefulness, was 0.0 = 1.0 fmoles/ml. The total level of b-ELIR was 134 plus or minus 24 pg/ml. The data show that elevation of the plasma b-ELIR level accompanies stress formation, including the development of a state of shock in baboons. A definite role in the regulation of the plasma b-endorphin level may be played by the paraventricular-perifornical region of the hypothalamus.

  13. Applicability of Commercially Available ELISA Kits for the Quantification of Faecal Immunoreactive Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain......: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody...... assays, in both groups of mice. In faecal samples, there was no consistent positive correlation between the levels detected in the four assays and the measured concentration of FCM also differed between assays. Conclusion: Whereas commercially available CORT ELISAs are frequently successfully used...

  14. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor is increased in ovine model of endotoxemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubbesmeyer, H.J.; Woodson, L.; Traber, L.D.; Flynn, J.T.; Herndon, D.N.; Traber, D.L. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (USA) Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (USA) Westfaelian Wilhelms Univ., Muenster (West Germany))

    1988-04-01

    A bolus of Escherichia coli endotoxin (1.5 {mu}g/kg) was administered to chronically instrumented sheep. Immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) was measured in extracted plasma by radioimmunoassay. There was a thirteenfold increase in IR-ANF 2 h after endotoxin administration, and IR-ANF levels remained significantly elevated during the first 6 h. A marked diuresis and natriuresis occurred between 4 and 6 h. ANF not only affects renal function but is also associated with decreased cardiac output, increased peripheral resistance (in sheep), and decreased capillary absorption (in rats). These renal and hemodynamic changes are also characteristic of the early (first 6 h) response to endotoxin. Therefore ANF should be considered as a potential mediator of renal and hemodynamic changes induced by sepsis. It is difficult to determine if ANF elevation is an epiphenomenon or a causative factor, because no antagonist of ANF is currently available.

  15. Acute phencyclidine administration induces c-Fos-immunoreactivity in interneurons in cortical and subcortical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona E; Thomsen, Morten S; Kalló, Imre

    2016-01-01

    and subcortical areas, but whether such induction occurs in specific populations of GABAergic interneuron subtypes still remains to be established. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the PCP-induced c-Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) in parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) interneuron subtypes in the cortex...... and thalamus of rats. A single dose of PCP (10mg/kg, s.c.) significantly increased total number of c-Fos-IR in: (1) the prelimbic, infralimbic, anterior cingulate, ventrolateral orbital, motor, somatosensory and retrosplenial cortices as well as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), field CA1 of the hippocampus (CA1......) field of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MD); (2) PV-IR cells in the ventrolateral orbitofrontal and retrosplenial cortices and CA1 field of hippocampus; and (3) CB-IR cells in the motor cortex. Overall, our data indicate that PCP activates a wide range of cortical and subcortical brain regions...

  16. Supramammillary afferents to guinea pig hippocampus contain substance P-like immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, C; Selawski, L

    1984-10-12

    The origin of substance P immunoreactive (SPI) axons in guinea pig hippocampus was analyzed using immunocytochemical techniques combined with transections and retrograde transport of fluorescent dye. A unilateral depletion of hippocampal axonal SPI was observed following ipsilateral transection of rostral hippocampus and fibria suggesting that the vast majority of SPI axons in hippocampus are extrinsic afferents which enter the structure from the septal pole. The combined use of immunocytochemistry and fluorescent dye transport demonstrated the supramammillary region of the hypothalamus to be the only area where dye-labeled hippocampal afferent neurons also exhibited SPI. These data indicate that the supramammillary region is the principal source of SPI axons in guinea pig hippocampus and, most probably, in the hippocampus of other animals (squirrel, cat, monkey) sharing a similar pattern of axonal SPI.

  17. Muramidase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, and S-100 protein immunoreactivity in giant cell lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Lloyd, R V

    1987-01-01

    A spectrum of giant cell lesions was evaluated for muramidase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, and S-100 protein immunoreactivity using an avidin-biotin-complex immunoperoxidase method. Peripheral giant cell granuloma, central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor, osteitis fibrosa cystica, cherubism, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath showed similar patterns of reactivity. Granulomatous inflammatory lesions stained more intensely for muramidase than did noninflammatory lesions. Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin was a slightly better marker of giant cell lesions than was alpha-1-antitrypsin. Positive S-100 protein staining in half the lesions was thought to be due to the presence of Langerhans cells. The results supported the belief that giant cell lesions of bone and tendon sheath are differentiated toward cells of the mononuclear-phagocyte system and that multinucleated giant cells are derived from macrophages.

  18. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    , the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus......Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected...... previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases....

  19. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like immunoreactivity is present in the nervous system of hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dierickx, K; Boer, G J

    1982-01-01

    Nerve cells have been found in hydra, which react with antisera to oxytocin, vasopressin and mesotocin. These nerve cells have a high density in the ectoderm of basal disk and tentacles and lower density in the ectoderm of peduncle, gastric region and hypostome. A very small number of nerve cells...... cells can be abolished by absorbing each antiserum with either oxytocin, vasopressin, [Lys8]vasopressin, vasotocin, mesotocin or isotocin, indicating that the antigenic determinant of hydra cross-reacts with those antibody subpopulations, which recognize common portions (sequence 1-2, 5-7, 9......) of the oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides. With radioimmunoassays that are specific for either oxytocin or vasopressin, only very low amounts of immunoreactivity were measured. In addition, the dilution curves in these assays were not parallel to the standards, indicating that the antigenic determinant of hydra...

  20. Enhancement of native and phosphorylated TDP-43 immunoreactivity by proteinase K treatment following autoclave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Fumiaki; Tanji, Kunikazu; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Wakabayashi, Koichi

    2011-08-01

    TDP-43 is a major disease protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP). To evaluate the effectiveness of proteinase K (PK) treatment in antigen retrieval for native and phosphorylated TDP-43 protein, we examined the temporal cortex and spinal cord from patients with sporadic ALS and FTLD-TDP and control subjects. PK treatment following heat retrieval enhanced the immunoreactivity for native TDP-43 in controls as well as for native and phosphorylated TDP-43 in ALS and FTLD-TDP. A significant number of TDP-43-positive neuropil threads were demonstrated in lesions, in which routine immunohistochemistry revealed that the predominant inclusions are cytoplasmic. This retrieval method is the best of immunohistochemical techniques for demonstrating TDP-43 pathology, especially in the neuropil. © 2010 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Variation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] immunoreactivity during bovine gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulesu, L.; Pfarrer, C.; Romagnoli, R.

    2012-01-01

    and hemochorial human and mouse placentae. Here we studied the bovine placenta being multiplex, villous and synepitheliochorial with a low degree of invasion, to see if MIF could be involved. Placental tissues sampled from 12 cows at 9 stages of gestation (days 18-250), and endometrial tissues from two non......-pregnant animals were processed for immunohistochemistry. Bovine MIF was detected by Western blot using anti-human MIF monoclonal antibodies. An immunoreactive band of approximately 12kDa confirmed similarities between bovine and human MIFs. Compared to the non-pregnant stage with very faint staining...... both caruncular and trophoblast epithelium of the placentomes were positive with different intensity in relation to the gestational stage. In the uterine glands, some strongly stained cells were present. The mature binucleated trophoblast giant cells were negative throughout pregnancy. During...

  2. Sociosexual investigation in sexually experienced, hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos: relation with phosphorylated DARPP-32 in dopaminergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Hemmings, Hugh C; Crews, David

    2014-12-01

    Dopaminergic activity is both associated with sociosexual exposure and modulated by sexual experience and hormonal state across vertebrate taxa. Mature leopard geckos, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination, have dopaminoceptive nuclei that are influenced by their embryonic environment and sensitive to adult hormonal manipulation. In this study, we exposed hormonally manipulated male leopard geckos from different incubation temperatures to conspecifics and measured their sociosexual investigation, as well as phosphorylated DARPP-32 at Threonine 34 (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity as a marker for D1 dopamine receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and preoptic area. Social investigation time by males of different incubation temperatures was modulated in opposite directions by exogenous androgen treatment. Males exposed to novel stimuli spent a greater proportion of time investigating females of different incubation temperatures. The time spent investigating females was positively correlated to pDARPP-32 immunoreactivity in the preoptic area. This is the first study quantifying pDARPP-32 in a lizard species, and suggests the protein as a potential marker to measure differences in the dopaminergic pathway in a social setting with consideration of embryonic environment and hormonal state. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effects of cysteamine on thyrotropin and immunoreactive beta-endorphin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, W.J.; Sagar, S.M.; Badger, T.M.; Carr, D.B.; Arnold, M.A.; Spindel, E.; Kasting, N.W.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-02-01

    We examined the effects of the thiol agent cysteamine (CSH), which is known to deplete the hypothalamus of immunoreactive somatostatin, on physiological TSH and beta- endorphin secretion in the adult male rat. CSH at doses of 90 and 300 mg/kg CSH produced a rapid decline in plasma TSH, whereas a dose of 30 mg/kg did not alter plasma TSH levels. After the higher doses of CSH, TSH levels in the blood remained lower than control values on day 2, but returned to normal by 1 week. This decrease in TSH within the plasma was not associated with a reduction in hypothalamic TRH concentrations. The TSH response to 500 ng/kg TRH was normal in CSH-treated animals. Blockade of norepinephrine synthesis with diethyldithiocarbamate (500 mg/kg) or fusaric acid (100 mg/kg) inhibited TSH secretion in a manner similar to that of CSH. beta-Endorphin-like immunoreactivity (bet-End-LI) was elevated in the plasma immediately after CSH (300 mg/kg) administration. This was associated with a 58% reduction in anterior pituitary beta-End-LI and no change in hypothalmic beta-End-LI. Plasma beta-End-LI returned to normal on day 2. The increase in plasma beta-End-LI induced by immobilization stress was not compromised by CSH treatment. The observed effects of CSH on both TSH and beta-End-LI are consistent with a reduction in central norepinephrine neurotransmission through the known actin of CSH to inhibit dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. Acute stress may play a role as well in the observed changes in TSH and beta-End-LI secretion.

  4. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) ✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S.; Li, Andrew Y.; Witt, Colleen M.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5 h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. PMID:23321479

  5. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Immunoreactivity of ATF-2 and Fra-2 in human dental follicle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is asserted that epithelial rests in dental follicle (DF existing around the impacted teeth in adults are effective in cyst formation. In this study, it is intended for determining and comparing the immunoreactivity (IR ratio of ATF-2 and Fra-2 proteins, the members of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1 family which regulates important cellular activities such as growth, proliferation and differentiation, in DF epithelial cells (EC and connective tissue cells (CC. In this study, ATF-2 and Fra-2 immunoreactivity (ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR in EC and CC in DF tissues obtained from 30 patients were analyzed by using immunohistochemical method. Ratios of ATF-2-IR positive cells were found 17.36+/-9.55% in EC, 27.27+/-14.86% in CC and ratios of Fra-2-IR positive cells were found 20.04+/-11.47% in EC, 16.71+/-9.05% in CC. In the statistically comparison performed; significant differences were found between EC and CC in terms of both ATF-2-IR (p<0.001 and Fra-2-IR (p<0.05. In EC, no significant difference was found between ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR (p>0.05, whereas significant difference was found between ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR in CC (p<0.001. According to these data, it can be suggested that Fra-2 protein may be more effective than ATF-2 protein in cyst formation originated from EC of DF. Besides, finding that ATF-2-IR and Fra-2-IR are different in CC although similar in EC shows that AP-1 members can be expressed at different ratios in same tissues.

  7. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  8. Distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shilpa K; Ganesh, C B

    2017-11-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the common precursor enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. In this investigation, the neuroanatomical distribution of TH-immunoreactivity was studied in the brain of the female mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Numerous intensely stained TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were scattered in the olfactory bulb with their fibres extending towards the medial olfactory tract, whereas few telencephalic TH-ir cells with distinct fibres were observed in the dorsal nucleus of area ventralis telencephali and the posterior nucleus of area ventralis telencephali regions. Large TH-ir cell populations were seen in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the nucleus dorsomedialis thalami regions of the diencephalon. Distinct TH-ir cells with long fibres were found at the preoptic area and the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis as well as the nucleus preopticus pars parvocellularis regions. Numerous intensely stained TH-ir cells were observed in the paraventricular organ and the nucleus posterior tuberis regions, whereas moderately stained cells were present in the nucleus of recessus lateralis medialis. Several TH-ir neurons were detected in medial and lateral subdivisions of the nucleus lateralis tuberis. Furthermore, the projections of the TH-ir fibres were seen in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland, where gonadotropin-secreting cells are located, suggesting the communication between TH cells and gonadotrope cells. In the rostral spinal cord, dense aggregations of the TH-ir fibres were noticed. Overall, the widespread distribution of the TH-ir neurons throughout the brain and their fibres in the spinal cord and the pituitary gland suggests diverse roles for the catecholaminergic neurons in various physiological functions including reproduction in the mosquitofish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Merkel cells and Meissner's corpuscles in human digital skin display Piezo2 immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mesa, Y; García-Piqueras, J; García, B; Feito, J; Cabo, R; Cobo, J; Vega, J A; García-Suárez, O

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals is the first step in mechanotransduction in the peripheral sensory nervous system and relies on the presence of mechanically gated ion channels within specialized sensory organs called mechanoreceptors. Piezo2 is a vertebrate stretch-gated ion channel necessary for mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Functionally, it is related to light touch, which has been detected in murine cutaneous Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner-like corpuscles and lanceolate nerve endings. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of Piezo2 in human cutaneous mechanoreceptors has never been investigated. Here, we used simple and double immunohistochemistry to investigate the occurrence of Piezo2 in human digital glabrous skin. Piezo2 immunoreactivity was detected in approximately 80% of morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized (cytokeratin 20 + , chromogranin A + and synaptophisin + ) Merkel cells. Most of them were in close contact with Piezo2 - nerve fibre profiles. Moreover, the axon, but not the lamellar cells, of Meissner's corpuscles was also Piezo2 + , but other mechanoreceptors, i.e. Pacinian or Ruffini's corpuscles, were devoid of immunoreactivity. Piezo2 was also observed in non-nervous tissue, especially the basal keratinocytes, endothelial cells and sweat glands. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of Piezo2 in cutaneous sensory nerve formations that functionally work as slowly adapting (Merkel cells) and rapidly adapting (Meissner's corpuscles) low-threshold mechanoreceptors and are related to fine and discriminative touch but not to vibration or hard touch. These data offer additional insight into the molecular basis of mechanosensing in humans. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. Decreased nucleotide excision repair in steatotic livers associates with myeloperoxidase-immunoreactivity

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    Schults, Marten A.; Nagle, Peter W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Rensen, Sander S. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Godschalk, Roger W. [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco [Cancer Risk Factor Branch, ISPO Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via Cosimo il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence (Italy); Claessen, Sandra M. [Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Greve, Jan W. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Driessen, Ann [Department of Pathology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Verdam, Froukje J.; Buurman, Wim A. [Department of Surgery, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Schooten, Frederik J. van [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Chiu, Roland K., E-mail: r.k.chiu@med.umcg.nl [Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM-School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Chronic inflammation is characterized by the influx of neutrophils and is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species that can damage DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is generally thought to be involved in the increased risk of cancer in inflamed tissues. We previously demonstrated that activated neutrophil mediated oxidative stress results in a reduction in nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity, which could further enhance mutagenesis. Inflammation and oxidative stress are critical factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that is linked with enhanced liver cancer risk. In this report, we therefore evaluated the role of neutrophils and the associated oxidative stress in damage recognition and DNA repair in steatotic livers of 35 severely obese subjects with either nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 17) or steatosis alone (n = 18). The neutrophilic influx in liver was assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining and the amount of oxidative DNA damage by measuring M{sub 1}dG adducts. No differences in M{sub 1}dG adduct levels were observed between patients with or without NASH and also not between individuals with high or low MPO immunoreactivity. However, we found that high expression of MPO in the liver, irrespective of disease status, reduced the damage recognition capacity as determined by staining for histone 2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX). This reduction in {gamma}H2AX formation in individuals with high MPO immunoreactivity was paralleled by a significant decrease in NER capacity as assessed by a functional repair assay, and was not related to cell proliferation. Thus, the observed reduction in NER capacity upon hepatic inflammation is associated with and may be a consequence of reduced damage recognition. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of liver cancer development in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.