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Sample records for gonadotropin inhibitory hormone

  1. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

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    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Journey through the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone System of Fish

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    José A. Muñoz-Cueto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that belongs to the RFamide peptide family and was first identified in the quail brain. From the discovery of avian GnIH, orthologous GnIH peptides have been reported in a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, amphibians, teleosts and agnathans, but also in protochordates. It has been clearly established that GnIH suppresses reproduction in avian and mammalian species through its inhibitory actions on brain GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins. In addition, GnIH also appears to be involved in the regulation of feeding, growth, stress response, heart function and social behavior. These actions are mediated via G protein-coupled GnIH receptors (GnIH-Rs, of which two different subtypes, GPR147 and GPR74, have been described to date. With around 30,000 species, fish represent more than one-half of the total number of recognized living vertebrate species. In addition to this impressive biological diversity, fish are relevant because they include model species with scientific and clinical interest as well as many exploited species with economic importance. In spite of this, the study of GnIH and its physiological effects on reproduction and other physiological processes has only been approached in a few fish species, and results obtained are in some cases conflicting. In this review, we summarize the information available in the literature on GnIH sequences identified in fish, the distribution of GnIH and GnIH-Rs in central and peripheral tissues, the physiological actions of GnIH on the reproductive brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, as well as other reported effects of this neuropeptide, and existing knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms of GnIH in fish.

  3. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

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    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R, GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis across species. Identification of the regulatory mechanisms governing GnIH expression and release is important in understanding the physiological role of the GnIH system. A nocturnal hormone, melatonin, appears to act directly on GnIH neurons through its receptor to induce expression and release of GnIH in quail, a photoperiodic bird. Recently, a similar, but opposite, action of melatonin on the inhibition of expression of mammalian GnIH was shown in hamsters and sheep, photoperiodic mammals. These results in photoperiodic animals demonstrate that GnIH expression is photoperiodically modulated via a melatonin-dependent process. Recent findings indicate that GnIH may be a mediator of stress-induced reproductive disruption in birds and mammals, pointing to a broad role for this neuropeptide in assessing physiological state and modifying reproductive effort accordingly. This paper summarizes the advances made in our knowledge regarding the regulation of GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic birds and mammals. This paper also discusses the neuroendocrine integration of environmental signals, such as photoperiods and stress, and internal signals, such as GnIH, melatonin and glucocorticoids, to control avian and mammalian reproduction.

  4. Early-life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats

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    Tomoko eSoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinising hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic–GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-tagged GnIH-transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviours. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP–GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group -housing. We also inspected serotonergic fibre juxtapositions in EGFP–GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviours. The total number of EGFP–GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fibre juxtapositions on EGFP–GnIH neurons was also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  5. Early-Life Social Isolation Impairs the Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neuronal Activity and Serotonergic System in Male Rats.

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    Soga, Tomoko; Teo, Chuin Hau; Cham, Kai Lin; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation in early life deregulates the serotonergic system of the brain, compromising reproductive function. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus are critical to the inhibitory regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal activity in the brain and release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Although GnIH responds to stress, the role of GnIH in social isolation-induced deregulation of the serotonin system and reproductive function remains unclear. We investigated the effect of social isolation in early life on the serotonergic-GnIH neuronal system using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged GnIH transgenic rats. Socially isolated rats were observed for anxious and depressive behaviors. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined c-Fos protein expression in EGFP-GnIH neurons in 9-week-old adult male rats after 6 weeks post-weaning isolation or group housing. We also inspected serotonergic fiber juxtapositions in EGFP-GnIH neurons in control and socially isolated male rats. Socially isolated rats exhibited anxious and depressive behaviors. The total number of EGFP-GnIH neurons was the same in control and socially isolated rats, but c-Fos expression in GnIH neurons was significantly reduced in socially isolated rats. Serotonin fiber juxtapositions on EGFP-GnIH neurons were also lower in socially isolated rats. In addition, levels of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus were significantly attenuated in these rats. These results suggest that social isolation in early-life results in lower serotonin levels, which reduce GnIH neuronal activity and may lead to reproductive failure.

  6. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Down-Regulates the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

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    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Morano, Francesca; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary of birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of orthologous GnIH peptides on the reproductive axis of fish is still uncertain, and their actions on the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction (i.e., GnRHs, kisspeptins) have received little attention. In a recent study performed in the European sea bass, we cloned a cDNA encoding a precursor polypeptide that contained C-terminal MPMRFamide (sbGnIH-1) and MPQRFamide (sbGnIH-2) peptide sequences, developed a specific antiserum against sbGnIH-2, and characterized its central and pituitary GnIH projections in this species. In this study, we analyzed the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on brain and pituitary expression of reproductive hormone genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3, kiss1, kiss2, gnih, lhbeta, fshbeta), and their receptors (gnrhr II-1a, gnrhr II-2b, kiss1r, kiss2r, and gnihr) as well as on plasma Fsh and Lh levels. In addition, we determined the effects of GnIH on pituitary somatotropin (Gh) expression. The results obtained revealed the inhibitory role of sbGnIH-2 on brain gnrh2, kiss1, kiss2, kiss1r, gnih, and gnihr transcripts and on pituitary fshbeta, lhbeta, gh, and gnrhr-II-1a expression, whereas sbGnIH-1 only down-regulated brain gnrh1 expression. However, at different doses, central administration of both sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 decreased Lh plasma levels. Our work represents the first study reporting the effects of centrally administered GnIH in fish and provides evidence of the differential actions of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on the reproductive axis of sea bass, the main inhibitory role being exerted by the sbGnIH-2 peptide. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Social Isolation Modulates CLOCK Protein and Beta-Catenin Expression Pattern in Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neurons in Male Rats

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    Chuin Hau Teo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Postweaning social isolation reduces the amplitude of the daily variation of CLOCK protein in the brain and induces lower reproductive activity. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH acts as an inhibitor in the reproductive system and has been linked to stress. Social isolation has been shown to lower neuronal activity of GnIH-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH. The exact mechanism by which social isolation may affect GnIH is still unclear. We investigated the impact of social isolation on regulatory cellular mechanisms in GnIH neurons. We examined via immunohistochemistry the expression of CLOCK protein at four different times throughout the day in GnIH cells tagged with enhanced fluorescent green protein (EGFP-GnIH in 9-week-old adult male rats that have been raised for 6 weeks under postweaning social isolation and compared them with group-raised control rats of the same age. We also studied the expression of β-catenin—which has been shown to be affected by circadian proteins such as Bmal1—in EGFP-GnIH neurons to determine whether it could play a role in linking CLOCK in GnIH neurons. We found that social isolation modifies the pattern of CLOCK expression in GnIH neurons in the DMH. Socially isolated rats displayed greater CLOCK expression in the dark phase, while control rats displayed increased CLOCK expression in the light phase. Furthermore, β-catenin expression pattern in GnIH cells was disrupted by social isolation. This suggests that social isolation triggers changes in CLOCK and GnIH expression, which may be associated with an increase in nuclear β-catenin during the dark phase.

  8. Social Isolation Modulates CLOCK Protein and Beta-Catenin Expression Pattern in Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neurons in Male Rats.

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    Teo, Chuin Hau; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2017-01-01

    Postweaning social isolation reduces the amplitude of the daily variation of CLOCK protein in the brain and induces lower reproductive activity. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) acts as an inhibitor in the reproductive system and has been linked to stress. Social isolation has been shown to lower neuronal activity of GnIH-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). The exact mechanism by which social isolation may affect GnIH is still unclear. We investigated the impact of social isolation on regulatory cellular mechanisms in GnIH neurons. We examined via immunohistochemistry the expression of CLOCK protein at four different times throughout the day in GnIH cells tagged with enhanced fluorescent green protein (EGFP-GnIH) in 9-week-old adult male rats that have been raised for 6 weeks under postweaning social isolation and compared them with group-raised control rats of the same age. We also studied the expression of β-catenin-which has been shown to be affected by circadian proteins such as Bmal1-in EGFP-GnIH neurons to determine whether it could play a role in linking CLOCK in GnIH neurons. We found that social isolation modifies the pattern of CLOCK expression in GnIH neurons in the DMH. Socially isolated rats displayed greater CLOCK expression in the dark phase, while control rats displayed increased CLOCK expression in the light phase. Furthermore, β-catenin expression pattern in GnIH cells was disrupted by social isolation. This suggests that social isolation triggers changes in CLOCK and GnIH expression, which may be associated with an increase in nuclear β-catenin during the dark phase.

  9. Dual Actions of Mammalian and Piscine Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormones, RFamide-Related Peptides and LPXRFamide Peptides, in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

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    Takayoshi Ubuka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that decreases gonadotropin synthesis and release by directly acting on the gonadotrope or by decreasing the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. GnIH is also called RFamide-related peptide in mammals or LPXRFamide peptide in fishes due to its characteristic C-terminal structure. The primary receptor for GnIH is GPR147 that inhibits cAMP production in target cells. Although most of the studies in mammals, birds, and fish have shown the inhibitory action of GnIH in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG axis, several in vivo studies in mammals and many in vivo and in vitro studies in fish have shown its stimulatory action. In mouse, although the firing rate of the majority of GnRH neurons is decreased, a small population of GnRH neurons is stimulated by GnIH. In hamsters, GnIH inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH release in the breeding season when their endogenous LH level is high but stimulates LH release in non-breeding season when their LH level is basal. Besides different effects of GnIH on the HPG axis depending on the reproductive stages in fish, higher concentration or longer duration of GnIH administration can stimulate their HPG axis. These results suggest that GnIH action in the HPG axis is modulated by sex-steroid concentration, the action of neuroestrogen synthesized by the activity of aromatase stimulated by GnIH, estrogen membrane receptor, heteromerization and internalization of GnIH, GnRH, and estrogen membrane receptors. The inhibitory and stimulatory action of GnIH in the HPG axis may have a physiological role to maintain reproductive homeostasis according to developmental and reproductive stages.

  10. The gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Lpxrfa) system's regulation of reproduction in the brain-pituitary axis of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

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    Spicer, Olivia Smith; Zmora, Nilli; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Gothilf, Yoav; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-05-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (LPXRFamide (Lpxrfa) peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary. In the preoptic area, Lpxrfa fibers interact with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (Gnrh3) soma. In pituitary explants, zebrafish peptide Lpxrfa-3 downregulated luteinizing hormone beta subunit and common alpha subunit expression. In addition, Lpxrfa-3 reduced gnrh3 expression in brain slices, offering another pathway for Lpxrfa to exert its effects on reproduction. Receptor activation studies, in a heterologous cell-based system, revealed that all three zebrafish Lpxrfa peptides activate Lpxrf-R2 and Lpxrf-R3 via the PKA/cAMP pathway. Receptor activation studies demonstrated that, in addition to activating Lpxrf receptors, zebrafish Lpxrfa-2 and Lpxrfa-3 antagonize Kisspeptin-2 (Kiss2) activation of Kisspeptin receptor-1a (Kiss1ra). The fact that kiss1ra-expressing neurons in the preoptic area are innervated by Lpxrfa-ir fibers suggests an additional pathway for Lpxrfa action. Therefore, our results suggest that Lpxrfa may act as a reproductive inhibitory neuropeptide in the zebrafish that interacts with Gnrh3 neurons in the brain and with gonadotropes in the pituitary, while also potentially utilizing the Kiss2/Kiss1ra pathway. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification and localization of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) orthologs in the hypothalamus of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

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    Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Osugi, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered in 2000 as a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibited gonadotropin release in the Japanese quail. GnIH and its orthologs have a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif, and have been identified in vertebrates from agnathans to humans, apart from reptiles. In the present study, we characterized a cDNA encoding GnIH orthologs in the brain of the red-eared slider turtle. The deduced precursor protein consisted of 205 amino-acid residues, encoding three putative peptide sequences that included the LPXRFamide motif at their C-termini. In addition, the precursor sequence was most similar to those of avian species. Immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that three mature peptides were produced in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that turtle GnIH-containing cells were restricted to the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibers were densely distributed in the median eminence. Thus, GnIH and related peptides may act on the pituitary to regulate pituitary hormone release in turtles as well as other vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Periodic regulation of expression of genes for kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and their receptors in the grass puffer: Implications in seasonal, daily and lunar rhythms of reproduction.

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    Ando, Hironori; Shahjahan, Md; Kitahashi, Takashi

    2018-04-03

    The seasonal, daily and lunar control of reproduction involves photoperiodic, circadian and lunar changes in the activity of kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These changes are brought through complex networks of light-, time- and non-photic signal-dependent control mechanisms, which are mostly unknown at present. The grass puffer, Takifugu alboplumbeus, a semilunar spawner, provides a unique and excellent animal model to assess this question because its spawning is synchronized with seasonal, daily and lunar cycles. In the diencephalon, the genes for kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptors showed similar expression patterns with clear seasonal and daily oscillations, suggesting that they are regulated by common mechanisms involving melatonin, circadian clock and water temperature. For implications in semilunar-synchronized spawning rhythm, melatonin receptor genes showed ultradian oscillations in expression with the period of 14.0-15.4 h in the pineal gland. This unique ultradian rhythm might be driven by circatidal clock. The possible circatidal clock and circadian clock in the pineal gland may cooperate to drive circasemilunar rhythm to regulate the expression of the kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptor genes. On the other hand, high temperature (over 28 °C) conditions, under which the expression of the kisspeptin and its receptor genes is markedly suppressed, may provide an environmental signal that terminates reproduction at the end of breeding period. Taken together, the periodic regulation of the kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptor genes by melatonin, circadian clock and water temperature may be important in the precisely-timed spawning of the grass puffer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

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    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  14. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

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    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  15. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  16. [Spermatogenesis of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion versus gonadotropin therapy in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].

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    Huang, Bingkun; Mao, Jiangfeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2015-05-26

    To compare the efficacies of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) versus human chorionic gonadotropin/human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) for spermatogenesis in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). For this retrospective study, a total of 92 male IHH outpatients from May 2010 to October 2014 were recruited and categorized into GnRH (n = 40) and HCG/HMG (n = 52) groups. Each subject selected one specific therapy voluntarily. The gonadotropin levels were measured in the first week and monthly post-treatment in GnRH group. And serum total testosterone (TT), testicular volume (TV) and rate of spermatogenesis were observed monthly post-treatment in two groups. Spermatogenesis, TT and TV were compared between two groups. All IHH patients were treated for over 3 months. The median follow-up periods in GnRH and HCG/HMG groups was 8.2 (3.0-18.4) and 9.2 (3.0-18.6) months respectively (P = 0.413). In GnRH group, LH ((0.5 ± 0.6) vs (3.4 ± 2.4) U/L, P treatment. In GnRH group, at the end of follow-up, TT ((1.0 ± 1.0) vs (7.4 ± 5.2) nmol/L, P treatment time for initial sperm appearance than HCG/HMG group ((6.5 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 3.7) months, P = 0.001). Pulsatile GnRH requires a shorter time for initiation of spermatogenesis than gonadotropin therapy in IHH male patients.

  17. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  18. Mathematical modeling of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling.

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    Pratap, Amitesh; Garner, Kathryn L; Voliotis, Margaritis; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; McArdle, Craig A

    2017-07-05

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) acts via G-protein coupled receptors on pituitary gonadotropes to control reproduction. These are G q -coupled receptors that mediate acute effects of GnRH on the exocytotic secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as the chronic regulation of their synthesis. GnRH is secreted in short pulses and GnRH effects on its target cells are dependent upon the dynamics of these pulses. Here we overview GnRH receptors and their signaling network, placing emphasis on pulsatile signaling, and how mechanistic mathematical models and an information theoretic approach have helped further this field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons by glucose

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    Roland, Alison V.; Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction is influenced by energy balance, but the physiological pathways mediating their relationship have not been fully elucidated. As the central regulators of fertility, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons integrate numerous physiological signals, including metabolic cues. Circulating glucose levels regulate GnRH release and may in part mediate the effects of negative energy balance on fertility. Existing evidence suggests that neural pathways originating in the hindbrain, as well as in the hypothalamic feeding nuclei, transmit information concerning glucose availability to GnRH neurons. Here we review recent evidence suggesting that GnRH neurons may directly sense changes in glucose availability by a mechanism involving adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These findings expand our understanding of how metabolic signaling in the brain regulates reproduction. PMID:21855365

  20. Exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in amenorrheic runners.

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    Yahiro, J; Glass, A R; Fears, W B; Ferguson, E W; Vigersky, R A

    1987-03-01

    Most studies of exercise-induced amenorrhea have compared amenorrheic athletes (usually runners) with sedentary control subjects. Such comparisons will identify hormonal changes that develop as a result of exercise training but cannot determine which of these changes play a role in causing amenorrhea. To obviate this problem, we assessed reproductive hormone status in a group of five amenorrheic runners and compared them to a group of six eumenorrheic runners matched for body fatness, training intensity, and exercise performance. Compared to the eumenorrheic runners, the amenorrheic runners had lower serum estradiol concentrations, similar basal serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and exaggerated responses of serum gonadotropins after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (100 micrograms intravenous bolus). Serum prolactin levels, both basally and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone administration (500 micrograms intravenous bolus) or treadmill exercise, was similar in the two groups, as were serum thyroid function tests (including thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone). Changes in serum cortisol levels after short-term treadmill exercise were similar in both groups, and serum testosterone levels increased after exercise only in the eumenorrheic group. In neither group did such exercise change serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin levels. We concluded that exercise-induced amenorrhea is not solely related to the development of increased prolactin output after exercise training. The exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone seen in amenorrheic runners in comparison with matched eumenorrheic runners is consistent with a hypothalamic etiology for the menstrual dysfunction, analogous to that previously described in "stress-induced" or "psychogenic" amenorrhea.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus HCG for oocyte triggering in antagonist assisted reproductive technology cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. F. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Al-Inany, Hesham G.; Griesinger, Georg; Mochtar, Monique H.; Aboulfoutouh, Ismail; Khattab, Sherif M.; van Wely, Madelon

    2011-01-01

    Background Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols for pituitary down regulation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) allow the use of GnRH agonists for triggering final oocyte maturation. Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is

  2. Expression and role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and its receptor in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1) and its receptor (GnRHR1) drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2) and its receptor (GnRHR2) also exist in some mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, s...

  3. Function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    2001-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is present within neurons of the nervus terminalis, the zeroeth cranial nerve. In all vertebrate species, except in sharks where it is a separate nerve, the nervus terminalis consists of a chain of neurons embedded within olfactory or vomeronasal nerves in the nasal cavity. The function of the GnRH component of the nervus terminalis is thought to be neuromodulatory. Our research on GnRH effects on olfaction confirms this hypothesis. The processes of GnRH neural cell bodies located within chemosensory nerves project centrally into the ventral forebrain and peripherally into the lamina propria of the nasal chemosensory mucosa. GnRH receptors are expressed by chemosensory neurons as shown by RT-PCR/Southern blotting and GnRH agonist binding studies. Patch-clamp studies have shown that GnRH alters the responses of isolated chemosensory neurons to natural or electrophysiological stimulation through the modulation of voltage-gated and receptor-gated channels. Behavioral experiments demonstrate that interfering with the nasal GnRH system leads to deficits in mating behavior. These studies suggest that the function of the intranasal GnRH system is to modify olfactory information, perhaps at reproductively auspicious times. We speculate that the purpose of this altered olfactory sense is to make pheromones more detectable and salient.

  4. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  5. Development of New Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Modified Dendrimer Platforms with Direct Antiproliferative and Gonadotropin Releasing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, Pegah; Rafiee, Amirreza; Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Mansfeld, Friederike M; Steyn, Frederik; Toth, Istvan

    2017-10-26

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists (e.g., triptorelin) are used for androgen suppression therapy. They possess improved stability as compared to the natural GnRH, yet they suffer from a poor pharmacokinetic profile. To address this, we used a GnRH peptide-modified dendrimer platform with and without lipidation strategy. Dendrimers were synthesized on a polylysine core and bore either native GnRH (1, 2, and 5) or lipid-modified GnRH (3 and 4). Compound 3, which bore a lipidic moiety in a branched tetramer structure, showed approximately 10-fold higher permeability and metabolic stability and 39 times higher antitumor activity against hormone-resistant prostate cancer cells (DU145) relative to triptorelin. In gonadotropin-release experiments, dendrimer 3 was shown to be the most potent construct. Dendrimer 3 showed similar luteinizing hormone (LH)-release activity to triptorelin in mice. Our findings indicate that dendrimer 3 is a promising analog with higher potency for the treatment of hormone-resistant prostate cancer than the currently available GnRH agonists.

  6. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  7. Radioiodinated nondegradable gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: new probes for the investigation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Duncan, J A; Marshall, J C; Munson, P J; Rodbard, D

    1979-12-01

    Studies of pituitary plasma membrane gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors using [125I]-iodo-GnRH suffer major disadvantages. Only a small (less than 25%) proportion of specific tracer binding is to high affinity sites, with more than 70% bound to low affinity sites (Ka = 1 x 10(6) M-1). [125I]Iodo-GnRH is also inactivated during incubation with pituitary plasma membrane preparations. Two superactive analongs of GnRH, substituted in positions 6 and 10, were used as the labeled ligand to overcome these problems. Both analogs bound to the same high affinity sites as GnRH on bovine pituitary plasma membranes, though the affinity of the analogs was higher than that of the natural decapeptide (Ka = 2.0 x 10(9), 6.0 x 10(9), and 3.0 x 10(8) M-1 for [D-Ser(TBu)6]des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide, [D-Ala6]des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide, and GnRH, respectively. The labeled analogs bound to a single class of high affinity sites with less than 15% of the specific binding being to low affinity sites (Ka approximately equal to 1 x 10(6) M-1). The labeled analogs were not inactivated during incubation with the pituitary membrane preparations. Using the analogs as tracer, a single class of high affinity sites (K1 = 4.0 x 10(9) M-1) was also demonstrated on crude 10,800 x g rat pituitary membrane preparations. Use of these analogs as both the labeled and unlabeled ligand offers substantial advantages over GnRH for investigation of GnRH receptors, allowing accurate determination of changes in their numbers and affinities under various physiological conditions.

  8. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a very minor role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant......Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture...... of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prions. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due...

  9. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regu...

  10. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in mice was studied with immunofluorescence in combination with lesions of the olfactory bulb and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which was administered intravascularly, intranasally or into the subarachnoid space. GnRH-positive neurons were located in the two major branches forming the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, within the fascicles of the nervus terminalis throughout its extent, in a conspicuous band which connects the ventral neck of the caudal olfactory bulb with the accessory olfactory bulb and in the nasal mucosa. GnRH-positive fibers were seen in all areas in which neurons were found, i.e. in the rostral septum, the ganglion and nervus terminalis and in the nasal subepithelium. In addition, a broad bundle of fibers was observed to surround the entire caudal olfactory bulb, connecting the rostral sulcus rhinalis with the ventrocaudal olfactory bulb. Fibers were seen in close association with the main and accessory olfactory bulb, with the fila olfactoria and with the nasal mucosa. Throughout the olfactory bulb and the nasal epithelium, an association of GnRH fibers with blood vessels was apparent. Intravascular and intranasal injection of HRP resulted in labeling of certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, the ganglion terminale, the nervus terminalis, the caudal ventrodorsal connection and in the accessory olfactory bulb. After placement of HRP into the subarachnoid space dorsal to the accessory olfactory bulb, about 50% of the GnRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and in the ventrodorsal connection were labeled with HRP. Also, a few GnRH neurons in the rostral septum, the ganglion terminale and in the fascicles of the nervus terminalis had taken up the enzyme. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale resulted in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. Lesions rostral

  11. Active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone : an effective tool to block the fertility axis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, Jouwert Anne

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in fertility and reproduction in mammals. It induces the release of luteinising hormone (LH) en follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. These hormones are responsible for gonadal steroid production and indirectly for

  12. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: The Pregnancy Hormone and More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Theofanakis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To thoroughly review the uses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG related to the process of reproduction and also assess new, non-traditional theories. Review of the international literature and research studies. hCG and its receptor, LH/CGR, are expressed in numerous sites of the reproductive tract, both in gonadal and extra-goanadal tissues, promoting oocyte maturation, fertilization, implantation and early embryo development. Moreover, hCG seems to have a potential role as an anti-rejection agent in solid organ transplantation. Future research needs to focus extensively on the functions of hCG and its receptor LH/CGR, in an effort to reveal known, as well as unknown clinical potentials.

  13. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  14. Ontogenic studies of the neural control of adenohypophyseal hormones in the rat: gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1990-12-01

    1. Serotonergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems controlling luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion develop with particular characteristics in the male and female prepubertal rats. 2. Serotonergic pathways evoke a maximal release of LH and FSH in female rats from day 12 to day 20 of age, but not in males of the same age. 3. Antidopaminergic drugs increase LH and FSH levels only in the female infantile rats. This effect is absent at birth and disappears after 20 days of age. 4. Naloxone markedly increases gonadotropins in 12-day-old females. 5. On the other hand, in 12-day-old male rats some neurotropic drugs such as diazepam could enhance LH levels, the effect being absent at other ages or in female littermates. 6. A period of high sensitivity of gonadotropins to neurotropic drugs is present during the second and third weeks of life of the rat and it is related to the sexual differentiation of the brain.

  15. Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carel, Jean-Claude; Eugster, Erica A; Rogol, Alan

    2009-01-01

    , an equal male/female ratio, and a balanced spectrum of professional seniority and expertise. EVIDENCE: Preference was given to articles written in English with long-term outcome data. The US Public Health grading system was used to grade evidence and rate the strength of conclusions. When evidence......OBJECTIVE: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs revolutionized the treatment of central precocious puberty. However, questions remain regarding their optimal use in central precocious puberty and other conditions. The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society...... for Pediatric Endocrinology convened a consensus conference to review the clinical use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents. PARTICIPANTS: When selecting the 30 participants, consideration was given to equal representation from North America (United States and Canada) and Europe...

  16. Development of a radioimmunoassay for circulating levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodbidri, S.B.; Joshi, L.R.; Sheth, A.R.; Rao, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for measuring gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in unextracted human serum. Circulating levels of GnRH, LH and FSH were determined in 37 serum samples obtained from twenty normal healthy women on different days of the menstrual cycle. GnRH and LH but not FSH exhibited similar patterns during the menstrual cycle. 125 I-labelled GnRH was used in the RIA system. (author)

  17. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  18. Ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or gonadotropins in a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Pappas, A P; Protonatariou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Sykiotis, G P; Dimopoulos, P A; Tzingounis, V A

    2001-12-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a treatable cause of infertility. Our patient was presented with secondary amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus. Cortisol and prolactin responded normally to a combined insulin tolerance test (ITT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenge, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH was diminished, and no response of growth hormone to ITT was detected. Both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. No response of LH to clomiphene citrate challenge was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated a midline mass occupying the inferior hypothalamus, with posterior lobe not visible and thickened pituitary stalk. Ovulation induction was carried out first with combined human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG/LH/FSH) (150 IU/day) and afterwards with pulsatile GnRH (150 ng/kg/pulse). Ovulation was achieved with both pulsatile GnRH and combine gonadotropin therapy. Slightly better results were achieved with the pulsatile GnRH treatment.

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in oocyte donors co-treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuong, T. N. L.; Ho, M. T.; Ha, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    -35 years, body mass index [BMI] hormone level >1.25 ng/mL, and antral follicle count >= 6). Intervention(s): Ovulation trigger with 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg triptorelin in a GnRH antagonist cycle. Main Outcome Measure(s): The primary end point was number of metaphase II oocytes...... to number of metaphase II oocytes (16.0 +/- 8.5, 15.9 +/- 7.8, and 14.7 +/- 8.4, respectively), embryos (13.2 +/- 7.8, 11.7 +/- 6.9, 11.8 +/- 7.0), and number of top-quality embryos (3.8 +/- 2.9, 3.6 +/- 3.0, 4.1 +/- 3.0). Luteinizing hormone levels at 24 hours and 36 hours after trigger was significantly...

  20. Negative feedback governs gonadotrope frequency-decoding of gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse-frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lim

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the gonadotropin subunits is directed by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH from the hypothalamus, with the frequency of GnRH pulses governing the differential expression of the common alpha-subunit, luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta. Three mitogen-activated protein kinases, (MAPKs, ERK1/2, JNK and p38, contribute uniquely and combinatorially to the expression of each of these subunit genes. In this study, using both experimental and computational methods, we found that dual specificity phosphatase regulation of the activity of the three MAPKs through negative feedback is required, and forms the basis for decoding the frequency of pulsatile GnRH. A fourth MAPK, ERK5, was shown also to be activated by GnRH. ERK5 was found to stimulate FSHbeta promoter activity and to increase FSHbeta mRNA levels, as well as enhancing its preference for low GnRH pulse frequencies. The latter is achieved through boosting the ultrasensitive behavior of FSHbeta gene expression by increasing the number of MAPK dependencies, and through modulating the feedforward effects of JNK activation on the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of changing GnRH pulse-frequency in controlling transcription of the pituitary gonadotropins, which comprises a crucial aspect in regulating reproduction. Pulsatile stimuli and oscillating signals are integral to many biological processes, and elucidation of the mechanisms through which the pulsatility is decoded explains how the same stimulant can lead to various outcomes in a single cell.

  1. Neurokinin B and serum albumin limit copper binding to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ahmad Samir; Tran, Kevin K; Jones, Christopher E

    2018-02-26

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) triggers secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is able to bind copper, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the copper-GnRH complex is more potent at triggering gonadotropin release than GnRH alone. However, it remains unclear whether copper-GnRH is the active species in vivo. To explore this we have estimated the GnRH-copper affinity and have examined whether GnRH remains copper-bound in the presence of serum albumin and the neuropeptide neurokinin B, both copper-binding proteins that GnRH will encounter in vivo. We show that GnRH has a copper dissociation constant of ∼0.9 × 10 -9  M, however serum albumin and neurokinin B can extract metal from the copper-GnRH complex. It is therefore unlikely that a copper-GnRH complex will survive transit through the pituitary portal circulation and that any effect of copper must occur outside the bloodstream in the absence of neurokinin B. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium-independent phosphatidylinositol response in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulated pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Z; Molcho, J; Zakut, H; Yavin, E

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, gonadoliberin) on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rat pituitary cells. The cells were incubated with [32P]Pi to label endogenous phospholipids (10-60 min) and then stimulated with GnRH for up to 60 min. Cellular phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional t.l.c. and the radioactivity was determined. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a minor constituent of cellular phospholipids (7.7%), was the major labelled phospholipi...

  3. Bone Mass in Young Adulthood Following Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Treatment and Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment in Adolescents With Gender Dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, D.T.; Caris, M.G.; Heijboer, A.C.; van Trotsenburg, M.; Rotteveel, J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids are important for bone mass accrual. Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy are temporarily sex-steroid deprived until the addition of cross-sex hormones (CSH). The effect of this treatment on bone mineral

  4. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  5. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulate Aldosterone Production in a Subset of Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Rui; Oki, Kenji; Yoneda, Masayasu; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Itcho, Kiyotaka; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to detect novel genes associated with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and elucidate the mechanisms underlying aldosterone production. Microarray analysis targeting GPCR-associated genes was conducted using APA without known mutations (APA-WT) samples (n = 3) and APA with the KCNJ5 mutation (APA-KCNJ5; n = 3). Since gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) was the highest expression in APA-WT by microarray analysis, we investigated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation on aldosterone production. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay results revealed higher GNRHR expression levels in APA-WT samples those in APA-KCNJ5 samples (P APA-WT samples, and there was a significant and positive correlation between GNRHR and LHCGR expression in all APA samples (r = 0.476, P APA-WT (n = 9), which showed higher GNRHR and LHCGR levels, had significantly higher GnRH-stimulated aldosterone response than those with APA-KCNJ5 (n = 13) (P APA-WT, and the molecular analysis including the receptor expression associated with clinical findings of GnRH stimulation. PMID:27196470

  6. The hormone level of both the testosterone and the gonadotropin. Chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Concentration of testosterone and gonadotropin hormones in blood serum was studied at 120 examined sick persons. It is shown that the statistically reliable (P<0.5) decrease of testosterone level is exhibiting under influence of radiation doses over 0.25 Gy. During radiation doses action increasing the legible tendency to of testosterone level reduction is noted. Results of pituitary gland-gonad system study in dependence of sexual dysfunctions are presented. Data evident that sexual dysfunction does not depend from suppression of hormone activity of gonads. It is revealed, that common testosterone level in sicks suffered from low radiation action was reduced. Differences in testosterone content at sicks with sexual dysfunction and without its have not been revealed

  7. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy is associated with earlier spermatogenesis compared to combined gonadotropin therapy in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH infusion and combined gonadotropin therapy (human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin [HCG/HMG] are effective to induce spermatogenesis in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH. However, evidence is lacking as to which treatment strategy is better. This retrospective cohort study included 202 patients with CHH: twenty had received pulsatile GnRH and 182 had received HCG/HMG. Patients had received therapy for at least 12 months. The total follow-up time was 15.6 ± 5.0 months (range: 12-27 months for the GnRH group and 28.7 ± 13.0 months (range: 12-66 months for the HCG/HMG group. The median time to first sperm appearance was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-10.4 in the GnRH group versus 18 months (95% CI: 16.4-20.0 in the HCG/HMG group (P 1 × 10 6 ml−1 was 43.7% ± 20.4% (16 samples in the GnRH group versus 43.2% ± 18.1% (153 samples in the HCG/HMG group (P = 0.921. Notably, during follow-up, the GnRH group had lower serum testosterone levels than the HCG/HMG group (8.3 ± 4.6 vs 16.2 ± 8.2 nmol l−1 , P < 0.001. Our study found that pulsatile GnRH therapy was associated with earlier spermatogenesis and larger testicular size compared to combined gonadotropin therapy. Additional prospective randomized studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  8. Microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the absence of exogenous gonadotropins is not sufficient to induce multiple follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Karine; Fogle, Robin; Bendikson, Kristin; Christenson, Kamilee; Paulson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Because the effectiveness of the "microdose flare" stimulation protocol often is attributed to the dramatic endogenous gonadotropin release induced by the GnRH agonist, the aim of this study was to determine whether use of microdose GnRH agonist alone could induce multiple ovarian follicle development in normal responders. Based on these data, the duration of gonadotropin rise is approximately 24 to 48 hours and is too brief to sustain continued multiple follicle growth. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing Activity by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH. Targeted extracellular recordings were used to record firing activity from green fluorescent protein-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices before and during CRH treatment; recordings were done in the afternoon when estradiol has a positive feedback effect to increase GnRH neuron firing. In OVX mice, CRH did not affect the firing rate of GnRH neurons. In contrast, CRH exhibited dose-dependent stimulatory (30 nM) or inhibitory (100 nM) effects on GnRH neuron firing activity in OVX+E mice; both effects were reversible. The dose-dependent effects of CRH appear to result from activation of different receptor populations; a CRH receptor type-1 agonist increased firing activity in GnRH neurons, whereas a CRH receptor type-2 agonist decreased firing activity. CRH and specific agonists also differentially regulated short-term burst frequency and burst properties, including burst duration, spikes/burst, and/or intraburst interval. These results indicate that CRH alters GnRH neuron activity and that estradiol is required for CRH to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  10. Expression and Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 and Its Receptor in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy T. Desaulniers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1 and its receptor (GnRHR1 drive mammalian reproduction via regulation of the gonadotropins. Yet, a second form of GnRH (GnRH2 and its receptor (GnRHR2 also exist in mammals. GnRH2 has been completely conserved throughout 500 million years of evolution, signifying high selection pressure and a critical biological role. However, the GnRH2 gene is absent (e.g., rat or inactivated (e.g., cow and sheep in some species but retained in others (e.g., human, horse, and pig. Likewise, many species (e.g., human, chimpanzee, cow, and sheep retain the GnRHR2 gene but lack the appropriate coding sequence to produce a full-length protein due to gene coding errors; although production of GnRHR2 in humans remains controversial. Certain mammals lack the GnRHR2 gene (e.g., mouse or most exons entirely (e.g., rat. In contrast, old world monkeys, musk shrews, and pigs maintain the coding sequence required to produce a functional GnRHR2. Like GnRHR1, GnRHR2 is a 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with Gαq/11 to mediate cell signaling. However, GnRHR2 retains a cytoplasmic tail and is only 40% homologous to GnRHR1. A role for GnRH2 and its receptor in mammals has been elusive, likely because common laboratory models lack both the ligand and receptor. Uniquely, both GnRH2 and GnRHR2 are ubiquitously expressed; transcript levels are abundant in peripheral tissues and scarcely found in regions of the brain associated with gonadotropin secretion, suggesting a divergent role from GnRH1/GnRHR1. Indeed, GnRH2 and its receptor are not physiological modulators of gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Instead, GnRH2 and GnRHR2 coordinate the interaction between nutritional status and sexual behavior in the female brain. Within peripheral tissues, GnRH2 and its receptor are novel regulators of reproductive organs. GnRH2 and GnRHR2 directly stimulate steroidogenesis within the porcine testis. In the female, GnRH2 and

  11. Impact of various progestins with or without transdermal testosterone on gonadotropin levels for non-invasive hormonal male contraception: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, M; Rohayem, J; Raidt, J; Kliesch, S; Kumar, N; Sitruk-Ware, R; Nieschlag, E

    2017-05-01

    Although several progestins have been tested for hormonal male contraception, the effects of dosage and nature of various progestins on gonadotropin suppression combined with and without additional testosterone has not been performed in a comparative trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential impact of four oral or transdermal progestins on the suppression of gonadotropins in healthy men: oral: cyproterone acetate (CPA), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethisterone acetate (NETA), and transdermal: Nestorone ® (NES), all in combination with transdermal testosterone (T). Randomized clinical trial testing was performed with four progestins at two doses each. After a 2-week progestin-only treatment, transdermal T was added for further 4 weeks and was followed by a 3-week recovery period. Progestin-dose per day: CPA 10 mg/20 mg, NES 2 mg/3 mg/dose e.g. 200/300 μg/day absorbed, NETA 5 mg/10 mg, LNG 120 μg/240 μg. From an andrology outpatient clinic, 56 healthy men aged 18-50 years, with body mass index ≤33 kg × m -2 were included in the study. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were studied. Secondary outcome measure included were serum testosterone concentrations, sperm concentrations, and safety parameters. Intergroup comparisons demonstrated that CPA and LNG had the strongest effect on LH/FSH suppression. Nevertheless, every substance showed significant inhibitory effects on gonadotropin secretion, especially in combination with transdermal T. A decrease in hematocrit and insulin sensitivity as well as cholesterol subfractions and triglycerides was uniformly seen for every group. The combination of oral or transdermal progestins with a transdermal testosterone preparation is able to suppress gonadotropins. Further dose titration studies with sperm suppression as an end-point should be conducted to determine the lowest effective dose for hormonal male contraception. © 2017 American

  12. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cortés-Campos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons.

  13. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, [azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6]GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors

  14. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering of oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Türkgeldi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa have gained increasing attention in the last decade as an alternative trigger for oocyte maturation in patients at high risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. They provide a short luteinizing hormone (LH peak that limits the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, which is the key mediator leading to increased vascular permeability, the hallmark of OHSS. Initial studies showed similar oocyte yield and embryo quality compared with conventional human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG triggering; however, lower pregnancy rates and higher miscarriage rates were alarming in GnRHa triggered groups. Therefore, two approaches have been implemented to rescue the luteal phase in fresh transfers. Intensive luteal phase support (iLPS involves administiration of high doses of progesterone and estrogen and active patient monitoring. iLPS has been shown to provide satisfactory fertilization and clinical pregnancy rates, and to be especially useful in patients with high endogenous LH levels, such as in polycystic ovary syndrome. The other method for luteal phase rescue is low-dose hCG administiration 35 hours after GnRHa trigger. Likewise, this method results in statistically similar ongoing pregnancy rates (although slightly lower than to those of hCG triggered cycles. GnRHa triggering decreased OHSS rates dramatically, however, none of the rescue methods prevent OHSS totally. Cases were reported even in patients who underwent cryopreservation and did not receive hCG. GnRH triggering induces a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH surge, similar to natural cycles. Its possible benefits have been investigated and dual triggering, GnRHa trigger accompanied by a simultaneous low-dose hCG injection, has produced promising results that urge further exploration. Last of all, GnRHa triggering is useful in fertility preservation cycles in patients with hormone sensitive tumors. In conclusion, GnRHa triggering

  15. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol--the protocol of choice for the polycystic ovary syndrome patient undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Homburg, Roy; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients are prone to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a condition which can be minimized or completely eliminated by the use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger. In this commentary paper, we maintain that the gonadotropin-...... ongoing pregnancy rates in the subsequent frozen-thawed transfer cycles....

  16. Double insemination and gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment of repeat-breeding dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Call, E P; Scoby, R K; Phatak, A P

    1990-07-01

    Our objective was to determine if double inseminations during the same estrous period of dairy cattle eligible for their third or fourth service (repeat breeders) would improve pregnancy rates equivalent to injections of GnRH given at the time of AI. Repeat-breeding, lactating cows from six herds (five herds in the San Joaquin Valley of central California and one herd in northeast Kansas) were assigned randomly to four treatment groups when detected in estrus: 1) single AI plus no injection, 2) single AI plus 100 micrograms GnRH at AI, 3) double AI plus no injection, or 4) double AI plus 100 micrograms of GnRH at AI. Inseminations were performed according to the a.m.-p.m. rule. The second AI for the double AI treatment was given 12 to 16 h after the first AI. Injections of GnRH were given intramuscularly immediately following the single AI or the first AI of the double AI. Pregnancy rates of cows given a single AI and hormone injection were numerically higher in all six herds than those of their herdmates given only a single AI. In five of six herds, the pregnancy rates of cows given a double AI and hormone injection were numerically higher than pregnancy rates of their herdmates given only a double AI. Overall pregnancy rates for the four treatments were 1) 112/353 (32.1%), 2) 165/406 (41.6%), 3) 119/364 (33.5%), and 4) 135/359 (37.5%). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone increased pregnancy rates of repeat breeders compared with controls given only a single AI. No further benefit beyond the single AI was accrued from the double AI treatment, with or without concurrent hormone administration.

  17. Nonreproductive role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the control of ascidian metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Chisato; Ohta, Naoyuki; Ogura, Yosuke; Yoshida, Keita; Horie, Takeo; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Satake, Honoo; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2014-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) are neuropeptides that play central roles in the reproduction of vertebrates. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, GnRHs and their receptors are expressed in the nervous systems at the larval stage, when animals are not yet capable of reproduction, suggesting that the hormones have non-reproductive roles. We showed that GnRHs in Ciona are involved in the animal's metamorphosis by regulating tail absorption and adult organ growth. Absorption of the larval tail and growth of the adult organs are two major events in the metamorphosis of ascidians. When larvae were treated with GnRHs, they completed tail absorption more frequently than control larvae. cAMP was suggested to be a second messenger for the induction of tail absorption by GnRHs. tGnRH-3 and tGnRH-5 (the "t" indicates "tunicate") inhibited the growth of adult organs by arresting cell cycle progression in parallel with the promotion of tail absorption. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis conducted by non-reproductive GnRHs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. alpha-difluoromethylornithine modifies gonadotropin-releasing hormone release and follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in the immature female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, S M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C

    1997-06-01

    Polyamines play an essential role in tissue growth and differentiation, in body weight increment, in brain organization, and in the molecular mechanisms of hormonal action, intracellular signaling, and cell-to-cell communication. In a previous study, inhibition of their synthesis by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, during development in female rats, was followed by prolonged high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) serum level and a delayed puberty onset. Those changes were relatively independent of body mass and did not impair posterior fertility. The present work studies the mechanisms and site of action of polyamine participation in FSH secretion during development. DFMO was injected in female rats between Days 1 and 9 on alternate days. At 10 days of age, hypothalami from control and DFMO rats were perifused in vitro, and basal and potassium-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release were measured. The response to membrane depolarization was altered in DFMO hypothalami. Increased GnRH release in response to a low K+ concentration was evidenced. Adenohypophyses of the same treated prepubertal rats were perifused in vitro and the response to GnRH pulses was checked. In DFMO-treated rats, higher FSH release was observed, with no changes in LH or PRL secretion. Finally, pituitary GnRH receptor number in adenohypophyseal membranes from treated and control groups was quantified. A significant reduction in specific binding was evident in hypophyses from DFMO-treated rats when compared with binding in the control group. In summary, DFMO treatment in a critical developmental period in the female rat impacts the immature GnRH neuronal network and immature gonadotropes. A delay in maturation is evidenced by a higher sensitivity to secretagogs in both pituitary glands and hypothalamic explants. These events could explain the prolonged high FSH serum levels and delayed puberty onset seen in

  20. Association of luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene polymorphism (rs2293275) with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society-2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Genetic case-control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96-5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body-mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the etiology of PCOS.

  1. Acute gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment enhances extinction memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, L Y; Taha, M B; Cover, K K; Glynn, S S; Murillo, M; Lebron-Milad, K; Milad, M R

    2017-08-01

    Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known. In this study, we examined the acute effects of LEU on fear extinction, hypothesizing that increased T levels following a single administration of LEU will facilitate extinction recall by altering neuronal activity within the fear extinction circuitry. Two groups of naïve adult male rats underwent a 3-day fear conditioning, extinction, and recall experiment. The delayed group (n=15) received a single injection of vehicle or LEU (1.2mg/kg) 3weeks before behavioral testing. The acute group (n=25) received an injection one day after fear conditioning, 30min prior to extinction training. Following recall, the brains for all animals were collected for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were also collected and assayed for T levels. Acute administration of LEU increased serum T levels during extinction training and enhanced extinction recall 24h later. This enhanced extinction memory was correlated with increased c-fos activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala, which was not observed in the delayed group. These results suggest that the elevation in T induced by acute administration of LEU can influence extinction memory consolidation, perhaps through modification of neuronal activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala. This may be an important consideration in clinical applications of LEU and its effects on anxiety and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual effect of melatonin on gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-induced Ca(2+) signaling in neonatal rat gonadotropes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Vaněček, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2001), s. 262-269 ISSN 0028-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0213; GA ČR GA309/99/0215; GA AV ČR IAA5011103; GA AV ČR IAA5011105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : melatonin * gonadotropin-release hormone * calcium Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2001

  3. Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Wadas, B.C.; Hartshorn, C.A.; Aurand, E.R.; Palmer, J.S.; Roselli, C.E.; Noel, M.L.; Gore, A.C.; Veeramachaneni, D.N.R.; Tobet, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) neurons in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA) by postnatal week (PNW) 6. To further examine the disruption of GnRH neurons by fetal vinclozolin exposure, in the current study, pregnant rabbits were dosed orall...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE PITUITARY OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS-GARIEPINUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; Conn, P. M.; van't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were characterized using a radioligand prepared from a superactive analog of salmon GnRH (sGnRH), D-Arg(6)-Pro(9)-sGnRH-NEt (sGnRHa). Binding of(125)I-sGnRHa to catfish pituitary membrane fractions reached equilibrium after 2 h incubation at 4°C.

  5. Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L G; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L

    2009-01-15

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS.

  6. Necdin, a Prader–Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L.G.; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2009-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS. PMID:18930956

  7. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  8. Does Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists plus add-back therapy bring an aurora to orthodontic treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lingyong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obviously, long therapy time of orthodontic treatment and a number of its adverse effects, such as pain, root resorption, enamel demineralization, periodontal disease, are the main reasons of complaints from patients. It is the first thing for an orthodontist to shorten the period of treatment and decrease the complications of orthodontic treatment as much as possible. The Hypothesis: We hypothesis Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists (GnRHa and add-back therapy can create the "therapeutic window", namely, the appropriate estrogen level and assuage the adverse effects of estrogen deficiency which should be avoided as much as possible. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: It is generally acknowledged that estrogen has direct regulating role in bone metabolism by acting on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Estrogen deficiency can increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and also bring about some adverse effects. The appropriate estrogen level, which we call the "therapeutic window" in orthodontic treatment, can speed up the orthodontic tooth movement and eliminate the adverse effects as far as possible. GnRHa can be the maker of estrogen deficiency; meanwhile, add-back therapy can remove the adverse effects by estrogen deficiency. So, we believe that GnRHa plus add-back therapy could be a new adjuvant method of orthodontic treatment and be good for orthodontists and patients.

  9. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Modulates Vomeronasal Neuron Response to Male Salamander Pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Wirsig-Wiechmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies have shown that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH modifies chemosensory neurons responses to odors. We have previously demonstrated that male Plethodon shermani pheromone stimulates vomeronasal neurons in the female conspecific. In the present study we used agmatine uptake as a relative measure of the effects of GnRH on this pheromone-induced neural activation of vomeronasal neurons. Whole male pheromone extract containing 3 millimolar agmatine with or without 10 micromolar GnRH was applied to the nasolabial groove of female salamanders for 45 minutes. Immunocytochemical procedures were conducted to visualize and quantify relative agmatine uptake as measured by labeling density of activated vomeronasal neurons. The relative number of labeled neurons did not differ between the two groups: pheromone alone or pheromone-GnRH. However, vomeronasal neurons exposed to pheromone-GnRH collectively demonstrated higher labeling intensity, as a percentage above background (75% as compared with neurons exposed to pheromone alone (63%, P < 0.018. Since the labeling intensity of agmatine within neurons signifies the relative activity levels of the neurons, these results suggest that GnRH increases the response of female vomeronasal neurons to male pheromone.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the adult and fetal human olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Patel, L; Tobet, S A; King, J C; Rubin, B S; Stopa, E G

    1999-05-01

    Studies in fetal brain tissue of rodents, nonhuman primates and birds have demonstrated that cells containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) migrate from the olfactory placode across the nasal septum into the forebrain. The purpose of this study was to examine GnRH neurons in components of the adult and fetal human olfactory system. In the adult human brain (n=4), immunoreactive GnRH was evident within diffusely scattered cell bodies and processes in the olfactory bulb, olfactory nerve, olfactory cortex, and nervus terminalis located on the anterior surface of the gyrus rectus. GnRH-immunoreactive structures showed a similar distribution in 20-week human fetal brains (n=2), indicating that the migration of GnRH neurons is complete at this time. In 10-11-week fetal brains (n=2), more cells were noted in the nasal cavity than in the brain. Our data are consistent with observations made in other species, confirming olfactory derivation and migration of GnRH neurons into the brain from the olfactory placode. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Chitosan-based DNA delivery vector targeted to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthum, Chatwalee; Namdee, Katawut; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Saengkrit, Nattika; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Ponglowhapan, Suppawiwat; Yata, Teerapong

    2017-02-10

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the application of modified chitosan as a potential vector for gene delivery to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR)-expressing cells. Such design of gene carrier could be useful in particular for gene therapy for cancers related to the reproductive system, gene disorders of sexual development, and contraception and fertility control. In this study, a decapeptide GnRH was successfully conjugated to chitosan (CS) as confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The synthesized GnRH-conjugated chitosan (GnRH-CS) was able to condense DNA to form positively charged nanoparticles and specifically deliver plasmid DNA to targeted cells in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures systems. Importantly, GnRH-CS exhibited higher transfection activity compared to unmodified CS. In conclusion, GnRH-conjugated chitosan can be a promising carrier for targeted DNA delivery to GnRHR-expressing cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  13. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone

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    Mo Kyung Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThere is controversy surrounding the growth outcomes of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa in central precocious puberty (CPP. We analyzed height preservation after treatment with GnRHa with and without growth hormone (GH in girls with CPP.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 82 girls with idiopathic CPP who had been treated with GnRHa at Severance Children's Hospital from 2004 to 2014. We assessed the changes in height standard deviation score (SDS for bone age (BA, and compared adult height (AH with midparental height (MPH and predicted adult height (PAH during treatment in groups received GnRHa alone (n=59 or GnRHa plus GH (n=23.ResultsIn the GnRHa alone group, the height SDS for BA was increased during treatment. AH (160.4±4.23 cm was significantly higher than the initial PAH (156.6±3.96 cm (P<0.001, and it was similar to the MPH (159.9±3.52 cm. In the GnRHa plus GH group, the height SDS for BA was also increased during treatment. AH (159.3±5.33 cm was also higher than the initial PAH (154.6±2.55 cm (P<0.001, which was similar to the MPH (158.1±3.31 cm. Height gain was slightly higher than that in the GnRHa alone group, however it statistically showed no significant correlation with GH treatment.ConclusionIn CPP girls treated with GnRHa, the height SDS for BA was increased, and the AH was higher than the initial PAH. Combined GH treatment showed a limited increase in height gain.

  14. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole.

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    François Chauvigné

    Full Text Available Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1 of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh and luteinizing (rLh hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole's natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species.

  15. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterer, J.; Barnes, K.M.; Lichter, A.S.; Deluca, A.M.; Loriaux, D.L.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion

  16. Clinical and hormonal effects of chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingold, K; De Ziegler, D; Cedars, M; Meldrum, D R; Lu, J K; Judd, H L; Chang, R J

    1987-10-01

    Previously, we reported that short term administration of a highly potent GnRH agonist (GnRHa) for 1 month to patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCO) resulted in complete suppression of ovarian steroidogenesis without measurable effects on adrenal steroid production. This new study was designed to evaluate the effects of long term GnRHa administration in PCO patients with respect to their hormone secretion patterns and clinical responses. Eight PCO patients and 10 ovulatory women with endometriosis were treated daily with sc injections of [D-His6-(imBzl]),Pro9-NEt]GnRH (GnRHa; 100 micrograms) for 6 months. Their results were compared to hormone values in 8 women who had undergone bilateral oophorectomies. In response to GnRHa, PCO and ovulatory women had rises of serum LH at 1 month, after which it gradually declined to baseline. In both groups FSH secretion was suppressed throughout treatment. Serum estradiol, estrone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone levels markedly decreased to values found in oophorectomized women by 1 month and remained low thereafter. In contrast, serum pregnenolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were partially suppressed, and dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol levels did not change. Clinically, hyperplastic endometrial histology in three PCO patients reverted to an inactive pattern, and proliferative endometrium in two other PCO patients became inactive in one and did not change in the other. Regression of proliferative endometrial histology occurred in all ovulatory women. Vaginal bleeding occurred in all women studied during the first month of GnRHa administration, after which all but one PCO patient became amenorrheic. Hot flashes were noted by all ovulatory women and by four of eight PCO patients. All PCO patients noted subjective reduction of skin oiliness, and five had decreased hair growth. We conclude that in premenopausal women: 1) chronic Gn

  17. Combination growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog therapy in 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Kabra, Madhulika; Menon, P S N

    2006-06-01

    Diagnosis of 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency was made in a boy at the age of 2 1/2 years on the basis of peripheral precocious puberty, growth acceleration (height standard deviation score +4.4) with advanced skeletal maturation (bone age 8.4 years) and elevated deoxycortisol levels. Glucocorticoid supplementation led to normalization of blood pressure but was associated with progression to central precocious puberty and increase in bone age resulting in decrease in predicted adult height to 133.7 cm (target height 163 cm). The child was started on GnRH analog (triptorelin 3.75 mg every 28 days), which led to improvement in predicted adult height by 3.1 cm over 15 months. Addition of growth hormone (0.1 IU/kg/day) resulted in improvement in predicted adult height (151 cm) and height deficit (12 cm) over the next 3.6 years. Final height (151 cm) exceeded predicted height at the initiation of GnRH analog treatment by 17.3 cm. This report suggests that combination GH and GnRH analog treatment may be useful in improving height outcome in children with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency and compromised final height.

  18. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of LβT2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature αT3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA. PMID:15128600

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates expression of the DNA damage repair gene, Fanconi anemia A, in pituitary gonadotroph cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-09-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse L beta T2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of L beta T2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature alpha T3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA.

  20. Fresh versus frozen embryo transfer after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cycles among high responder women: A randomized, multi-center study

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    Abbas Aflatoonian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of embryo cryopreservation excludes the possible detrimental effects of ovarian stimulation on the endometrium, and higher reproductive outcomes following this policy have been reported. Moreover, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist cycles as a substitute for standard human chorionic gonadotropin trigger, minimizes the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in fresh as well as frozen embryo transfer cycles (FET. Objective: To compare the reproductive outcomes and risk of OHSS in fresh vs frozen embryo transfer in high responder patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization triggered with a bolus of GnRH agonist. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, multi-centre study, 121 women undergoing FET and 119 women undergoing fresh ET were investigated as regards clinical pregnancy as the primary outcome and the chemical pregnancy, live birth, OHSS development, and perinatal data as secondary outcomes. Results: There were no significant differences between FET and fresh groups regarding chemical (46.4% vs. 40.2%, p=0.352, clinical (35.8% vs. 38.3%, p=0.699, and ongoing (30.3% vs. 32.7%, p=0.700 pregnancy rates, also live birth (30.3% vs. 29.9%, p=0.953, perinatal outcomes, and OHSS development (35.6% vs. 42.9%, p=0.337. No woman developed severe OHSS and no one required admission to hospital. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GnRHa trigger followed by fresh transfer with modified luteal phase support in terms of a small human chorionic gonadotropin bolus is a good strategy to secure good live birth rates and a low risk of clinically relevant OHSS development in in vitro fertilization patients at risk of OHSS.

  1. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

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    Maryam Maleki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris(TT is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This studyinvestigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent toshow its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats intofour groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersolublemorphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after whichthe treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25% orally for fourweeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of allrats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained werestatistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukeytest. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH levelthan the control group (p<0.027. LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addictedgroup (p<0.031. The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lowerthan the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosteronelevel (p<0.001. The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002 lower in the addictedgroup than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference betweenthe treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048. The treated controlgroup had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002. Overall, except forfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins andsexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05 in the hormonesin the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in

  2. Neuroanatomical organization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the oestrus cycle in the ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batailler, Martine; Caraty, Alain; Malpaux, Benoît; Tillet, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Background During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase). The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. Results The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons being observed in close contact) were more numerous during the late follicular phase (43 ± 7) than during the luteal phase (25 ± 6), and the percentage of clusters was higher during the beginning of the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. There was no difference in the number of labelled neurons in each group. Conclusions These results indicate that the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons in ewes is modified during the follicular phase. This transitory re-organization may contribute to the putative synchronization of these neurons during the surge. The molecular signal inducing this plasticity has not yet been identified, but oestradiol might play an important role, since in sheep it is the only signal which initiates the GnRH preovulatory surge. PMID:15555074

  3. Neuroanatomical organization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the oestrus cycle in the ewe

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    Malpaux Benoît

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase. The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. Results The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons being observed in close contact were more numerous during the late follicular phase (43 ± 7 than during the luteal phase (25 ± 6, and the percentage of clusters was higher during the beginning of the follicular phase than during the luteal phase. There was no difference in the number of labelled neurons in each group. Conclusions These results indicate that the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons in ewes is modified during the follicular phase. This transitory re-organization may contribute to the putative synchronization of these neurons during the surge. The molecular signal inducing this plasticity has not yet been identified, but oestradiol might play an important role, since in sheep it is the only signal which initiates the GnRH preovulatory surge.

  4. The lower expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingzhu; Zhu, Jing; Ling, Yang; Shi, Wenping; Zhang, Changsong; Wu, Haorong

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been demonstrated in a number of malignancies. The aim is to investigate the expression of GnRHR and prognosis in gastric cancer. Methods and materials: GnRHR mRNA was examined in tumor and non-tumor tissues from 48 gastric cancer patients by Real-time PCR. The GnRHR protein expression was performed by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The expression of GnRHR mRNA was higher (mean ± SD, -10.06 ± 1.28) in gastric tumor tissues than matched non-tumor tissues (mean ± SD, -12.43 ± 1.33). GnRHR mRNA expression was associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. We found the decreased expression of GnRHR mRNA were significantly correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.003). Immunocytochemical staining of GnRHR in tumor tissues showed mainly weak staining (43.48%, 10/23) and moderate staining (21.74%, 5/23) in high GnRHR mRNA patients, and mainly negative staining in low GnRHR mRNA patients. And the staining of GnRHR was not detection in tumor tissues for more than half of gastric patients (52.08%, 25/48). These results implied that the loss of GnRHR protein could be a main event in gastric cancer. Conclusion: The GnRHR expression is very low in gastric cancer, and the loss of GnRHR expression could be a poor prognostic factor, which implied that GnRHR could play an important role in the development of gastric cancer. PMID:26550267

  5. Differential Gene Expression in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons of Male and Metestrous Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastagh, Csaba; Rodolosse, Annie; Solymosi, Norbert; Farkas, Imre; Auer, Herbert; Sárvári, Miklós; Liposits, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a pivotal role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in a sex-specific manner. We hypothesized that the differences seen in reproductive functions of males and females are associated with a sexually dimorphic gene expression profile of GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact metestrous female and male GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. About 1,500 individual GnRH neurons from each sex were sampled with laser capture microdissection followed by whole-transcriptome amplification for gene expression profiling. Under stringent selection criteria (fold change >1.6, adjusted p value 0.01), Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 PM array analysis identified 543 differentially expressed genes. Sexual dimorphism was most apparent in gene clusters associated with synaptic communication, signal transduction, cell adhesion, vesicular transport and cell metabolism. To validate microarray results, 57 genes were selected, and 91% of their differential expression was confirmed by real-time PCR. Similarly, 88% of microarray results were confirmed with PCR from independent samples obtained by patch pipette harvesting and pooling of 30 GnRH neurons from each sex. We found significant differences in the expression of genes involved in vesicle priming and docking (Syt1, Cplx1), GABAergic (Gabra3, Gabrb3, Gabrg2) and glutamatergic (Gria1, Grin1, Slc17a6) neurotransmission, peptide signaling (Sstr3, Npr2, Cxcr4) and the regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis (Cacna1, Cacnb1, Cacng5, Kcnq2, Kcnc1). The striking sexual dimorphism of the GnRH neuron transcriptome we report here contributes to a better understanding of the differences in cellular mechanisms of GnRH neurons in the two sexes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 suppresses food intake in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

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    Ryo eNishiguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His5 Trp7 Tyr8]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior in goldfish. However, the influence of GnRH2 on feeding behavior in other fish has not yet been studied. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the role of GnRH2 in the regulation of feeding behavior in a zebrafish model, and examined its involvement in food intake after intracerebroventricular (ICV administration. ICV injection of GnRH2 at 0.1 and 1 pmol/g body weight (BW induced a marked decrease of food consumption in a dose-dependent manner during 30 min after feeding. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of GnRH2 at 1 pmol/g BW during the 30-min post-treatment observation period. The anorexigenic action of GnRH2 was completely blocked by treatment with the GnRH type I receptor antagonist Antide at 50 pmol/g BW. We also examined the effect of feeding condition on the expression level of the GnRH2 transcript in the hypothalamus. Levels of GnRH2 mRNA obtained from fish that had been provided excess food for 7 days were higher than those in fish that had been fed normally. These results suggest that, in zebrafish, GnRH2 acts as an anorexigenic factor, as is the case in goldfish.

  7. Fanconi Anemia a Is a Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Molecule Required for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Transduction of the GnRH Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common α- and hormone-specific β-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LβT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60%...

  8. Features of natural and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced corpus luteum regression and effects of in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Canto, Felipe; Sierralta, Walter; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2007-11-01

    The natural process of luteolysis and luteal regression is induced by withdrawal of gonadotropin support. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the functional changes and apoptotic features of natural human luteal regression and induced luteal regression; 2) to define the ultrastructural characteristics of the corpus luteum at the time of natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression; and 3) to examine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the steroidogenic response and apoptotic markers within the regressing corpus luteum. Twenty-three women with normal menstrual cycles undergoing tubal ligation donated corpus luteum at specific stages in the luteal phase. Some women received a GnRH antagonist prior to collection of corpus luteum, others received an injection of hCG with or without prior treatment with a GnRH antagonist. Main outcome measures were plasma hormone levels and analysis of excised luteal tissue for markers of apoptosis, histology, and ultrastructure. The progesterone and estradiol levels, corpus luteum DNA, and protein contents in induced luteal regression resembled those of natural luteal regression. hCG treatment raised progesterone and estradiol in both natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression. The increase in apoptosis detected in induced luteal regression by cytochrome c in the cytosol, activated caspase-3, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, was similar to that observed in natural luteal regression. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly lower during natural luteal regression. The proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were at a constant level. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic death of luteal cells was observed in natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression at the ultrastructural level. hCG prevented apoptotic cell death, but not autophagy. The low number of apoptotic cells disclosed and the frequent autophagocytic suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in cell death at luteal

  9. Adjuvant Growth Hormone for Ovulation Induction with Gonadotropins in the Treatment of a Woman with Hypopituitarism

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    Ariadne Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the prestimulation use of adjuvant GH for gonadotropin ovulation induction in a woman with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency who previously failed to respond. Design, Patients, and Measurements. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman presented with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency after failing ovulation induction with high dose gonadotropins. A trial of GH was undertaken for 5 months prior to ovulation induction resulting in normalization of IGF-I levels. Results. Women with hypopituitarism are known to have lower pregnancy rates after ovulation induction with need for higher doses of gonadotropins. A small subset of these patients do not ovulate. This patient had successful ovulation induction and pregnancy with prestimulation GH. Conclusions. This case suggests that the use of adjuvant GH in a GH-deficient patient several months before the use of human menopausal gonadotropin results in ovulation and pregnancy.

  10. Suplementasi Hormon Gonadotropin Pada Medium Maturasi In Vitro Untuk Meningkatkan Perkembangan Embrio Stadium 4 Sel Kambing Bligon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Pranatasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of gonadotropin hormone supplementation into in vitro maturation medium on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of Bligon goats. This research steps consist of oocyte collection, in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro embryo development. At the maturation stage the oocyte that had been collected and divided into two groups based on the maturation medium, that was tissue culture medium (TCM with supplementation of GnRH 0 IU/mL and GnRH 25 IU/mL. Oocyte and embryo morphology data were analyzed descriptively. Maturation rate and embryo development data were analyzed by using independent sample t-test. Fertilization data was analyzed descriptively. The result showed the percentages of mature oocytes from gonadotropin supplementation of 0 IU/mL and 25 IU/mL were 54.10±25.97 and 54.89±26.44%, respectively. Expansion cumulus cells surrounding the oocytes might indicated the mature oocytes. Cleavage rate of the 2 cells stage were 13,02±11,09 and 27,01±16,65%; respectively, and for the 4 cells stage were 10,16±10,01% and 16,67±14.91%. Embryos obtained from the treatment, indicated uniform of blastomeres in the size, tight, compact, intact, and round-spherical shape. It could be concluded that supplementation of gonadotropin hormone into in vitro maturation medium could not increase the rate of oocyte maturation and 4 cell embryo development, but it could increase 2 cell embryo development of Bligon goats. Hormone supplementation could improved the maturation and embryo quality.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone for infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Toward a more-interventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesrouani, A; Abdallah, M A; Attieh, E; Abboud, J; Atallah, D; Makhoul, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a protocol of pulsatile gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) in treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Retrospective analysis of 44 cycles treated at an infertility center. Twenty-four patients with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea were treated intravenously with pulsatile GnRH using 5 micrograms per bolus every 90 minutes. Ultrasound monitoring and cervical assessment by Insler's scoring system allowed timed injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and intrauterine insemination if needed. Luteal support was provided with hCG. The ovulation rate was 95% with the 5-microgram dose. A single follicle was produced in 91% of cycles. The overall pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle was 45%, and the pregnancy rate per patient was 83%. In patients treated previously with exogenous gonadotropins, poor results were observed. Only one case of mild overstimulation was reported. Pulsatile GnRH is an effective and safe method of treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea, thus simulating normal ovulation; however, more-interventional management, including the qualitative estrogenic response, may lead to optimal results and increase the pregnancy rate.

  12. Semi-quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the localization and neuropeptide content of gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals in the median eminence throughout the estrous cycle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, V; Dutoit, S; Croix, D; Tramu, G; Beauvillain, J C

    1998-05-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of gonadotropin releasing hormone-immunoreactive elements was studied in the external zone of the median eminence of adult female Wistar rats. On the one hand, the purpose of the study was to determine the distribution of gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals towards the parenchymatous basal lamina at the level of hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels, throughout the estrous cycle. On the other hand, we have semi-quantified the gonadotropin releasing hormone content in nerve terminals or preterminals during this physiological condition. A morphometric study was coupled to a colloidal 15 mn gold postembedding immunocytochemistry procedure. Animals were killed at 09.00 on diestrus II, 0.900, 10.00, 13.00, 17.00 and 18.00 on proestrus and 09.00 on estrus (n = 4-8 rats/group). A preliminary light microscopic study was carried out to identify an antero-posterior part of median eminence strongly immunostained by anti-gonadotropin releasing hormone antibodies but which was, in addition, easily spotted. This last condition was necessary to make a good comparison between each animal. Contacts between gonadotropin releasing hormone nerve terminals and the basal lamina were observed only the day of proestrus. Such contacts, however, were rare and in the great majority of cases, gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals are separated from basal lamina by tanycytic end feet. The morphometric analysis showed no significant variation in average distance between gonadotropin releasing hormone terminals and capillaries throughout the estrous cycle. Consequently, it did not appear that a large neuroglial plasticity exists during the estrous cycle. However, the observation of contacts only on proestrus together with some ultrastructural images evoke the possibility of a slight plasticity. The semi-quantitative results show that the content of gonadotropin releasing hormone in the nerve endings presented two peaks on proestrus: one at 09.00 (23 +/- 5

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel gonadotropin-releasing-hormone receptor isolated from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takahashi, Toshio; Satake, Honoo; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates through interaction with a specific receptor. Previously, we isolated a GnRH homo-logue, oct-GnRH, from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). In the present study, we have identified a GnRH receptor (oct-GnRHR) specific for oct-GnRH from Octopus brain. Oct-GnRHR includes domains and motifs typical of vertebrate GnRH receptors. The intron-inserted positions are conserved between oct-GnR...

  14. Effect of stage of development and sex on gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in in vitro hypothalamic perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; González Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G; Thyssen-Cano, S; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1998-04-01

    Marked sexual and ontogenic differences have been described in gonadotropin regulation in the rat. These could arise from events occurring both at the hypothalamic or hypophyseal levels. The present experiments were designed to evaluate the capacity of the hypothalamus in releasing GnRH in vitro, basally and in response to depolarization with KCl, during ontogeny in the rat. To that end we chose two well-defined developmental ages that differ markedly in sexual and ontogenic characteristics of gonadotropin regulation, 15 and 30 days. We compared GnRH release from hypothalami of females, neonatal androgenized females and males. Mediobasal hypothalami were perifused in vitro, and GnRH measured in the effluent. Basal secretion of the decapeptide increased with age in the three groups with no sexual differences encountered. When studying GnRH release induced by membrane depolarization, no differences within sex or age were encountered. On the other hand FSH serum levels decreased with age in females and increased in males, and in neonatal androgenized females followed a similar pattern to that of females. LH levels were higher in infantile females than in age-matched males or androgenized females. Such patterns of gonadotropin release were therefore not correlated to either basal or K+-induced GnRH release from the hypothalamus. We conclude that sexual and ontogenic differences in gonadotropin secretion in the developing rat are not dependent on the intrinsic capability of the hypothalamus to release GnRH in response to membrane depolarization. The hormonal differences observed during development and between sexes are probably related to differences in the sensitivity of the GnRH neuron to specific secretagogue and neurotransmitter regulation, and/or to differences in hypophyseal GnRH receptors and gonadotrope sensitivity.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone radioimmunoassay and its measurement in normal human plasma, secondary amenorrhea, and postmenopausal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, N.G.; Schlaff, S.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been developed for measurement in ethanol extracts of human plasma. Iodinated hormone was prepared with the use of the chloramine-T method, and antibodies were developed in rabbits over a six-month period with a GnRH synthetic copolymer immunogen. A Scatchard plot revealed at least three species of antibody. The assay can measure conservatively at the 5 pg. per milliliter level and shows no cross-reactivity with other available hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. The releasing hormone was quantitatively recovered from human plasma with immunologic identity to native hormone. Unextracted plasma could not be used because of nonspecific displacement. The measurement of GnRH in individuals receiving 100 μg of intravenous bolus infusions of the synthetic decapeptide show extremely elevated values with two half-lives: one of two to four minutes and another of 35 to 40 minutes. In our experiments, we have found measurable GnRH in patients with secondary amenorrhea and at the midcycle in normal women. In the normal cycling woman during the follicular and luteal phases, GnRH was undetectable. In postmenopausal women with extreme hypoestrogenism and markedly elevated luteinizing hormone values, GnRH was also undetectable. No bursts of GnRH could be detected in normal men when sampled every ten minutes over a two-hour period and every two hours throughout the day

  16. Neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in seasonally breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eUbuka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally breeding birds detect environmental signals, such as light, temperature, food availability and presence of mates to time reproduction. Hypothalamic neurons integrate external and internal signals, and regulate reproduction by releasing neurohormones to the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland synthesizes and releases gonadotropins which in turn act on the gonads to stimulate gametogenesis and sex steroid secretion. Accordingly, how gonadotropin secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. A hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, activates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin synthesis and release. Another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release directly by acting on the pituitary gland or indirectly by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons. Therefore, the next step to understand seasonal reproduction is to investigate how the activities of GnRH and GnIH neurons in the hypothalamus and their receptors in the pituitary gland are regulated by external and internal signals. It is possible that locally-produced triiodothyronine resulting from the action of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase on thyroxine stimulates the release of gonadotropins, perhaps by action on GnRH neurons. The function of GnRH neurons is also regulated by transcription of the GnRH gene. Melatonin, a nocturnal hormone, stimulates the synthesis and release of GnIH and GnIH may therefore regulate a daily rhythm of gonadotropin secretion. GnIH may also temporally suppress gonadotropin secretion when environmental conditions are unfavorable. Environmental and social milieus fluctuate seasonally in the wild. Accordingly, complex interactions of various neuronal and hormonal systems need to be considered if we are to understand the mechanisms underlying seasonal reproduction.

  17. Induction of spermatogenesis and fertility in hypogonadotropic azoospermic men by intravenous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Z; Makler, A; Frisch, L; Brandes, J M

    1988-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently become a helpful tool in the medication of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Two azoospermic patients with HH who had previously been treated with hCG/hMG because of delayed puberty and each of whom had fathered a child after previous gonadotropin therapy were referred due to secondary failure of hCG/hMG treatment to induce spermatogenesis and fertility. A pulse study where blood was drawn every 15 minutes for LH, FSH and PRL RIAs was performed in each patient, and afterwards a bolus of i.v. GnRH was injected to assess gonadotropin responsiveness. A portable GnRH pump was connected to each patient so that it administered 5-20 micrograms of GnRH i.v. every 89 minutes. Spermatogenesis was first detected after 42 and 78 days respectively in the 2 treated HH men and 4 1/2 months from the start of treatment their wives became pregnant. No thrombophlebitis or other complications of the i.v. therapy occurred. In the case of the first patient, the semen was washed and concentrated and intra-uterine inseminations were carried out in an attempt to shorten the time needed to achieve fertility. The first pregnancy was successfully terminated at 38 weeks with the delivery of 2 heterozygotic normal male babies. The second pregnancy ended in spontaneous delivery of a healthy female. We conclude that i.v. pulsatile, intermittent GnRH administration is a safe, efficient and highly successful means of treating azoospermic men with HH.

  18. Pituitary Gonadotropins, Prolactin and Growth Hormone Differentially Regulate AQP1 Expression in the Porcine Ovarian Follicular Cells

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    Mariusz T. Skowronski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present in vitro study analyzed whether the hormones that affect the ovarian follicular steroidogenesis process also participate in the regulation of AQP1 mRNA and protein expression. Granulosa (Gc and theca cells (Tc of medium and large porcine ovarian follicles were exposed to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL and growth hormone (GH for 24 h in separated cells and co-cultures of these cells. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and volumetric analysis were then performed. Gonadotropins, PRL and GH had a stimulatory impact on AQP1 mRNA and protein expression in Gc and Tc of medium and large ovarian cells. Moreover, swelling assays, in response to a hypotonic environment, demonstrated the functional presence of AQPs in porcine Gc and Tc. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP1 protein was mainly localized in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, endosomes and cell membranes of Gc and Tc from medium and large follicles. It seems possible that AQP1 present in Gc and Tc cells may be implicated not only in the regulation of water homeostasis required for follicle development but also in cell proliferation and migration.

  19. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have

  20. Molecular Cloning, Genomic Organization and Developmental Regulation of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors from Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Søndergaard, Leif; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    1998-01-01

    After screening the data base of the BerkeleyDrosophilaGenome Project with a sequence coding for the transmembrane region of a G protein-coupled receptor, we found thatDrosophilamight contain a gene coding for a receptor that is structurally related to the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) re...

  1. Involvement of phospholipase C and intracellular calcium signaling in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulation of prolactin release from lactotrophs of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Weber, G M; Strom, C N

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a potent stimulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion in various vertebrates including the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The mechanism by which GnRH regulates lactotroph cell function is poorly understood. Using the advantageous characteristics of the teleost...

  2. Induction of puberty with human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone in adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, R; de Luis, D; Alonso, M; Lamas, A; Moreno, J C

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical and hormonal responses of adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in response to gonadotropin replacement with the use of long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy. Prospective clinical study. Clinical pediatric department providing tertiary care. Seven prepubertal males with isolated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.44+/-1.97 years and seven prepubertal males with panhypopituitarism-associated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 18.1+/-3.24 years were studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000-1,500 IU IM) and FSH (75-100 IU SC) were administered every alternate day of the week until the total induction of puberty and spermatogenesis was achieved. Serum testosterone levels, testicular volume, penis length, and sperm count were evaluated after the administration of hCG and FSH. All patients achieved normal sexual maturation and normal or nearly normal adult male levels of testosterone. The increase in testicular size was significant in both groups. Positive sperm production was assessed in four of five patients with isolated HH and in three of three patients with panhypopituitarism-associated HH. Long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy is effective in inducing puberty, increasing testicular volume, and stimulating spermatogenesis in adolescent males with isolated HH and panhypopituitarism-associated HH.

  3. The estrogen myth: potential use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadesus, Gemma; Garrett, Matthew R; Webber, Kate M; Hartzler, Anthony W; Atwood, Craig S; Perry, George; Bowen, Richard L; Smith, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Estrogen and other sex hormones have received a great deal of attention for their speculative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but at present a direct connection between estrogen and the pathogenesis of AD remains elusive and somewhat contradictory. For example, on one hand there is a large body of evidence suggesting that estrogen is neuroprotective and improves cognition, and that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at the onset of menopause reduces the risk of developing AD decades later. However, on the other hand, studies such as the Women's Health Initiative demonstrate that HRT initiated in elderly women increases the risk of dementia. While estrogen continues to be investigated, the disparity of findings involving HRT has led many researchers to examine other hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis such as luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone. In this review, we propose that LH, rather than estrogen, is the paramount player in the pathogenesis of AD. Notably, both men and women experience a 3- to 4-fold increase in LH with aging, and LH receptors are found throughout the brain following a regional pattern remarkably similar to those neuron populations affected in AD. With respect to disease, serum LH level is increased in women with AD relative to non-diseased controls, and levels of LH in the brain are also elevated in AD. Mechanistically, we propose that elevated levels of LH may be a fundamental instigator responsible for the aberrant reactivation of the cell cycle that is seen in AD. Based on these aforementioned aspects, clinical trials underway with leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist that ablates serum LH levels, hold great promise as a ready means of treatment in individuals afflicted with AD.

  4. An evolutionary scenario for gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone in chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, T; Ubuka, T; Tsutsui, K

    2015-06-01

    In 2000, we discovered a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotrophin release in quail and termed it gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). GnIH peptides have subsequently been identified in most representative species of gnathostomes. They all share a C-terminal LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif. GnIH can inhibit gonadotrophin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of GnRH neuroes, as well as by directly inhibiting pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in birds and mammals. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral function, we identified a GnIH precursor gene encoding GnIHs from the brain of sea lamprey, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. Lamprey GnIHs possess a C-terminal PQRFamide motif. In vivo administration of one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH in the hypothalamus and gonadotophin β mRNA in the pituitary. Thus, GnIH may have emerged in agnathans as a stimulatory neuropeptide that subsequently diverged to an inhibitory neuropeptide during the course of evolution from basal vertebrates to later-evolved vertebrates, such as birds and mammals. From a structural point of view, pain modulatory neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF, share a C-terminal PQRFamide motif. Because agnathans possess both GnIH and NPFF genes, the origin of GnIH and NPFF genes may date back before the emergence of agnathans. More recently, we identified a novel gene encoding RFamide peptides in the amphioxus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis indicated that this gene is closely related to the genes of GnIH and NPFF of vertebrates. The results suggest that the identified protochordate gene is similar to the common ancestor of GnIH and NPFF genes, indicating that the origin of GnIH and NPFF may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. The GnIH and NPFF genes may have diverged by whole-genome duplication during the course of vertebrate

  5. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  6. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  7. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine on ovarian cyclicity and uterine morphology of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Nancy C; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Murray, Suzan; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the successful use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine to suppress ovarian steroidogenic activity and to treat hemorrhage and anemia associated with reproductive tract pathology in a 59-year-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The Repro-BLOC GnRH vaccine was administered subcutaneously as a series of 4 boosters of increasing dose from 3 to 30 mg of recombinant ovalbumin-GnRH fusion protein given at variable intervals after initial vaccination with 3 mg protein. Efficacy was confirmed over a year after initial vaccination based on complete ovarian cycle suppression determined by serum progestagen analyses. Estrous cycle suppression was associated with a significant increase in GnRH antibody binding and subsequent decrease in serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tract documented a reduction in uterine size and vascularity after immunization. The hematocrit level normalized soon after the initial intrauterine hemorrhage, and no recurrence of anemia has been detected. No substantive adverse effects were associated with GnRH vaccination. The results indicate that GnRH vaccination in elephants shows potential for contraception and management of uterine pathology in older elephants.

  8. Degarelix: A Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor Blocker-Results from a 1-yr, Multicentre, Randomised, Phase 2 Dosage-Finding Study in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hendrik; Tombal, Bertrand; de la Rosette, Jean J.; Persson, Bo-Eric; Jensen, Jens-Kristian; Kold Olesen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Degarelix is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH receptor blocker) with immediate onset of action, suppressing gonadotropins, testosterone, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of initial doses of 200 mg or

  9. Enhancement of a robust arcuate GABAergic input to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in a model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aleisha M; Prescott, Mel; Marshall, Christopher J; Yip, Siew Hoong; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-01-13

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of female infertility, is associated with an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency, implicating abnormal steroid hormone feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. This study investigated whether modifications in the synaptically connected neuronal network of GnRH neurons could account for this pathology. The PCOS phenotype was induced in mice following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. Serial blood sampling confirmed that PNA elicits increased LH pulse frequency and impaired progesterone negative feedback in adult females, mimicking the neuroendocrine abnormalities of the clinical syndrome. Imaging of GnRH neurons revealed greater dendritic spine density that correlated with increased putative GABAergic but not glutamatergic inputs in PNA mice. Mapping of steroid hormone receptor expression revealed that PNA mice had 59% fewer progesterone receptor-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARN). To address whether increased GABA innervation to GnRH neurons originates in the ARN, a viral-mediated Cre-lox approach was taken to trace the projections of ARN GABA neurons in vivo. Remarkably, projections from ARN GABAergic neurons heavily contacted and even bundled with GnRH neuron dendrites, and the density of fibers apposing GnRH neurons was even greater in PNA mice (56%). Additionally, this ARN GABA population showed significantly less colocalization with progesterone receptor in PNA animals compared with controls. Together, these data describe a robust GABAergic circuit originating in the ARN that is enhanced in a model of PCOS and may underpin the neuroendocrine pathophysiology of the syndrome.

  10. Time- and dose-related effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and dopamine antagonist on reproduction in the Northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Maria; Weiler, Bradley; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates luteinizing hormone release to control ovulation and spermiation in vertebrates. Dopamine (DA) has a clear inhibitory role in the control of reproduction in numerous teleosts, and emerging evidence suggests that similar mechanisms may exist in amphibians. The interactions between GnRH and DA on spawning success and pituitary gene expression in the Northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) were therefore investigated. Frogs were injected during the natural breeding season with a GnRH agonist [GnRH-A; (Des-Gly 10 , D-Ala 6 , Pro-NHEt 9 )-LHRH; 0.1μg/g and 0.4μg/g] alone and in combination with the dopamine receptor D2 antagonist metoclopramide (MET; 5μg/g and 10μg/g). Injected animals were allowed to breed in outdoor mesocosms. Time to amplexus and oviposition were assessed, and egg mass release, incidences of amplexus, egg mass weight, total egg numbers and fertilization rates were measured. To examine gene expression, female pituitaries were sampled at 12, 24 and 36h following injection of GnRH-A (0.4μg/g) alone and in combination with MET (10μg/g). The mRNA levels of the genes lhb, fshb, gpha, drd2 and gnrhr1 were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA. Both GnRH-A doses increased amplexus, oviposition and fertilization alone. Co-injection of MET with GnRH-A did not further enhance spawning success. Injection of GnRH-A alone time-dependently increased expression of lhb, fshb, gpha and gnrhr1. The major effect of MET alone was to decrease expression of drd2. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of GnRH-A on lhb, gpha and gnrhr1 were potentiated by the co-injection of MET at 36h. At this time, expression of fshb was increased only in animals injected with both GnRH-A and MET. Spawning success was primarily driven by the actions of GnRH-A. The hypothesized inhibitory action of DA was supported by pituitary gene expression analysis. The results from this study provide a

  11. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  12. Effects of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum cells in a spheroid cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, A; Keck, C; Weber, H; Kissel, C; Pietrowski, D

    2005-09-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a highly vascularized, temporarily active endocrine gland and consists mainly of granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells (TCs), and endothelial cells (ECs). Its cyclic growth and development takes place under the influence of gonadotropic hormones. If pregnancy does occur, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) takes over the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) and, in contrast to LH, extends the functional life span of the CL. In this study, we investigated the effects of hCG and LH in a spheroidal cell culture model of CL development. Our data indicate that GCs secrete factors under the control of hCG that increase sprout formation of EC-spheroids. We demonstrate that the most prominent of these factors is VEGF-A. Furthermore, we found that both LH and hCG decrease sprout formation of GC-spheroids. After forming EC-GC coculture spheroids and consequently bringing GCs and ECs in close contact, sprouting increased under the influence of hCG, however not under LH. These experiments provide evidence for an hCG dependent functional switch in the GCs after coming in contact with ECs. Moreover, it demonstrates the considerably different effects of hCG and LH on GCs although their signaling is transmitted via the same receptor.

  13. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men

  14. Prepubertal Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Activity Is Altered by Sex, Age, and Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Eden A; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown. We hypothesized GnRH neurons are active before puberty and that this activity is sexually differentiated and altered by PNA. Dams were injected with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on days 16 to 18 post copulation to generate PNA mice. Action potential firing of GFP-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices from 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-week-old and adult mice was monitored. GnRH neurons were active at all ages tested. In control females, activity increased with age through 3 weeks, then decreased to adult levels. In contrast, activity did not change in PNA females and was reduced at 3 weeks. Activity was higher in control females than males from 2 to 3 weeks. PNA did not affect GnRH neuron firing rate in males at any age. Short-term action potential patterns were also affected by age and PNA treatment. GnRH neurons are thus typically more active during the prepubertal period than adulthood, and PNA reduces prepubertal activity in females. Prepubertal activity may play a role in establishing sexually differentiated neuronal networks upstream of GnRH neurons; androgen-induced changes during this time may contribute to the adult PNA, and possibly PCOS, phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  15. Factors that predict a positive response on gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwan Suh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rapid increase in the incidence of precocious puberty in Korea has clinical and social significance. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is required to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP, however this test is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify factors that can predict a positive response to the GnRH stimulation test.MethodsClinical and laboratory parameters, including basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and estradiol (E2, were measured in 540 girls with clinical signs of CPP.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-nine of 540 girls with suspected CPP had a peak serum LH level higher than 5 IU/L (the CPP group. The CPP group had advanced bone age (P<0.001, accelerated yearly growth rate (P<0.001, increased basal levels of LH (P=0.02, FSH (P<0.001, E2 (P=0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels (P<0.001 compared to the non-CPP group. In contrast, body weight (P<0.001 and body mass index (P<0.001 were lower in the CPP group. Although basal LH was significantly elevated in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group, there was considerable overlap between the 2 groups. Cutoff values of basal LH (0.22 IU/L detected CPP with 87.8% sensitivity and 20.9% specificity.ConclusionNo single parameter can predict a positive response on the GnRH stimulation test with both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, multiple factors should be considered in evaluation of sexual precocity when deciding the timing of the GnRH stimulation test.

  16. Changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene expression after an increase in carbon monoxide concentration in the cavernous sinus of male wild boar and pig crossbread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romerowicz-Misielak, M; Tabecka-Lonczynska, A; Koziol, K; Gilun, P; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S; Och, W; Koziorowski, M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that there are at least a few regulatory systems involved in photoperiodic synchronisation of reproductive activity, which starts with the retina and ends at the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator. Recently we have shown indicated that the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) released from the eye into the ophthalmic venous blood depends on the intensity of sunlight. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide in the ophthalmic venous blood may modulate reproductive activity, as measured by changes in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression. The animal model used was mature male swine crossbred from wild boars and domestic sows (n = 48). We conducted in vivo experiments to determine the effect of increased CO concentrations in the cavernous sinus of the mammalian perihypophyseal vascular complex on gene expression of GnRH and GnRH receptors as well as serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The experiments were performed during long photoperiod days near the summer solstice (second half of June) and short photoperiod days near the winter solstice (second half of December). These crossbred swine demonstrated a seasonally-dependent marked variation in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression and systemic LH levels in response to changes in CO concentration in ophthalmic venous blood. These results seem to confirm the hypothesis of humoral phototransduction as a mechanism for some of bright light's effects in animal chronobiology and the effect of CO on GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression.

  17. Sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III (GnRH3) neurons and hormonal sex reversal of male reproductive behavior in Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2011-10-01

    In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.

  18. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Wadsworth, H.L.; Chazenbalk, G.D.; Russo, D.; Seto, Pui; Rapoport, B.

    1991-01-01

    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction the authors constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The data obtained suggest that the carboxyl region of the extracellular domain (amino acid residues 261-418) and particularly the middle region (residues 171-260) play a role in signal transduction. The possibility is also raised of an interaction between the amino and carboxyl regions of the extracellular domain in the process of signal transduction. In summary, these studies suggest that the middle region and carboxyl half of the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor are involved in signal transduction and that the TSH-binding region is likely to span the entire extracellular domain, with multiple discontinuous contact sites

  19. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Marjory L.; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D.; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E.; Swan, Christo H.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development. PMID:15743757

  20. Developmental regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by the MSX and DLX homeodomain protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Marjory L; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E; Swan, Christo H; Rubenstein, John L R; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L

    2005-05-13

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development.

  1. The expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in ovaries and uterus cells of Iraqi and Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa kamil Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue

  2. Growth inhibition of tumor cells in vitro by using monoclonal antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory; Ge, Bixia

    2010-07-01

    As the continuation of a previous study, synthetic peptides corresponding to the extracellular domains of human gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor were used to generate additional monoclonal antibodies which were further characterized biochemically and immunologically. Among those identified to recognize GnRH receptor, monoclonal antibodies designated as GHR-103, GHR-106 and GHR-114 were found to exhibit high affinity (Kd L37), when cancer cells were incubated with GnRH or GHR-106. The widespread expressions of GnRH receptor in almost all of the studied human cancer cell lines were also demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot assay, as well as indirect immunofluorescence assay with either of these monoclonal antibodies as the primary antibody. In view of the longer half life of antibodies as compared to that of GnRH or its analogs, anti-GnRH receptor monoclonal antibodies in humanized forms could function as GnRH analogs and serve as an ideal candidate of anti-cancer drugs for therapeutic treatments of various cancers in humans as well as for fertility regulations.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist use in controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertunc, Devrim; Tok, Ekrem C; Savas, Aysun; Ozturk, Ilay; Dilek, Saffet

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effects of ganirelix on controlled ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination (COS/IUI) cycles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. An academic clinical research center. Women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility undergoing COS/IUI. Recombinant FSH therapy was started on day 3. In women assigned to the control group (n = 47), treatment was continued up to the day of hCG administration. In patients assigned to receive GnRH antagonist (n = 42), ganirelix was added when the leading follicle was > or =14 mm. Pregnancy rates, serum E(2), P, and LH levels, and follicle numbers at hCG day, prevalence of premature luteinization, and cost of stimulation. Serum E(2), P, and LH levels were significantly lower in the ganirelix group. Although premature luteinization and cycle cancellation was encountered less in the ganirelix group, the pregnancy rates per cycle were similar (15.4% vs. 10.7%). Patients would pay 6,153 dollars more for each pregnancy when using ganirelix. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist resulted in more monofollicular development, less premature luteinization, and less cycle cancellation in IUI cycles of patients with PCOS; however, the cost of stimulation increased without an improvement in pregnancy rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment on uterine leiomyomas based on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Katabuchi, H.; Okamura, H. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Kitano, Y.; Shimamura, T. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Amakusa Chuou General Hospital, Hondo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the simple assessment of signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images is predictive of the effect of hormonal treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Material and methods: The correlation between T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas and histologic findings was evaluated using 85 leiomyomas from 62 females who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy. We also correlated the pretreatment MR images features obtained in 110 women with 143 leiomyomas with the effect of GnRH analogue treatment. The size (length x width x depth) of the leiomyoma was evaluated before and at 6 months after treatment by ultrasound. Results: The proportion of leiomyoma cell fascicles and that of extracellular matrix affected signal intensities of uterine leiomyomas on T2-weighted MR images. The amount of extracellular matrix was predominant in hypointense leiomyomas on T2-weighted images, while diffuse intermediate signal leiomyomas were predominantly composed of leiomyoma cell fascicles. Marked degenerative changes were noted in leiomyomas with heterogenous hyperintensity. The homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas showed significant size reduction after treatment (size ratio; posttreatment volume/pretreatment volume 0.29{+-}0.11). The size ratio for the hypointense tumors was 0.82{+-}0.14, and 0.82{+-}0.18 for the heterogeneously hyperintense tumors. There was a significant difference in the response to treatment between the homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas and the hypointense or heterogeneously hyperintense leiomyomas (both p<0.01). Conclusion: Signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images depends on the amount of leiomyoma cell fascicles and extracellular matrix. Simple assessment of the MR signal intensity is useful in predicting the effect of GnRH analogue on uterine leiomyomas. (orig.)

  5. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  6. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel gonadotropin-releasing-hormone receptor isolated from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takahashi, Toshio; Satake, Honoo; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2006-04-01

    GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates through interaction with a specific receptor. Previously, we isolated a GnRH homologue, oct-GnRH, from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). In the present study, we have identified a GnRH receptor (oct-GnRHR) specific for oct-GnRH from Octopus brain. Oct-GnRHR includes domains and motifs typical of vertebrate GnRH receptors. The intron-inserted positions are conserved between oct-GnRHR and the chordate GnRHR genes. The oct-GnRHR expressed in Xenopus (South African clawed frog) oocytes was responsive to oct-GnRH, but not to any other HPLC fractions of the Octopus brain extract. These results show that oct-GnRHR is an authentic receptor for oct-GnRH. Southern blotting of reverse-transcription PCR products revealed that the oct-GnRHR mRNA was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in several peripheral tissues. In situ hybridization showed that oct-GnRHR mRNA was expressed in some regions involved in autonomic functions, feeding, memory and movement. Oct-GnRH was shown to induce steroidogenesis of testosterone, progesterone and 17beta-oestradiol in Octopus ovary and testis, where oct-GnRHR was abundantly expressed. These results suggest that oct-GnRH, like its vertebrate counterparts, acts as a multifunctional neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and hormone-like factor, both in Octopus central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and that both structure and functions of the GnRH family are, at least partially, evolutionarily conserved between octopuses and chordates.

  7. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel gonadotropin-releasing-hormone receptor isolated from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Takahashi, Toshio; Satake, Honoo; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates through interaction with a specific receptor. Previously, we isolated a GnRH homo-logue, oct-GnRH, from the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). In the present study, we have identified a GnRH receptor (oct-GnRHR) specific for oct-GnRH from Octopus brain. Oct-GnRHR includes domains and motifs typical of vertebrate GnRH receptors. The intron-inserted positions are conserved between oct-GnRHR and the chordate GnRHR genes. The oct-GnRHR expressed in Xenopus (South African clawed frog) oocytes was responsive to oct-GnRH, but not to any other HPLC fractions of the Octopus brain extract. These results show that oct-GnRHR is an authentic receptor for oct-GnRH. Southern blotting of reverse-transcription PCR products revealed that the oct-GnRHR mRNA was widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in several peripheral tissues. In situ hybridiz-ation showed that oct-GnRHR mRNA was expressed in some regions involved in autonomic functions, feeding, memory and movement. Oct-GnRH was shown to induce steroidogenesis of testosterone, progesterone and 17β-oestradiol in Octopus ovary and testis, where oct-GnRHR was abundantly expressed. These results suggest that oct-GnRH, like its vertebrate counterparts, acts as a multifunctional neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and hormone-like factor, both in Octopus central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and that both structure and functions of the GnRH family are, at least partially, evolutionarily conserved between octopuses and chordates. PMID:16367741

  8. Predicting the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment on uterine leiomyomas based on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Katabuchi, H.; Okamura, H.; Kitano, Y.; Shimamura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the simple assessment of signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images is predictive of the effect of hormonal treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Material and methods: The correlation between T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas and histologic findings was evaluated using 85 leiomyomas from 62 females who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy. We also correlated the pretreatment MR images features obtained in 110 women with 143 leiomyomas with the effect of GnRH analogue treatment. The size (length x width x depth) of the leiomyoma was evaluated before and at 6 months after treatment by ultrasound. Results: The proportion of leiomyoma cell fascicles and that of extracellular matrix affected signal intensities of uterine leiomyomas on T2-weighted MR images. The amount of extracellular matrix was predominant in hypointense leiomyomas on T2-weighted images, while diffuse intermediate signal leiomyomas were predominantly composed of leiomyoma cell fascicles. Marked degenerative changes were noted in leiomyomas with heterogenous hyperintensity. The homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas showed significant size reduction after treatment (size ratio; posttreatment volume/pretreatment volume 0.29±0.11). The size ratio for the hypointense tumors was 0.82±0.14, and 0.82±0.18 for the heterogeneously hyperintense tumors. There was a significant difference in the response to treatment between the homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas and the hypointense or heterogeneously hyperintense leiomyomas (both p<0.01). Conclusion: Signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images depends on the amount of leiomyoma cell fascicles and extracellular matrix. Simple assessment of the MR signal intensity is useful in predicting the effect of GnRH analogue on uterine leiomyomas. (orig.)

  9. Chromosomal localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene to human chromosome 4q13. 1-q21. 1 and mouse chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, U.B.; Dushkin, H.; Beier, D.R.; Chin, W.W. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Altherr, M.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1994-04-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor on the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes, where it serves to transduce signals from the extracellular ligand, the hypothalamic factor gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and to modulate the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The authors have localized the GRHR gene to the q13.1-q21.1 region of the human chromosome 4 using mapping panels of human/rodent somatic cell hybrids containing different human chromosomes or different regions of human chromosome 4. Furthermore, using linkage analysis of single-strand conformational polymorphisms, the murine GRHR gene was localized to mouse chromosome 5, linked to the endogenous retroviral marker Pmv-11. This is consistent with the evolutionary conservation of homology between these two regions, as has been previously suggested from comparative mapping of several other loci. The localization of the GRHR gene may be useful in the study of disorders of reproduction. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Evaluation of the association of vitamin D deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormone in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velija-Ašimi, Zelija

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the association of vitamin D (VD) deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormone in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of the total of 140 women, thirty obese and thirty nonobese, aged 20-40 years, were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were the women with normal level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, and those who had not received any medication or VD supplementation within the last 6 months. Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, fasting serum glucose, basal insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), oestrogen, total testosterone, dehidroepiandrostendion-sulphat (DHEA-S), androstendione, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were determined at follicular phase. Body mass index (BMI), weight, waist, lipids, and CRP were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.000). Meanwhile, insulin and HOMA-IR were also higher in the obese PCOS (p less than 0.000), and so was the fasting glucose (p=0.004). Furthermore, obese PCOS showed significantly higher level of LH (p=0.012), but lower level of progesterone (p=0.001) and androstendione (p=0.006) than in non-obese PCOS. In total 68% of PCOS women had VD deficiency but without significant difference among groups according to BMI. There was no association of VD deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormones except SHBG. Insulin resistance was a better independent risk factor for the presence of vitamin D deficiency than SHBG. The insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency significantly predicted the obesity risk in PCOS women.

  11. Aptamer based peptide enrichment for quantitative analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, S L; Cawley, A T; Cavicchioli, R; Suann, C J; Pickford, R; Raftery, M J

    2016-04-01

    Over recent years threats to racing have expanded to include naturally occurring biological molecules, such as peptides and proteins, and their synthetic analogues. Traditionally, antibodies have been used to enable detection of these compounds as they allow purification and concentration of the analyte of interest. The rapid expansion of peptide-based therapeutics necessitates a similarly rapid development of suitable antibodies or other means of enrichment. Potential alternative enrichment strategies include the use of aptamers, which offer the significant advantage of chemical synthesis once the nucleic acid sequence is known. A method was developed for the enrichment, detection and quantitation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in equine urine using aptamer-based enrichment and LC-MS/MS. The method achieved comparable limits of detection (1 pg/mL) and quantification (2.5 pg/mL) to previously published antibody-based enrichment methods. The intra- and inter-assay precision achieved was less than 10% at both 5 and 20 pg/mL, and displayed a working dynamic range of 2.5-100 pg/mL. Significant matrix enhancement (170 ± 8%) and low analytical recovery (29 ± 15%) was observed, although the use of an isotopically heavy labelled GnRH peptide, GnRH (Pro(13)C5,(15)N), as the internal standard provides compensation for these parameters. Within the current limits of detection GnRH was detectable up to 1h post administration in urine and identification of a urinary catabolite extended this detection window to 4h. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation we propose the use of aptamers as a viable alternative to antibodies in the enrichment of peptide targets from equine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

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    Wei Ling Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dexamethasone (DEX; a glucocorticoid receptor agonist exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behaviour in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1mg/kg or vehicle (VEH, water daily during gestation day 13-20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP-GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP-GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0 males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the post synaptic marker molecule, post-synaptic density 95 was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood.

  13. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of peripubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on brain development in sheep--a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Bruchhage, Muriel; Ropstad, Erik; Krogenæs, Anette; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Endestad, Tor; Westlye, Lars T; Madison, Cindee; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

    2013-10-01

    In many species sexual dimorphisms in brain structures and functions have been documented. In ovine model, we have previously demonstrated that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) action increased sex-differences of executive emotional behavior. The structural substrate of this behavioral alteration however is unknown. In this magnetic resonance image (MRI) study on the same animals, we investigated the effects of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the volume of total brain, hippocampus and amygdala. In total 41 brains (17 treated; 10 females and 7 males, and 24 controls; 11 females and 13 males) were included in the MRI study. Image acquisition was performed with 3-T MRI scanner. Segmentation of the amygdala and the hippocampus was done by manual tracing and total gray and white matter volumes were estimated by means of automated brain volume segmentation of the individual T2-weighted MRI volumes. Statistical comparisons were performed with general linear models. Highly significant GnRHa treatment effects were found on the volume of left and right amygdala, indicating larger amygdalae in treated animals. Significant sex differences were found for total gray matter and right amygdala, indicating larger volumes in male compared to female animals. Additionally, we observed a significant interaction between sex and treatment on left amygdala volume, indicating stronger effects of treatment in female compared to male animals. The effects of GnRHa treatment on amygdala volumes indicate that increasing GnRH concentration during puberty may have an important impact on normal brain development in mammals. These novel findings substantiate the need for further studies investigating potential neurobiological side effects of GnRHa treatment on the brains of young animals and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

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    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  16. Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, B.C.; Hartshorn, C.A.; Aurand, E.R.; Palmer, J.S.; Roselli, C.E.; Noel, M.L.; Gore, A.C.; Veeramachaneni, D.N.R.; Tobet, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) neurons in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA) by postnatal week (PNW) 6. To further examine the disruption of GnRH neurons by fetal vinclozolin exposure, in the current study, pregnant rabbits were dosed orally with vinclozolin, flutamide, or carrot paste vehicle for the last two weeks of gestation. Offspring were euthanized at birth (males and females), PNW6 (females), PNW26 (adult males), or PNW30 (adult females) of age. At birth and in adults, brains were sectioned and processed for immunoreactive GnRH. The numbers of immunoreactive GnRH neuronal perikarya were significantly decreased in vinclozolin-treated rabbits at birth and in adult littermates. By contrast, there was an increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the terminals in the region of the median eminence. Analysis of PNW6 female brains by radioimmunoassay (RIA) revealed a two-fold increase in GnRH peptide content in the mediobasal hypothalamus in vinclozolin-treated rabbits. This finding was complemented by immunofluorescence analyses that showed a 2.8-fold increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence of vinclozolin compared to vehicle-treated females at PNW30. However, there was no difference between treatment groups in the measures of reproduction that were evaluated: ejaculation latency, conception rates or litter size. These results indicate that subacute, prenatal vinclozolin treatment is sufficient to create perdurable alterations in the GnRH neuronal network that forms an important input into the reproductive axis. Finally, the effect of vinclozolin on the GnRH neuronal network was not comparable to that of flutamide, suggesting that vinclozolin was not acting through anti-androgenic mechanisms. PMID

  17. Increased Progesterone/Estradiol Ratio on the Day of hCG Administration Adversely Affects Success of In Vitro Fertilization–Embryo Transfer in Patients Stimulated with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist and Recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone

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    Yu-Che Ou

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Premature luteinization, defined as late follicular P/E2 ratio of > 1 in long GnRHa cycles with rFSH stimulation, adversely affected ovarian responses and clinical outcomes. It seems unrelated to preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH elevation and LH/hCG content of gonadotropins and could be associated with poor ovarian response and the presence of dysmature follicles. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:1 68-1 74

  18. Fertility status of Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with chemotherapy and adjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, M; Smardova, L; Janku, P; Crha, I; Zakova, J; Stourac, P; Jarkovsky, J; Mayer, J; Ventruba, P

    2015-08-01

    Aim of this prospective observational study was to analyze fertility status of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with different types of chemotherapy while receiving GnRH analogues to preserve ovarian function. Fertility status was assessed among 108 females in reproductive age treated by curative chemotherapy for freshly diagnosed HL between 2005 and 2010 in university-based tertiary fertility and oncology center. All patients received GnRH analogues during chemotherapy to preserve their ovarian function. Their reproductive functions were assessed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) measurement and pregnancy achievement. Ovarian function was determined separately in three groups with increasing gonadotoxicity of chemotherapy. One year following the treatment, normal ovarian function was found in 89 (82.4%) of patients. Two years after chemotherapy, 98 (90.7%) of patients retained their ovarian function, and 23 (21.3%) achieved clinical pregnancy during the follow-up period. Average FSH after chemotherapy was 11.6 ± 17.9 IU/l 1 year after the treatment resp. 9.0 ± 13.8 at the 2 years interval. There were significantly more patients with chemotherapy induced diminished ovarian reserve (chDOR) among the group receiving escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in comparison with the other types of treatment (58.1% vs. 87.9% resp. 95.5%). The rate of chDOR is significantly higher after EB poly-chemotherapy and there is no tendency for improvement in time. The 2 + 2 chemotherapy with GnRH-a required for more advanced HL retained ovarian function significantly better after 2 years. Another important advantage of GnRH-a co-treatment is the excellent control of patient's menstrual cycle.

  19. Comparison of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-antagonist protocol with microdose flare -up protocol in poor responders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Bülent; Duvan, Candan İltemir; Kaya, Cemil; Aytaç, Ruşen; Satıroğlu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    To determine the potential effect of the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/GnRH antagonist protocol versus the microdose GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The patients in the Agonist-Antagonist Group (n=41) were administered the ultrashort GnRH-agonist/ antagonist protocol, while the patients in the Microdose Group (n=41) were stimulated according to the microdose flare-up protocol. The mean number of mature oocytes retrieved was the primary outcome measure. Fertilization rate, implantation rate per embryo and clinical pregnancy rates were secondary outcome measures. There was no differenc between the mean number of mature oocytes retrieved in the two groups. There were also no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of peak serum E2 level, canceled cycles, endometrial thickness on hCG day, number of 2 pronucleus and number of embryos transferred. However, the total gonadotropin consumption and duration of stimulation were significantly higher with the Agonist-Antagonist Group compared with the Microdose Group. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar between the two groups. Despite the high dose of gonadotropin consumption and longer duration of stimulation with the ultrashort GnRH agonist/ antagonist protocol, it seems that the Agonist-Antagonist Protocol is not inferior to the microdose protocol in poor responders undergoing ICSI.

  20. Conservation of Three-Dimensional Helix-Loop-Helix Structure through the Vertebrate Lineage Reopens the Cold Case of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Associated Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela I. Pérez Sirkin; Daniela I. Pérez Sirkin; Anne-Gaëlle Lafont; Nédia Kamech; Gustavo M. Somoza; Paula G. Vissio; Paula G. Vissio; Sylvie Dufour

    2017-01-01

    GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) is the C-terminal portion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) preprohormone. Although it was reported in mammals that GAP may act as a prolactin-inhibiting factor and can be co-secreted with GnRH into the hypophyseal portal blood, GAP has been practically out of the research circuit for about 20 years. Comparative studies highlighted the low conservation of GAP primary amino acid sequences among vertebrates, contributing to consider that this peptide onl...

  1. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone to substitute equine chorionic gonadotropin in the synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes

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    Bianor Matias Cardoso Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in protocols for synchronization of ovulation in Santa Inês ewes was assessed. Ten females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 days; after this period sponges were withdrawn and the animals were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 300 UI eCG; Group 2 (n = 5: intramuscular injection of 0.5 mL d-cloprostenol and 20 mg FSH. Interval between sponge withdrawal and estrus beginning was 27.7 h and 35.9 h for eCG and FSH, respectively. Interval between sponge withdrawal and the end of estrus was 55.8 h for eCG treatment and 55.6 h for FSH treatment. Estrus length was 29.3 h and 19.6 h, for eCG and FSH treatments, respectively. The biggest follicle and the second in size measured 0.74 cm and 0.54 cm for eCG treatment, whereas for the FSH treatment they measured 0.73 and 0.50 cm. The interval between the beginning of estrus and ovulation was similar within all groups: 21.0 h for eCG treated ewes and 25.2 h for the ones treated with FSH. Ewes treated with eCG presented an interval of 47.5 h between sponge withdrawal and ovulation, while the ones treated with FSH presented a 61.1 h interval. Ovulation occurred 8.3 h before the end of estrus in the eCG group. On the other hand, ewes treated with FSH ovulated 5.5 h after the end of estrus. Estrus and ovulation were efficiently synchronized in Santa Inês ewes by using long-term progestogen protocol associated to the administration of 20 mg FSH, along with Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α at the moment of sponge withdrawal, thus substituting the use of eCG.

  3. Immunohistochemical evidence for the involvement of gonadotropin releasing hormone in neuroleptic and cataleptic effects of haloperidol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegade, Harshal A; Umathe, Sudhir N

    2016-04-01

    Blockade of dopamine D2 receptor by haloperidol is attributed for neuroleptic and cataleptic effects; and also for the release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. GnRH agonist is reported to exhibit similar behavioural effects as that of haloperidol, and pre-treatment with GnRH antagonist is shown to attenuate the effects of haloperidol, suggesting a possibility that GnRH might mediate the effects of haloperidol. To substantiate such possibility, the influence of haloperidol on GnRH immunoreactivity (GnRH-ir) in the brain was studied in vehicle/antide pre-treated mice by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Initially, an earlier reported antide-haloperidol interaction in rat was confirmed in mice, wherein haloperidol (250μg/kg, i.p.) exhibited suppression of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) on two-way shuttle box, and induced catalepsy in bar test; and pre-treatment with antide (50μg/kg, s.c., GnRH antagonist) attenuated both effects of haloperidol. Immunohistochemical study was carried out to identify GnRH-ir in the brain, isolated 1h after haloperidol treatment to mice pre-treated with vehicle/antide. The morphometric analysis of microphotographs of brain sections revealed that haloperidol treatment increased integrated density units of GnRH-ir in various regions of the limbic system. Considering basal GnRH-ir in vehicle treated group as 100%, the increase in GnRH-ir after haloperidol treatment was by 100.98% in the medial septum; 54.26% in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; 1152.85% in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus; 120.79% in the preoptic area-organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and 138.82% in the arcuate nucleus. Antide did not influence basal and haloperidol induced increase in GnRH-ir in any of the regions. As significant increase in GnRH-ir after haloperidol treatment was observed in such regions of the brain which are reported to directly or indirectly communicate with the hippocampus and basal

  4. Leptin Regulation of Gonadotrope Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors As a Metabolic Checkpoint and Gateway to Reproductive Competence

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    Angela K. Odle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipokine leptin signals the body’s nutritional status to the brain, and particularly, the hypothalamus. However, leptin receptors (LEPRs can be found all throughout the body and brain, including the pituitary. It is known that leptin is permissive for reproduction, and mice that cannot produce leptin (Lep/Lep are infertile. Many studies have pinpointed leptin’s regulation of reproduction to the hypothalamus. However, LEPRs exist at all levels of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. We have previously shown that deleting the signaling portion of the LEPR specifically in gonadotropes impairs fertility in female mice. Our recent studies have targeted this regulation to the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR expression. The hypotheses presented here are twofold: (1 cyclic regulation of pituitary GnRHR levels sets up a target metabolic checkpoint for control of the reproductive axis and (2 multiple checkpoints are required for the metabolic signaling that regulates the reproductive axis. Here, we emphasize and explore the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary with regard to the regulation of GnRHR. The original data we present strengthen these hypotheses and build on our previous studies. We show that we can cause infertility in 70% of female mice by deleting all isoforms of LEPR specifically in gonadotropes. Our findings implicate activin subunit (InhBa mRNA as a potential leptin target in gonadotropes. We further show gonadotrope-specific upregulation of GnRHR protein (but not mRNA levels following leptin stimulation. In order to try and understand this post-transcriptional regulation, we tested candidate miRNAs (identified with in silico analysis that may be binding the Gnrhr mRNA. We show significant upregulation of one of these miRNAs in our gonadotrope-Lepr-null females. The evidence provided here, combined with our previous work, lay the foundation for metabolically regulated post

  5. Milt-Egg Ratio in Artificial Fertilization of Pangasiid Catfish Injected by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Analog (GnRH-a and Domperidone Mixture

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    J. Subagja

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the level of gonadotropin hormone treatments combined with latency time to induce ovulation in Pangasius djambal was conducted in the Research Instalation of Germ Plasm, Cijeruk, Bogor. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of GnRH-a and domperidone mixture on the milt production and fertilization rates of Pangasius djambal, and to determine the optimal milt-egg ratio required for artificial fertilization. Different doses of hormone i.e: 0,3; 0,5 and 0,7 ml kg"1 body weight combined with latency time of 12, 24 and 48 h after inducing hormone were applied to increase milt-production. Milt dilution was 10"1, 10~2, 10"3, 10"4, 10"5, 10"6 and 10"7and evaluated for hatching rate and normality of larvae. The results showed that mean milt production was 4,3 ml/kg body weight, and there was interaction between hormone dose of 0,5 ml/kg of body weight and latency time 12 and 24 h that giving hatching rate of 77 to 83% ( p Key words : Fertilization, milt production, domperidone, Pangasius djambal   ABSTRAK Suatu studi penyuntikan hormon gonadotropin dengan perbedaan dosis dan waktu laten terhadap spesies Pangasius djambal telah dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Plasma Nutfah Air Tawar, Cijeruk, Bogor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hormon GnRH-a dan domperidon terhadap produktivitas semen ikan jantan dan viabilitasnya pada pembuahan buatan. Tujuan lainnya untuk menentukan perbandingan optimal antara jumlah spermatozoa dengan telur dalam fertilisasi buatan. Dosis hormon perlakuan untuk peningkatan produksi semen yaitu 0,3; 0,5 dan 0,7 ml.kg"1 bobot badan yang di kombinasikan dengan waktu inkubasi jantan 12, 24 dan 24 jam setelah penyuntikan hormon. Semen diencerkan mulai dari 10"', 10"2, 10"3, 10"4, 10~5, 10'6 dan 10"7, dan dilakukan pembuahan terhadap telur. Daya tetas dan abnormalitas larva dievaluasi. Hasil analisis menunjukan produksi semen rata-rata 4,3 ml/kg bobot badan, ada interaksi antara dosis hormon 0

  6. Influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and timing of insemination relative to estrus on pregnancy rates of dairy cattle at first service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, M O; Stevenson, J S; Scoby, R K; Folman, Y

    1990-06-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on pregnancy rates of dairy cattle at first services, when both the timing of hormone injection and insemination were altered relative to the onset of estrus. Cows (n = 325) were assigned randomly to six groups making up a 2 X 2 X 2 incomplete factorial experiment; dose of GnRH (100 micrograms versus saline), timing [1 h (early) or 12 to 16 h (late) after first detected estrus] of AI, and timing of hormone injection (early versus late) were the three main effects. Cows were observed for estrus 4 times daily. Treatments and resulting pregnancy rates were: 1) hormone injection early plus AI early (35%), 2) hormone injection late plus AI early (34%), 3) saline injection early plus AI early (30%), 4) hormone injection late plus AI late (30%), 5) hormone injection early plus AI late (46%), and 6) saline injection late plus AI late (43%). Pregnancy rate in the first four groups (32%) was less than that in the latter two groups (44%). Concentrations of LH in serum were greater for cows given hormone or saline injections in early estrus than for cows injected with either hormone of saline during late estrus. Concentrations of LH in serum 2 h after GnRH were elevated above those of controls, whether GnRH was injected during early or late estrus. Neither concentrations of LH during estrus nor concentrations of progesterone 8 to 14 d after estrus explained the possible antifertility effect of GnRH given during late estrus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The use of equine chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of anestrous dairy cows in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/progesterone protocols of 6 or 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M A; Bó, G; Mapletoft, R J; Emslie, F R

    2013-01-01

    In seasonally calving, pasture-based dairy farm systems, the interval from calving to first estrus is a critical factor affecting reproductive efficiency. This study evaluated the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the reproductive response of lactating, seasonally calving dairy cows diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus by rectal palpation. Cows on 15 commercial dairy farms were selected for initial inclusion based on nonobserved estrus by 7 d before the planned start of mating. All cows were palpated rectally and evaluated for body condition score and ovary score, and were included for treatment according to the trial protocol if diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus. All cows received a standard anestrous treatment protocol consisting of insertion of a progesterone device, injection of 100 µg of GnRH at the time of device insertion, and injection of PGF(2α) at device removal (GPG/P4). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (6 d or 7 d) for duration of progesterone device insertion. Within each of these groups, cows were further randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU of eCG at device removal or to remain untreated as controls, resulting in a 2×2 arrangement of treatment groups: (1) 6-d device and no eCG (n=484); (2) 6-d device and eCG (n=462); (3) 7-d device and no eCG (n=546); and (4) 7-d device and eCG (n=499). Cows were detected for estrus from the time of progesterone device removal and were inseminated; those not detected in estrus within 60 h after progesterone device removal received 100 µg of GnRH and were inseminated at 72 h. The primary outcomes considered were proportion of cows conceiving within 7 d of the beginning of breeding (7-d conception rate; 7-d CR), proportion pregnant within 28 d (28-d in calf rate; 28-d ICR), and days to conception (DTC). We found no significant differences between the 6- and 7-d insertion periods and found no 6- or 7-d insertion period × eCG treatment interactions. Inclusion of eCG into either

  8. Anti-Muellerian hormone, inhibin A, gonadotropins, and gonadotropin receptors in bull calves after partial scrotal resection, orchidectomy, and Burdizzo castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlet, Dragos; Aurich, Christine; Ille, Natascha; Walter, Ingrid; Weber, Corinna; Pieler, Dagmar; Peinhopf, Walter; Wohlsein, Peter; Aurich, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Eight-week-old calves were either castrated by partial scrotal resection (SR) without removing the testes (n = 10), Burdizzo (BZ) clamp (n = 10), orchidectomy (OR; n = 10), or were left gonad intact as controls (CO; n = 10). Concentrations of anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH), inhibin A, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma were determined from 16 to 48 weeks of age. At 18 months, testes of SR, BZ, and CO bulls were obtained and the immunolocalization of LH and FSH receptors and AMH analyzed. Concentration of AMH in plasma of CO and SR bulls decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). A similar AMH profile in CO and SR indicates that SR did not induce a true cryptorchid state. In groups OR and BZ, AMH was undetectable. Plasma inhibin concentration was higher in groups CO and SR than BZ and OR (P < 0.001). Plasma LH and FSH concentrations decreased over time (P < 0.001) and were higher in groups BZ and OR than SR and CO (P < 0.001). In the testes, immunolabeling for AMH existed in Sertoli cells of CO and SR but not BZ bulls. FSH receptors were localized in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, spermatocytes, and the epididymis of CO and SR animals, whereas LH receptors were restricted to Leydig cells. In BZ animals, FSH and LH receptors and AMH were absent, indicating complete testicular degeneration. In conclusion, AMH is a more reliable marker for the presence of testicular tissue in bulls than inhibin. Scrotal resection did not induce a true inguinal cryptorchid state but affected testicular responsiveness to gonadotropic stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fanconi anemia A is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling molecule required for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) transduction of the GnRH receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-12-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common alpha- and hormone-specific beta-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LbetaT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60% of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, endocrine tissue cancer susceptibility, and infertility. Here we show that induction of FANCA protein is mediated by the GnRHR and that the protein constitutively adopts a nucleocytoplasmic intracellular distribution pattern. Using inhibitors to block nuclear import and export and a GnRHR antagonist, we demonstrated that GnRH induces nuclear accumulation of FANCA and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FANCA before exporting back to the cytoplasm using the nuclear export receptor CRM1. Using FANCA point mutations that locate GFP-FANCA to the cytoplasm (H1110P) or functionally uncouple GFP-FANCA (Q1128E) from the wild-type nucleocytoplasmic distribution pattern, we demonstrated that wild-type FANCA was required for GnRH-induced activation of gonadotrope cell markers. Cotransfection of H1110P and Q1128E blocked GnRH activation of the alphaGsu and GnRHR but not the beta-subunit gene promoters. We conclude that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FANCA is required for GnRH transduction of the alphaGSU and GnRHR gene promoters and propose that FANCA functions as a GnRH-induced signal transducer.

  10. Regulatory Architecture of the LβT2 Gonadotrope Cell Underlying the Response to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Ruf-Zamojski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The LβT2 mouse pituitary cell line has many characteristics of a mature gonadotrope and is a widely used model system for studying the developmental processes and the response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. The global epigenetic landscape, which contributes to cell-specific gene regulatory mechanisms, and the single-cell transcriptome response variation of LβT2 cells have not been previously investigated. Here, we integrate the transcriptome and genome-wide chromatin accessibility state of LβT2 cells during GnRH stimulation. In addition, we examine cell-to-cell variability in the transcriptional response to GnRH using Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq technology. Analysis of a bulk RNA-seq data set obtained 45 min after exposure to either GnRH or vehicle identified 112 transcripts that were regulated >4-fold by GnRH (FDR < 0.05. The top regulated transcripts constitute, as determined by Bayesian massive public data integration analysis, a human pituitary-relevant coordinated gene program. Chromatin accessibility [assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq] data sets generated from GnRH-treated LβT2 cells identified more than 58,000 open chromatin regions, some containing notches consistent with bound transcription factor footprints. The study of the most prominent open regions showed that 75% were in transcriptionally active promoters or introns, supporting their involvement in active transcription. Lhb, Cga, and Egr1 showed significantly open chromatin over their promoters. While Fshb was closed over its promoter, several discrete significantly open regions were found at −40 to −90 kb, which may represent novel upstream enhancers. Chromatin accessibility determined by ATAC-seq was associated with high levels of gene expression determined by RNA-seq. We obtained high-quality single-cell Gel bead-in-Emulsion Drop-seq transcriptome data, with an average of >4,000 expressed genes

  11. Stimulation of the young poor responder: comparison of the luteal estradiol/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist priming protocol versus oral contraceptive microdose leuprolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Shefali M; Barbieri, Elizabeth; Kligman, Isaac; Schoyer, Katherine D; Davis, Owen K; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcomes in young poor responders treated with a luteal estradiol/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (E(2)/ANT) protocol versus an oral contraceptive pill microdose leuprolide protocol (OCP-MDL). Retrospective cohort. Academic practice. Poor responders: 186 women, aged <35 years undergoing IVF with either E(2)/ANT or OCP-MDL protocols. None. Clinical pregnancies, oocytes retrieved, cancellation rate. Patients in the E(2)/ANT group had a greater gonadotropin requirement (71.9 ± 22.2 vs. 57.6 ± 25.7) and lower E(2) level (1,178.6 ± 668 vs. 1,627 ± 889), yet achieved similar numbers of oocytes retrieved and fertilized, and a greater number of embryos transferred (2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 2.0 ± 1.1) with a better mean grade (2.14 ± .06 vs. 2.7 ± 1.8) compared with the OCP/MDL group. The E2/ANT group exhibited a trend toward improved implantation rates (30.5% vs. 21.1%) and ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle: 44 out of 117 (37%) versus 17 out of 69 (25%). Poor responders aged <35 years may be treated with the aggressive E(2)/ANT protocol to improve cycle outcomes. Both protocols remain viable options for this group. Adequately powered, randomized clinical comparison appears justified. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chronic exposure to gamma radiation and of hormonal stimulation with serum gonadotropin on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenals of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects were studied of exposure to whole body continuous irradiation and of the administration of serum gonadotropin (SG) on the concentration of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenal glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized estrus. The first group (young barren ewes) and second group (older ewes) were exposed to continuous radiation of 60 Co for five days. The radiation was applied at a rate of 0.020 Gy per hour. After the termination of irradiation the ewes were subjected to hormonal stimulation by fractionated administration of 1500 I.U. SG. The third and fourth experimental groups of ewes were stimulated with 1500 I.U. SG without irradiation. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by adsorption chromatography and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Chronic exposure to gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation with SG reduced the concentration of norepinephrine in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of the adult ewes and in the rostral and caudal hypothalamus regions of the young ewes. A decrease in norepinephrine concentration, statistically significant in the caudal (P<0.01) and medial hypothalamus was recorded in the group of adult ewes after hormonal stimulation with SG without irradiation. The experimental group of young ewes responded to hormonal stimulation by a greater reduction of norepinephrine contents as compared with combined exposure to radiation and hormonal stimulation. It is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after hormonal stimulation with SG is associated with the increase in the contents of estrogens which act on the adrenergic receptors of the hypothalamus. (author). 4 figs., 21 refs

  13. Elevated mRNA-levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in plaque-bearing Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Nuruddin

    Full Text Available Research on Alzheimer's disease (AD has indicated an association between hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis and cognitive senescence, indicating that post meno-/andropausal changes in HPG axis hormones are implicated in the neuropathology of AD. Studies of transgenic mice with AD pathologies have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying AD. The aims of this study were to explore whether mRNA-levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh and its receptor (Gnrhr were changed in plaque-bearing Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice and to investigate whether these levels and amyloid plaque deposition were downregulated by treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (Gnrh-a; Leuprorelin acetate. The study was performed on mice carrying the Arctic and Swedish amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP mutations (tgArcSwe. At 12 months of age, female tgArcSwe mice showed a twofold higher level of Gnrh mRNA and more than 1.5 higher level of Gnrhr mRNA than age matched controls. Male tgArcSwe mice showed the same pattern of changes, albeit more pronounced. In both sexes, Gnrh-a treatment caused significant down-regulation of Gnrh and Gnrhr mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry combined with quantitative image analysis revealed no significant changes in the plaque load after Gnrh-a treatment in hippocampus and thalamus. However, plaque load in the cerebral cortex of treated females tended to be lower than in female vehicle-treated mice. The present study points to the involvement of hormonal changes in AD mice models and demonstrates that these changes can be effectively counteracted by pharmacological treatment. Although known to increase in normal aging, our study shows that Gnrh/Gnrhr mRNA expression increases much more dramatically in tgArcSwe mice. Treatment with Leuprorelin acetate successfully abolished the transgene specific effects on Gnrh/Gnrhr mRNA expression. The present experimental

  14. On the blood-brain barrier to peptides: [3H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J.; Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R.

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of [ 3 H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([ 3 H]GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g -1 of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of [ 3 H]GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated [ 3 H]OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of [ 3 H]GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for [ 3 H]GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated. (author)

  15. Biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in hypothalamic-pituitary unit of anoestrous and cyclic ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, M O; Łapot, M; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Przekop, F

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to explain how the molecular processes governing the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are reflected by luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in sheep during anoestrous period and during luteal and follicular phases of the oestrous cycle. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk-median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP). Radioimmunoassay has also been used to define changes in plasma LH concentrations. The study provides evidence that the levels of GnRH in the whole hypothalamus of anoestrous ewes were lower than that in sheep during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle (POA: p pituitary unit, as well as LH level, in the blood in anoestrous ewes were significantly lower than those detected in animals of both cyclic groups. Our data suggest that decrease in LH secretion during the long photoperiod in sheep may be due to low translational activity of genes encoding both GnRH and GnRHR.

  16. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  17. Extended high dose letrozole regimen versus short low dose letrozole regimen as an adjuvant to gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing IVF-ET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Usama M; Sayed, Ahmed M

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended high dose letrozole regimen/HPuFSH-gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) protocol with short low dose letrozole regimen/HPuFSH-GnRHant protocol in poor responders undergoing IVF-ET. In this randomized controlled trial, 136 women who responded poorly to GnRH agonist long protocol in their first IVF cycle were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated in the second IVF cycle by either extended letrozole regimen (5 mg/day during the first 5 days of cycle and 2.5 mg/day during the subsequent 3 days) combined with HPuFSH-GnRHant protocol or short letrozole regimen (2.5 mg/day from cycle day 3-7) combined with HPuFSH-GnRHant protocol. There were no significant differences between both groups with regard to number of oocytes retrieved and clinical pregnancy rate (5.39 ± 2.08 vs. 5.20 ± 1.88 and 22.06% vs. 16.18%, respectively).The total gonadotropins dose and medications cost per cycle were significantly lower in extended letrozole group (44.87 ± 9.16 vs. 59.97 ± 14.91 ampoules and 616.52 ± 94.97 vs. 746.84 ± 149.21 US Dollars ($), respectively).The cost-effectiveness ratio was 2794 $ in extended letrozole group and 4616 $ in short letrozole group. Extended letrozole regimen/HPuFSH-GnRHant protocol was more cost-effective than short letrozole regimen/HPuFSH-GnRHant protocol in poor responders undergoing IVF-ET.

  18. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation...... and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids...

  19. Microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist flare-up protocol versus multiple dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Korhan; Berker, Bulent; Atabekoglu, Cem Somer; Sonmezer, Murat; Cetinkaya, Esra; Aytac, Rusen; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2009-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of microdose GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) flare-up and multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocols in patients who have a poor response to a long luteal GnRH-a protocol. Prospective, randomized, clinical study. University hospital. Forty-two poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycle. Twenty-one patients received microdose leuprolide acetate (LA) (50 microg twice daily) starting on the second day of withdrawal bleeding. The other 21 patients received 0.25 mg of cetrorelix daily when the leading follicle reached 14 mm in diameter. Serum E(2) levels, number of growing follicles and mature oocytes, embryo quality, dose of gonadotropin used, cancellation, fertilization, implantation rate and pregnancy rate (PR). The mean serum E(2) concentration on the day of hCG administration was significantly higher in the microdose GnRH-a group than in the GnRH antagonist group (1,904 vs. 1,362 pg/mL). The clinical PRs per started cycle of microdose GnRH-a and GnRH antagonist groups were 14.2% and 9.5%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the other ovulation induction characteristics, fertilization and implantation rates. Microdose GnRH-a flare-up protocol and multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocol seem to have similar efficacy in improving treatment outcomes of poor responder patients.

  20. Food restriction-induced changes in gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone-immunoreactive cells are associated with sexual motivation and food hoarding, but not sexual performance and food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Klingerman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and these peptides function to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. Here, the putative orexigenic peptide, gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH, also known as RFamide-related peptide-3 and the putative anorectic hormones leptin, insulin and estradiol were examined during the course of food restriction. Groups of female Syrian hamsters were restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum for 4, 8, or 12 days. Two other groups were food restricted for 12 days and then re-fed ad libitum for 4 or 8 days. After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were immunohistochemically double-labeled for GnIH and the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, a marker of cellular activation. Food hoarding, the number of double-labeled cells, and the percent of GnIH-Ir cells labeled with Fos-Ir were significantly increased at 8 and 12 days after the start of food restriction. Vaginal scent marking and GnIH-Ir cell number significantly decreased after the same duration of restriction. Food hoarding, but not food intake, was significantly positively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. Vaginal scent marking was significantly negatively correlated with cellular activation in GnIH-Ir cells. There were no significant effects of food restriction on plasma insulin, leptin, estradiol, or progesterone concentrations. In the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH of energetically-challenged females, strong projections from NPY-Ir cells were found in close apposition to GnIH-Ir cells. Together these results are consistent with the idea that metabolic signals influence sexual and ingestive motivation via NPY fibers that project to GnIH cells in the DMH.

  1. Inhibitory effect of unlabeled iodothyronines on the deiodination of labeled thyroid hormones by cultured hepatocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorimachi, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of unlabeled iodothyronines on the metabolism of thyroxine (T 4 ), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T 3 , rT 3 ) were investigated in continuously cultured monkey hepatocarcinoma cells which showed a rapid metabolism of the thyroid hormones. Nonphenolic ring deiodination of [3',5'- 125 I]-T 4 and [3'- 125 I]-T 3 was strongly inhibited by excess T 3 , 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T 2 ) and T 4 , whereas rT 3 was the least effective inhibitor. Phenolic ring deiodination of [3',5'- 125 I]-rT 3 was strongly affected by excess unlabeled rT 3 . However, the inhibitory effect of T 4 , T 3 and 3,5-T 3 was much weaker than that of rT 3 . It was concluded that rT 3 is apparently the most effective inhibitor of phenolic ring deiodination but the least effective inhibitor of nonphenolic ring deiodination. (author)

  2. Inhibitory mechanism of influence of thyroid hormones on cognitive function of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodynsky A.G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In experiments on young rats there were stu¬died changes in the fatty acid spectrum of fraction of free fatty acids (FFA of neocortex and hippocampus in con¬ditions of thyroid dysfunction. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones caused accumulation of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids in the neocortex by 2 times, in the hippocampus – by 52%. State of hypo¬thyroidism also contributed to the increase of C18: 2,3 in the neocortex by 74.4%. Growth of share of unsaturated fatty acid fraction in the content of fatty acid spectrum of neocortex also was accompanied by decrease in saturated C16:0 and C21:0 by 25% and 36% res¬pectively. Increase of the level of unsaturated fatty acids fraction of the cerebral cortex is possibly associated with the decrease in "unsaturation" structure of lipids, which in its turn may enhance serotonergic synaptic activity. Research of concentration of neuromediator amino acids in neocortex showed increase of serotonin content both in conditions of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. In conditions of hyperthyroidism increased content of GABA was observed. Activity of serotonin- and GABA- ergic neurotransmitter systems of the brain in conditions of hyperthyroidism can be considered as increase of inhibitory processes in the effect of feedback. In conditions of experimental hypothyroidism activation of the inhibitory effects of CNS serotonergic system may be one of the ways to reduce the metabolism.

  3. Inhibitory effect of unlabeled iodothyronines on the deiodination of labeled thyroid hormones by cultured hepatocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorimachi, K [Dokkyo Univ. Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    Inhibitory effects of unlabeled iodothyronines on the metabolism of thyroxine (T/sub 4/), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/) were investigated in continuously cultured monkey hepatocarcinoma cells which showed a rapid metabolism of the thyroid hormones. Nonphenolic ring deiodination of (3',5'-/sup 125/I)-T/sub 4/ and (3'-/sup 125/I)-T/sub 3/ was strongly inhibited by excess T/sub 3/, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T/sub 2/) and T/sub 4/, whereas rT/sub 3/ was the least effective inhibitor. Phenolic ring deiodination of (3',5'-/sup 125/I)-rT/sub 3/ was strongly affected by excess unlabeled rT/sub 3/. However, the inhibitory effect of T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/ and 3,5-T/sub 3/ was much weaker than that of rT/sub 3/. It was concluded that rT/sub 3/ is apparently the most effective inhibitor of phenolic ring deiodination but the least effective inhibitor of nonphenolic ring deiodination.

  4. Chitosan-nanoconjugated hormone nanoparticles for sustained surge of gonadotropins and enhanced reproductive output in female fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Rather

    Full Text Available A controlled release delivery system helps to overcome the problem of short life of the leutinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH in blood and avoids use of multiple injections to enhance reproductive efficacy. Chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates of salmon LHRH of desired size, dispersity and zeta potential were synthesized and evaluated at half the dose rate against full dose of bare LHRH for their reproductive efficacy in the female fish, Cyprinus carpio. Whereas injections of both the nanoconjugates induced controlled and sustained surge of the hormones with peak (P<0.01 at 24 hrs, surge due to bare LHRH reached its peak at 7 hrs and either remained at plateau or sharply declined thereafter. While the percentage of relative total eggs produced by fish were 130 and 67 per cent higher, that of fertilised eggs were 171 and 88 per cent higher on chitosan- and chitosan-gold nanoconjugates than bare LHRH. Chitosan nanoconjugates had a 13 per cent higher and chitosan gold preparation had a 9 per cent higher fertilization rate than bare LHRH. Histology of the ovaries also attested the pronounced effect of nanoparticles on reproductive output. This is the first report on use of chitosan-conjugated nanodelivery of gonadotropic hormone in fish.

  5. Semen quality in men with disseminated testicular cancer : relation with human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit and pituitary gonadal hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Daphne; de Jong, Igle J.; Arts, Eugene G. J. M.; Nuver, Janine; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sluiter, Willem J.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Sleijfer, Dirk T.; Gietema, Jourik A.

    Objective: To compare the semen quality and hormonal status between patients with testicular cancer and normal versus increased serum levels of beta-hCG. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Academic research environment. Patient(s): All 203 patients with testicular cancer who required chemotherapy

  6. Resurgence of Minimal Stimulation In Vitro Fertilization with A Protocol Consisting of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Agonist Trigger and Vitrified-Thawed Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang John

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-IVF consists of a gentle controlled ovarian stimulation that aims to produce a maximum of five to six oocytes. There is a misbelief that mini-IVF severely compromises pregnancy and live birth rates. An appraisal of the literature pertaining to studies on mini-IVF protocols was performed. The advantages of minimal stimulation protocols are reported here with a focus on the use of clomiphene citrate (CC, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH ago- nist trigger for oocyte maturation, and freeze-all embryo strategy. Literature review and the author’s own center data suggest that minimal ovarian stimulation protocols with GnRH agonist trigger and freeze-all embryo strategy along with single embryo transfer produce a reasonable clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in both good and poor responders. Additionally, mini-IVF offers numerous advantages such as: i. Reduction in cost and stress with fewer office visits, needle sticks, and ultrasounds, and ii. Reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Mini-IVF is re-emerging as a solution for some of the problems associated with conventional IVF, such as OHSS, cost, and patient discomfort.

  7. Production of specific antisera for radioimmunoassay of human luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, J.I.; Jeppsson, S.; Holmstrom, B.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for LH, which measures plasma LH in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described. Rabbits were immunized with highly purified native LH. One of the antisera with a difference in its reactivity against LH and hCG was further purified by affinity chromatography on a column with hCG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The adsorbed antiserum and 125 I-LH was used in a double antibody assay. The LH standard (MRC/68/40) efficiently inhibited the binding of 125 I-LH, and the standard curve showed a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml in the sample. hCG up to 10,000 ng/ml did not inhibit the binding of 125 I-LH. The plasma level of LH in pregnant women in the first trimester was low (1.3 +- 0.1 ng/ml). When LH was measured in fertile or menopausal women with or without stimulation with LH/FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH)/sup x/ the results agreed to those found with our conventional LH-assay based on antiserum against hCG

  8. Does the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists in natural IVF cycles for poor responder patients cause more harm than benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Senai; Yakin, Kayhan; Seyhan, Ayse; Oktem, Ozgur; Alatas, Cengiz; Ata, Baris; Urman, Bulent

    2016-06-01

    Poor ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is one of the most critical factors that substantially limits the success of assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). Natural and modified natural cycle IVF are two options that could be considered as a last resort. Blocking gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) actions in the endometrium via GnRH receptor antagonism may have a negative impact on endometrial receptivity. We analysed IVF outcomes in 142 natural (n = 30) or modified natural (n = 112) IVF cycles performed in 82 women retrospectively. A significantly lower proportion of natural cycles reached follicular aspiration compared to modified natural cycles (56.7% vs. 85.7%, p cycles ending in embryo transfer (26.7% vs. 44.6%) was not statistically significant between natural cycle and modified natural IVF cycles. Clinical pregnancy (6.7% vs. 7.1%) and live birth rates per initiated cycle (6.7% vs. 5.4%) were similar between the two groups. Notably, the implantation rate was slightly lower in modified natural cycles (16% vs. 25%, p > 0.05). There was a trend towards higher clinical pregnancy (25% vs. 16%) and live birth (25% vs. 12%) rates per embryo transfer in natural cycles compared to modified natural cycles, but the differences did not reach statistical significance.

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Busby

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  10. Developmental programming: Impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Megan M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147 d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F 2α , just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  11. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histological organization of the central nervous system and distribution of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetan, Jirawat; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Chavadej, Jittipan; Hanna, Peter J; Parhar, Ishwar; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed histological description of the central nervous system (CNS: brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia) of the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus. Because the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in crustaceans has been disputed, we examine the presence and localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the blue crab by using antibodies against lamprey GnRH (lGnRH)-III, octopus GnRH (octGnRH) and tunicate GnRH (tGnRH)-I. These antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with red-pigment-concentrating hormone, adipokinetic hormone, or corazonin. In the brain, strong lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in small (7-17 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 8, 9 and 10, in medium-sized (21-36 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 6, 7 and 11 and in the anterior and posterior median protocerebral neuropils, olfactory neuropil, median and lateral antenna I neuropils, tegumentary neuropil and antenna II neuropil. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized neurons and in the subesophageal neuropil. In the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized and small neurons and in the neuropils. OctGnRH-ir was observed in neurons of the same clusters with moderate staining, particularly in the deutocerebrum, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was only detected in medium-sized neurons of cluster 11 in the brain. Thus, anti-lGnRH-III shows greater immunoreactivity in the crab CNS than anti-octGnRH and anti-tGnRH-I. Moreover, our functional bioassay demonstrates that only lGnRH-III has significant stimulatory effects on ovarian growth and maturation. We therefore conclude that, although the true identity of the crab GnRH eludes us, crabs possess a putative GnRH hormone similar to lGnRH-III. The identification and characterization of this molecule is part of our ongoing research.

  13. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  14. Body mass index and gonadotropin hormones (LH & FSH) associate with clinical symptoms among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Andarieh, Maryam Ghanbari; Ghadimi, Reza; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani

    2014-09-28

    To evaluate the relevance of body mass index (BMI), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH/FSH ratio with clinical symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. We reviewed the medical records of all women visited in the PCOS Clinic of Babol (Iran) from 2008 to 2012. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 175 PCOS women; aged 18-38 years diagnosed based on the Rotterdam criteria. Among the PCOs women, the prevalence of oligomenorrhea, acne, and hirsutism were found to be 92.0%, 31.4%, and 78.9%, respectively. Positive finding of polycystic ovaries was observed in 89.1% of PCOS women with by using sonography. A total of 69.2% overweight/obesity patients had polycystic ovary morphology on ultrasound image. Compared with non- overweight/obesity, the adjusted OR of PCOS women for sonographic view of polycystic ovaries was 4.33 (95% CI, 1.42-13.15, p=0.001), Nevertheless, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) showed no significant associations between LH, FSH, and LH/FSH ratio with clinical symptoms in these women. The findings of this study indicated that the overweight/obese women with PCOS are at an increased risk for sonographic view of polycystic ovaries. Therefore, it is suggested that successful weight loss is the most effective method of restoring ovulation, menstruation that should be used as major advice in obese PCOS patients.

  15. Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia inhibitory factor utilize insulin receptor substrate-2 in intracellular signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, L S; Norstedt, G; Billestrup, Nils

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) is tyrosyl-phosphorylated following stimulation of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts with growth hormone (GH), leukemia inhibitory factor and interferon-gamma. In response to GH and leukemia inhibitory factor, IRS-2 is immediately...... for GH is further demonstrated by the finding that GH stimulates association of IRS-2 with the 85-kDa regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and with the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. These results are consistent with the possibility that IRS-2 is a downstream signaling partner...

  16. Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woo Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeLong-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.MethodsThis retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.ResultsSix serious side effects (0.9% were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621. Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.ConclusionSterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

  17. Participation of the endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone thio-oxidoreductase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression at the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lucca-Junior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Chaperone members of the protein disulfide isomerase family can catalyze the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction with pairs of cysteines. There are 14 protein disulfide isomerase family members, but the ability to catalyze a thiol disulfide exchange reaction has not been demonstrated for all of them. Human endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone thio-oxidoreductase (ERp18 shows partial oxidative activity as a protein disulfide isomerase. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the participation of ERp18 in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR expression at the plasma membrane. Cos-7 cells were cultured, plated, and transfected with 25 ng (unless indicated wild-type human GnRHR (hGnRHR or mutant GnRHR (Cys14Ala and Cys200Ala and pcDNA3.1 without insert (empty vector or ERp18 cDNA (75 ng/well, pre-loaded for 18 h with 1 µCi myo-[2-3H(N]-inositol in 0.25 mL DMEM and treated for 2 h with buserelin. We observed a decrease in maximal inositol phosphate (IP production in response to buserelin in the cells co-transfected with hGnRHR, and a decrease from 20 to 75 ng of ERp18 compared with cells co-transfected with hGnRHR and empty vector. The decrease in maximal IP was proportional to the amount of ERp18 DNA over the range examined. Mutants (Cys14Ala and Cys200Ala that could not form the Cys14-Cys200 bridge essential for plasma membrane routing of the hGnRHR did not modify maximal IP production when they were co-transfected with ERp18. These results suggest that ERp18 has a reduction role on disulfide bonds in wild-type hGnRHR folding.

  18. Different gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist doses for the final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Goksan Pabuccu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Efficacy of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRH-a for ovulation in high-responders. Aims: The aim of the current study is to compare the impact of different GnRH-a doses for the final oocyte maturation on cycle outcomes and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS rates in high-responder patients undergoing ovarian stimulation. Settings And Designs: Electronic medical records of a private in vitro fertilization center, a retrospective analysis. Subjects and Methods: A total of 77 high-responder cases were detected receiving GnRH-a. Group I consisted of 38 patients who received 1 mg of agonist and Group II consisted of 39 patients who received 2 mg of agonist. Statistical Analysis: In order to compare groups, Student′s t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson′s Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test were used where appropriate. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Number of retrieved oocytes (17.5 vs. 15.0, P = 0.510, implantation rates (46% vs. 55.1%, P = 0.419 and clinical pregnancy rates (42.1% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.744 were similar among groups. There were no mild or severe OHSS cases detected in Group I. Only 1 mild OHSS case was detected in Group II. Conclusion: A volume of 1 or 2 mg leuprolide acetate yields similar outcomes when used for the final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients.

  19. Expression and distribution of octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the central nervous system and peripheral organs of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris) by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Takuwa-Kuroda, Kyoko; Kanda, Atshuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Minakata, Hiroyuki

    2004-09-20

    We recently purified a peptide with structural features similar to vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the brain of Octopus vulgaris, cloned a cDNA encoding the precursor protein, and named it oct-GnRH. In the current study, we investigated the expression and distribution of oct-GnRH throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral organs of Octopus by in situ hybridization on the basis of the cDNA sequence and by immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum against oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH mRNA-expressing cell bodies were located in 10 of 19 lobes in the supraesophageal and subesophageal parts of the CNS. Several oct-GnRH-like immunoreactive fibers were seen in all the neuropils of the CNS lobes. The sites of oct-GnRH mRNA expression and the mature peptide distribution were consistent with each other as judged by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In addition, many immunoreactive fibers were distributed in peripheral organs such as the heart, the oviduct, and the oviducal gland. Modulatory effects of oct-GnRH on the contractions of the heart and the oviduct were demonstrated. The results suggested that, in the context of reproduction, oct-GnRH is a key peptide in the subpedunculate lobe and/or posterior olfactory lobe-optic gland-gonadal axis, an octopus analogue of the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis. It may also act as a modulatory factor in controlling higher brain functions such as feeding, memory, movement, maturation, and autonomic functions

  20. Conservation of Three-Dimensional Helix-Loop-Helix Structure through the Vertebrate Lineage Reopens the Cold Case of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Associated Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sirkin, Daniela I; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Kamech, Nédia; Somoza, Gustavo M; Vissio, Paula G; Dufour, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) is the C-terminal portion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) preprohormone. Although it was reported in mammals that GAP may act as a prolactin-inhibiting factor and can be co-secreted with GnRH into the hypophyseal portal blood, GAP has been practically out of the research circuit for about 20 years. Comparative studies highlighted the low conservation of GAP primary amino acid sequences among vertebrates, contributing to consider that this peptide only participates in the folding or carrying process of GnRH. Considering that the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein may define its function, the aim of this study was to evaluate if GAP sequences and 3D structures are conserved in the vertebrate lineage. GAP sequences from various vertebrates were retrieved from databases. Analysis of primary amino acid sequence identity and similarity, molecular phylogeny, and prediction of 3D structures were performed. Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogeny analyses confirmed the large variation of GAP sequences throughout vertebrate radiation. In contrast, prediction of the 3D structure revealed a striking conservation of the 3D structure of GAP1 (GAP associated with the hypophysiotropic type 1 GnRH), despite low amino acid sequence conservation. This GAP1 peptide presented a typical helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure in all the vertebrate species analyzed. This HLH structure could also be predicted for GAP2 in some but not all vertebrate species and in none of the GAP3 analyzed. These results allowed us to infer that selective pressures have maintained GAP1 HLH structure throughout the vertebrate lineage. The conservation of the HLH motif, known to confer biological activity to various proteins, suggests that GAP1 peptides may exert some hypophysiotropic biological functions across vertebrate radiation.

  1. Conservation of Three-Dimensional Helix-Loop-Helix Structure through the Vertebrate Lineage Reopens the Cold Case of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Associated Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I. Pérez Sirkin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available GnRH-associated peptide (GAP is the C-terminal portion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH preprohormone. Although it was reported in mammals that GAP may act as a prolactin-inhibiting factor and can be co-secreted with GnRH into the hypophyseal portal blood, GAP has been practically out of the research circuit for about 20 years. Comparative studies highlighted the low conservation of GAP primary amino acid sequences among vertebrates, contributing to consider that this peptide only participates in the folding or carrying process of GnRH. Considering that the three-dimensional (3D structure of a protein may define its function, the aim of this study was to evaluate if GAP sequences and 3D structures are conserved in the vertebrate lineage. GAP sequences from various vertebrates were retrieved from databases. Analysis of primary amino acid sequence identity and similarity, molecular phylogeny, and prediction of 3D structures were performed. Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogeny analyses confirmed the large variation of GAP sequences throughout vertebrate radiation. In contrast, prediction of the 3D structure revealed a striking conservation of the 3D structure of GAP1 (GAP associated with the hypophysiotropic type 1 GnRH, despite low amino acid sequence conservation. This GAP1 peptide presented a typical helix-loop-helix (HLH structure in all the vertebrate species analyzed. This HLH structure could also be predicted for GAP2 in some but not all vertebrate species and in none of the GAP3 analyzed. These results allowed us to infer that selective pressures have maintained GAP1 HLH structure throughout the vertebrate lineage. The conservation of the HLH motif, known to confer biological activity to various proteins, suggests that GAP1 peptides may exert some hypophysiotropic biological functions across vertebrate radiation.

  2. Increase of antitumor activity of cisplatin using agonist of gonadotropin-realising hormone and inhibitor of aromatase on the model of ascites ovarian tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalia, I G; Vorobyova, L I; Grabovoy, A N; Svintsitsky, V S; Tarasova, T O; Lukyanova, N Y; Todor, I N; Chekhun, V F

    2014-09-01

    To study antitumor activity of triptorelin - agonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and exemestane - inhibitor of aromatase in monotherapy and in combination with cisplatin on the model of receptor-positive for estrogens and progesterone malignant ascites transplantable ovarian tumor (TOT), to assess therapeutic pathomorphosis and level of VEGF expression in tumor cells using diffe-rent combinations of cytostatics and hormonal drugs. 72 female Wistar rats, which underwent intraperitoneal transplantation of ascitic TOT, by 5·10(6) cells per animal, have been involved in the study. Rats were divided into 8 groups, 9 rats in each group. Histological study with assessment of therapeutic pathomorphosis in TOT and immunohistochemical study has been carried out. Survival of animals in the studied groups has been evaluated. Among animals treated in regimen of monotherapy, the most pronounced antiangiogenic activity in TOT has been observed on application of hormonal drugs (triptorelin - 39.4 ± 1.9 and exemestane - 33.9 ± 1.4%; р = 0.003), the highest grade of treatment pathomorphosis in TOT has been observed at treatment with cisplatin (11.7%; р = 0.001). Combination of triptorelin and exemestane has amplified antiangiogenic activity in TOT (12.2 ± 0.9%; р = 0.001), but has not significantly changed rates of pathomorphosis (22.1 ± 0.4%; р=0.005) and survival of animals (32.2%; р = 0.007) as compared with the same rates in rats treated with hormonal drugs in monotherapy. Significant correlation between VEGF expression and pathomorphosis has been established (relative part of viable tumor tissue (RPVTT)) in TOT (r = 0.712; р = 0.001), as well as between RPVTT and life-span of animals (r = -0.320; р = 0.007). However, lack of correlation between VEGF expression in cells of TOT and survival of rats has been determined (r = -0.194; р = 0.11). Combination of cytostatic agent with triptorelin or exemestane has demonstrated significantly high rates of therapeutic

  3. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2017-02-06

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range hyperthyroidism for more than 8 years, requiring 15 mg/day of thiamazole to correct. During that period, he tested negative on all first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, but thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse and increased uptake, and thyroid ultrasound and color flow Doppler imaging showed typical findings of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid

  4. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeGonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP; however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP.MethodsPatient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0–8.9 years with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI] were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment.ResultsNo statistical difference in BMI z-score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P<0.001. In normal-weight subjects in the patient group, BMI z-score was significantly increased during GnRHa treatment (−0.1±0.7 vs. 0.1±0.8, P<0.001, whereas HOMA-IR and QUICKI exhibited no differences. In overweight subjects in the patient group; BMI z-score and HOMA-IR were not significantly different, whereas QUICKI was significantly decreased during GnRHa treatment (0.35±0.03 vs. 0.33±0.02, P=0.044.ConclusionGirls with CPP exhibited increased insulin resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z-scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z-scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  5. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  6. Abrogation by human menopausal gonadotropin on testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer cells including testicular cancer. Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) is a natural hormone necessary for human reproduction. This hormone is a leading modality of treatment for infertility as it contains equal amount of ...

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activates GTPase RhoA and inhibits cell invasion in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Maya-Núñez, Guadalupe; Arechavaleta-Velásco, Fabián; Conn, P Michael; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor (GnRHR) are both expressed by a number of malignant tumors, including those of the breast. In the latter, both behave as potent inhibitors of invasion. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways whereby the activated GnRH/GnRHR system exerts this effect have not been clearly established. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that describes components of the mechanism(s) whereby GnRH inhibits breast cancer cell invasion. Actin polymerization and substrate adhesion was measured in the highly invasive cell line, MDA-MB-231 transiently expressing the wild-type or mutant DesK191 GnRHR by fluorometry, flow cytometric analysis, and confocal microscopy, in the absence or presence of GnRH agonist. The effect of RhoA-GTP on stress fiber formation and focal adhesion assembly was measured in MDA-MB-231 cells co-expressing the GnRHRs and the GAP domain of human p190Rho GAP-A or the dominant negative mutant GAP-Y1284D. Cell invasion was determined by the transwell migration assay. Agonist-stimulated activation of the wild-type GnRHR and the highly plasma membrane expressed mutant GnRHR-DesK191 transiently transfected to MDA-MB-231 cells, favored F-actin polymerization and substrate adhesion. Confocal imaging allowed detection of an association between F-actin levels and the increase in stress fibers promoted by exposure to GnRH. Pull-down assays showed that the effects observed on actin cytoskeleton resulted from GnRH-stimulated activation of RhoA GTPase. Activation of this small G protein favored the marked increase in both cell adhesion to Collagen-I and number of focal adhesion complexes leading to inhibition of the invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 cells as disclosed by assays in Transwell Chambers. We here show that GnRH inhibits invasion of highly invasive breast cancer-derived MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect is mediated through an increase in substrate adhesion promoted by activation of RhoA GTPase and formation of

  8. Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Lin, Meng-Chin A; Mock, Allan; Yang, Ming; Wayne, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene) is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r) are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while Kiss2 plays an

  9. Effects of kisspeptin1 on electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Wayne, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (product of the kiss1 gene) is the most potent known activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor are highly expressed in the hypothalamus of vertebrates, and low doses of kisspeptin have a robust and long-lasting stimulatory effect on the rate of action potential firing of hypophysiotropic gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) neurons in mice. Fish have multiple populations of GnRH neurons distinguished by their location in the brain and the GnRH gene that they express. GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulb are neuromodulatory and do not play a direct role in regulating pituitary-gonadal function. In medaka fish, the electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons is modulated by visual cues from conspecifics, and is thought to act as a transmitter of information from the external environment to the central nervous system. TN-GnRH3 neurons also play a role in sexual motivation and arousal states, making them an important population of neurons to study for understanding coordination of complex behaviors. We investigated the role of kisspeptin in regulating electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons in adult medaka. Using electrophysiology in an intact brain preparation, we show that a relatively brief treatment with 100 nM of kisspeptin had a long-lasting stimulatory effect on the electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of GnRH neurons. Dose-response analysis suggests a relatively narrow activational range of this neuropeptide. Further, blocking action potential firing with tetrodotoxin and blocking synaptic transmission with a low Ca(2+)/high Mg(2+) solution inhibited the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on electrical activity, indicating that kisspeptin is acting indirectly through synaptic regulation to excite TN-GnRH3 neurons. Our findings provide a new perspective on kisspeptin's broader functions within the central nervous system, through its

  10. Antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with lower body weight and autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Kerstin; Frid, Anders; Alm, Ragnar; Fredrikson, Gunilla Nordin; Sjöberg, Klas; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2013-08-17

    Esophageal dysmotility and gastroparesis are common secondary complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients with dysmotility express antibodies against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in serum. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize patients with diabetes mellitus with regard to the presence of GnRH antibodies, and to examine associations between antibodies and clinical findings. Thirty-nine consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus were included in the study after clinical examination and examination by esophageal manometry and gastric emptying scintigraphy. Serum was analyzed for the presence of antibodies against GnRH using an ELISA, and values are expressed as relative units (RU). Two age- and gender-matched healthy subjects per each patient served as controls. The prevalence of IgM GnRH antibodies in patients was 33% compared to 14% in controls (p = 0.027), with a higher antibody titer; 1.2 (0.6-5.0) and 0.2 (0.1-0.3) RU, respectively (p = 0.000). The expression of IgG antibodies was 15% in patients and none in controls (p = 0.000). Lower body mass index was associated with the presence of IgM antibodies (OR = 0.835, 95% CI = 0.699-0.998), and autonomic neuropathy with the presence IgG antibodies (OR = 9.000, 95% CI = 1.327-61.025). Esophageal dysmotility (69%) or gastroparesis (18%) were not associated with the presence of IgM antibodies (OR = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.143-2.424 and OR = 3.407, 95% CI = 0.633-18.350, respectively). Neither was esophageal dysmotility associated with IgG antibodies (OR = 2.500, 95% CI = 0.259-24.096). Antibodies against GnRH are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus compared with healthy controls. IgM antibodies are associated with lower body mass index and IgG antibodies are associated with autonomic neuropathy.

  11. Response of lactating dairy cows with or without purulent vaginal discharge to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prostaglandin F2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, B E; Rocha, L; Scortegagna, F; Stevenson, J S; Mendonça, L G D

    2018-02-15

    Purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) is a common uterine disease in dairy cattle that has negative effects on reproductive performance. Reproductive management programs that synchronize ovulation use gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce ovulation and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to induce luteolysis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ovarian response to treatment with GnRH and the odds of bearing a corpus luteum or being inseminated in dairy cows with or without PVD. Another objective was to determine the hazard of insemination after administration of PGF2α in dairy cows with or without PVD. Primiparous (n = 291) and multiparous (n = 402) cows were evaluated for PVD using a Metricheck device at 46 ± 3 and 35 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) (study day 0), respectively. On study day 14, primiparous (n = 107) and multiparous (n = 197) cows were treated with GnRH and subsequent ovulation was recorded. Primiparous (n = 178) and multiparous (n = 368) cows not inseminated by study day 21 were administered PGF2α and response to PGF2α treatment was determined by detection of estrus. Furthermore, cows were categorized by the presence of a CL or being inseminated by study days 14, 21, and 35. Overall prevalence of PVD was 28.5% and 13.4% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. Projected 305-d milk yield was less (P PVD+ multiparous cows compared with PVD- multiparous cows, however, no (P = 0.26) difference was detected between primiparous PVD+ and PVD- cows. Ovulatory response to GnRH treatment was 51.8% and 47.8% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. Primiparous PVD- cows tended (P = 0.06) to be less likely to ovulate to GnRH than primiparous PVD+ cows, whereas multiparous PVD+ cows were less (P = 0.04) likely to ovulate to GnRH than PVD- multiparous cows. The odds of bearing a corpus luteum or being inseminated by study days 14, 21, or 35 was not associated with PVD in primiparous cows. In contrast, the odds of bearing a corpus luteum

  12. Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhao

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while

  13. Central hypogonadism due to a giant, "silent" FSH-secreting, atypical pituitary adenoma: effects of adenoma dissection and short-term Leydig cell stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casarini, Livio; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Granata, Antonio R M; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells. Hypogonadism persisted and semen analyses impaired until azoospermia in conjunction with the reduction in FSH levels suggesting that, at least in part, this gonadotropin should be biologically active. Thus, we hypothesized a concomitant primary testicular insufficiency. The patient underwent short-term treatment trials with low doses of either recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in three consecutive treatment schemes, showing an equal efficacy in stimulating testosterone (T) increase. This is the first case of atypical, giant FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with high FSH serum levels without signs of testicular hyperstimulation, in presence of hypogonadism with plausible combined primary and secondary etiology. Hypophysectomized patients may represent a good model to assess both pharmacodynamics and effective dose of LH and hCG in the male.

  14. Ultrasound guided high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) ablating uterine leiomyoma with homogeneous hyperintensity on T2 weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shenghua; Kong, Fanjing; Hou, Ruijie; Rong, Fengmei; Ma, Nana; Li, Shaoping; Yang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa)-ablating symptomatic uterine leiomyoma with homogeneous hyperintensity on T 2 weighted MRI prospectively. A total of 34 patients with 42 symptomatic uterine leiomyomas with homogeneous hyperintensity on T 2 weighted MRI were enrolled in our study. In the patient who had multiple uterine leiomyomas, only one dominant leiomyoma was treated. According to the principles of voluntariness, 18 patients underwent a 3-month therapy of GnRHa (once a month) before the high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, while 16 patients received only HIFU treatment. Enhanced MRI was performed before and after GnRHa and HIFU treatment. Evaluation of the main indicators included treatment time, sonication time, treatment efficiency, non-perfused volume (NPV) (indicative of successful ablation) ratio and energy effect ratio; adverse events were also recorded. The treatment time and sonication time of the combination group were 102.0 min (55.8-152.2 min) and 25.4 min (12.2-34.1 min); however, they were 149.0 min (87.0-210.0 min) and 38.9 min (14.0-46.7 min) in the simple USgHIFU group. The treatment and sonication time for the combination group was significantly shorter than that for the simple USgHIFU group. Treatment efficiency, NPV ratio and energy effect ratio were 46.7 mm 3  s -1 (28.5-95.8 mm 3  s -1 ), 69.2 ± 29.8% (35.5-97.4%) and 9.9 KJ mm -3 (4.5-15.7 KJ mm -3 ) in the combination group, respectively; but, the lowest treatment efficiency, lowest NPV ratio and more energy effect ratio were observed in the simple HIFU group, which were 16.8 mm 3  s -1 (8.9-32.9 mm 3  s -1 ), 50.2 ± 27.3% (0-78.6%) and 23.8 KJ mm -3 (12.4-46.2 KJ mm -3 ), respectively. Pain scores in the combination group were 3.0 ± 0.5 points (2-4 points

  15. Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineni, S; Ocón-Grove, O M; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Hendricks, G L; Proudman, J A; Ramachandran, R

    2008-09-01

    Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance. GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the pituitaries of sexually immature chickens relative to sexually mature chickens. Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls. GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes. Furthermore, GnIHR-ir cells were found to be colocalised with luteinising hormone (LH)beta mRNA-, or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)beta mRNA-containing cells. GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens. Taken together, GnIHR gene expression is possibly down regulated in response to a surge in circulating oestradiol and progesterone levels as the chicken undergoes sexual maturation to allow gonadotrophin secretion. Furthermore, GnIHR protein expressed in FSHbeta or LHbeta mRNA-containing cells is likely to mediate the inhibitory effect of GnIH on LH and FSH secretion.

  16. Prenatal androgenization of female mice programs an increase in firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that is reversed by metformin treatment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2011-02-01

    Prenatal androgenization (PNA) of female mice with dihydrotestosterone programs reproductive dysfunction in adulthood, characterized by elevated luteinizing hormone levels, irregular estrous cycles, and central abnormalities. Here, we evaluated activity of GnRH neurons from PNA mice and the effects of in vivo treatment with metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is commonly used to treat the fertility disorder polycystic ovary syndrome. Estrous cycles were monitored in PNA and control mice before and after metformin administration. Before metformin, cycles were longer in PNA mice and percent time in estrus lower; metformin normalized cycles in PNA mice. Extracellular recordings were used to monitor GnRH neuron firing activity in brain slices from diestrous mice. Firing rate was higher and quiescence lower in GnRH neurons from PNA mice, demonstrating increased GnRH neuron activity. Metformin treatment of PNA mice restored firing activity and LH to control levels. To assess whether AMPK activation contributed to the metformin-induced reduction in GnRH neuron activity, the AMPK antagonist compound C was acutely applied to cells. Compound C stimulated cells from metformin-treated, but not untreated, mice, suggesting that AMPK was activated in GnRH neurons, or afferent neurons, in the former group. GnRH neurons from metformin-treated mice also showed a reduced inhibitory response to low glucose. These studies indicate that PNA causes enhanced firing activity of GnRH neurons and elevated LH that are reversible by metformin, raising the possibility that central AMPK activation by metformin may play a role in its restoration of reproductive cycles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment...... of how variability in genes involved in the gonadotropin signaling pathway impacts disease risk is warranted. METHODS: Genetic data from 41 ovarian cancer study sites were pooled and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate whether any of the 2185 SNPs from 11 gonadotropin signaling pathway...... genes was associated with ovarian cancer risk. A burden test using the admixture likelihood (AML) method was also used to evaluate gene-level associations. RESULTS: We did not find any genome-wide significant associations between individual SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. However, there was some...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  19. Gonadotropins, their receptors, and the regulation of testicular functions in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, Rüdiger W; Vischer, H F; Cavaco, J E; Dos Santos Rocha, M.E.; Tyler, R.C.; Goos, H.J.; Bogerd, J.

    The pituitary gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulate steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis by activating receptors expressed by Leydig cells (LH receptor) and Sertoli cells (FSH receptor), respectively. This concept is also valid in fish, although the

  20. A Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trial of A Single Luteal Use of Long-Acting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Degarelix in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization: Long Antagonist Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G. Papanikolaou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA drawback of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF is that they have limited flexibility in cycle programming. This proof of concept study explored the efficacy of a single-dose, long-acting GnRH antagonist IVF protocol. Trial registration number is NCT03240159, retrospectively registered on March 08, 2017.Materials and methodsThe efficacy of a single-dose long-acting antagonist, degarelix, was explored initially in healthy donors and subsequently in infertile patients. In the first part, five healthy oocyte donors underwent ovarian stimulation with this new protocol: in the late luteal phase, at day 24, a bolus injection of degarelix was administered subcutaneously to control the LH surge in the follicular phase. Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins was initiated subsequently from day 7 to day 10. End points were first to inhibit the LH surge later in the follicular phase and, second, to retrieve mature oocytes for IVF. In the second part, five infertile women received the same bolus injection of degarelix administered during the luteal phase at day 24. Different gonadotropin starting days (day 2 through day 8 were tested in order to observe possible differences in ovarian stimulation. In these infertile patients, fresh embryo transfers were performed to assess the pregnancy efficacy of this protocol on pregnancy outcomes and to address any possible negative effects on endometrium receptivity.ResultsIn the first part of the study, all donors were effectively downregulated with a single luteal dose of 0.5 ml of degarelix for up to 22 days until the final oocyte maturation triggering day. Mature oocytes were retrieved after 36 h from all patients and all produced 2–7 blastocysts. In the second part, all five infertile patients achieved sufficient LH downregulation and completed ovarian stimulation without any LH surge. All patients (except one with freeze all strategy had

  1. Comparative effects of sub-stimulating concentrations of non-human versus human Luteinizing Hormones (LH) or chorionic gonadotropins (CG) on adenylate cyclase activation by forskolin in MLTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Mong Diep; Filliatreau, Laura; Klett, Danièle; Combarnous, Yves

    2018-05-15

    We have compared various Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG) preparations from non-human and human species in their ability to synergize with 10 µM forskolin (FSK) for cyclic AMP intracellular accumulation, in MLTC cells. LH from rat pituitary as well as various isoforms of pituitary ovine, bovine, porcine, equine and human LHs and equine and human CG were studied. In addition, recombinant human LH and CG were also compared with the natural human and non-human hormones. Sub-stimulating concentrations of all LHs and CGs (2-100 pM) were found to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in MLTC cells in the presence of an also non-stimulating FSK concentration (10 µM). Like rat LH, the most homologous available hormone for mouse MLTC cells, all non-human LHs and CG exhibit a strong potentiating effect on FSK response. The human, natural and recombinant hLH and hCG also do so but in addition, they were found to elicit a permissive effect on FSK stimulation. Indeed, when incubated alone with MLTC cells at non-stimulating concentrations (2-70 pM) hLH and hCG permit, after being removed, a dose-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation with 10 µM FSK. Our data show a clearcut difference between human LH and CG compared to their non-human counterparts on MLTC cells adenylate cyclase activity control. This points out the risk of using hCG as a reference ligand for LHR in studies using non-human cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microdose Flare-up Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonist Versus GnRH Antagonist Protocols in Poor Ovarian Responders Undergoing Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Aysen; Cakar, Erbil; Boza, Barıs; Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Sofuoglu, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Microdose flare-up GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist have become more popular in the management of poor ovarian responders (POR) in recent years; however, the optimal protocol for POR patients undergoing in vitro fertilization has still been a challenge. In this observational study design, two hundred forty four poor ovarian responders were retrospectively evaluated for their response to GnRH agonist protocol (group-1, n=135) or GnRH antagonist protocol (group-2, n=109). Clinical pregnancy rate was the primary end point and was compared between the groups. Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test and χ (2)-test were used to compare the groups. The pmicrodose flare-up protocol has favorable outcomes with respect to the number of oocytes retrieved and implantation rate; nevertheless, the clinical pregnancy rate was found to be similar in comparison to GnRH antagonist protocol in poor ovarian responders. GnRH antagonist protocol appears to be promising with significantly lower gonadotropin requirement and lower treatment cost in poor ovarian responders.

  3. Ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay for chorionic gonadotropin which does not cross-react with luteinizing hormone nor free β chain of hCG and which detects hCG in blood of non-pregnant humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Odell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive, non-competitive, two-monoclonal antibody, sandwich-type or immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which shows no cross-reaction with the free β chain of hCG nor with human luteinizing hormone (LH). In the assay procedure, two, highly selected monoclonal antibodies reacted in solution with hCG to be quantified. One antibody was covalently conjugated to biotin. This antibody was specific for the β subunit of hCG, and showed no reaction with LH nor the α subunit. The second antibody was labelled with 125 I and was specific for intact hCG and LH, showing no cross-reaction with βhCG nor the α subunit. The separation system was a polystyrene ball conjugated with biotin. This ball bound via an avidin bridge the monoclonal 'sandwich' containing hCG. Counts per minute bound to the ball were directly proportional to the amount of hCG present. The assay was specific for whole hCG and showed no reaction with βhCG, βLH, intact LH nor the free α subunit. Sensitivity was adequate to detect 'hCG-like' material in all post menopausal women and, when single samples were obtained, in over 2/3 of normal men. When multiple samples were obtained, 'hCG-like' material was detectable in all eugonadal adults studied. 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  4. Aberrant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression and its regulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production in adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hattangady, Namita G; Ye, Ping; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Morimoto, Ryo; Ito-Saito, Takako; Sugawara, Akira; Ohba, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Rainey, William E; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-03-25

    Aberrant expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) has been reported in human adrenal tissues including aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the details of its expression and functional role in adrenals are still not clear. In this study, quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the mean level of GnRHR mRNA was significantly higher in APAs than in human normal adrenal (NA) (P=0.004). GnRHR protein expression was detected in human NA and neoplastic adrenal tissues. In H295R cells transfected with GnRHR, treatment with GnRH resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in CYP11B2 reporter activity. Chronic activation of GnRHR with GnRH (100nM), in a cell line with doxycycline-inducible GnRHR (H295R-TR/GnRHR), increased CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production. These agonistic effects were inhibited by blockers for the calcium signaling pathway, KN93 and calmidazolium. These results suggest GnRH, through heterotopic expression of its receptor, may be a potential regulator of CYP11B2 expression levels in some cases of APA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and safety of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy among patients with idiopathic and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranoulis, Anastasios; Laios, Alexandros; Pampanos, Andreas; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Michala, Lina

    2018-04-01

    To systematically review and appraise the existing evidence in relation to the efficacy and safety of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (pGnRH) for the treatment of women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. A total of 35 studies (three randomized and 32 observational) encompassing 1,002 women with HA. None. Primary outcomes: ovulation rate (OvR), pregnancy per ovulatory cycle rate (POR), and live birth per ovulatory cycle rate (LBOR). multiple gestation (MG), ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), and superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) rates. The summary measures were expressed as proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Pulsatile GnRH treatment appears to achieve high OvRs. A trend toward high PORs and LBORs among women with HA is demonstrated. SC pGnRH achieves comparable OvR compared with IV pGnRH. The incidence of OHSS is low and of mild severity. Treatment with pGnRH is associated with low but slightly higher MG rates compared with the general population. IV administered pGnRH is rarely associated with ST. The high OvRs leading to a high rate of singleton pregnancies and the low likelihood of OHSS render the pGnRH treatment modality both effective and safe for the treatment of women with HA of either primary or secondary origin. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by TAK-385 (relugolix), a novel, investigational, orally active, small molecule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist: studies in human GnRH receptor knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Masaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Akinaga, Yumiko; Asada, Mari; Sasada, Reiko; Takeyama, Michiyasu; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Kusaka, Masami

    2014-01-15

    TAK-385 (relugolix) is a novel, non-peptide, orally active gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, which builds on previous work with non-peptide GnRH antagonist TAK-013. TAK-385 possesses higher affinity and more potent antagonistic activity for human and monkey GnRH receptors compared with TAK-013. Both TAK-385 and TAK-013 have low affinity for the rat GnRH receptor, making them difficult to evaluate in rodent models. Here we report the human GnRH receptor knock-in mouse as a humanized model to investigate pharmacological properties of these compounds on gonadal function. Twice-daily oral administration of TAK-013 (10mg/kg) for 4 weeks decreased the weights of testes and ventral prostate in male knock-in mice but not in male wild-type mice, demonstrating the validity of this model to evaluate antagonists for the human GnRH receptor. The same dose of TAK-385 also reduced the prostate weight to castrate levels in male knock-in mice. In female knock-in mice, twice-daily oral administration of TAK-385 (100mg/kg) induced constant diestrous phases within the first week, decreased the uterus weight to ovariectomized levels and downregulated GnRH receptor mRNA in the pituitary after 4 weeks. Gonadal function of TAK-385-treated knock-in mice began to recover after 5 days and almost completely recovered within 14 days after drug withdrawal in both sexes. Our findings demonstrate that TAK-385 acts as an antagonist for human GnRH receptor in vivo and daily oral administration potently, continuously and reversibly suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. TAK-385 may provide useful therapeutic interventions in hormone-dependent diseases including endometriosis, uterine fibroids and prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. No Evidence for the Benefit of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist in Preserving Ovarian Function and Fertility in Lymphoma Survivors Treated With Chemotherapy: Final Long-Term Report of a Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeestere, Isabelle; Brice, Pauline; Peccatori, Fedro A; Kentos, Alain; Dupuis, Jehan; Zachee, Pierre; Casasnovas, Olivier; Van Den Neste, Eric; Dechene, Julie; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Bron, Dominique; Englert, Yvon

    2016-08-01

    We have reported previously that after 1-year follow up, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) did not prevent chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in patients with lymphoma, but may provide protection of the ovarian reserve. Here, we report the final analysis of the cohort after 5 years of follow up. A total of 129 patients with lymphoma were randomly assigned to receive either triptorelin plus norethisterone (GnRHa group) or norethisterone alone (control group) during chemotherapy. Ovarian function and fertility were reported after 2, 3, 4, and 5 to 7 years of follow up. The primary end point was POF, defined as at least one follicle-stimulating hormone value of > 40 IU/L after 2 years of follow up. Sixty-seven patients 26.21 ± 0.64 years of age had available data after a median follow-up time of 5.33 years in the GnRHa group and 5.58 years in the control group (P = .452). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significantly increased risk of POF in patients according to age (P = .047), the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (P = .002), and the cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide > 5 g/m(2) (P = .019), but not to the coadministration of GnRHa during chemotherapy (odds ratio, 0.702; P = .651). The ovarian reserve, evaluated using anti-Müllerian hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, was similar in both groups. Fifty-three percent and 43% achieved pregnancy in the GnRHa and control groups, respectively (P = .467). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first long-term analysis confirming that GnRHa is not efficient in preventing chemotherapy-induced POF in young patients with lymphoma and did not influence future pregnancy rate. These results reopen the debate about the drug's benefit in that it should not be recommended as standard for fertility preservation in patients with lymphoma. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis in classical and carrier ampholytes-based background electrolytes applied to separation and characterization of gonadotropin-releasing hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Poitevin, M.; Koval, Dušan; Busnel, J. M.; Peltre, G.; Kašička, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1267, SI (2012), s. 231-238 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : CABCE * isoelectric background electrolytes * peptide hormones Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  9. Induction of Gonadotropins for Reproductive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Much of the recent research on gonadotropin – related control processes of reproduction and reproductive maturation has concentrated on the neuronal and molecular biology of gonadotropin release. The reproductive development of healthy mammals requires appropriate fetal develompment and migration of the neural network controlling and including the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH – producing neurons that are needed to regulate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH release. GnRH is also necessary for the development of the gonadotropin – producing pituitary gland. The fetal gonads respon to GnRH – induced LH production by producing the gonadal steroids required for further reproductive differentiation. Pubertal maturation is characterised by increases in LH levels, representing the corresponding pulsatile release of GnRH. This GnRH pulse generator appears to be an intrinsic property of the arcuate nucleus at the medial basal hypothalamus. The generator activity can be mediated by the neurotransmitter aspartate which activates neurons of the hypothalamus, inducing acuate releases of GnRH and hence initiates puberty. A major factor in human reproductive maturation is the decrease in the age of puberty, caused by improvement of nutritional conditions due to the socio – economic development. This implies that the pubertal activation of GnRH secretion depends on metabolic conditions. Of the substances that mediate the metabolic condition to the neuronal network regulating GnRH secretion, the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY appears instrumental : for healthy mammals less food means more NPY, and accumulated NPY makes food to become sex. NPY does this by regulating the appropriate hypothalamic functions including the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin release.

  10. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  11. Repeat dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing In Vitro fertilization cycles provides a better cycle outcome - a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Deepika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Is a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa trigger to induce final oocyte maturation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol sufficient to provide optimal oocyte maturity? Design: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. Setting: This study was carried out at a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: A total of 125 patients diagnosed with PCOS defined as per the ESHRE/ASRM Rotterdam criteria (2003 undergoing IVF in antagonist protocol were randomized into two groups. Group A: single dose of GnRHa 0.2 mg, 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval, and Group B: 0.2 mg GnRHa 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval + repeat dose of 0.1 mg 12 h following the 1st dose. 12 h post-trigger, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone (P4, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH values were estimated. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as proportions where applicable. Independent sample t-test was used for continuous variables which were normally distributed and Mann–Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables where appropriate. Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs was calculated. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the post-trigger LH, P4, and FSH values at 12 h as predictors of oocyte maturity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome: maturity rate of the oocytes. Secondary outcomes: oocyte yield, fertilization rate, availability of good quality embryos on day 3, blastocyst conversion, OHSS rates, post-trigger serum LH (IU/L, FSH (IU/L, and P4 (ng/mL levels implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: A higher number of mature (metaphase II oocytes were obtained in Group B compared to Group A (OR of 0.47; CI: 0.38–0

  12. Induction of successive follicular waves by gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prostaglandin F(2α) to improve fertility of high-producing cows during the summer and autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Voet, H; Reznikov, D; Dagoni, I; Roth, Z

    2011-05-01

    Reduced conception rate during the hot summer and subsequent autumn is a well-documented phenomenon. Evaporative cooling systems greatly increase milk production but only slightly improve reproductive performance; hence, additional approaches to improving fertility during the hot season are required. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the combination of an efficient cooling system and hormonal manipulation (GnRH+PGF(2α)) might improve fertility during the summer and autumn. The experiment was conducted from July to December in 2 commercial herds in Israel and included 382 healthy Holstein cows. Cows (50 to 60 d in milk) were hormonally treated to induce 3 consecutive 9-d follicular waves, with GnRH administration followed by PGF(2α) injection 7 d later. Both control (n=187) and treated (n=195) cows were inseminated following estrus, and pregnancy was determined by palpation 45 d post-insemination. Data revealed an interaction between treatment and primiparous cows, reflected by a 16% increase in conception rate [odds ratio (OR) 2.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96-5.61] and 14% increase in pregnancy rate at 120 d in milk (OR 3.16, 95% CI: 0.93-10.47). Interaction between treatment and high body condition score was reflected by a 14% increase in pregnancy rate at 90 d in milk (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.14-7.96). About 60% of the treated cows expressed estrus at the expected time (normal response within 5 d following the third PGF(2α) injection); the remaining 40% that manifested estrus later (late response) had higher milk yield and lower body condition score. Additional analyses indicated that treatment interacted with normal response to raise conception rates and pregnancy rates of primiparous cows and cows with high body condition score. On the other hand, treatment by late-response interaction lowered conception rate during the summer. Implementation of such hormonal treatment in combination with an efficient cooling system may improve

  13. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  14. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and reproductive organs of the male blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and its effect on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarai, Thanyaporn; Saetan, Jirawat; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prepee

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (lGnRH-III)-like peptide occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) of decapod crustaceans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, Portunus pelagicus), and that lGnRH-III is the most potent in stimulating ovarian maturation compared with other GnRH isoforms. In this study, we examined the localization of lGnRH-III-like peptide in the CNS and male reproductive organs of the blue swimming crab by using anti-lGnRH-III as a probe. In the brain, lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in neurons of clusters 6, 10, 11, 14/15, 16, and 17 and in many neuropils. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was present in neurons of the dorso-lateral and ventro-medial clusters. In the thoracic ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was observed in the large-sized neurons between the thoracic neuropils and in the ventromedial cluster of the abdominal ganglia. In the testis, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in nurse cells, hemocytes, spermatids 2, and the outer and inner zones of the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Bioassay showed that lGnRH-III significantly increased the testis-somatic index, the percentage of late stages of seminiferous tubules (stages VII-IX), the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and the number of BrdU-labeled early germ cells compared with the control groups. Thus, lGnRH-III-like peptide exists in the male crab and possibly enhances germ cell proliferation and maturation in the testes, leading to increased sperm production.

  15. Ghrelin decreases firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in an estrous cycle and endocannabinoid signaling dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Farkas

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide, ghrelin is known to influence function of GnRH neurons, however, the direct effects of the hormone upon these neurons have not been explored, yet. The present study was undertaken to reveal expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R in GnRH neurons and elucidate the mechanisms of ghrelin actions upon them. Ca(2+-imaging revealed a ghrelin-triggered increase of the Ca(2+-content in GT1-7 neurons kept in a steroid-free medium, which was abolished by GHS-R-antagonist JMV2959 (10 µM suggesting direct action of ghrelin. Estradiol (1nM eliminated the ghrelin-evoked rise of Ca(2+-content, indicating the estradiol dependency of the process. Expression of GHS-R mRNA was then confirmed in GnRH-GFP neurons of transgenic mice by single cell RT-PCR. Firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH-GFP neurons were lower in metestrous than proestrous mice. Ghrelin (40 nM-4 μM administration resulted in a decreased firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH neurons in metestrous, but not in proestrous mice. Ghrelin also decreased the firing rate of GnRH neurons in males. The ghrelin-evoked alterations of the firing parameters were prevented by JMV2959, supporting the receptor-specific actions of ghrelin on GnRH neurons. In metestrous mice, ghrelin decreased the frequency of GABAergic mPSCs in GnRH neurons. Effects of ghrelin were abolished by the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 antagonist AM251 (1µM and the intracellularly applied DAG-lipase inhibitor THL (10 µM, indicating the involvement of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin exerts direct regulatory effects on GnRH neurons via GHS-R, and modulates the firing of GnRH neurons in an ovarian-cycle and endocannabinoid dependent manner.

  16. Sequential versus simultaneous use of chemotherapy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients: effects on ovarian function, disease-free survival, and overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ji, Yajie; Li, Jianwei; Lei, Li; Wu, Siyu; Zuo, Wenjia; Jia, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yujie; Mo, Miao; Zhang, Na; Shen, Zhenzhou; Wu, Jiong; Shao, Zhimin; Liu, Guangyu

    2018-04-01

    To investigate ovarian function and therapeutic efficacy among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, premenopausal breast cancer patients treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and chemotherapy simultaneously or sequentially. This study was a phase 3, open-label, parallel, randomized controlled trial (NCT01712893). Two hundred sixteen premenopausal patients (under 45 years) diagnosed with invasive ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled from July 2009 to May 2013 and randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy combined with sequential or simultaneous GnRHa treatment. All patients were advised to receive GnRHa for at least 2 years. The primary outcome was the incidence of early menopause, defined as amenorrhea lasting longer than 12 months after the last chemotherapy or GnRHa dose, with postmenopausal or unknown follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. The menstrual resumption period and survivals were the secondary endpoints. The median follow-up time was 56.9 months (IQR 49.5-72.4 months). One hundred and eight patients were enrolled in each group. Among them, 92 and 78 patients had complete primary endpoint data in the sequential and simultaneous groups, respectively. The rates of early menopause were 22.8% (21/92) in the sequential group and 23.1% (18/78) in the simultaneous group [simultaneous vs. sequential: OR 1.01 (95% CI 0.50-2.08); p = 0.969; age-adjusted OR 1.13; (95% CI 0.54-2.37); p = 0.737]. The median menstruation resumption period was 12.0 (95% CI 9.3-14.7) months and 10.3 (95% CI 8.2-12.4) months for the sequential and simultaneous groups, respectively [HR 0.83 (95% CI 0.59-1.16); p = 0.274; age-adjusted HR 0.90 (95%CI 0.64-1.27); p = 0.567]. No significant differences were evident for disease-free survival (p = 0.290) or overall survival (p = 0.514) between the two groups. For ER-positive premenopausal patients, the sequential use of GnRHa and chemotherapy showed ovarian preservation

  17. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  18. Progesterone treatment inhibits and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment potentiates voltage-gated calcium currents in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianli; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2010-11-01

    GnRH neurons are central regulators of fertility, and their activity is modulated by steroid feedback. In normal females, GnRH secretion is regulated by estradiol and progesterone (P). Excess androgens present in hyperandrogenemic fertility disorders may disrupt communication of negative feedback signals from P and/or independently stimulate GnRH release. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are important in regulating excitability and hormone release. Estradiol alters VGCCs in a time-of-day-dependent manner. To further elucidate ovarian steroid modulation of GnRH neuron VGCCs, we studied the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and P. Adult mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or OVX and treated with implants containing DHT (OVXD), estradiol (OVXE), estradiol and DHT (OVXED), estradiol and P (OVXEP), or estradiol, DHT, and P (OVXEDP). Macroscopic calcium current (I(Ca)) was recorded in the morning or afternoon 8-12 d after surgery using whole-cell voltage-clamp. I(Ca) was increased in afternoon vs. morning in GnRH neurons from OVXE mice but this increase was abolished in cells from OVXEP mice. I(Ca) in cells from OVXD mice was increased regardless of time of day; there was no additional effect in OVXED mice. P reduced N-type and DHT potentiated N- and R-type VGCCs; P blocked the DHT potentiation of N-type-mediated current. These data suggest P and DHT have opposing actions on VGCCs in GnRH neurons, but in the presence of both steroids, P dominates. VGCCs are targets of ovarian steroid feedback modulation of GnRH neuron activity and, more specifically, a potential mechanism whereby androgens could activate GnRH neuronal function.

  19. Comparison of the effects of ovarian cauterization and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and oral contraceptive therapy combination on endocrine changes in women with polycystic ovary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, O; Yalcinoglu, A I; Kafkasli, A; Burak, F; Ozekici, U

    1996-06-01

    To study the effects of laparoscopic ovarian cauterization and combination of long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) and oral contraceptive (OC) therapy on endocrine changes in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)- resistant polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Prospective, randomized. University-based infertility clinic. Seventeen women with CC-resistant PCOD were included randomly in the study to either laparoscopic ovarian cautery or GnRH-a and OC therapy for 3 months. Serum concentrations of LH, FSH, androstenedione (A), T, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined before each therapeutic approach and during the follicular phase of first menstrual cycle after the cessation of each treatment. The mean serum concentrations and the clinical profiles were similar in both groups. Both groups showed significant changes in LH, FSH, A, T, and SHBG compared with pretreatment levels. There were no significant differences in the final concentrations of LH, FSH, and A between the two study groups after each treatment, whereas T and SHBG levels were significantly different in the goserelin and OC group. The decrease in LH and increase in SHBG serum concentrations were greater in the goserelin and OC-treated women [-59% and + 5.9% versus - 70% and + 13.5%, respectively]. Although the SHBG concentration increased in both groups, the serum SHBG concentration of the goserelin and OC group was significantly higher than the other group. Both therapeutic modalities revealed similar effects on the endocrine profiles in women with CC-resistant PCOD. Considering the invasiveness, cost, and potential complications of laparoscopic ovarian cauterization, noninvasive medical treatment with GnRH-a and OC combination may be more effective in restoring the optimal follicular environment in women with PCOD.

  20. Influence of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Fertility Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out on the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) on the fertility rate of rabbit does under artificial insemination. The rabbit does (7-8 months old) were used for the trial. The hCG was administered to the rabbit does at varying doses: 0, 50, 100 and 150 I.U representing ...

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Leung, Peter CK

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the

  2. Estrogen receptor beta and 2-arachydonoylglycerol mediate the suppressive effects of estradiol on frequency of postsynaptic currents in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of metestrous mice: an acute slice electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra eBálint

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons are controlled by 17β-estradiol (E2 contributing to the steroid feedback regulation of the reproductive axis. In rodents, E2 exerts a negative feedback effect upon GnRH neurons throughout the estrus-diestrus phase of the ovarian cycle. The present study was undertaken to reveal the role of estrogen receptor subtypes in the mediation of the E2 signal and elucidate the downstream molecular machinery of suppression. The effect of E2 administration at low physiological concentration (10 pM on GnRH neurons in acute brain slices obtained from metestrous GnRH-GFP mice was studied under paradigms of blocking or activating estrogen receptor subtypes and interfering with retrograde 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG signaling. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that E2 significantly diminished the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in GnRH neurons (49. 62±7.6% which effect was abolished by application of the ERα/β blocker Faslodex (1 µM. Pretreatment of the brain slices with cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (1 µM and intracellularly applied endocannabinoid synthesis blocker THL (10 µM significantly attenuated the effect of E2 on the sPSCs. E2 remained effective in the presence of TTX indicating a direct action of E2 on GnRH cells. The ERβ specific agonist DPN (10 pM also significantly decreased the frequency of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs in GnRH neurons. In addition, the suppressive effect of E2 was completely blocked by the selective ERβ antagonist PHTPP (1 µM indicating that ERβ is required for the observed rapid effect of the E2. In contrast, the ERα agonist PPT (10 pM or the membrane-associated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 agonist G1 (10 pM had no significant effect on the frequency of mPSCs in these neurons. AM251 and THL significantly abolished the effect of E2 whereas AM251 eliminated the action of DPN on the mPSCs. These

  3. Role of neuropeptide Y in the regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone system in the forebrain of Clarias batrachus (Linn.): immunocytochemistry and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, A; Biju, K C; Muthal, P L; Saha, S; Subhedar, N

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and reproduction has been highlighted in recent years, the neuroanatomical substrate within which these substances might interact has not been fully elucidated. Present work was undertaken with a view to define the anatomical-physiological correlates underlying the role exercised by NPY in the regulation of GnRH in the forebrain of the teleost Clarias batrachus. Application of double immunocytochemistry revealed close associations as well as colocalizations of the two peptides in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the glomeruli, ganglion cells of nervus terminalis, medial olfactory tract, fibers in the area ventralis telencephali/pars supracommissuralis and cells as well as fibers in the pituitary. NPY containing axons were found to terminate in the vicinity of GnRH cells in the pituitary with light as well as electron microscopy. Double immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated gold particles for NPY and GnRH colocalized on the membrane and in dense core of the secretory granules in the cells distributed in all components of the pituitary gland. To assess the physiological implication of these observations, NPY was injected via the intracranial route and the response of GnRH immunoreactive system was evaluated by relative quantitative morphometry as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Two hours following NPY (20 ng/g body weight) administration, a dramatic increase was observed in the GnRH immunoreactivity in the ORNs, in the fibers of the olfactory bulb (163%) and medial olfactory tract (351%). High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the immunocytochemical data. Significant rise in the salmon GnRH (sGnRH)-like peptide content was observed in the olfactory organ (194.23%), olfactory bulb (146.64%), telencephalon+preoptic area

  4. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine for inducing anoestrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides Valades, Gabriela; Ganswindt, Andre; Annandale, Henry; Schulman, Martin L; Bertschinger, Henk J

    2012-08-25

    In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Between May 2009-June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM) on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa) 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine for four years (2004-2007). All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls) showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces) were significantly higher (Pelephants. These results indicate that irregular oestrous cycles occur amongst free

  5. Non-invasive assessment of the reproductive cycle in free-ranging female African elephants (Loxodonta africana treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine for inducing anoestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Valades Gabriela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In southern Africa, various options to manage elephant populations are being considered. Immunocontraception is considered to be the most ethically acceptable and logistically feasible method for control of smaller and confined populations. In this regard, the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH vaccine has not been investigated in female elephants, although it has been reported to be safe and effective in several domestic and wildlife species. The aims of this study were to monitor the oestrous cycles of free-ranging African elephant cows using faecal progestagen metabolites and to evaluate the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine to induce anoestrus in treated cows. Methods Between May 2009 - June 2010, luteal activity of 12 elephant cows was monitored non-invasively using an enzyme immunoassay detecting faecal 5alpha-reduced pregnanes (faecal progestagen metabolites, FPM on a private game reserve in South Africa. No bulls of breeding age were present on the reserve prior to and for the duration of the study. After a 3-month control period, 8 randomly-selected females were treated twice with 600 micrograms of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandton, South Africa 5-7 weeks apart. Four of these females had been treated previously with the porcine zona pellucida (pZP vaccine for four years (2004-2007. Results All 12 monitored females (8 treated and 4 controls showed signs of luteal activity as evidenced by FPM concentrations exceeding individual baseline values more than once. A total of 16 oestrous cycles could be identified in 8 cows with four of these within the 13 to 17 weeks range previously reported for captive African elephants. According to the FPM concentrations the GnRH vaccine was unable to induce anoestrus in the treated cows. Overall FPM levels in samples collected during the wet season (mean 4.03 micrograms/gram dry faeces were significantly higher (P Conclusions The GnRH vaccination protocol failed

  6. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Genetics, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India. *Corresponding author ... and LH, is of a single type or two types is still controversial .... Since sex regulation is an important aspect.

  7. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles

  8. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  9. Inhibitory effects of central neuropeptide Y on the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in male rats are independent of adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, A; Herzog, H

    2001-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus exerts multiple physiological functions including stimulation of adipogenic pathways such as feeding and insulin secretion as well as inhibition of the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes. Since hypothalamic NPY-ergic activity is increased by negative energy balance, NPY enables coordinated regulation of growth and reproduction in parallel with energy availability. Chronic pathological increases in central NPY-ergic activity contribute to obesity. Many of the adipogenic effects of NPY are specifically dependent on adrenal glucocorticoids. However, in the current study we show that central NPY does not require adrenal hormones to inhibit the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in rats. Male adrenalectomized and sham-operated normal rats were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) infused with NPY (15 microg/day) or saline for 5-7 days, and plasma leptin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and testosterone were assayed, and epididymal white adipose tissue (WATe) was weighed. In normal intact rats, WATe weight and leptinemia were significantly increased by NPY, and these effects were prevented by adrenalectomy. In normal rats, NPY markedly reduced plasma IGF-1 levels (470 +/- 40 versus 1260 +/- 90 ng/ml) and testosterone (0.53 +/- 0.28 versus 5.4 +/- 0.80 nmol/l in saline-infused controls, p < 0.0001). Adrenalectomy decreased plasma IGF-1 concentrations to 290 +/- 30 (p < 0.0001 versus normal rats), which were significantly reduced further by NPY. However, adrenalectomy had no significant effect on basal nor on NPY-induced plasma testosterone concentrations. In conclusion unlike the stimulatory effects of NPY on fat mass and leptinemia, NPY-induced inhibition of the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in male rats do not require adrenal hormones.

  10. The human luteinizing hormone receptor gene promoter: activation by Sp1 and Sp3 and inhibitory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Y; Tsai-Morris, C H; Zhang, Y; Dufau, M L

    1999-09-24

    To understand the transcriptional mechanism(s) of human LH receptor (LHR) gene expression, we have identified the dominant functional cis-elements that regulate the activity of the promoter domain (-1 to -176 bp from ATG). Mutagenesis demonstrated that the promoter activity was dependent on two Sp1 domains (-79 bp, -120 bp) in a transformed normal placental cell (PLC) and the choriocarcinoma JAR cell. Both elements interacted with endogenous Sp1 and Sp3 factors but not with Sp2 or Sp4. In Drosophila SL2 cells, the promoter was activated by either Sp1 or Sp3. An ERE half-site (EREhs) at -174 bp was inhibitory (by 100%), but was unresponsive to estradiol and did not bind the estrogen receptor or orphan receptors ERR1 and SF-1. The 5' upstream sequence (-177 to -2056 bp) inhibited promoter activity in PLC by 60%, but only minimally in JAR cells. Activation of the human LHR promoter through Sp1/3 factors is negatively regulated through EREhs and upstream sequences to exert control of gene expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  11. Involvement of melatonin metabolites in the long-term inhibitory effect of the hormone on rat spinal nociceptive transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca, Mauricio; Hernández, Alejandro; Valladares, Luis; Sierralta, Walter; Noseda, Rodrigo; Soto-Moyano, Rubén

    2004-02-01

    There is evidence that melatonin and its metabolites could bind to nuclear sites in neurones, suggesting that this hormone is able to exert long-term functional effects in the central nervous system via genomic mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate (i) whether systemically administered melatonin can exert long-term effects on spinal cord windup activity, and (ii) whether blockade of melatonin degradation with eserine could prevent this effect. Rats receiving melatonin (10 mg/kg ip), the same dose of melatonin plus eserine (0.5 mg/kg ip), or saline were studied. Seven days after administration of the drugs or saline, spinal windup of rats was assessed in a C-fiber reflex response paradigm. Results show that rats receiving melatonin exhibited a reduction in spinal windup activity. This was not observed in the animals receiving melatonin plus eserine or saline, suggesting a role for melatonin metabolites in long-term changes of nociceptive transmission in the rat spinal cord.

  12. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A.

    1989-01-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms

  13. Gonadotropin Regulation of Retinoic Acid Activity in the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of spermatogenesis in primates is triggered at puberty by an increase in gonadotropins; i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH. Prior to puberty, testis of the monkey contains only undifferentiated germ cells. However, sermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis may be initiated prior to puberty after stimulation with exogenous LH and FSH. Retinoic acid (RA signaling is considered to be a major component that drives spermatogonial differentiation. We were interested in evaluating the relative role of LH and FSH, either alone or in combination, in regulating the retinoic acid signaling in monkey testis. Sixteen juvenile male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were infused with intermittent recombinant single chain human LH (schLH or recombinant human FSH (rhFSH or a combination of both for 11 days. We then analyzed the expression of the several putative RA signaling pathway related genes; i.e. RDH10, RDH11, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, CYP26B1, CRABP1, CRABP2, STRA6, STRA8 in the testis after 11 days of stimulation with vehicle, LH, FSH and combination LH/FSH using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. The qPCR results analysis showed that administration of gonadotropins affected a significant change in expression of some RA signaling related genes in the monkey testis. The gonadotropins, either alone or in combination dramatically increased expression of CRABP2 (p≤0.001, whereas there was a decrease in ALDH1A2 expression (p≤0.001. Moreover, combined gonadotropin treatment led to the significant decrease in CRABP1 expression (p≤0.05. These findings are the first evidence that the activity of retinoic acid signaling in the monkey testis is regulated through gonadotropins (LH/FSH levels.

  14. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Russell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  15. Cost-saving treatment strategies in in vitro fertilization: a combined economic evaluation of two large randomized clinical trials comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechowski, Jaroslaw; Connolly, Mark; Schneider, Dirk; McEwan, Philip; Kennedy, Richard

    2009-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of two gonadotropin treatments that are available in the United Kingdom in light of limited public funding and the fundamental role of costs in IVF treatment decisions. An economic evaluation based on two large randomized clinical trials in IVF patients using a simulation model. Fifty-three fertility clinics in 13 European countries and Israel. Women indicated for treatment with IVF (N = 986), aged 18-38, participating in double-blind, randomized controlled trials. Highly purified menotropin (HP-hMG, Menopur) or recombinant follitropin alpha (rFSH, Gonal-F). Cost per IVF cycle and cost per live birth for HP-hMG and rFSH alpha. HP-hMG was more effective and less costly versus rFSH for both IVF cost per live birth and for IVF cost per baby (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was negative). The mean costs per IVF treatment for HP-hMG and rFSH were 2408 pounds (95% confidence interval [CI], 2392 pounds, 2421 pounds) and 2660 pounds (95% CI 2644 pounds, 2678 pounds), respectively. The mean cost saving of 253 pounds per cycle using HP-hMG allows one additional cycle to be delivered for every 9.5 cycles. Treatment with HP-hMG was dominant compared with rFSH in the United Kingdom. Gonadotropin costs should be considered alongside live-birth rates to optimize outcomes using scarce health-care resources.

  16. The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) acts as a gatekeeper of ovarian steroidogenesis inhibiting the granulosa cell response to both FSH and LH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Sandro; D'Ippolito, Giovanni; Sena, Paola; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Maggi, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Tirelli, Alessandra; Giulini, Simone; La Marca, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has a negative and inhibitory role in many functions of human granulosa-lutein cells (hGCs) including notoriously the reduction of the aromatase CYP19A1 expression induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). No data have been provided on the possible role of AMH in modulating the response to luteinizing hormone (LH) (alone or combined with FSH) as well as its effect on other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis including aromatase P450scc. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AMH as regulator of the basal and stimulated steroids production by hGCs. Primary culture of hGCs were incubated with hormones AMH, LH, and FSH, alone or in combination. The CYP19A1 and P450scc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, normalized by housekeeping ribosomal protein S7 (RpS7) gene, was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Each reaction was repeated in triplicate. Negative controls using corresponding amount of vehicle control for each hormone treatment were performed. AMH did not modulate the basal mRNA expression of both aromatase genes at any of the concentrations tested. Meanwhile, the strong mRNA induction of CYP19A1 and P450scc generated by a 24-h gonadotropin treatment (alone and combined) was suppressed by 20 ng/ml AMH added to culture medium. These findings contribute in clarifying the relationship between hormones regulating the early phase of steroidogenesis confirming that AMH is playing a suppressive role on CYP19A1 expression stimulated by gonadotropin in hGCs. Furthermore, a similar inhibitory effect for AMH was observed on P450scc gene expression when activated by gonadotropin treatment.

  17. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  18. Application of radioreceptor assay for chorionic gonadotropin in diagnosis of normal and disturbed pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Nevinny-Stickel, J.

    1977-01-01

    For diagnoses of normal and disturbed pregnancy, a radioreceptor assay (RRA) for the detection of chorionic gonadotropin (HLG) has been developed. The hormone was labelled with 125 I. Compared with biological and immunological methods, the RRA has a higher sensitivity and a shorter evaluation time. (orig./VJ) [de

  19. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); A.J. Clark (Adrian); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a substantial part of adrenal adenomas and hyperplasias from patients with Cushing's syndrome, cortisol production is controlled by the expression of aberrant hormone receptors on adrenocortical cells. We present in vivo and in vitro data of two patients with a

  20. Congenital gonadotropin deficiency in boys: management during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, L; Couto-Silva, A C; Trivin, C; Metz, C; Brauner, R

    2004-02-01

    To analyze the features of boys with congenital gonadotropin deficiency (CGD), and to determine the value of plasma inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for predicting testicular function and the effect of testosterone treatment. We followed 19 boys for CGD, including five with Kallmann syndrome. The boys were seen before 14 years of age for micropenis (9 boys) or later for delayed puberty (10 boys). No testis was palpable in the scrotum in 13 patients, bilaterally in seven of them. Luteinizing hormone (LH) peak after a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) test was between 0.5 and 5.6 U/l. Plasma inhibin B was low in the four patients evaluated at less than 1 year old. AMH was low in one of them and normal in four others. Of the older patients, three lad low plasma inhibin B and four had normal concentrations; plasma AMH was low in three of them and increased in four. Testosterone treatment restored penis length to normal in all patients. Low plasma inhibin B and AMH concentrations may indicate testicular damage in boys with CGD.

  1. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  2. Effects of progesterone injection on performance, plasma hormones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... triggers gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release ... open period has been shown to have positive effect on inducing a preovulatory ..... release, injectable levonorgestrel and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on.

  3. Evaluation of puberty by verifying spontaneous and stimulated gonadotropin values in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian L; Cai, Ziyong; Lam, Leslie; Shah, Bina; Zhou, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Changes in pharmacological agents and advancements in laboratory assays have changed the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog stimulation test. To determine the best predictive model for detecting puberty in girls. Thirty-five girls, aged 2 years 7 months to 9 years 3 months, with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n=20) or premature thelarche/premature adrenarche (n=15). Diagnoses were based on clinical information, baseline hormones, bone age, and pelvic sonogram. Gonadotropins and E2 were analyzed using immunochemiluminometric assay. Logistic regression for CPP was performed. The best predictor of CPP is the E2-change model based on 3- to 24-h values, providing 80% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Three-hour luteinizing hormone (LH) provided 75% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Basal LH lowered sensitivity to 65% and specificity to 53%. The E2-change model provided the best predictive power; however, 3-h LH was more practical and convenient when evaluating puberty in girls.

  4. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, FOXP3, Is Required for Normal Pituitary Gonadotropin Expression in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Deborah O.; Jasurda, Jake S.; Egashira, Noboru; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is central to normal reproductive function. This pathway begins with the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in systematic pulses by the hypothalamus. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is bound by receptors on gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and, to some extent, follicle-stimulating hormone. Once stimulated by these glycoprotein hormones, the gonads begin gametogenesis and the synthesis of sex hormones. In humans, mutations of the forkhead transcription factor, FOXP3, lead to an autoimmune disorder known as immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, and enteropathy, X-linked syndrome. Mice with a mutation in the Foxp3 gene have a similar autoimmune syndrome and are infertile. To understand why FOXP3 is required for reproductive function, we are investigating the reproductive phenotype of Foxp3 mutant mice (Foxp3sf/Y). Although the gonadotroph cells appear to be intact in Foxp3sf/Y mice, luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta (Fshb) expression are significantly decreased, demonstrating that these mice exhibit a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone is not significantly decreased in Foxp3sf/Y males. Treatment of Foxp3sf/Y males with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor agonist does not rescue expression of Lhb or Fshb. Interestingly, we do not detect Foxp3 expression in the pituitary or hypothalamus, suggesting that the infertility seen in Foxp3sf/Y males is a secondary effect, possibly due to loss of FOXP3 in immune cells. Pituitary expression of glycoprotein hormone alpha (Cga) and prolactin (Prl) are significantly reduced in Foxp3sf/Y males, whereas the precursor for adrenocorticotropic hormone, pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), is increased. Human patients diagnosed with IPEX often exhibit thyroiditis due to destruction of the thyroid gland by

  5. Effect of Valsartan on the hormones of Pituitary-gonadal axis Performance in mature female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Valsartan , as a receptor antagonist of Ang II inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin hormones and accelerates their effect on blocking the follicular cells of the female sex ,causing the reduction of female hormones.

  6. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  7. Targeting Gonadotropins: An Alternative Option for Alzheimer Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Casadesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that, alongside oxidative stress, dysregulation of the cell cycle in neurons susceptible to degeneration in Alzheimer disease may play a crucial role in the initiation of the disease. As such, the role of reproductive hormones, which are closely associated with the cell cycle both during development and after birth, may be of key import. While estrogen has been the primary focus, the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition and dementia only during a “crucial period” led us to expand the study of hormonal influences to other members of the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Specifically, in this review, we focus on luteinizing hormone, which is not only increased in the sera of patients with Alzheimer disease but, like estrogen, is modulated by hormone replacement therapy and also influences cognitive behavior and pathogenic processing in animal models of the disease. Targeting gonadotropins may be a useful treatment strategy for disease targeting multiple pleiotropic downstream consequences.

  8. COMPARISON BETWEEN ESTRADIOL CYPIONATE AND GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE AS OVULATION SYNCHRONIZATION TREATMENTS FOR FIXED-TIME ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION PROGRAMS IN BRAHMAN-CROSS HEIFERS IN A SUBTROPICAL REGION OF NORTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dominguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization protocols with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices (CIDR and PGF2α were evaluated, with GnRH or estradiol cypionate (ECP added for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI in five counties in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Brahman-cross heifers (≥15 months old were selected based on body condition (≥3 on a 5-point scale and confirmed ovarian activity. The six treatments (n = 320 each were: T1 (9-d CIDR, ECP on insertion, PGF2α on day 9, ECP on day 10, FTAI 54 h after removal; T2 (7-d CIDR, ECP on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, ECP on day 8, FTAI 54 h after removal; T3 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI and GnRH 48 h after removal; T4 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 6, FTAI and GnRH 48 h after removal; T5 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI and GnRH 60 h after removal; and T6 (7-d CIDR, GnRH on insertion, PGF2α on day 7, FTAI alone 48 h after removal. Pregnancy was diagnosed ultrasonically 45 days after FTAI. Analyses included pregnancy rates and treatment costs (hormones and handling. Pregnancy rates ranged from 31.6 ± 3.9 to 48.0 ± 10.6%; neither treatment nor county affected these rates (p > 0.05. In conclusion, the inclusion of treatment costs showed two more economical treatments (T2 using estradiol or T3 using GnRH under the nutritional, weather and handling conditions present in the tropical region of southeastern Tamaulipas.

  9. Pre- and postoperative status of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and inhibin-B in relation to testicular histopathology at orchiopexy in infant boys with unilateral undescended testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Thorup, Sebastian Cortes

    2015-01-01

    of unilateral orchiopexy on levels of gonadotropins and inhibin-B and correlate the hormone findings to the histopathology of the unilateral undescended testis. METHODS: 50 boys (mean age: 1 year and 2 months) operated for unilateral cryptorchidism had blood samples for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D

    2000-04-01

    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  11. Evidence that obesity and androgens have independent and opposing effects on gonadotropin production from puberty to maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Bordini, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Optimal fat mass is necessary for normal gonadotropin levels in adults, and both undernutrition and overnutrition suppress gonadotropins: thus, the gonadotropin response to relative adipose mass is biphasic. Adult obesity is associated with blunted luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse amplitude that is partially attributable to increased LH clearance rate. Testosterone appears to have a biphasic effect on gonadotropin production in females. Moderate elevations of testosterone appear to stimulate LH production at both the hypothalamic and pituitary level, while very high levels of testosterone suppress LH. Thus, obesity per se appears to suppress gonadotropin production, and moderate hyperandrogenemia in women appears to stimulate LH. The ordinary hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism of obese women appears to be an exception to this model because it is usually due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition in which intrinsic functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and excess adiposity share a common origin that involves insulin-resistant hyperinsulinemia. LH elevation seems to be secondary to hyperandrogenemia and is absent in the most obese cases. Overweight early pubertal girls have significant blunting of sleep-related LH production, which is the first hormonal change of puberty. The data are compatible with the possibility that excess adiposity may paradoxically subtly suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in early puberty although it is known to contribute to the early onset of puberty. PMID:20816944

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to human chorionic gonadotropin and their application to two-site sandwich radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuchi, A.; Iio, M.; Miyachi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). One monoclonal antibody recognized a conformational determinant expressed only on native HCG molecule and another monoclonal antibody had the specificity for the epitopes located on the β-subunit of HCG. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with different antigenic determinants on the HCG molecule were used to develop a simplified 2-site sandwich radioimmunoassay in which one monoclonal antibody was immobilized and another labeled with 125 iodine. This assay was highly specific for HCG and there was no cross-reactivity with α,β-subunit of HCG, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. (Auth.)

  13. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  14. Inhibitory effects of a selective Jak2 inhibitor on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asari Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuko Asari, Kazunori Kageyama, Yuki Nakada, Mizuki Tasso, Shinobu Takayasu, Kanako Niioka, Noriko Ishigame, Makoto Daimon Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Purpose: The primary cause of Cushing’s disease is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas. EGFR signaling induces POMC mRNA-transcript levels and ACTH secretion from corticotroph tumors. The Jak–STAT pathway is located downstream of EGFR signaling; therefore, a Jak2 inhibitor could be an effective therapy for EGFR-related tumors. In this study, we determined the effect of a potent and selective Jak2 inhibitor, SD1029, on ACTH production and proliferation in mouse AtT20 corticotroph tumor cells.Materials and methods: AtT20 pituitary corticotroph tumor cells were cultured after transfection with PTTG1- or GADD45β-specific siRNA. Expression levels of mouse POMC, PTTG1, and GADD45β mRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ACTH levels were measured using ACTH ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to examine protein expression of phosphorylated STAT3/STAT3. Viable cells and DNA fragmentation were measured using a cell-proliferation assay and cell-death detection ELISA, respectively. Cellular DNA content was analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting.Results: SD1029 decreased POMC and PTTG1 mRNA and ACTH levels, while increasing GADD45β levels. The drug also decreased AtT20-cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but did not alter cell-cycle progression. SD1029 also inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. PTTG1 knockdown inhibited POMC mRNA levels and cell proliferation. However, combined treatment with PTTG1 knockdown and SD1029 had no additive effect on POMC mRNA levels or cell proliferation. GADD45β knockdown inhibited the SD1029-induced decrease in POMC mRNA levels and also partially inhibited the decrease in cell proliferation.Conclusion: Both

  15. Transcriptome response to hormonal manipulation of follicle-enclosed oocytes in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captive fish often display reproductive dysfunction associated with follicle maturation. Gonadotropins and the progestogen maturation-inducing hormones (MIH) are important regulators of follicle maturation; however, their actions including regulating follicle maturation are not fully understood. The...

  16. [Attenuation of inhibitory influence of hormones on adenylyl cyclase systems in the myocardium and brain of rats with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and effect of intranasal insulin on it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Sharova, T S; Pertseva, M N; Shpakov, A O

    2014-01-01

    The functional state of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) and its regulation by hormones, the inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (AC)--somatostatin (SST) in the brain and myocardium and 5-nonyloxytryptamine (5-NOT) in the brain of rats of different ages (5- and 7-month-old) with experimental obesity and a combination of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and the effect of long-term treatment of animals with intranasally administered insulin (II) on ACSS were studied. It was shown that the basal AC activity in rats with obesity and DM2 was increased in the myocardium, and to the lesser extent in the brain, the treatment with II reducing this parameter. The AC stimulating effects of forskolin are decreased in the myocardium, but not in the brain, of rats with obesity and DM2. The treatment with II restored the AC action of forskolin in the 7-month-old animals, but has little effect on it in the 5-month-old rats. In obesity the basal AC activity and its stimulation by forskolin varied insignificantly and weakly changed in treatment of animals with II. The AC inhibitory effects of SST and 5-NOT in the investigated pathology are essentially attenuated, the effect of SST to the greatest extent, which we believe to be associated with a reduction in the functional activity of Gi-proteins. The II treatment of animals with obesity and with a combination of obesity and DM2 restored completely or partially the AC inhibiting effects of hormones, to the greatest extent in the brain. Since impaired functioning of ACSS is one of the causes of the metabolic syndrome and DM2, their elimination by treatments with II can be an effective approach to treat these diseases and their CNS and cardiovascular system complications.

  17. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  18. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  19. Gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakano, R.

    1987-05-01

    Gonadotropin binding sites were localized by autoradiography after incubation of human ovarian sections with /sup 125/I-labeled gonadotropins. The binding sites for /sup 125/I-labeled human follicle-stimulating hormone (/sup 125/I-hFSH) were identified in the granulosa cells and in the newly formed corpora lutea. The /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (/sup 125/I-hLH) binding to the thecal cells increased during follicular maturation, and a dramatic increase was preferentially observed in the granulosa cells of the large preovulatory follicle. In the corpora lutea, the binding of /sup 125/I-hLH increased from the early luteal phase and decreased toward the late luteal phase. The changes in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the corpora lutea corresponded to the /sup 125/I-hLH binding. Thus, the changes in gonadotropin binding sites in the follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle may help in some important way to regulate human ovarian function.

  20. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in gonadotropin-treated laboratory South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sherril L; Parker, John; Davis, Corrine; Bouley, Donna M

    2007-05-01

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHS) is a rare but sometimes fatal iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation associated with the administration of exogenous gonadotropins to women undergoing treatment for infertility. Laboratory Xenopus spp are commonly treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate ovulation and optimize the number of oocytes harvested for use in biomedical research. Here we report cases of OHS in 2 gonadotropin-treated laboratory Xenopus laevis. After receiving hCG, the frogs developed severe subcutaneous accumulation of fluid, coelomic distention, and whole-body edema and were unable to dive, although they continued to eat and swim. At postmortem examination, extensive subcutaneous edema was present; ascites and massive numbers of free-floating eggs were found in the coelomic cavity and in aberrant locations: around the heart-sac and adhered to the liver capsule. Whole-body edema, gross enlargement of the ovaries, ascites, and abdominal distention are findings comparable to those observed in women with OHS. The pathophysiology of OHS is thought to be related to hormonally induced disturbances of vasoactive mediators, one of which may be vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by theca and granulosa cells. We know of no other report describing OHSlike symptoms in gonadotropin-treated frogs, and the cases described here are 2 of the 3 we have observed at our respective institutions over the last 6 y. According to these results, OHS appears to be rare in gonadotropin-treated laboratory Xenopus. However, the condition should be included in the differential diagnosis for the bloated frog.

  1. Expression and Activation of Gonadotropin Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kraaij (Robert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAmong the many hormones that are produced by the anterior pituitary gland, luteinizing hormone (LH, lutropin), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, follitropin), and thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) form the separate family of so-called glycoprotein hormones (reviewed by

  2. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Total renin after gonadotropin stimulation in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Anttila, L; Jaatinen, T A; Koskinen, P; Aalto, M; Irjala, K; Nikkanen, V

    1995-02-01

    To examine the influence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) on the levels of total renin in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) after stimulation with hMG. Comparative study of the plasma and FF concentrations of total renin in women with and without PCOD after stimulation with hMG. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Thirty-six women undergoing IVF-ET for infertility with (n = 10) or without (n = 26) ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD. Of the latter group, 15 women had tubal infertility, and the rest suffered from an anovulatory infertility and reacted with PCO-like ovarian response to stimulation. The concentrations of total renin in plasma and FF, serum E2, and protein in FF. The concentrations of plasma total renin after the gonadotropin stimulation were significantly higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups when compared with the tubal group. The concentration of total renin in FF and the ratio of total renin per protein in FF were higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups than in the tubal group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Positive correlations were found between the plasma total renin and serum E2 concentrations in the PCO-like and in the tubal group and between plasma total renin concentrations and the number of mature follicles in all groups. Follicular fluid total renin did not correlate with FF protein in any group. All findings were independent of the total hMG dosage used and the body mass index of the patients. In the present study the concentrations of total renin in plasma were enhanced markedly after gonadotropin stimulation in women with PCOD compared with women having tubal infertility. The pattern of the hormonal secretions revealed a group of infertile patients reacting biochemically like women with PCOD.

  4. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  5. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  6. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: new identification of testicular blood flow and varicocele after treatment with gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rehman, Khaleeq; Shahid, Khubaib; Humayun, Hina

    2014-09-01

    To investigate testicular changes in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) after treatment with gonadotropins. Patients with HH were investigated and followed before and after treatment. Urology and andrology clinic of a teaching hospital. Consecutive male patients with diagnosed HH. All patients were treated with gonadotropins during the study period and later. The hormonal status and scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) of patients was recorded before and after treatment. Twenty-six patients with HH (ages 18-43 years) were followed for 8-29 months. After treatment, serum T and secondary sex characters improved in all and spermatogenesis developed in 61.5% of patients. Before treatment, testicular (intraparenchymal blood flow) was undetectable in all and barely detectable in three patients. This improved significantly to 4.53±5.44 and 4.27±4.97 cm/second, respectively, after treatment. Subcapsular arterial flow and testicular size also improved significantly. Similarly, after treatment, transverse epididymal diameter (TED) increased significantly. At baseline, no patient had detectable varicocele on CDUS. After treatment, varicocele was demonstrable in 23% of patients. This finding was further evaluated retrospectively from our 76 HH patient files. None of them had varicocele before treatment, but after treatment 19.73% were found to have varicocele. Patients with HH responded to gonadotropins by improvement in testicular blood flow and increase in TED. In some patients, varicocele was found to develop after treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

    1993-02-12

    The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits.

  8. Gonadotropins studies in female egyptian subjects under different physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study is concerned with the role of the hypothalamic hypophyseal regulatory hormonal mechanisms in the control of gonadal secretions in a selected normal egyptian female subjects with varying ages under different physiological conditions. The study allowed precise definition of the modulator influence of a number of key factors triggering appropriate alteration in circulating serum levels of FSH and LH determined by IRMA technique in pre-pubertal female children (9-11), post-pubertal adolescents females (13-16). Adult married females (27-33) and post-menopausal (58-63). The levels of FSH and LH were increased markedly with age but children less than 11 years old had only nocturnal increase in levels of FSH (p.O.I) and LH(P< 0.001). post-pubertal aged girls had significant nocturnal elevation only of LH levels (P< 0.001), adult married females did not exhibit significant difference in gonadotropin concentrations. whereas significant elevation in FSH and LH levels (P<0.001) in post-menopausal females were observed

  9. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  10. Peritoneal Adhesion and Angiogenesis in Ovarian Carcinoma Are Inversely Regulated by Hyaluronan: The Role of Gonadotropins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Chagit Tzuman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death among gynecologic cancers. Although transformation of the outer ovarian epithelium was linked with ovulation, the disease is significantly more prevalent and severe in postmenopausal women. We postulated that menopause could augment ovarian cancer progression through the effects of gonadotropins on multifocal seeding to the mesothelial layer lining the peritoneum. This seeding is mediated by integrins as well as by CD44 interaction with hyaluronan (HA. Here, we report the effect of gonadotropins on HA synthesis and degradation and on peritoneal adhesion. A significant concentration- and time-dependent induction in expression levels of HA synthases (HASs and hyaluronidases (Hyals was observed in vitro on stimulation of human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells by gonadotropins. Hormonal regulation of HA-mediated adhesion was manifested in vivo as well, by fluorescence microscopy of stained MLS multicellular tumor spheroids. The number of spheroids adhered to the mesothelium of ovariectomized CD-1 nude mice 9.5 hours after intraperitoneal insertion was significantly higher than in nonovariectomized mice. Inhibition of HA synthesis by 6-diazo-5-oxo-1-norleucine (DON both in spheroids and ovariectomized mice significantly reduced the number of adhered spheroids. Thus, the change in the hormonal environment during menopause assists in HA-dependent adherence of ovarian cancer spheroids onto the peritoneum. However, HA is antiangiogenic and it can significantly suppress tumor progression. Accordingly, angiogenesis of the adhered spheroids was significantly elevated in DON-treated tumors. These results can explain the selective pressure that can lead to simultaneously increased tumor expression of both HASs and Hyals.

  11. Interactions between androgens, FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone and estradiol during folliculogenesis in the human normal and polycystic ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, Didier; Robin, Geoffroy; Peigne, Maëliss; Decanter, Christine; Pigny, Pascal; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie

    2016-11-01

    Androgens, FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) are essential in human ovarian folliculogenesis. However, the interactions between these four players is not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to highlight the chronological sequence of the appearance and function of androgens, FSH, AMH and E2 and to discuss controversies in the relationship between FSH and AMH. A better understanding of this interaction could supplement our current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A literature review was performed using the following search terms: androgens, FSH, FSH receptor, anti-Mullerian hormone, AMHRII, estradiol, follicle, ovary, PCOS, aromatase, granulosa cell, oocyte. The time period searched was 1980-2015 and the databases interrogated were PubMed and Web of Science. During the pre-antral ('gonadotropin-independent') follicle growth, FSH is already active and promotes follicle growth in synergy with theca cell-derived androgens. Conversely, AMH is inhibitory by counteracting FSH. We challenge the hypothesis that AMH is regulated by androgens and propose rather an indirect effect through an androgen-dependent amplification of FSH action on granulosa cells (GCs) from small growing follicles. This hypothesis implies that FSH stimulates AMH expression. During the antral ('gonadotropin-dependent') follicle growth, E2 production results from FSH-dependent activation of aromatase. Conversely, AMH is inhibitory but the decline of its expression, amplified by E2, allows full expression of aromatase, characteristic of the large antral follicles. We propose a theoretical scheme made up of two triangles that follow each other chronologically. In PCOS, pre-antral follicle growth is excessive (triangle 1) because of intrinsic androgen excess that renders GCs hypersensitive to FSH, with consequently excessive AMH expression. Antral follicle growth and differentiation are disturbed (triangle 2) because of the

  12. Thyrotropic action of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Hershman, J M

    1995-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism or increased thyroid function has been reported in many patients with trophoblastic tumors. In these cases, greatly increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and suppressed TSH levels suggest that hCG has thyrotropic activity. Recent investigations have clarified the structural homology not only in the hCG and TSH molecules but also in their receptors, and this homology suggests the basis for the reactivity of hCG with the TSH receptor. The clinical significance of the thyrotropic action of hCG is now also recognized in normal pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Highly purified hLH binds to recombinant hTSH receptor and is about 10 times as potent as purified hCG in increasing cAMP. The beta-subunits of hCG and hLH share 85% sequence identity in their first 114 amino acids but differ in the carboxy-terminal peptide because hCG beta contains a 31-amino acid extension (beta-CTP). A recombinant mutant hCG that lacks beta-CTP showed almost identical potency to LH on stimulation of recombinant hTSH receptor. If intact hCG were as potent as hLH in regard to its thyrotropic activity, most pregnant women would become thyrotoxic. One of the roles of the beta-CTP may be to prevent overt hyperthyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy when a large amount of hCG is produced by the placenta. Nicked hCG preparations, obtained from patients with trophoblastic disease or by enzymatic digestion of intact hCG, showed approximately 1.5- to 2-fold stimulation of recombinant hTSH receptor compared with intact hCG. This suggests that the thyrotropic activity of hCG may be influenced by the metabolism of the hCG molecule itself. Deglycosylation and/or desialylation of hCG enhances its thyrotropic potency. Basic hCG isoforms with lower sialic acid content extracted from hydatidiform moles were more potent in activating adenylate cyclase, and showed high bioactivity/immunoactivity (B/I) ratio in CHO cells expressing human TSH receptors. This is consistent

  13. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.

    2016-01-01

    the neuropeptide systems used by proto- or deuterostomes. An exception, however, are members of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor superfamily, which occur in both evolutionary lineages, where GnRHs are the ligands in Deuterostomia and GnRH-like peptides, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin...

  14. Comparison of clinical outcome and costs with CC + gonadotropins and gnrha + gonadotropins during Ivf/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Peter; Matyas, Szabolcs; Bernard, l Artur; Kaali, Steven G

    2004-06-01

    To compare clinical outcome and costs of CC + gonadotropins with GnRHa + gonadotropins during IVF/ICSI cycles. Clinical outcome and expenses of 382 CC + gonadotropin and 964 GnRHa + gonadotropin cycles were compared. Medication costs were calculated on the basis of the mean number of ampoules and the proportion of various gonadotropins. Costs per clinical pregnancy were calculated on the basis of expenses and clinical pregnancy rates. Women in the CC + gonadotropin group were younger, and had fewer follicles, oocytes, embryos, and embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancy rates were higher in the GnRHa group (35.9 % vs 26.2%, p costs per cycle were higher in the GnRHa group (US dollars 357 vs 248). Expenses per pregnancy however were lower in the GnRHa group (USdollars 4197 vs 5335 with IVF; USdollars 5590 vs 7244 with ICSI). When different age subgroups with similar baseline characteristics and stimulation parameters were compared, pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the GnRHa groups. Medication cost per cycle was higher in the GnRHa subgroups, and the expense per pregnancy was lower with GnRHa protocol. Cost per cycle is higher with GnRHa + gonadotropin. However, because of the better performance of the GnRHa + gonadotropin stimulation, the cumulative costs are reduced by the time a clinical pregnancy is achieved.

  15. Regulation of P450 oxidoreductase by gonadotropins in rat ovary and its effect on estrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uesaka Miki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P450 oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes electron transfer to microsomal P450 enzymes. Its deficiency causes Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS, and about half the patients with ABS have ambiguous genitalia and/or impaired steroidogenesis. POR mRNA expression is up-regulated when mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiate into steroidogenic cells, suggesting that the regulation of POR gene expression is important for steroidogenesis. In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. Methods Changes in gene expression in MSCs during differentiation into steroidogenic cells were examined by DNA microarray analysis. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Effects of transient expression of wild-type or mutant (R457H or V492E POR proteins on the production of estrone in COS-7 cells were examined in vitro. Effects of POR knockdown were also examined in estrogen producing cell-line, KGN cells. Results POR mRNA was induced in MSCs following transduction with the SF-1 retrovirus, and was further increased by cAMP treatment. Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. POR mRNA and protein were also induced by follicle stimulating hormone in primary cultured rat granulosa cells, and the induction pattern was similar to that for aromatase. Transient expression of POR in COS-7 cells, which expressed a constant amount of aromatase protein, greatly increased the rate of conversion of androstenedione to estrone, in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of mutant POR proteins (R457H or V492E, such as those found in ABS patients, had much less effect on aromatase activity than expression of wild

  16. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10 5 /well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca ++ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca ++ -free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of 45 Ca ++ . Both GnRH-stimulated 45 Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect 45 Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE 2 and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca ++ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca ++ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca ++ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release

  17. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  18. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jared L; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kim, Edward D

    2013-06-01

    To review the current literature for the effect of hormones used in rejuvenation clinics on the maintenance of spermatogenesis. Review of published literature. Not applicable. Men who have undergone exogenous testosterone (T) and/or anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) therapies. None. Semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, and time to recovery of spermatogenesis. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids suppress intratesticular testosterone production, which may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Therapies that protect spermatogenesis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The studies examining the effect of human growth hormone (HGH) on infertile men are uncontrolled and unconvincing, but they do not appear to negatively impact spermatogenesis. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. The use of hormones for rejuvenation is increasing with the aging of the Baby Boomer population. Men desiring children at a later age may be unaware of the side-effect profile of hormones used at rejuvenation centers. Testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids have well-established detrimental effects on spermatogenesis, but recovery may be possible with cessation. Clomiphene citrate, human growth hormone (HGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and aromatase inhibitors do not appear to have significant negative effects on sperm production, but quality data are lacking. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of the hormones in the pituitary-ovarian axis in patients with endometriosis externa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, St.; Maleeva, A.; Gunev, V.; Kurtev, I.; Kekhajova, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new method was developed for determining the concentration of the following gonadotropins and steroid hormones in peritoneal liquid of women with endometriosis externa: luteinzing hormone (LH), folliculostimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, estradiol, progesterone. The results showed that disorders in hypophysis and ovaries play an important role for the arising of the endometriose and should be regarded as a reliable criterion for diagnosis, therapy and recovering of the patients

  1. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus human chorionic gonadotropin in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hassaan Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare GnRH agonist to hCG for triggering ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Materials & methods: Eighty five infertile women with PCOS participated in a randomized allocation concealed prospective trial and had induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. GnRH agonist 0.2 mg subcutaneously (group 1 or hCG 10,000 IU intramuscularly (group 2 was given to trigger ovulation. Primary outcome was mid-luteal serum progesterone, while secondary outcomes were ovulation rates and clinical pregnancy rates along 3 cycles. Results: No difference was found between group 1 and group 2 regarding mean serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rates in each cycle. Cumulative pregnancy rates were similar (17.14% versus 20% respectively; P = 0.332. Ovulation rates were 80% versus 68.6% (P = 0.413; 94.3% versus 90.9% (P = 0.669; 97.1% versus 93.7% (P = 0.603 in the two groups respectively. However, a significant rise in number of patients with mid-luteal serum progesterone >10 ng/mL was noted in the 3rd cycle between both groups, (P < 0.0001 for group 1 while P = 0.007 for group 2. Conclusion: Triggering ovulation with GnRH-a after treatment with clomiphene citrate in PCOS, in view of its known protective effect against OHSS, may be an effective physiological alternative to conventional hCG without compromising luteal function and pregnancy rates after repeated cycles of treatment.

  2. Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with Delayed Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Hong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that isolated use of the gonadorelin stimulation test is almost sufficient to discriminate between HH and CDP in males, but unnecessary in females. The most useful predictor is serum basal or peak LH to differentiate these two disorders in males, but serum basal LH or FSH in females.

  3. Gonadotropin stimulates oocyte translation by increasing magnesium activity through intracellular potassium-magnesium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, S.B.; Tluczek, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed that gonadotropin increases the K + activity in Xenopus oocytes and that this is a signal for increased translation. However, K + need not act to control synthesis directly but may act through an unidentified downstream effector. Using microinjection to vary the salt content of oocytes and concomitantly measuring [ 3 H]leucine incorporation, we found that small changes in Mg 2+ greatly affect translation rates. (Ca 2+ had little influence.) By measuring intracellular ion activities, we found that oocyte cations existed in a buffer-like (ion-exchange) equilibrium in which K + and Mg 2+ are the preponderant monovalent and divalent cations. Hence, increasing cellular K + activity might increase translation by causing Mg 2+ activity to rise. If so, the increased translation rates produced by hormone treatment or K + injection would be prevented by EDTA, a Mg 2+ chelating agent. This prediction was tested and confirmed. We conclude that, when gonadotropin increases K + activity, the cell's internal ion-exchange equilibrium is altered thereby increasing Mg 2+ activity and this up-regulates translation

  4. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both the hypoth......Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) have been used for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) for more than 15 years. They are generally considered safe although data on potential long-term side effects are scarce. However, GnRHa therapy has profound effects on both...

  5. Additive insulinotropic effects of exogenous synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide infused at near-physiological insulinotropic hormone and glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Bartels, E; Orskov, C

    1993-01-01

    . The combination of GIP and GLP-1 led to B-cell responses that were significantly higher than those with either hormone alone (additive mode of cooperation). Plasma GIP concentrations were similar after endogenous secretion (oral glucose) and i.v. infusion, while exogenously administered GLP-1 led to plasma levels...

  6. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  7. Gonadotropin suppression in men leads to a reduction in claudin-11 at the Sertoli cell tight junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M J; Tarulli, G A; Laven-Law, G; Matthiesson, K L; Meachem, S J; McLachlan, R I; Dinger, M E; Stanton, P G

    2016-04-01

    Are Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) disrupted in men undergoing hormonal contraception? Localization of the key Sertoli cell TJ protein, claudin-11, was markedly disrupted by 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression, the degree of which was related to the extent of adluminal germ cell suppression. Sertoli cell TJs are vital components of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that sequester developing adluminal meiotic germ cells and spermatids from the vascular compartment. Claudin-11 knockout mice are infertile; additionally claudin-11 is spatially disrupted in chronically gonadotropin-suppressed rats coincident with a loss of BTB function, and claudin-11 is disorganized in various human testicular disorders. These data support the Sertoli cell TJ as a potential site of hormonal contraceptive action. BTB proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 16 samples) and mRNA (n = 18 samples) expression levels in available archived testis tissue from a previous study of 22 men who had undergone 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression and for whom meiotic and post-meiotic germ cell numbers were available. The gonadotropin suppression regimens were (i) testosterone enanthate (TE) plus the GnRH antagonist, acyline (A); (ii) TE + the progestin, levonorgestrel, (LNG); (iii) TE + LNG + A or (iv) TE + LNG + the 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride (D). A control group consisted of seven additional men, with three archived samples available for this study. Immunohistochemical localization of claudin-11 (TJ) and other junctional type markers [ZO-1 (cytoplasmic plaque), β-catenin (adherens junction), connexin-43 (gap junction), vinculin (ectoplasmic specialization) and β-actin (cytoskeleton)] and quantitative PCR was conducted using matched frozen testis tissue. Claudin-11 formed a continuous staining pattern at the BTB in control men. Regardless of gonadotropin suppression treatment, claudin-11 localization was markedly disrupted and was broadly associated with the extent of meiotic

  8. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  9. A MALE CASE OF KALLMANN'S SYNDROME : FERTILITY INDUCED BY GONADOTROPIN (hCG/hMG) THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Shingo; Mayumi Mimura, Mayumi; Moch, Tadao; Sakamoto, Takemi; Izumi, Yukiko; Matzui, Yuhji; Hosokawa, Akiko; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Fukui, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with Kallmann's syndrome who fathered two children after gonadotropin therapy is reported here. He was diagnosed with Kallmann's syndrome because of hypothalamic hypogonadism associated with anosmia. The gonadotropin therapy was initiated which involved treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). After 3 years of treatment, his secondary sexual characteristics developed to near the adult level and sperm were detected in...

  10. Radioimmunological methods of determining hormones in the blood in physiological pregnancy and in abortions and premature delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulienko, S.D.; Fogel, P.I.

    1981-01-01

    Significant changes are shown to occur in the level of sex hormones in blood at the risk of spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or the mole. Determining the levels of estradiol, progesterone, chorial gonadotropin and testosterone in the blood serum using RIA yields immediate information on the hormonal function of the fetoplacental unit. This has diagnostic significance and can be used as a criterion for the application of complementary hormonal therapy when there is a risk of abortion or premature delivery. (author)

  11. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M

    1998-01-01

    The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may...... influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function......, and testosterone. Thus, although levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone decreased into the range observed later in childhood by the age of 6-9 months, serum inhibin B levels remained elevated up to at least the age of 15 months. In girls, the hormonal pattern was generally more complex, with a high interindividual...

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance

  13. Serum androgen and gonadotropin levels decline after progestogen-induced withdrawal bleeding in oligomenorrheic women with or without polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Kaihola, H L; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1992-10-01

    To examine the effect of short-term progestogen treatment on androgen, gonadotropin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in oligomenorrheic women. Comparative study of changes in hormonal parameters in patients with or without ultrasonographically diagnosed polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Open patient clinic of reproductive endocrinology at University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Seventy-five oligomenorrheic women with (n = 51) or without (n = 24) PCOD. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and SHBG. The levels of T, A, LH, and the LH:FSH ratios decreased significantly after oral treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg/d for 10 days) in non-PCOD women and in women with PCOD decreasing the frequencies of pathological laboratory findings, in particular elevated levels of LH:FSH ratio and A in PCOD women and of LH:FSH ratio in non-PCOD women. The levels of T, A, and LH as well as the LH:FSH ratio were significantly higher in women with PCOD. Obesity was associated with high free androgen indices, low LH:FSH ratios, and low concentrations of LH, A, and SHBG. The serum samples for hormonal analyses used as an aid in diagnosing PCOD should be obtained without pretreatment with progestogen because it masks the biochemical findings of PCOD.

  14. (cGnRH-II) on plasma steroid hormone, maturation and ovulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... (LHRHa) and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) in ..... Four out of six fish reached GVBD at 12 h after injection. Egg quality .... of the sbGnRH and cGnRH-II genes from the striped bass, Morone.

  15. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  16. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  17. Influence of Anthropometric Measurements on Abnormal Gonadotropin Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.; Mannan, N.; Qureshi, M. A.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of anthropometric measurements on abnormal gonadotropin secretion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), DUHS in collaboration with Gynae/infertility clinics of the Civil Hospital and Lady Dufferin Hospital, Karachi, from October 2010 to February 2011. Methodology: One hundred and sixty three oligomenorrhic PCOS women of reproductive age (18 - 40 years) fulfilling the revised Rotterdam 2003 criteria were studied. The data recorded on a prescribed proforma included current age, age at menarche, menstrual irregularities, presence of hirsuitism, acne, infertility, familial nature, blood pressure, BMI and waisthip ratio. Blood samples for gonadotropin assay were taken randomly on day 6th to 30th of menstrual cycle, in a gel tube. Hormonal assay was performed using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Kruskul Wallis test was used to assess the influence of BMI levels on LH:FSH values. Results: The mean weight was 66.14 +- 11.02 kg and mean BMI was 27.03 +- 4.42 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in mean LH/FSH ratio (p=.575) among BMI groups. However, there was a positive correlation between BMI and LH:FSH ratio (p=0.04, r=0.155). Conclusion: There was high frequency of obesity (69%) in women with PCOS. Although no significant difference was found between mean LH:FSH ratio among different BMI groups levels but significant correlation between BMI levels and LH: FSH suggested that there was positive relation between BMI and LH: FSH. (author)

  18. High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Oleksii O; Hinckley, Mary D; Rosenbluth, Evan M; Ivani, Kristen A; Weckstein, Louis N

    2017-11-01

    Does high gonadotropin dosage affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer? High gonadotropin dosage does NOT affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer. PGS has been proven to be the most effective and reliable method for embryo selection in IVF cycles. Euploidy and blastulation rates decrease significantly with advancing maternal age. In order to recruit an adequate number of follicles, the average dosage of gonadotropins administered during controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles often increases significantly with advancing maternal age. A retrospective study of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) PGS outcome data from blastocysts biopsied on day 5 or day 6 was conducted to identify differences in euploidy and clinical pregnancy rates. Seven hundred and ninety four cycles of IVF treatment with PGS between January 2013 and January 2017 followed by 651 frozen embryo transfers were included in the study (506 patients, maternal age (y.o.) - 37.2 ± 4.31). A total of 4034 embryos were analyzed (5.1 ± 3.76 per case) for euploidy status. All embryos were vitrified after biopsy, and selected embryos were subsequently thawed for a hormone replacement frozen embryo transfer cycle. All cycles were analyzed by total gonadotropin dosage (5000 IU), by number of eggs retrieved (1-5, 5-10, 10-15 and >15 eggs) and patient's age (cycles) euploidy rates ranged from 62.3% (cycle) to 67.5% (>5000 IU were used in the IVF cycle) (OR = 0.862, 95% CI 0.687-1.082, P = 0.2) and from 69.5% (1-5 eggs retrieved) to 60.0% (>15 eggs retrieved) (OR = 0.658, 95% CI 0.405-1.071, P = 0.09). Similar data were obtained in the oldest group of patients (≥41 y.o. - 189 IVF cycles): euploidy rates ranged from 30.7 to 26.4% (OR = 0.811, 95% CI 0.452-1.454, P = 0.481) when analyzed by total dosage of gonadotropins used in the IVF cycle and from 40.0 to 30.7% (OR = 0.531, 95% CI 0.204-1.384, P = 0.19), when assessed by the total

  19. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36) in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prabuddha; Roy, Shyamal K

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol-17β (E) plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36), a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h) and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h) and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx) resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  20. Oral contraceptive therapy for polycystic ovary disease after chronic gonadotropin-releasing agonist administration. Predictors of continued ovarian suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind-Hirsch, K E; Anania, C; Malinak, R

    1996-09-01

    To study the beneficial effects of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twenty-three hyperandrogenic women (aged 15-39) were randomized into two groups; GnRH-a (depot every 28 days) for six months or combination therapy (GnRH-a plus OC "addback") for six months. Following six months of treatment with either therapy, all patients received OC therapy for at least six months. The hormonal state was evaluated at three-month intervals. Hormone levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and free T remained suppressed within the normal range in 11 of 17 patients (65%) during the six months of OC only therapy, while the other six patients showed "escape" from suppression, with the LH, T and free T concentrations rising to pre-GnRH-a treatment levels. Use of OC addback therapy did not potentiate the long-acting therapeutic effect of GnRH-a pretreatment; three of six patients in the escape group were pretreated with combination therapy and three with GnRH-a only. In the majority of women with PCOD, OC therapy following GnRH-a administration was effective in maintaining ovarian androgen suppression. Failure to maintain ovarian suppression in this patient population was associated with higher elevations of baseline free T concentrations.

  1. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  2. Effects of pelvic telecobalt irradiation on gonadotropin secretin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, R.

    1978-01-01

    The pitnitary reaction in women operated according to Wertheim who had menstruated regularly was investigated during telecobalt irradiation. The pitnitary reaction was observed with the aid of the gonadotropin releasing factor. A dose of 25 mcg RH-LH was applied. Releasing factor examinations were carried out before exposure with functioning ovaries, after a dose of 2000 R (i.e., after 10 exposures), and after 6000 R. In the meantime, separate gonadotropin examinations were carried out continuously. A FSH reaction was observed already after 14 days, and the values were raised to almost menopause values. After this, the FSH increased further, while the LH reaction was not observed until much later. The investigation suggests an interrelation between follicle apparatus and FSH, oestrogens and LH. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a young competitive body-builder who abused anabolic steroid drugs and developed profound symptomatic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. With the help of prescribed testosterone (Sustanon) he stopped taking anabolic drugs, and later stopped Sustanon also. Hypogonadism returned, but was successfully treated with weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin for three months. Testicular function remained normal thereafter on no treatment. The use of human chorionic gonad...

  4. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  5. Associations of vitamin D status and vitamin D-related polymorphisms with sex hormones in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafiq, R.; van Schoor, Natasja M; Sohl, E.; Zillikens, M Carola; Oosterwerff, M.M.; Schaap, L; Lips, P; de Jongh, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence regarding relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with sex hormones and gonadotropin concentrations remains inconsistent. Polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes may underly these relationships. Our aim was to examine the relationship of vitamin D status and

  6. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  7. Autosomal Dominant Growth Hormone Deficiency (Type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Kular, Dalvir; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-06-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the commonest pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from congenital or acquired causes, although for most patients its etiology remains unknown. Among the known factors, heterozygous mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) lead to the autosomal dominant form of GHD, also known as type II GHD. In many cohorts this is the commonest form of congenital isolated GHD and is mainly caused by mutations that affect the correct splicing of GH-1. These mutations cause skipping of the third exon and lead to the production of a 17.5-kDa GH isoform that exerts a dominant negative effect on the secretion of the wild type GH. The identification of these mutations has clinical implications for the management of patients, as there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the increased expression of the 17.5-kDa isoform. Patients with type II GHD have a variable height deficit and severity of GHD and may develop additional pituitary hormone defiencies over time, including ACTH, TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies. Therefore, their lifelong follow-up is recommended. Detailed studies on the effect of heterozygous GH1 mutations on the trafficking, secretion and action of growth hormone can elucidate their mechanism on a cellular level and may influence future treatment options for GHD type II.

  8. Comparison of luteal estradiol patch and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist suppression protocol before gonadotropin stimulation versus microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist protocol for patients with a history of poor in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Vanessa N; Engmann, Lawrence; DiLuigi, Andrea; Maier, Donald; Nulsen, John; Benadiva, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    To compare IVF outcomes in poor-responder patients undergoing stimulation after luteal phase E(2) patch/GnRH antagonist (LPG) protocol versus microdose GnRH agonist protocol. Retrospective analysis. University-based IVF center. Forty-five women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF using the LPG protocol were compared with 76 women stimulated with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol from May 2005 to April 2006. Cancellation rate, number of oocytes retrieved, and clinical pregnancy rates. The mean number of oocytes (9.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 8.9 +/- 4.3) and mature oocytes (6.7 +/- 3.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 3.1) retrieved were similar, as were the fertilization rates (70.0% +/- 24.2% vs. 69.9% +/- 21.5%) and the number of embryos transferred (2.5 +/- 1.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 1.3). The cancellation rate was not significantly different between the groups (13/45, 28.9% vs. 23/76, 30.3%). Likewise, there were no significant differences among the implantation rate (15.0% vs. 12.5%), clinical pregnancy rate (43.3% vs. 45.1%), and ongoing pregnancy rate per transfer (33.3% vs. 26.0%) between both groups. This study demonstrates that the use of an E(2) patch and a GnRH antagonist during the preceding luteal phase in patients with a history of failed cycles can provide similar IVF outcomes when compared with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol.

  9. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  10. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  11. Obesity, serum steroid levels, and pulsatile gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Tulenheimo, A; Andersson, B; Kärkkäinen, J

    1983-04-01

    Serum binding capacity of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG-BC), steroid concentrations, and secretion patterns of LH and FSH were compared between groups of seven nonobese and seven obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Obese patients with PCOD differed from those with normal weight in having very low SHBG-BC and elevated serum levels of free and albumin bound testosterone. Compared to healthy women in the follicular phase, both nonobese and obese patients with PCOD showed equally elevated serum levels of androstenedione, estrone, and albumin-bound and free estradiol. Pattern of gonadotropin secretion was studied from blood samples taken at 15 min intervals for 6 h. In 6 patients of both groups low pulses of FSH were found coincidently with pulses of LH. Serum level of LH showed a clear pulsatile pattern in all patients with PCOD, varying from 4.5 to 7.5 pulses per 6 h. The mean pulse rate in the groups of nonobese and obese patients with PCOD was similar, 5.9 pulses per 6 h. In the obese patients the mean LH levels were, however, less elevated and the pulse amplitudes were smaller than those in the nonobese patients. We suggest that this difference is due to high levels of biologically active testosterone in obese patients with PCOD.

  12. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess on pre- and postnatal gonadotropin regulation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Thompson, Robert C; Herkimer, Carol; Welch, Kathleen B; Flak, Jonathan; Karsch, Fred J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms that mediate hypersecretion of LH and progressive loss of cyclicity in female sheep exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone. Our working hypothesis was that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH (but not FSH) secretion and, thus, hypersecretion of LH in adulthood, and that this results from altered developmental gene expression of GnRH and estradiol (E2) receptors, gonadotropin subunits, and paracrine factors that differentially regulate LH and FSH synthesis. We observed that, relative to controls, females exposed during fetal life to excess testosterone, as well as the nor-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, exhibited enhanced LH but not FSH responses to intermittent delivery of GnRH boluses under conditions in which endogenous LH (GnRH) pulses were suppressed. Luteinizing hormone hypersecretion was more evident in adults than in prepubertal females, and it was associated with development of acyclicity. Measurement of pituitary mRNA concentrations revealed that prenatal testosterone excess induced developmental changes in gene expression of pituitary GnRH and E2 receptors and paracrine modulators of LH and FSH synthesis in a manner consistent with subsequent amplification of LH release. Together, this series of studies suggests that prenatal testosterone excess, by its androgenic action, amplifies GnRH-induced LH response, leading to LH hypersecretion and acyclicity in adulthood, and that this programming involves developmental changes in expression of pituitary genes involved in LH and FSH release.

  13. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  14. Radioimmunological properties of antisera from carp gonadotropin (c-GTH) and its subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzawa-Gerard, Elisabeth; Kerdelhue, B.

    1978-01-01

    Anti-sera against carp gonadotropin (c-GTH) and its subunits SU I and SU II were produced in rabbits (IS-c-GTH, IS-SU I and IS-SU II). The radioimmunological titers were determined when antiserum binding dilution was 50 p. 100 of the 125 I-labelled glycoproteins. The titers of IS-c-GTH were 1/750 000, 1/300 000 and 1/500 000, respectively with c-GTH, SU I and SU II. With SU I, the titer of IS-SU I was 1/100 000 ; this antiserum in excess bound only 25 p. 100 of the c-GTH and no SU II. With c-GTH and SU II, the titer of IS-SU II was 1/270 000; it was 1/13 000 with SU I. With these antisera no binding was observed with rat hormones (LH, FSH, TSH, PRL) but IS-c-GTH and IS-SU II weakly bound rLH [fr

  15. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    central action of estrogens to increase the satiating potency of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin. Another mechanism involves a decrease in the preference for sweet foods during the follicular phase. Genetic defects in brain α-melanocycte-stimulating hormone-melanocortin receptor (melanocortin 4 receptor, MC4R) signaling lead to a syndrome of overeating and obesity that is particularly pronounced in women and in female animals. The syndrome appears around puberty in mice with genetic deletions of MC4R, suggesting a role of ovarian hormones. Emerging functional brain-imaging data indicates that fluctuations in ovarian hormones affect eating by influencing striatal dopaminergic processing of flavor hedonics and lateral prefrontal cortex processing of cognitive inhibitory controls of eating. There is a dearth of research on the neuroendocrine control of eating after menopause. There is also comparatively little research on the effects of ovarian hormones on EE, although changes in ovarian hormone levels during the menstrual cycle do affect resting EE. The markedly greater obesity burden in women makes understanding the diverse effects of ovarian hormones on eating, EE and body adiposity urgent research challenges. A variety of research modalities can be used to investigate these effects in women, and most of the mechanisms reviewed are accessible in animal models. Therefore, human and translational research on the roles of ovarian hormones in women's obesity and its causes should be intensified to gain further mechanistic insights that may ultimately be translated into novel anti-obesity therapies and thereby improve women's health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Use of equine chorionic gonadotropin to control reproduction of the dairy cow: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rensis, F; López-Gatius, F

    2014-04-01

    Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a member of the glycoprotein family of hormones along with LH, FSH and thyroid-stimulating hormone. In non-equid species, eCG shows high LH- and FSH-like activities and has a high affinity for both FSH and LH receptors in the ovaries. On the granulosa and thecal cells of the follicle, eCG has long-lasting LH- and FSH-like effects that stimulate oestradiol and progesterone secretion. Thus, eCG administration in dairy cattle results in fewer atretic follicles, the recruitment of more small follicles showing an elevated growth rate, the sustained growth of medium and large follicles and improved development of the dominant and pre-ovulatory follicle. In consequence, the quality of the ensuing CL is improved, and thereby progesterone secretion increased. Based on these characteristics, eCG treatment is utilized in veterinary medicine to control the reproductive activity of the cow by i) improving reproductive performance during early post-partum stages; ii) increasing ovulation and pregnancy rates in non-cyclic cows; iii) improving the conception rate in cows showing delayed ovulation; and finally, iv) eCG is currently included in protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination since after inducing the synchrony of ovulation using a progesterone-releasing device, eCG has beneficial effects on embryo development and survival. The above effects are not always observed in cyclic animals, but they are evident in animals in which LH secretion and ovarian activity are reduced or compromised, for instance, during the early post-partum period, under seasonal heat stress, in anoestrus animals or in animals with a low body condition score. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin to enhance reproductive performance in aged rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa E. Elkomy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty low-conception rate does aged 18 to 24 months (in four groups were used to determine the effect of replacement of prostaglandin (PG F2α (PGF2α injection by oral administration with sunflower oil (Sun (rich in omega 6 or linseed oil (Lin (rich in omega 3 on reproductive and productive performance. Group 1 was injected with 20 U of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 54 h before artificial insemination (AI and used as reference group. Group 2 was injected with 20 U of eCG+0.5 mg of PGF2α, 54 h before AI. Group 3 was orally given 3 mL of Sun/doe/day, for seven consecutive days before AI+20 U of eCG, 54 h before AI. Group 4 was treated like Group 3 except that the oil was Lin. Aged does treated with eCG+Sun had elevated blood 17-β estradiol concentration (P≤0.01 accompanied with a decrease of progesterone concentrations compared to the other experimental groups. Contrarily, no significant differences were found between eCG+Lin and eCG+PGF2α treatments on the previous two hormones. Likewise, aged does treated with eCG+Sun and eCG+Lin were statistically similar to those injected with ECG+synthetic PGF2α on blood prostaglandin profile, but still significantly higher than the control group. Treatment with eCG+Sun increased the percentage of fertile does (P≤0.01 and the litter size at birth compared to the other experimental groups. In conclusion, replacement of the PGF2α injection by oral administration of Sun or Lin to aged does improved sexual hormone synthesis and secretion, litter size and bunny body weight at birth.

  18. Late-onset hypogonadism: the advantages of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin rather than testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Cimino, Laura; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Morgia, Giuseppe; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-01-01

    The traditional pharmacological treatment of patients with late onset hypogonadism (LOH) is represented by different formulations of testosterone (T) or alternatively by the extractive human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). The hormone replacement treatment (HRT) is associated with the potential increase of hematocrit, serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume. Moreover, the gynecomastia represent a condition frequently associated with HRT. Recent evidences showed the role of leydig cells in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D and the elevated frequency of hypovitaminosis D among LOH patients. Finally, another important aspect of LOH is represented by the frequency of secondary infertility due to age or to traditional HRT. This study evaluated 40 LOH patients treated for 6 months with extractive HCG (n = 10 patients) and three different formulations of T: transdermal (n = 10 patients), undecaonate (n = 10 patients) and enantate (n = 10 patients). Hormonal, anthropometric, metabolic and sperm parameters were evaluated and compared. Moreover, the main safety parameters and the results of the main questionnaires were evaluated. After treatment, HCG group showed serum concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D significantly higher (p < 0.05) and serum concentrations of oestrogens significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Moreover, they showed a mean value of hematocrit, PSA and prostate volume significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with other groups. Finally, all the groups treated with T showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of sperm density and of percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility compared with HCG group.

  19. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  20. Tritium labeling of gonadotropin releasing hormone in its proline and histidine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauschenz, E.; Bienert, M.; Egler, H.; Pleiss, U.; Niedrich, H.; Nikolics, K.

    1981-01-01

    3,4-dehydroproline9-GnRH prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis was tritiated catalytically under various conditions yielding 3H-GnRH with specific radioactivities in the range from 35-60 Ci/mmol and full LH releasing activity in vitro. Using palladium/alumina catalyst, the tritiation of the double bond occurs within ten minutes. Investigation of the tritium distribution between the amino acid residues showed a remarkably high incorporation of tritium into the histidine residue (11 to 37%). On the basis of this observation, the tritium labeling of GnRH and angiotensin I by direct catalytic hydrogen-tritium exchange was found to be useful for the labeling of these peptides at remarkably high specific radioactivity

  1. Response to the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist leuprolide in immature female sheep androgenized in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS, female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone (T-females are hypergonadotropic, exhibit neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, hyperinsulinemia and cycle defects. Hypergonadotropism and multifollicular morphology may in part be due to developmentally regulated increase in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and may culminate in increased ovarian estradiol production. In this study, we utilized a GnRH agonist, leuprolide, to determine the developmental impact of prenatal testosterone exposure on pituitary-gonadal function and to establish if prenatal exposure produces changes in the reproductive axis similar to those described for women with PCOS. Eight control and eight T-females were injected intravenously with 0.1 mg of leuprolide acetate per kilogram of body weight at 5, 10 and 20 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected by means of an indwelling jugular vein catheter at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 hours after leuprolide. Area under the curve (AUC of LH response to leuprolide increased progressively between the three ages studied (P<0.05. AUC of LH in T-females was higher than in control females of the same age at 5 and 10 weeks of age (P<0.05, but similar at 20 weeks of age. AUC of estradiol response was lower at 10 but higher at 20 weeks of age in T-females compared to controls of the same age (P<0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment alters the pituitary and ovarian responsiveness in a manner comparable to that observed in women with PCOS.

  2. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists or Antagonists for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)? A Prospective Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoest, Willem; De Vos, Anick; De Rycke, Martine; Parikh, Shruti; Staessen, Catherine; Tournaye, Herman; De Vos, Michel; Vloeberghs, Veerle; Blockeel, Christophe

    2017-11-10

    The use of GnRH analogue medication is essential in reproductive medicine to avoid premature ovulation by pituitary suppression for the duration of ovarian stimulation by gonadotrophins. The type of pituitary suppression by either GnRH agonist analogues versus GnRH antagonist analogues may result in different embryological hence clinical results. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a subtype of IVF in which embryos are created for genetic diagnosis of hereditary disorders in order to avoid genetically affected children. Embryological quality hence ovarian stimulation in preimplantation genetic diagnosis is crucial as genetic selection will reduce the number of available embryos to a fraction of the total. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of GnRH antagonist versus GnRH agonist treatment for pituitary suppression in ovarian stimulation for PGD, by proxy of number and quality of embryos at cleavage stage available for biopsy. We conducted a prospective randomised controlled trial comparing pituitary suppression by GnRH antagonist versus GnRH agonist in ovarian stimulation for PGD. The primary outcome measure was the number of embryos of sufficient quality for biopsy at cleavage stage. Secondary outcome parameters were the number of blastocysts available of top quality, and clinical pregnancy rate. There was no difference in number of oocytes retrieved, embryos at cleavage stage available for biopsy or embryo quality. The clinical pregnancy rate was higher in the GnRH agonist group; however the sample size was insufficient to allow conclusions. The use of GnRH agonist versus antagonist treatment does not result in differences in a number of oocytes, embryos or embryo quality in ovarian stimulation for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Annamaria; Comeglio, Paolo; Sarchielli, Erica; Cellai, Ilaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella B.; Maggi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose...

  4. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  5. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Factor Analog-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... extends the slaughter interval for intact male swine injected with gonadotropin releasing factor analog...-322 for IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution...

  6. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. [[Page... veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate by subcutaneous... provides for the veterinary prescription use of IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid...

  7. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  8. Labelling and standardizing some pituitary hormones for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.

    1976-11-01

    Optimum conditions for efficient 125 I labelling of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) using chloramine-T have been established for radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amount of the hormone, chloramine-T, 125 I, and the reaction time were, respetively, controlled evaluating the yield and the bindability of the labelled hormone to its antibody. To measure the bindability, the labelled hormone was incubated together with its antibody for a definite temperature. In the separation of the free hormone (F) from the antibody bound (B), a double antibody technique was applied comparing with the chromatoelectrophoresis. For the efficient separation of the labelled hormone, two methods of separation such as gel filtration and gel electrophoresis were compared in the sensitivity and in the immunological activity points of view. Experiments for the production of HCG antibody were also conducted. The produced antisera were tested in two ways; i.e., the incubation test with the labelled hormone, and the Ouchterlony test. Using the produced anti-HCG serum and the purchased anti-FSH serum, standard dose-response curves were plotted correlating with the international standard preparation of the hormones

  9. Human chorionic gonadotropin, angiogenic factors, and preeclampsia risk: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvold, Bjørn O; Eskild, Anne; Vatten, Lars J

    2014-05-01

    To study whether human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations during pregnancy or combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin and other angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor (PlGF), are associated with preeclampsia risk. Nested case-control study. Population cohort of pregnant women. A total of 121 cases of preterm (cases of term preeclampsia (≥37 weeks of gestation) and 356 women without preeclampsia (controls). Women with preeclampsia were identified by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and PlGF were measured in maternal serum samples collected in each trimester of pregnancy. Odds ratios of preterm and term preeclampsia. High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (highest quartile) in the first trimester were associated with reduced risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), compared with low human chorionic gonadotropin (lowest quartile), whereas high human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the second trimester were associated with increased risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-8.9). High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the third trimester were associated with increased risk for term preeclampsia (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-13.3). Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin above the median value combined with PlGF below the median in the second trimester were associated with very high risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 36.9, 95% CI 8.2-165.8). The results suggest an important role of human chorionic gonadotropin in the pathophysiological processes that lead to preeclampsia. The combined association of human chorionic gonadotropin and PlGF indicates a possible synergism between underlying biological pathways. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Hormone-metabolic status in moderately smoking breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.

  11. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  12. Immunological properties of prolactin and studies on a gonadotropin binding inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The physiological role of prolactin in horses has not yet been well defined. With the availability of highly purified ePRL for inducing antibody formation in rabbits and for radiolabeling with Na 125 I, a very sensitive (0.4-0.6 ng/ml) and highly specific homologous RIA for ePRL was developed. A heterologous RIA using 125 I-labeled ovine PRL and anti-ePRL antiserum was also developed and compared to the homologous RIA for ePRL. Of the two systems, it is concluded that this homologous RIA system is more suitable and more reliable for measuring prolactin concentration in horse serum samples. Until now, biochemical information on PRL has not been available for reptilian species. Sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) prolactin was purified from pituitary extracts by selective precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. Similar to other species of PRL, sea turtle PRL is a 22,000-24,000 daltons protein and contains a high content of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine and leucine, the N-terminal amino acid residue. Gonadotropin (FSH) binding inhibitor was partially purified from sheep testes by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion exchange chromatography. The FSH-BI (molecular weight: 50,000 daltons, estimated by gel filtration) contains a protein moiety necessary for binding inhibitory activity. The inhibition of the binding of 125 I-labeled ovine FSH to its receptor by the FSH-BI is not competitive. Both in vivo and in vitro biological studies of FSH-BI preparations in rats indicated various effects on FSH and LH activities at the gonadal level. These findings suggest a physiological role for FSH-BI in the regulation of reproduction

  13. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  14. Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, L.

    1975-05-01

    Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60 Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 4 0 C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

  15. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  16. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzuk, M.M.; Krieger, M.; Corless, C.L.; Boime, I.

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common α subunit but differ in their hormone-specific β-subunits. The β subunit of hCG (hCGβ) is unique among the β subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either hCGβ gene alone or together with the hCGα gene were transfected into a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, 1d1D, which exhibits a reversible defect in O-glycosylation. The results reveal that hCGβ can be secreted normally in the absence of its O-linked oligosaccharides. hCGβ devoid of O-linked carbohydrate can also combine efficiently with hCGα and be secreted as an intact dimer. The authors conclude that in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the hCGβ O-linked chains play no role in the assembly and secretion of hCG. The normal and O-linked oligosaccharide-deficient forms of hCG secreted by these cells should prove useful in examining the role of O-linked chains on the biological function of hCG

  17. Induced maturation of eel Anguilla bicolor using different hormone combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Oman Sudrajat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Artificial reproduction of eel Anguilla bicolor is not yet well-established because of insufficient broodstock number. In this research, induction of Indonesian eel gonad maturation was performed by hormonal with a combination of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG antidopamin and recombinant growth hormone (rGH. This research consisted of five treatments namely: control (NaCl 0,9%, PMSG 20 IU/ kg, PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg, PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg + rGH 10 μg/kg dan PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg. Each treatment contained 10 fishes. Hormonal induction was conducted by intramuscular injections, as much as five times at intervals of seven days. Furthermore observations on gonadal development were performed after injection for 21 days. The results showed that the treatment generated pregnancy level of 100%, while control was 0%. The best treatment was PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg+ rGH 10 μg/kg, seen from a more mature phase of the gametes, spermatocytes in male and oocytes with perinukleolar phase in female fish. Eel at the body weight of 120.4 to 207.8 g and at the body length of 40.9 to 43.1 cm was male, at the body weight of 274.8 g and at the body length of 47 cm was in intersexual phase, and at the body weight of 323.4 g and at the body length of 53 cm was female. Keywords: Anguilla bicolor, antidopamin, hormones, PMSG, rGH, HCG  ABSTRAK Pemijahan ikan sidat secara buatan belum dapat dilakukan karena keterbatasan induk matang gonad. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon terhadap percepatan proses perkembangan gonad ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor. Hormon yang digunakan adalah kombinasi dari pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, antidopamin dan recombinant growth hormone (rGH. Induksi hormonal untuk mempercepat perkembangan gonad ikan sidat dilakukan melalui lima perlakuan yaitu yaitu kontrol

  18. Determination of acidity constants and ionic mobilities of polyprotic peptide hormones by CZE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Kašička, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 18 (2013), s. 2655-2665 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/0453; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acid dissociation constant * gonadotropin-releasing hormones * ionization constant * peptides * pK(a) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  19. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36 in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Estradiol-17β (E plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36, a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  20. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...... or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map...

  1. The circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif Johan; Franssohn, Florencia; Bungum, Mona Berger Håkonsen

    2013-01-01

    To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women....... By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated....

  2. Altered neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in women distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, J D; Evans, W S; Demers, L M; Thorner, M O; Wakat, D; Rogol, A D

    1985-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin secretion is altered in certain women distance runners with secondary amenorrhea. To this end, we quantitated the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous pulsatile LH secretion during a 24-h interval in nine such women. The ability of the pituitary gland to release LH normally was assessed by administration of graded bolus doses of GnRH during the subsequent 8 h. Compared to normally menstruating women, six of nine amenorrheic distance runners had a distinct reduction in spontaneous LH pulse frequency, with one, three, six, five, four, or two pulses per 24 h (normal, 8-15 pulses/24 h). This reduction in LH pulse frequency occurred without any significant alterations in plasma concentrations of estradiol and free testosterone or 24-h integrated serum concentrations of LH, FSH, or PRL. Moreover, in long-distance runners, the capacity of the pituitary gland to release LH was normal or accentuated in response to exogenous pulses of GnRH. In the six women athletes with diminished spontaneous LH pulsatility, acute ovarian responsiveness also was normal, since serum estradiol concentrations increased normally in response to the GnRH-induced LH pulses. Although long-distance runners had significantly lower estimated percent body fat compared to control women, specific changes in pulsatile gonadotropin release did not correlate with degree of body leanness. In summary, certain long-distance runners with secondary amenorrhea or severe oligomenorrhea have unambiguously decreased spontaneous LH pulse frequency with intact pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. This neuroendocrine disturbance may be relevant to exercise-associated amenorrhea, since pulsatile LH release is a prerequisite for cyclic ovarian function. We speculate that such alterations in pulsatile LH release in exercising women reflect an adaptive response of the hypothalamic pulse generator controlling the intermittent GnRH signal to the

  3. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  4. GnRH-induced Ca2+ signaling patterns and gonadotropin secretion in pituitary gonadotrophs. Functional adaptations to both ordinary and extraordinary physiological demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa eDurán-Pastén

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary gonadotrophs are a small fraction of the anterior pituitary population, yet they synthesize gonadotropins: luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating (FSH, essential for gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. LH is secreted via a regulated pathway while FSH release is mostly constitutive and controlled by synthesis. Although gonadotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously, the intracellular Ca2+ rises produced do not influence secretion, which is mainly driven by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH, a decapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypophyseal portal circulation. GnRH binding to G protein coupled receptors triggers Ca2+ mobilization from InsP3-sensitive intracellular pools, generating the global Ca2+ elevations necessary for secretion. Ca2+ signaling responses to increasing [GnRH] vary in stereotyped fashion from subthreshold to baseline spiking (oscillatory, to biphasic (spike-oscillatory or spike-plateau. This progression varies somewhat in gonadotrophs from different species and biological preparations. Both baseline spiking and biphasic GnRH-induced Ca2+ signals control LH/FSH synthesis and exocytosis. Estradiol and testosterone regulate gonadotropin secretion through feedback mechanisms, while FSH synthesis and release are influenced by activin, inhibin and follistatin. Adaptation to physiological events like the estrous cycle, involves changes in GnRH sensitivity and LH/FSH synthesis: in proestrus, estradiol feedback regulation abruptly changes from negative to positive, causing the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Similarly, when testosterone levels drop after orquiectomy the lack of negative feedback on pituitary and hypothalamus boosts both GnRH and LH secretion, gonadotrophs GnRH sensitivity increases and Ca2+ signaling patterns change. In addition, gonadotrophs proliferate and grow. These plastic changes denote a more vigorous functional adaptation in response to an extraordinary

  5. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on in vitro oocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... In vitro exposure of Barilius vagra ovarian follicles to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) .... breakdown (GVBD) by treating them with egg clearing solution ..... trihydroxy-5Я-pregnen-20-one, in female plaice (Pleuronectes.

  6. Recent advancements in the hormonal stimulation of ovulation in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knox RV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert V Knox Department of Animal Sciences, 360 Animal Sciences Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana, IL, USA Abstract: Induction of ovulation for controlled breeding is available for use around the world, and conditions for practical application appear promising. Many of the hormones available, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its analogs, as well as porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH, have been shown to be effective for advancing or synchronizing ovulation in gilts and weaned sows. Each of the hormones has unique attributes with respect to the physiology of its actions, how it is administered, its efficacy, and approval for use. The timing for induction of ovulation during the follicle phase is critical as follicle maturity changes over time, and the success of the response is determined by the stage of follicle development. Female fertility is also a primary factor affecting the success of ovulation induction and fixed time insemination protocols. Approximately 80%–90% of female pigs will develop mature follicles following weaning in sows and synchronization of estrus in gilts. However, those gilts and sows with follicles that are less developed and mature, or those that develop with abnormalities, will not respond to an ovulatory surge of LH. To address this problem, some protocols induce follicle development in all females, which can improve the overall reliability of the ovulation response. Control of ovulation is practical for use with fixed time artificial insemination and should prove highly advantageous for low-dose and single-service artificial insemination and for use with frozen-thawed and sex-sorted sperm. Keywords: artificial insemination, follicle, hormone, ovulation, swine

  7. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... inappropriate BCS nursing their kids, were unable give a proper response to ... in diet causes negative balance of energy for physiolo- gical activities like ..... trations of hormones and glucose in plasma and follicular fluid.

  8. Different serotonin receptor types participate in 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced gonadotropins and prolactin release in the female infantile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau-Mengido, I M; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D

    1996-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can be classified into at least three, possibly up to seven, classes of receptors. They comprise the 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 classes, the "uncloned' 5-HT4 receptor and the recombinant receptors 5-ht5, 5-ht6 and 5-ht7. We investigated the role of different serotonin receptor types in a neuroendocrine response to the activation of the serotonergic system. Female immature rats were chosen as an experimental model as it has been shown that during the 3rd week of life, and not at later developmental stages, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, a serotonin precursor) induces gonadotropin release in females and not in males. Besides, at this age, serotonin releases prolactin in both sexes. 5-HTP (50 mg/kg) released prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as expected. Ketanserin (5-HT2A antagonist) and methysergide (5-HT2C antagonist) blocked 5-HTP-induced prolactin release, but did not block the LH or FSH responses. Ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) did not modify prolactin response to 5-HTP, whereas it blocked 5-HTP-induced LH and FSH release. Propranolol (5-HT1 and beta-adrenergic antagonist) blocked prolactin, LH and FSH release induced by 5-HTP. The 5-HT2C agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine dihydrochloride released prolactin, without modifying LH or FSH release. Methyl-quipazine and phenylbiguanide (5-HT3 agonists) increased both LH and FSH levels, without altering prolactin secretion. The present experiments indicate that serotonin acting at the 5-HT3 receptor mediates LH and FSH release in infantile female rats, whereas 5-HT2C or 2A receptor types participate in the release of prolactin at this age. 5-HT1 receptor type may be involved in the release of the three hormones, though a beta-adrenergic component of the response cannot be discarded.

  9. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles after GnRH-agonist triggering of final oocyte maturation in the collecting cycle with GnRH-antagonist. DESIGN: Prospective, observational, multicentric clinical study. SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated IVF centers...... a total of 228 participants. Surplus embryos or oocytes at the pronuclear stage were cryopreserved in 53 patients after hCG administration and 32 patients after GnRH-agonist administration on the basis of patient choice, pronuclear/embryo availability, and local laws. INTERVENTION(S): Transfer of frozen......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...

  10. Comparison of gene expression profiles in granulosa and cumulus cells after ovulation induction with either human chorionic gonadotropin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa.......To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa....

  11. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Bredkjær, Helle Ejdrup; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...... IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients after a GnRH antagonist protocol. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction was performed with either 10,000 IU hCG or 0.5 mg GnRHa (buserelin) supplemented with 1,500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte retrieval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcome...... bolus of hCG in the GnRHa group secured the luteal phase, resulting in a comparable reproductive outcome in the two groups. However, a nonsignificant difference of 7% in delivery rates justifies further studies to refine the use of GnRHa for ovulation induction....

  12. Gonadotropin-dependent oocyte maturational competence requires activation of the protein kinase A pathway and synthesis of RNA and protein in ovarian follicles of Nibe, Nibea mitsukurii (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Shusa, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Patino, R.

    2002-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone- (LH)-dependent ovarian follicle maturation has been recently described in two stages for teleost fishes. The oocyte's ability to respond to the steroidal maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is acquired during the first stage; whereas the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis occurs during the second stage. However, studies directly addressing OMC have been performed with a limited number of species and therefore the general relevance of the two-stage model and its mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the hormonal regulation of OMC and its basic transduction mechanisms in ovarian follicles of the sciaenid teleost, Nibe (Nibea mitsukurii). Exposure to MIH [17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one or 17,20??,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one] stimulated germinal vesicle breakdown (index of meiotic resumption) in full-grown follicles primed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, an LH-like gonadotropin) but not in those pre-cultured in plain incubation medium. The induction of OMC by HCG was mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP), and blocked by specific inhibitors of PKA (H89 and H8) as well as inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) and protein (cycloheximide) synthesis. Forskolin-induced OMC was also inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide. A strong activator of protein kinase C, PMA, inhibited HCG-dependent OMC. In conclusion, OMC in Nibe ovarian follicles is gonadotropin-dependent and requires activation of the PKA pathway followed by gene transcription and translation events. These observations are consistent with the two-stage model of ovarian follicle maturation proposed for other teleosts, and suggest that Nibe can be used as new model species for mechanistic studies of ovarian follicle differentiation and maturation in fishes.

  13. [Anthology of the first clinical studies with hypothalamic hormones: a story of successful international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schally, Andrew V; Gual, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Our early pioneering clinical trials in Mexico with natural and synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) also known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH), were reviewed. Highly purified TRH of porcine origin was shown to stimulate Thyrotropin (TSH) release in hypothyroid cretins. Subsequent tests with synthetic TRH also demonstrated significant increases in plasma TSH in normal men and women as well as in patients with primary hypothyroidism and other endocrine disorders. Even more extensive clinical studies were carried out with highly purified natural porcine LH-RH. Subjects with normal basal serum levels of gonadotropins, low levels (men and women pretreated with steroids) and high levels (e.g. post menopausal women) all responded to LH-RH with a release of LH and FSH. The results of these early studies with the natural LH-RH were confirmed by the use of synthetic LH-RH. These investigations made in Mexico with TRH and LH-RH preceded all other clinical studies by a wide margin. Subsequently various clinical investigations with LH-RH agonists and antagonists were also carried out. All these studies played a major role in introducing hypothalamic-releasing hormones into clinical medicine.

  14. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  15. Effects of a single administration of different gonadotropins on day 7 post-insemination on pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; Aboul-Ezz, Z R

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a single administration of one of three different gonadotropins on Day 7 post-insemination on ovarian activity, progesterone (P 4 ) concentration and pregnancy outcomes of rabbit does. Multiparous, non-lactating, V-line does were artificially inseminated after synchronization and ovulation induction with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 25 IU im) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 0.8  μg buserelin im) 48 h later. On Day 7 post-inseminarion, does were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 40/group). Does of each group were intramuscularly injected with a single dose of one of physiological saline (placebo; control), GnRH (0.8  μg buserelin), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 25 IU) or eCG (25 IU). Concentration of serum P 4 was determined on Days 6, 9, 11 and 18 post-insemination. On Day 14 post-insemination, the ovaries and reproductive tracts of pregnant does were removed and weighed. Also, numbers of visible follicles, hemorrhagic follicles, corpora lutea of pregnancy (pCLs), new CLs (nCLs; formed after Day 7 post-insemination) and implantation sites were recorded. Conception rate, parturition rate, abortion rate, litter size/weight and litter viability were recorded. The highest (P reproductive tract and ovary weights were for eCG. The highest (P rate of fetal loss was in does treated with GnRH. The concentration of serum P 4 decreased (P conception and parturition rates by 24 and 22%; respectively, while GnRH and hCG treatments decreased (P < 0.05) them by 57 and 47.6%; respectively. Litter size and litter weight at birth were improved by eCG, but were adversely affectd by GnRH and hCG. In conclusion, a single administration of eCG 7 Days post-insemination could be recommended for improving pregnancy outcomes in rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  17. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone elevation (PE during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the

  18. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G.; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  19. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strakova Zuzana

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  20. Hormone Use for Therapeutic Amenorrhea and Contraception During Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Katherine; Merideth, Melissa A.; Stratton, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing population of women who have or will undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant for a variety of malignant and benign conditions. Gynecologists play an important role in addressing the gynecologic and reproductive health concerns for these women throughout the transplant process. As women undergo cell transplantation, they should avoid becoming pregnant and are at risk of uterine bleeding. Thus, counseling about and implementing hormonal treatments such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, combined hormonal contraceptives, and progestin-only methods help to achieve therapeutic amenorrhea and can serve as contraception during the peritransplant period. In this commentary, we summarize the timing, risks and benefits of the hormonal options just prior, during and for the year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:26348182

  1. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    .6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  2. Standardization of androstenedione and estrone radioimmunoassay and profile of sex steroids, gonadotropins and prolactin - in patients with chronic anovulation due to inappropriate feedback (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Maria do Socorro Veras

    1992-01-01

    Full text. In order to evaluate the profile of the sex steroids gonadotropin and prolactin in polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS), 24 patients with POS were studied and compared with 20 normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay techniques for androstenedione (A) and estrone (E 1 ) were standardized for the purpose of the study. Androstenedione and estrone were extracted from plasma with ethyl ether. The assays were maintained in equilibrium and the labelled hormone-antibody complex was then separated from the free hormone using dextran charcoal. The sensitivity of the method was 6.8 pg/tube for A and 3.7 pg/tube for E 1 . Nonspecific binding ws 3.4 for A and 3.3 for E 1 . The interessay error at the D50 level was 15.6 for A and 8.6 for E 1 . Patients with POS had significantly higher basal levels of LH, A, T E 1 and PRL and similar FSH and DHEA-S levels when compared with normal women. The LH/FSH ratio was significantly elevated and the A/T ratio was significantly decreased. The A/E 1 and T/E 2 ratios were elevated and the E 1 /E 2 was decreased, although the differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation between A and E 1 was observed in patients with POS. In view of the above data, it was concluded that: the quality control parameters of the radioimmunoassay for A and E 1 standardized in the present study are considered satisfactory, and the assay could be used for diagnosis and research; the patients with POS have a different sex steroid and gonadotropin profile when compared normal women during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

  3. Chorionic gonadotropin regulates the transcript level of VHL, p53, and HIF-2alpha in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, D; Keck, C; Tempfer, C; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2004-12-01

    The ovarian corpus luteum plays a critical role in reproduction being the primary source of circulating progesterone. After ovulation the corpus luteum is build by avascular granulosa lutein cells through rapid vascularization regulated by gonadotropic hormones. The present study was performed to investigate whether this process might be influenced by the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-dependent expression of different tumor suppressor genes and hypoxia dependent transcription factors. RNA was isolated from cultured granulosa lutein cells, transcribed into cDNA, and the transcript level of following genes were determined: RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, APC, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), -2, and -3alpha. Additionally, the influence of hCG on the expression of VHL, p53, and HIf2alpha were investigated. We demonstrate that in human granulosa lutein cells the tumor suppressor genes RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, and APC and the hypoxia dependent transcription factors HIF-1alpha, -2alpha, and -3alpha are expressed. In addition, we showed that hCG regulates the expression of p53, VHL, and HIF-2alpha. Our results indicate that hCG may determine the growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating hypoxic and apoptotic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after human menopausal gonadotropin and medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yun; Chen, Qiuju; Lu, Xuefeng; Hong, Qingqing; Kuang, Yanping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations in children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer cycles using human menopausal gonadotrophin and medroxyprogesterone acetate (hMG + MPA) treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 4596 live born babies. During January 2014-June 2016, children born after either hMG + MPA treatment, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist short protocol, or mild ovarian stimulation were included. The main outcome measures were neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations. Neonatal outcomes both for singletons and twins such as mean birth weight and length, gestational age, the frequency of preterm birth were comparable between groups. Rate of stillbirth and perinatal death were also similar. No significant differences were found in the overall incidence of congenital malformations between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that hMG + MPA regimen did not significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations compared with short protocol and mild ovarian stimulation, with adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-2.44] and 1.38 (CI 0.65-2.93), respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Our data suggested that compared with conventional ovarian stimulations, hMG + MPA treatment neither compromised neonatal outcomes of IVF newborns, nor did increase the prevalence of congenital malformations.

  5. Effect of gonadotropins on oocyte maturation in vitro: an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Wei; Xu, Bao-Zeng; Li, Mo; Liu, Di; Feng, Huai L; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2010-03-15

    Analysis of the effects of human-derived gonadotropin drugs, FSH and LH (Repronex) and hCG (Novarel), on oocyte maturation, using a porcine oocyte in vitro maturation system as a culture model. Randomized research experimental study. Academic basic research laboratory. Prepubertal gilts that were slaughtered in the local slaughter house. Oocytes will be exposed to immunofluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Western blot analysis on cumulus-oocyte-complexes following treatment with different concentrations of the gonadotropin drugs Repronex, Novarel, and a Repronex and Novarel combination. Analysis of porcine oocyte spindle and chromosomal configuration with alpha-tubulin-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody and propidium iodide staining. Porcine oocyte mitochondrial distribution and aggregation pattern staining was assessed with Mito Tracker Red CMXRox probe. Porcine oocyte cortical granule distribution was observed via peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyannate staining; Western blot analysis detected extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in cumulus cells. An increase of gonadotropin concentration in the culture medium resulted in an increase in the following: the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II, normal configuration of the spindle, normal chromosomal alignment, cortical granule migration, and mitochondrial aggregation. Levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation peaked as the concentration of gonadotropins approached its threshold level. Addition of a threshold concentration of the gonadotropin drugs Repronex, Novarel, and a combination of the two can significantly improve porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  7. Cyclic estrous-like behavior in a spayed cat associated with excessive sex-hormone production by an adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meler, Erika N; Scott-Moncrieff, J Catharine; Peter, Augustine T; Bennett, Sara; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Salisbury, S Kathleen; Naughton, James F

    2011-06-01

    A 15-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for 1-year duration of cyclic intermittent estrous behavior. Diagnostic testing performed before referral, including baseline progesterone concentration, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone stimulation test and surgical exploratory laparotomy, had remained inconclusive for a remnant ovary. Evaluation of sex hormones before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration revealed increased basal concentrations of androstenedione, estradiol, progesterone, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and normal ACTH-stimulated hormone concentrations. Enlargement of the right adrenal gland was identified by abdominal ultrasound. The cat underwent an adrenalectomy and histopathology of the excised adrenal gland was consistent with an adrenocortical carcinoma. Clinical signs resolved immediately following surgery, and most hormone concentrations declined to within or below the reference interval (RI) by 2 months after surgery. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gonadotropins in Infertile Men with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Abbasi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stimulatory therapy with gonadotrpins is an effective treatment to inducespermatogenesis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotroptic hypogonadism (IHH. The aim ofthis study was to assess the effectiveness of human chorionic gonadotropin / human menopausalgonadotropin on hypogonadotropic infertile men.Materials and Methods: This study included fifty-six azoospermic infertile men with IHH treatedwith hCG / hMG. All patients received hCG (5000 IU, IM3 times /week for three months. Afterthat, treatment was continued combined with hMG (75 IU, IM 3 times/week. Semen analysis wasperformed every 3 months. After 15 months, fine needle aspiration was performed if the patientswere azoospermic. Treatment continued if mature spermatozoa were present in FNA, otherwisetreatment was discontinued. In the former cases, semen analysis was requested 24months afterthebeginning of treatment.Results: In this study, spermatozoa were present in the ejaculate in 50 out of 56 patients (89.2%after combined treatment. Average time of sperm appearance was 9.2 months. Mean spermconcentration was 9.12 x 106/ml. FNA carried out after 15 months of treatment in 23(41% ofpatients with persistent azoospermia, 91.3% of these latter patients had mature spermatozoa on fineneedle aspiration. Pregnancy occurred in 23 (41% cases.The mean sperm concentration in patients whose spouses became pregnant was 15.56x 10.6Conclusion: hCG/ hMG combination therapy is effective treatment for fertility in patients withIHH. FNA can be used as a safe and suitable tool to evaluate patients that remains azoospermicafter 15 month of treatment.

  9. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Constantinos C; Fostier, Alexis; Zanuy, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Control of reproductive function in captivity is essential for the sustainability of commercial aquaculture production, and in many fishes it can be achieved by manipulating photoperiod, water temperature or spawning substrate. The fish reproductive cycle is separated in the growth (gametogenesis) and maturation phase (oocyte maturation and spermiation), both controlled by the reproductive hormones of the brain, pituitary and gonad. Although the growth phase of reproductive development is concluded in captivity in most fishes-the major exemption being the freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.), oocyte maturation (OM) and ovulation in females, and spermiation in males may require exogenous hormonal therapies. In some fishes, these hormonal manipulations are used only as a management tool to enhance the efficiency of egg production and facilitate hatchery operations, but in others exogenous hormones are the only way to produce fertilized eggs reliably. Hormonal manipulations of reproductive function in cultured fishes have focused on the use of either exogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) preparations that act directly at the level of the gonad, or synthetic agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) that act at the level of the pituitary to induce release of the endogenous LH stores, which, in turn act at the level of the gonad to induce steroidogenesis and the process of OM and spermiation. After hormonal induction of maturation, broodstock should spawn spontaneously in their rearing enclosures, however, the natural breeding behavior followed by spontaneous spawning may be lost in aquaculture conditions. Therefore, for many species it is also necessary to employ artificial gamete collection and fertilization. Finally, a common question in regards to hormonal therapies is their effect on gamete quality, compared to naturally maturing or spawning broodfish. The main factors that may have significant consequences on gamete quality-mainly on eggs-and should be considered

  10. Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Prediction of Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Brad; Garvin, Sicily; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble mediator that helps govern the interaction between cytokines and stress hormones (e.g. cortisol). We determined if maternal MIF levels predicted subsequent preterm delivery (PTD). Study Design: A nested case-control study...

  11. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  12. Isolation and characterization of gonadotropin isohormones from the pituitary gland of pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-L.; Huang, C.-J.; Lin, S.-H.; Lo, T.-B.; Papkoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    Pike eel gonadotropins were isolated from pituitary glands by 40% alcohol-6% ammonium acetate, pH 5.1 extraction and were purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and electrophoresis into four electrophoretically homogeneous forms. These four isohormones were biologically identified as gonadotropins by the stimulation of 32 P-uptake in 1-day-old chick testes, by the induction of ovulation in catfish, and by the in vitro production of testosterone from isolated rat Leydig cells and of androgen from carp testes. The amino acid composition of the isohormones were similar to other known piscine gonadotropins (carp and salmon) and were composed of two non-identical subunits with Tyr and Ser as N-terminal amino acid residues. The molecular weights of two subunits were 15000 and 10500, respectively, as estimated by SDS-gel disc electrophoresis. (author)

  13. [Accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the ovary of the eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in vitro under the effect of carp gonadotropin or ovine lutropin: kinetics and thermodependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, C; Marchelidon, J; Fontaine-Bertrand, E; Fontaine, Y A

    1986-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) in pieces of eel ovary was greatly increased in vitro by the gonadotropin (cGTH) of carp, another teleost fish; after one hour at 20 degrees C, maximal stimulation = 31.7 and E.D. 50 = 0.08 micrograms/ml. Ovine lutropin (oLH) had less effect (maximal stimulation: 2.35; E.D. 50: 1.42 micrograms/ml); its action suggested that it involved a subfraction (oLH/cGTH RAc) of the receptor-adenylate cyclase (RAc) systems which mediate the action of cGTH. Another difference was the percentage of total cAMP accumulated under hormonal stimulation and released into the incubation medium; this percentage was much higher with oLH than with cGTH (47 vs 8% after one hour at 20 degrees C). This result might be explained by a localization of oLH/cGTH RAc in cells (theca ?) situated on the outside of the follicles and/or by a relative lack of cAMP binding proteins in the case of cAMP produced by oLH/cGTH RAc. Kinetic and thermodependence studies also disclosed hormone-dependent differences; at 5 degrees C, cAMP concentration was maximal after 40 min with oLH, whereas it was still increasing after 3 h with cGTH. Differences in the properties of phosphodiesterases and/or in the clearance rate of hormone-receptor (HR) complexes could explain these results. The set of RAc systems in eel ovary recognizing fish gonadotropin would then be heterogeneous; some of them would be endowed with original properties concerning receptor specificity and cAMP diffusion as well as associated phosphodiesterase activity and/or HR metabolism. We suggest that at a stage of evolution when a single sensu stricto GTH is present (instead of two in tetrapods), "isoreceptors", differing in specificity and in their fate after hormone binding, could be an important element in the fine regulation of gonadal functions.

  14. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  15. Efficacy and Outcome Predictors of Gonadotropin Treatment for Male Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Mao, Jangfeng; Wu, Xueyan; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Huang, Bingkun; Zheng, Junjie; Nie, Min; Zhang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gonadotropin induces masculinization and spermatogenesis in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). However, large cohort studies for the efficacy and reliable predictors of this therapy need to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of gonadotropin treatment in a large cohort of male CHH patients and analyze putative predictors for successful spermatogenesis. This retrospective study included 223 CHH azoospermic patients without puberty development treated between 2005 and 2014. All patients received combined human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and were followed up for >6 months (5109 person-months). Serum total testosterone level, testicular size, spermatogenesis, and pregnancy outcome were recorded at each visit. After gonadotropin therapy, testicular size was enlarged from 2.1 ± 1.6 to 8.1 ± 4.6 mL (P 0/mL) occurred at a median period of 15 months (95% confidence interval 13.5–16.5). Larger basal testicular volume (P = 0.012) and noncryptorchidism history (P = 0.028) are independent predictors for earlier sperm appearance. Sixty four percent (143/223) of patients succeeded in producing sperms and the average time for initial sperm detection was 14 ± 8 months. However, their sperm concentrations (11.7 [2.1, 24.4] million/mL) and sperm progressive motility (A + B 36.9% ± 20.2%) are significantly lower than World Health Organization standards. Of the 34 patients who desired for fathering children, 19 patients impregnanted their partners during the treatment. Gonadotropin therapy induces spermatogenesis in male CHH patients. A larger basal testicular size and noncryptorchidism history are favorable indicators for earlier spermatogenesis. PMID:26945370

  16. Low dosing of gonadotropins in in vitro fertilization cycles for women with poor ovarian reserve: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, Mohamed Abdel-Fattah; van Wely, Madelon; Mochtar, Monique; Fouda, Usama Mohamed; Eldaly, Ashraf; El Abidin, Eman Zein; Elhalwagy, Ahmed; Mageed Abdallah, Ahmed Abdel; Zaki, Sherif Sameh; Abdel Ghafar, Mohamed Sayed; Mohesen, Mohamed Nagi; van der Veen, Fulco

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of low doses of gonadotropins and gonadotropins combined with oral compounds compared with high doses of gonadotropins in ovarian stimulation regimens in terms of ongoing pregnancy per fresh IVF attempt in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing

  17. Hormone Stories in Argentina.Obesity in children and early diagnosis of pregnancy in the 1930s and 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rustoyburu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article inquires, from a gender perspective, knowledge production about hormones in Argentina, between the years 1930-1940. We understand that a historical analysis of scientific ideas and clinical practices allows explore how they involved on the social scenario which they belong, plus the institutional contexts where they are elaborated. We will focus on endocrinologist's Hospital de Niños de Buenos Aires perspective about obesity on childhood, and adipose genital síndrome, andearly diagnosis of pregnancy and chorionic gonadotropin hormone in the 1930s and 1940s

  18. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, S.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Pinborg, A.

    2015-01-01

    resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 +/- 3 days post intervention. At both...... sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol...

  19. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF SALVIA SCLAREA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rakoe

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... This study demonstrated anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of lavender, sage and ... Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by ... The highest inhibitory effect against HSV-2 was observed after treatment ..... some nuclear-replicating eukaryotic DNA viruses with large genomes.

  20. Inhibitory control in childhood stuttering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, K.; de Nil, L.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method Participants were 30 children who

  1. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-10-01

    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  2. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response to chemo...

  3. Premenstrual Exacerbation of Life-Threatening Asthma: Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alun L Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the severity of asthma during various phases of the menstrual cycle has been frequently suspected. However, the hormonal changes that might affect mediators of bronchospasm have yet to be elucidated. The case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from longstanding asthma with life-threatening exacerbations is reported. The patient was treated with buserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue, which created a temporary chemical menopause and thus permitted diagnosis of a premenstrual exacerbation of asthma and offered insight into potential therapy. GnRH analogues may therefore be of value in assessing women with severe asthma suspected to vary with the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogens and progestins at the same time as treatment with GnRH analogue may be of value in determining the role of these hormones in the pathogenesis of menstrually related exacerbations of asthma.

  4. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  5. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  6. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  7. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  8. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  9. Pharmacologically Induced Sex Hormone Fluctuation Effects on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in a Risk Model for Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Larsen, Camilla Borgsted; Beliveau, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by marked fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute...... to heightened risk is not fully understood but may involve intrinsic functional connectivity. We induced a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin to determine, with a randomized placebo-controlled design, intervention effects on or Gn....... Considering the GnRHa group only, the emergence of depressive symptoms following intervention was positively associated with amygdala-right temporal cortex and negatively associated with hippocampus-cingulate rs-FC. A test for mediation suggested that rs-FC changes in these networks marginally mediated...

  10. Incorporation of 14C-amino acids in hormone-active hypophysis fractions in various physiological situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, P.; Gschwendtova, K.; Listiakova, M.; Hegedus, L.

    1973-07-01

    The incorporation was studied of 14 C-leucine and 3 H-glucosamine in the individual protein fractions of the hypophysis of rats following various invasions of the endocrine system with the aim of localizing the individual hormonally active proteins of the hypophysis, especially the thyrotropic hormone and gonadotropins on a polyacrylamide gel. The probable localization of the thyrotropic hormone was determined on the basis of changes in the incorporation of 3 H-glucosamine in the zone above the growth hormone in thyroidectomized animals to whom thyroxine had been administered at different intervals before sacrificing. This localization roughly agrees with data in the literature and has been experimentally verified. (J.P.)

  11. Impulsivity: A deficiency of inhibitory control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Impulsivity has been defined as acting without thinking. Impulsivity can be quantified by impulsivity questionnaires, but also by behavioral paradigms which tax inhibitory control. Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated deficient inhibitory control in psychopathological samples characterized

  12. A neurokinin 3 receptor-selective agonist accelerates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in lactating cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sho; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Ohkura, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle. We examined the effects of the administration of an NK3R-selective agonist, senktide, on gonadotropin secretion in lactating cattle. The lactating cattle, at approximately 7 days postpartum, were intravenously infused with senktide (30 or 300 nmol/min) or vehicle for 24 h. The administration of 30 or 300 nmol/min senktide significantly increased LH pulse frequency compared to in the control group during 0-4 or 20-24 h after infusion, respectively. Moreover, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were gradually increased by 300 nmol/min administration of senktide during the 0-4-h sampling period. Ultrasonography of the ovaries was performed to identify the first postpartum ovulation in senktide-administered lactating cattle. The interval from calving to first postpartum ovulation was significantly shorter in the 300 nmol/min senktide-administered group than in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest that senktide infusion elicits an increase in LH pulse frequency that may stimulate follicular development and, in turn, induce the first postpartum ovulation in lactating cattle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone in women with amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone (LH) was performed in 6 women treated with monopausal gonadotropin - because of amenorrhoe. The observations of the course of treatment demonstrated different concentration of LH in women treated because of primary and secondary amenorrhoe. In cases of primary amenorrhoe increase of the LH concentration appeared in the form of ovulation peak being closely correlated with the first injection of Biogonadyl (HCG) preparation. Different observations were made in the secondary amenorrhoe group, where urinary LH increase proceeded for some hours the adminstration of the exogenous chrionic gonadotropin. This may prove the induction of ovulation without the participation of HCG, as an effect of the menopausal gonadotropin (Menogonadyl) with established 1:1 ratio of FSH:LH. In the examined group of women with secondary amenorrhoe the radioimmunologic assay demonstrated persisting through several days high levels of urinary LH - undetectable by serological methods. In 4 cases corpus luteum appeared in the course of treatment - confirmed by cytologic examination and by determination of urainary pregnandiol activity. (author)

  14. Supplementation with a recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin microdose leads to similar outcomes in ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone using either a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or antagonist for pituitary suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Mario; Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; de Souza Bonetti, Tatiana Carvalho; de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Daniela Paes; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2010-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of protocols for ovarian stimulation with recombinant hCG microdose, with GnRH agonists and antagonists for pituitary suppression. Prospective nonrandomized clinical trial. A private assisted reproduction center. We studied 182 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, allocated into two groups: GnRH agonist group, in which patients received a GnRH agonist (n = 73), and a GnRH antagonist group, in which patients were administered a GnRH antagonist for pituitary suppression (n = 109). Pituitary suppression with GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist. Ovarian stimulation carried out with recombinant FSH and supplemented with recombinant hCG microdose. Total dose of recombinant FSH and recombinant hCG administered; E(2) concentrations and endometrial width on the day of hCG trigger; number of follicles aspirated, oocytes and mature oocytes retrieved; fertilization, pregnancy (PR), implantation, and miscarriage rates. The total dose of recombinant FSH and recombinant hCG administered were similar between groups, as were the E(2) concentrations and endometrial width. The number of follicles aspirated, oocytes, and metaphase II oocytes collected were also comparable. There were no statistically significant differences in fertilization, PR, implantation, and miscarriage rates in the GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist groups. When using recombinant hCG microdose supplementation for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), there are no differences in laboratory or clinical outcomes with the use of either GnRH antagonist or agonist for pituitary suppression. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Critical evaluation of the radioiodination of follicle-stimulating-and luteinizing hormones by lactoperoxidase and its comparison with chloramine-T classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the enzymatic radioiodination of human gonadotropins by a system consisting of lactoperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide and Na 125 I. A comparison witth the clhloramine-T modified technique was done a satisfactory specific activity (100 μCi/μg) of the labeled hormone was obtained with the enzymatic iodination, with much greater immunoreactivity and stability than after chloramine-T. As aqueous polyethylene glycol causes precipitation of antibody-bound peptide hormones with radioactive iodine with little or no precipitation of free hormones, a method of separation was developed and applied to radioimmunoassay of gonadotropins, providing several advantages over te double-antibody precipitation method. It was demonstrated that, in humans, the intravenous administration of synthetic LH-FSH/RH, stimulates the pituitary release of both LH and FSH. Results are reported now for normal women, infused with an acute load of 25μg of synthetic LH/FSH-RH and 8 hours infusion of 100μg, during the mid-follicular and luteal phases. The greatest gonadotropin responsiveness to LH/FSH-RH are found in the luteal phase during acute testing. No differences were noticed during chronic infusion as well as acute post-chronic, performed in both phases of the menstrual cycle. The possible modulating effects of steroidal secretion by the ovaries are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Low dosing of gonadotropins in in vitro fertilization cycles for women with poor ovarian reserve: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed Abdel-Fattah; van Wely, Madelon; Mochtar, Monique; Fouda, Usama Mohamed; Eldaly, Ashraf; El Abidin, Eman Zein; Elhalwagy, Ahmed; Mageed Abdallah, Ahmed Abdel; Zaki, Sherif Sameh; Abdel Ghafar, Mohamed Sayed; Mohesen, Mohamed Nagi; van der Veen, Fulco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of low doses of gonadotropins and gonadotropins combined with oral compounds compared with high doses of gonadotropins in ovarian stimulation regimens in terms of ongoing pregnancy per fresh IVF attempt in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies that evaluate the effectiveness of low dosing of gonadotropins alone or combined with oral compounds compared with high doses of gonadotropins in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. Not applicable. Subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Clinical Trials Registry using medical subject headings and free text terms up to June 2016, without language or year restrictions. We included randomized controlled studies (RCTs) enrolling subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment and comparing low doses of gonadotropins and gonadotropins combined with oral compounds versus high doses of gonadotropins. We assessed the risk of bias using the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. We pooled the results by meta-analysis using the fixed and random effects model. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate (PR) per woman randomized. We retrieved 787 records. Fourteen RCTs (N = 2,104 women) were included in the analysis. Five studies (N = 717 women) compared low doses of gonadotropins versus high doses of gonadotropins. There was no evidence of a difference in ongoing PR (2 RCTs: risk rate 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.57, I 2 = 0). Nine studies (N = 1,387 women) compared ovarian stimulation using gonadotropins combined with the oral compounds letrozole (n = 6) or clomiphene citrate (CC) (n = 3) versus high doses of gonadotropins. There was no evidence of a difference in ongoing PR (3 RCTs: risk

  17. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  18. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2015-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially

  19. The use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog deslorelin for short-term contraception in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppel, Katja N; Barrows, Michelle; Visser, Katherine

    2014-01-15

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) are threatened with extinction owing to habitat loss, exacerbated by their unique ecology and low fecundity. Regional breeding programs manage captive red panda populations. Recommendations not to breed may be made for various reasons, including genetic overrepresentation of certain individuals. No recommendations have been published on the use of contraception for red pandas. This article discusses the use of the GnRH analog deslorelin as a reversible method of contraception in both male and female pandas. The mean time from last contraception to conception was 3 years with a 4.6-mg deslorelin implant. The average dose of GnRH implant received was 1.09 mg/kg (range, 0.88-1.32). Males returned to breeding sooner than females. No reproductive side effects were noted with up to three consecutive annual GnRH implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Six-month gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist depots provide efficacy, safety, convenience, and comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E David Crawford, Jason M PhillipsUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Two different 6-month GnRH agonist depot formulations approved for palliative treatment of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States – leuprolide acetate 45 mg and triptorelinpalmoate 22.5 mg – provide patients with efficacy and safety comparable to those of existing 1-, 3-, and 4-month GnRH agonist depots. However, the 6-month formulations can increase patient convenience, comfort, and compliance by reducing the number of physician visits and injections required. At the conclusion of their pivotal trials, the 6-month formulations demonstrated efficacy rates in achieving chemical castration (serum testosterone #50 ng/dL that ranged between 93% and 99%. As with existing GnRH agonist depot formulations, hot flashes represented the most common adverse event reported in trials of 6-month leuprolide acetate or triptorelin. As such, these products may prove useful not only for their labeled indication, but also as adjuncts to other treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. We recommend further research, including head-to-head trials between the 6-month GnRH depots, to refine our understanding of these products.Keywords: prostate cancer, leuprorelin, leuprolide, triptorelin, 6-month depot, testosterone

  1. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuron Migration: Initiation, Maintenance and Cessation as Critical Steps to Ensure Normal Reproductive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Wierman, Margaret E.; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Tobet, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    GnRH neurons follow a carefully orchestrated journey from their birth in the olfactory placode area. Initially, they migrate along with the vomeronasal nerve into the brain at the cribriform plate, then progress caudally to sites within the hypothalamus where they halt and send projections to the median eminence to activate pituitary gonadotropes. Many factors controlling this precise journey have been elucidated by the silencing or over expression of candidate genes in mouse models. Importan...

  2. Efficacy of extended clomifene citrate regimen in comparison with gonadotropins in clomifene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Fathy Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gonadotropins are successful treatment for women with clomifene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extended CC treatment may be an alternative to gonadotropins in the management of CC-resistant women with PCOS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comprised 200 women with CC-resistant PCOS were allocated to two equal treatment groups. Patients in the CC group were given 100 mg of CC daily starting fr...

  3. What is the optimum maximal gonadotropin dosage used in microdose flare-up cycles in poor responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkkanoglu, Murat; Ozgur, Kemal

    2010-07-01

    To find out the optimum maximal dosage of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) in microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRH-a) flare cycles in poor responders. Prospective randomized study. Private infertility clinic. A total of 119 women were taken into the study. The study group underwent a microdose protocol with a GnRH-agonist followed by rFSH administration. On the third day of GnRH-a administration, 119 patients were randomized in three groups to receive daily fixed doses of 300 IU of rFSH (group A, n = 38), or 450 IU of rFSH (group B, n = 39), or 600 IU of rFSH (group C, n = 42). Peak E(2) levels, days of stimulation with rFSH, total rFSH dosage, total number of oocytes retrieved, M2 oocytes retrieved, total number of embryos, number of embryos transferred, number of Grade-1 embryos transferred, clinical pregnancy rate (positive fetal cardiac activity), and cancellation rates of stimulation and embryo transfer. Clinical pregnancy rates were 13.1%, 15.3%, and 16.1% for group A, group B, and group C, respectively. There were no significant differences in the age, peak serum E(2) concentration, days of stimulation with rFSH, total number of M2 oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, clinical pregnancy rates, and cancellation rates of stimulation and embryo transfer between the three groups except for total rFSH dosage. There is no need to use doses above 300 IU of rFSH to increase the pregnancy rate in microdose cycles. In addition, because the duration of stimulation does not differ between the groups, the usage of 300 IU rFSH in microdose cycles results in less total amount of rFSH consumed in a cycle compared with higher dosages, and this would obviously cost less money to the patients. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testicular dose and hormonal changes after radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Robert M.; Henkel, Karsten; Christiansen, Hans; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens F.; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To measure the dose received by the testicles during radiotherapy for rectal cancer and to determine the contribution of each field of the pelvic box and the relevance for hormonal status. Materials and methods: In 11 patients (mean age 55.2 years) testicular doses were measured with an ionisation chamber between 7 and 10 times during the course of pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy) for rectal carcinoma. Before and several months after radiotherapy luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and total testosterone serum levels were determined. Results: The mean cumulative radiation exposure to the testicles was 3.56 Gy (0.7-8.4 Gy; 7.1% of the prescribed dose). Seventy-three percent received more than 2 Gy to the testicles. Fifty-eight percent of the measured dose was contributed by the p.a. field, 30% by the a.p. field and 12% by the lateral fields. Mean LH and FSH levels were significantly increased after therapy (350%/185% of the pre-treatment values), testosterone levels decreased to 78%. No correlation could be found between changes of hormones and doses to the testis, probably due to the low number of evaluated patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy of rectal carcinoma causes significant damage to the testis, as shown by increased levels of gonadotropins after radiotherapy. Most of the gonadal dose is delivered by the p.a. field, due to the divergence of the p.a. beam towards the testicles. The reduction in testosterone level may be of clinical concern. Patients who will receive radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma must be instructed about a high risk of permanent infertility, and the risk of endocrine failure (hypogonadism). Larger studies are needed to establish the correlation between testicular radiation dose and hormonal changes in this group of patients

  5. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-02-06

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  6. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  7. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  8. Sex hormone binding globulin, free estradiol index, and lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Wook Chae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG modulates the availability of biologically active free sex hormones. The regulatory role of SHBG might be important in the relationship between hormone levels and the modification of lipid profiles in girls with precocious puberty. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship of SHBG, free estradiol index (FEI, and lipid levels in these girls.MethodsOne hundred and nine girls less than 8 years of age with pubertal development were enrolled. FEI was calculated with SHBG and estradiol (E2. We analyzed SHBG between peak luteinizing hormone (LH≥5 (IU/L (group 1 and LH<5 (IU/L (group 2 through a gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test.ResultsBody mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (P=0.004. Serum SHBG levels did not differ and FEI was not higher in group 1 (P=0.122. Serum cholesterol, HDL, and LDL did not differ; however, triglyceride levels were higher in group 2 (P=0.023. SHBG was negatively correlated with bone age advancement, BMI, BMI SDS, and FEI, and was positively correlated with HDL. However, SHBG was not correlated with E2 or peak LH.ConclusionSerum SHBG itself might not be associated with precocious puberty in girls, but it might be related to BMI and lipid profiles. Further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between sex hormone and obesity in girls with precocious puberty.

  9. Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Miyako; Ieki, Yasuhiko; Takazakura, Eisuke; Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Wakasugi, Takanobu; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. GH replacement therapy (GHRT) was resumed when she was 26 years old. She developed mild adrenocortical insufficiency at 31 years old. She succeeded in becoming pregnant and delivered twice. GHRT was partially continued during pregnancy and stopped at the end of the second trimester without any complications. PMID:28250299

  10. Physical-chemical and biological characterization of different preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Rafael Herrera; Natal, Fabio Luis Nogueira; Ribela, Maria Teresa Carvalho Pinto; de Almeida, Beatriz Elane; de Oliveira, Jo?o Ezequiel; Bartolini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation with commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) produces extremely variable responses in domestic animals, ranging from excessive stimulation to practically no stimulation, when applied on the basis of their declared unitage. This study was conducted to analyze four commercial preparations from different manufacturers via reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) in comparison with a reference preparation and an official International Standard from the World Health...

  11. Reproductive hormone profiles and gametogenesis in female of giant gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratiana E. Wijayanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant gouramy is one of freshwater aquaculture fish species that has high economic value so that various efforts had been performed to continuous increase its production levels.  The successful of giant gouramy culture requires good understanding on its reproductive biology, however limited information is available.  Therefore, this study was conducted to determine reproductive hormone profiles and gametogenesis of giant gouramy for a cycle of reproduction.  Eighteen broodstocks were naturally spawned; the day of spawning was referred as the first day (zero weeks of post spawning. Nine (Group A of those broodstocks were used to evaluate gonadotropin, estradiol, and progesterone profiles.  The remained broodstocks (group B were used to evaluate gametogenesis.  Blood sample from fish group A were taken on 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post spawning for measurement of hormone levels.  Hormone levels were measured by using ELISA method with kit of REF30-407 for gonadotropin, REF30-431 for estradiol and REF30-406 for progesterone, respectively.  On the same time, ovarian were taken from fish group B. Ovarian were weighted to examine gonado somatic index (GSI, and they were then be fixative by NBF solution, processed to histology using paraffin, and stained with haematoxyline-eosin.   Histology of ovarian was observed using a light microscope.  The results of hormone analysis showed that the level of gonadotropin was relatively high during the spawning (0.17±0.021 mIU/ml, decrease to 0.13±0.017 mIU/ml at the first week and then relatively stable until the fourth week.  Estradiol-17 concentration was relatively high during the spawning (2,222.32±68.19 pg/ml, decrease until the third week and then increase at the fourth week (1,989.66±103.11pg/ml.  Progesterone level from fish spawning to the first week was 0.403±0.02ng/ml, increase to 0.514±0.02 ng/ml at the second week and then decrease at the fourth week (0.260±0.0 ng/ml.  GSI values

  12. Degree of synchronization modulated by inhibitory neurons in clustered excitatory-inhibitory recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.

  13. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling in Human Cumulus Cells according to Ovarian Gonadotropin Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Assou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5. Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1. Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3 were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii Extract on Melanin Synthesis via Repression of Tyrosinase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hwayong; Song, Kwang Hoon; Jung, Pil Mun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Ro, Hyunju; Kim, Mi Yoon; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    To identify the active compound arctigenin in Fructus Arctii (dried seed of medicinal plant Arctium lappa) and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism in melanogenesis, we analyzed melanin content and tyrosinase activity on B16BL6 murine melanoma and melan-A cell cultures. Water extracts of Fructus Arctii were shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro and melanin content in ? -melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated cells to similar levels as the well-known kojic acid and arbutin, respect...

  15. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Thyroid hormones: Possible roles in epilepsy pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamijani, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini; Karimi, Benyamin; Amini, Elham; Golpich, Mojtaba; Dargahi, Leila; Ali, Raymond Azman; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine and L-triiodothyronine, primarily known as metabolism regulators, are tyrosine-derived hormones produced by the thyroid gland. They play an essential role in normal central nervous system development and physiological function. By binding to nuclear receptors and modulating gene expression, THs influence neuronal migration, differentiation, myelination, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis in developing and adult brains. Any uncorrected THs supply deficiency in early life may result in irreversible neurological and motor deficits. The development and function of GABAergic neurons as well as glutamatergic transmission are also affected by THs. Though the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown, the effects of THs on inhibitory and excitatory neurons may affect brain seizure activity. The enduring predisposition of the brain to generate epileptic seizures leads to a complex chronic brain disorder known as epilepsy. Pathologically, epilepsy may be accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and eventually dysregulation of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. Based on the latest evidence on the association between THs and epilepsy, we hypothesize that THs abnormalities may contribute to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. We also review gender differences and the presumed underlying mechanisms through which TH abnormalities may affect epilepsy here. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth hormone therapy alone or in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog therapy to improve the height deficit in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintos, J B; Vogiatzi, M G; Harbison, M D; New, M I

    2001-04-01

    Short stature in the adult patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is commonly seen, even among patients in excellent adrenal control during childhood and puberty. In this study we examine the effect of GH therapy on height prediction in children with both CAH and compromised height prediction. Leuprolide acetate, a GnRH analog (GnRHa), was given to patients with evidence of early puberty. GH (n = 12) or the combination of GH and GnRHa (n = 8) was administered to 20 patients with CAH while they continued therapy with glucocorticoids. Each patient in the treatment group was matched according to age, sex, bone age, puberty, and type of CAH with another CAH patient treated only with glucocorticoid replacement. The match was made at the start of GH treatment. Of the 20 patients, 12 have completed 2 yr of therapy. After 1 yr of GH or combination GH and GnRHa therapy, the mean growth rate increased from 5 +/- 1.9 to 7.8 +/- 1.6 cm/yr vs. 5.4 +/- 1.7 to 5 +/- 2 cm/yr in the group not receiving GH (P growth rate was 6 +/- 1.6 vs. 4.2 +/- 2.1 cm/yr in the group not receiving GH (P growth rate and height prediction and a reduction in height deficit for bone age.

  18. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  19. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    ) = 0.15, P = 0.15 for intact GIP; r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.086 for total GIP). We conclude that gastric emptying does not appear to be influenced by GIP. The secretion of GIP after meal ingestion is not suppressed by its exogenous administration. The lack of effect of GIP on gastric emptying underlines......The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass....... Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  1. Can anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Boutas, Ioannis; Creatsa, Maria; Vlahos, Nicos; Gregoriou, Odysseas; Creatsas, George; Hassiakos, Dimitrios

    2015-10-01

    To assess whether the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) are related to outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI) in patients treated with gonadotropins. A total of 195 patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) (50-150 IU/d). All patients were submitted upto three cycles of IUI. Primary outcome was the ability of AMH levels to predict clinical pregnancy at first attempt and the cumulative clinical pregnancy probability of upto three IUI cycles. Secondary outcomes were the relation of AMH, LH, FSH, BMI, age, parity and basic estradiol levels with each other and the outcome of IUI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in predicting clinical pregnancy for AMH at first attempt was 0.53 and for cumulative clinical pregnancy was 0.76. AMH levels were positively correlated with clinical pregnancy rate at first attempt and with cumulative clinical pregnancy rate, but negatively correlated with patient's age and FSH levels. Patient's FSH, LH levels were negatively correlated with cumulative clinical pregnancy rate. AMH levels seem to have a positive correlation and patient's age and LH levels had a negative correlation with the outcome of IUI and COS with gonadotropins. AMH concentration was significantly higher and LH was significantly lower in patients with a clinical pregnancy after three cycles of IUI treatment compared with those who did not achieve pregnancy.

  2. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  3. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  4. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  5. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-05

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  7. Estriol administration modulates luteinizing hormone secretion in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Santagni, Susanna; Rattighieri, Erica; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of estriol administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary function and gonadotropins secretion in patients affected by functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Controlled clinical study. Patients with FHA in a clinical research environment. Twelve hypogonadotropic patients affected by FHA. Pulsatility study of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test (10 μg in bolus) at baseline condition and after 8 weeks of therapy with 2 mg/day of estriol. Measurements of plasma LH, FSH, estradiol (E(2)), androstenedione (A), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), free thyroxine (fT(4)), and insulin, and pulse detection. After treatment, the FHA patients showed a statistically significant increase of LH plasma levels (from 0.7 ± 0.1 mIU/mL to 3.5 ± 0.3 mIU/mL) and a statistically significant increase of LH pulse amplitude with no changes in LH pulse frequency. In addition, the LH response to the GnRH bolus was a statistically significant increase. Estriol administration induced the increase of LH plasma levels in FHA and improved GnRH-induced LH secretion. These findings suggest that estriol administration modulates the neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamus-pituitary unit and induces the recovery of LH synthesis and secretion in hypogonadotropic patients with FHA. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from [1B-3H]androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures

  9. Loss of tumorigenic potential by human lung tumor cells in the presence of antisense RNA specific to the ectopically synthesized alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, R T; Pasion, S G; Wong, D T; Fei, Y B; Biswas, D K

    1989-06-01

    A clonal strain of human lung tumor cells in culture (ChaGo), derived from a bronchogenic carcinoma, synthesizes and secretes large amounts of alpha (alpha) and a comparatively lower level of beta (beta) subunit of the glycoprotein hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). ChaGo cells lost their characteristic anchorage-independent growth phenotype in the presence of anti-alpha-HCG antibody. The effect of the antibody was partially reversed by addition of alpha-HCG to the culture medium. ChaGo cells were transfected with an expression vector (pRSV-anti-alpha-HCG), that directs synthesis of RNA complementary to alpha-HCG mRNA. The transfectants produced alpha-HCG antisense RNA which was associated with the reduced level of alpha-HCG. Transfectants also displayed several altered phenotypic properties, including altered morphology, less mitosis, reduced growth rate, loss of anchorage-independent growth, and loss of tumorigenicity in nude mice. Treatment of transfectants with 8,bromo-cAMP resulted in increased accumulation of alpha-HCG mRNA, no change in the level of alpha-HCG antisense RNA, release of the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation, and restoration of anchorage-independent growth phenotype. The overexpression of c-myc, observed in ChaGo cells, was unaffected by the reduced level of alpha-HCG. These results suggest that ectopic synthesis of the alpha subunit of HCG plays a functional role in the transformation of these human lung cells.

  10. [Serum hormones that regulate the reproductive axis in men with testicular germ cell cancer and its impact on fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María; Chávez-Zúñiga, Irma; Bañuelos-Ávila, Leticia; Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies treat testicular germ cancer as a single disease, the behavior of the two histological types of cancer; seminoma and nonseminoma have differences in reproductive hormone secretion and impair fertility differently. To demonstrate that the serum concentration of pituitary hormones involved in fertility and spermatogenesis in the affected male is different in the two histological types. Were determined by radioimmunoassay or inmunoradiometric assay, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in 37 patients with germ cell cancer (15 seminoma and 22 nonseminoma) and 35 controls. We analyzed the semen of patients, and were questioned about paternity before the cancer diagnosis. Age was higher in patients with seminoma cancer, showed decreased luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone and increased estradiol and prolactin in nonseminoma compared with seminoma. In patients with nonseminoma they had 9 children, 5 were oligozoospermic, 3 azoospermic and 6 normal concentration, 8 did not provide sample, seminoma group they had eight children, only one azoospermic, nine normal concentration, and 5 did not provide sample . The hormonal behavior is different in men with nonseminoma compared with seminoma, so that the negative impact on the reproductive axis and fertility is higher in cases of non-seminoma.

  11. Plasticity of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C

    2015-07-08

    Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.

  12. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-02-16

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker.

  13. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  14. Maternal and fetal mechanisms of B cell regulation during pregnancy: human Chorionic Gonadotropin stimulates B cells to produce IL-10 while alpha-fetoprotein drives them into apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Fettke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus is an essential requisite for pregnancy. While T cell functions are well documented, little is known about the participation of B cells. We have previously suggested that IL-10 producing B cells are involved in pregnancy tolerance in mice and humans. By employing murine and human systems, we report now that fetal trophoblasts positively regulate the generation of IL-10 producing B cells. We next studied the participation of hormones produced by the placenta as well as the fetal protein alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in B cell modulation. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, but not progesterone, estrogen or a combination of both, was able to promote changes in B cell phenotype and boost their IL-10 production, which was abolished after blocking hCG. The hCG-induced B cell phenotype was not associated with augmented galactosylation, sialylation or fucosylation of IgG subclasses in their Fc. In vitro, hCG induced the synthesis of asymmetrically glycosylated antibodies in their Fab region. Interestingly, AFP had dual effects depending on the concentration. At concentrations corresponding to maternal serum levels, it did not modify the phenotype or IL-10 secretion of B cells. At fetal concentrations, however, AFP was able to drive B cells into apoptosis, which may indicate a protective mechanism to avoid maternal B cells to reach the fetus.Our data suggests that the fetus secrete factors that promote a pregnancy-friendly B cell phenotype, unraveling interesting aspects of B cell function and modulation by pregnancy hormones and fetal proteins.

  15. The rate of high ovarian response in women identified at risk by a high serum AMH level is influenced by the type of gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; Klein, Bjarke M; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to compare ovarian response and clinical outcome of potential high-responders after stimulation with highly purified menotropin (HP-hMG) or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) for in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Retrospective analysis was performed on data collected in two randomized controlled trials, one conducted following a long GnRH agonist protocol and the other with an antagonist protocol. Potential high-responders (n = 155 and n = 188 in the agonist and antagonist protocol, respectively) were defined as having an initial anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) value >75th percentile (5.2 ng/ml). In both protocols, HP-hMG stimulation in women in the high AMH category was associated with a significantly lower occurrence of high response (≥15 oocytes retrieved) than rFSH stimulation; 33% versus 51% (p = 0.025) and 31% versus 49% (p = 0.015) in the long agonist and antagonist protocol, respectively. In the potential high-responder women, trends for improved live birth rate were observed with HP-hMG compared with rFSH (long agonist protocol: 33% versus 20%, p = 0.074; antagonist protocol: 34% versus 23%, p = 0.075; overall population: 34% versus 22%, p = 0.012). In conclusion, the type of gonadotropin used for ovarian stimulation influences high-response rates and potentially clinical outcome in women identified as potential high-responders.

  16. Lutropin alpha, recombinant human luteinizing hormone, for the stimulation of follicular development in profoundly LH-deficient hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Th Krause

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Th Krause1, Ralf Ohlinger2, Annette Haase31Center for Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, MVZ Uhlandstr, Berlin, Germany; 2Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald, Germany; 3Uhlandstr. 162, 10719 BerlinAbstract: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as a medical condition with low or undetectable gonadotropin secretion, associated with a complete arrest of follicular growth and very low estradiol. The main cause can be traced back to an irregular or absent hypothalamic GnRH secretion, whereas only a minority suffers from a pituitary disorder. The choice of treatment to reverse this situation is a pulsatile GnRH application or a direct ovarian stimulation using gonadotropin injections. The goal is to achieve a proper ovarian function in these cases for a short time to allow ovulation and chance of pregnancy. Since the pulsatile GnRH treatment lost its former importance, several gonadotropins are in use to stimulate follicular growth, such as urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin, highly purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or recombinant FSH, all with different success. The introduction of recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH and FSH provided an opportunity to investigate the distinct influences of LH and FSH alone and in combination on follicular growth in monofollicular ovulation induction cycles, and additionally on oocyte maturation, fertilization competence of the oocyte and embryo quality in downregulated IVF patients. Whereas FSH was known to be indispensable for normal follicular growth, the role of LH remained questionable. Downregulated IVF patients with this short-term gonadotropin depletion displayed no advance in stimulation success with the use of recombinant LH. Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing monofollicular stimulation for ovulation induction showed clearly a specific role and need for both hormones in normal follicular growth. Therefore, a

  17. Mapping the follicle-stimulating hormone-induced signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eGloaguen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is a central regulator of male and female reproductive function. Over the last decade, there has been a growing perception of the complexity associated with FSH-induced cellular signalling. It is now clear that the canonical Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway is not the sole mechanism that must be considered in FSH biological actions. In parallel, consistent with the emerging concept of biased agonism, several examples of ligand-mediated selective signalling pathway activation by gonadotropin receptors have been reported. In this context, it is important to gain an integrative view of the signalling pathways induced by FSH and how they interconnect to form a network. In this review, we propose a first attempt at building topological maps of various pathways known to be involved in the FSH-induced signalling network. We discuss the multiple facets of FSH-induced signalling and how they converge to the hormone integrated biological response. Despite of their incompleteness, these maps of the FSH-induced signalling network represent a first step towards gaining a system-level comprehension of this hormone’s actions, which may ultimately facilitate the discovery of novel regulatory processes and therapeutic strategies for infertilities and non-steroidal contraception.

  18. Hydrodynamic properties of the gonadotropin receptor from a murine Leydig tumor cell line are altered by desensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebois, R.V.; Bradley, R.M.; Titlow, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The murine Leydig tumor cell line 1 (MLTC-1) contains gonadotropin receptors (GR) that are coupled to adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein (G/sub s/). The binding of human choriogonadotropin (hGC) causes MLTC-1 cells to accumulate cAMP. With time, the ability of MLTC-1 cells to respond to hCG is attenuated by a process called desensitization. The hydrodynamic properties of GR from control and desensitized MLTC-1 cells were studied. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation in H 2 O and D 2 O and gel filtration chromatography were used to estimate the Stokes radius (a), partial specific volume (v/sub c/), sedimentation coefficient (s/sub 20,w/), and molecular weight (M/sub r/) of the detergent-solubilized hormone-receptor complex (hCG-GR). [ 125 I]hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells under conditions that allow (37 0 C) or prevent (0 0 C) desensitization, and hCG-GR was solubilized in Triton X-100. In the absence of desensitization, control hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 213,000, whereas desensitized hCG-GR had a M/sub r/ of 158,000. Deglycosylated hCG (DG-HCG) is an antagonist that binds to GR with high affinity but fails to stimulate adenylate cyclase or cause desensitization. [ 125 I]DG-hCG was bound to MLTC-1 cells and DG-hCG-GR solubilized in Triton X-100. The hydrodynamic properties of DG-hCG-GR were the same as that for control hCG-GR. There was no evidence for the association of adenylate cyclase or G/sub s/ with GR in Triton X-100 solubilized preparations. When hCG was cross-linked to GR and solubilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the M/sub r/ was found to be 116,000, which was similar to that determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and less than that of the Triton X-100 solubilized control hCG-GR

  19. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  20. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  1. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  2. In vitro fertilization (IVF) versus gonadotropins followed by IVF as treatment for primary infertility: a cost-based decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal-Kalra, Suleena; Milad, Magdy P; Grobman, William A

    2005-09-01

    To compare the economic consequences of proceeding directly to IVF to those of proceeding with gonadotropins followed by IVF in patients cost and success of each infertility regimen as well as the pregnancy-associated costs of singleton or multiple gestations and the risk and cost of cerebral palsy. Cost per live birth. Both treatment arms resulted in a >80% chance of birth. The gonadotropin arm was over four times more likely to result in a high-order multiple pregnancy (HOMP). Despite this, when the base case estimates were utilized, immediate IVF emerged as more costly per live birth. In sensitivity analysis, immediate IVF became less costly per live birth when IVF was more likely to achieve birth (55.1%) or cheaper (11,432 dollars) than our base case assumptions. After considering the risk and cost of HOMP, immediate IVF is more costly per live birth than a trial of gonadotropins prior to IVF.

  3. Effects of X-irradiation on gonadotropin secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinmin; Liu Shuzheng

    1988-01-01

    The dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells cultured in 3 days was exposed to single doses of X-irradiation in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy. LH and FSH contents in both the supernatant and the cells were measured. The LH secretion was significantly increased at the doses greater than 0.5 Gy and FSH secretion was also significantly enhanced at the dose of 4.0 Gy. The cellular contents of both LH and FSH remained near the control levels. It is concluded that gonadotropin secretion can be stimulated by single doses of X-rays in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy

  4. Bilateral undescended testes classified according to preoperative and postoperative status of gonadotropins and inhibin B in relation to testicular histopathology at bilateral orchiopexy in infant boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Kvist, Kolja

    2012-01-01

    In recent series of boys with cryptorchidism gonadotropin levels have been higher and serum inhibin B levels have been lower than normal. To some extent the serum values of inhibin B reflect the state of germinative epithelium in cryptorchid testes. We evaluated whether blood samples of gonadotro...... of gonadotropins and inhibin B as well as histopathology could be used to classify undescended testes....

  5. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  6. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  7. Efficacy and Outcome Predictors of Gonadotropin Treatment for Male Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: A Retrospective Study of 223 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxiang; Mao, Jangfeng; Wu, Xueyan; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Huang, Bingkun; Zheng, Junjie; Nie, Min; Zhang, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Gonadotropin induces masculinization and spermatogenesis in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). However, large cohort studies for the efficacy and reliable predictors of this therapy need to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of gonadotropin treatment in a large cohort of male CHH patients and analyze putative predictors for successful spermatogenesis. This retrospective study included 223 CHH azoospermic patients without puberty development treated between 2005 and 2014. All patients received combined human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and were followed up for >6 months (5109 person-months). Serum total testosterone level, testicular size, spermatogenesis, and pregnancy outcome were recorded at each visit. After gonadotropin therapy, testicular size was enlarged from 2.1 ± 1.6 to 8.1 ± 4.6 mL (P 0/mL) occurred at a median period of 15 months (95% confidence interval 13.5-16.5). Larger basal testicular volume (P = 0.012) and noncryptorchidism history (P = 0.028) are independent predictors for earlier sperm appearance. Sixty four percent (143/223) of patients succeeded in producing sperms and the average time for initial sperm detection was 14 ± 8 months. However, their sperm concentrations (11.7 [2.1, 24.4] million/mL) and sperm progressive motility (A + B 36.9% ± 20.2%) are significantly lower than World Health Organization standards. Of the 34 patients who desired for fathering children, 19 patients impregnanted their partners during the treatment. Gonadotropin therapy induces spermatogenesis in male CHH patients. A larger basal testicular size and noncryptorchidism history are favorable indicators for earlier spermatogenesis.

  8. Subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 acutely stimulates gonadotropin secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, but chronic administration causes tachyphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Channa N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Chaudhri, Owais B; Murphy, Kevin G; Ranger, Amita; Lim, Adrian; Patel, Daksha; Mehta, Amrish; Todd, Catriona; Ramachandran, Radha; Salem, Victoria; Stamp, Gordon W; Donaldson, Mandy; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2009-11-01

    Kisspeptin is a critical regulator of normal reproductive function. A single injection of kisspeptin in healthy human volunteers potently stimulates gonadotropin release. However, the effects of kisspeptin on gonadotropin release in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and the effects of repeated administration of kisspeptin to humans are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute and chronic kisspeptin administration on gonadotropin release in women with HA. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, parallel design study. Women with HA received twice-daily sc injections of kisspeptin (6.4 nmol/kg) or 0.9% saline (n = 5 per group) for 2 wk. Changes in serum gonadotropin and estradiol levels, LH pulsatility, and ultrasound measurements of reproductive activity were assessed. On the first injection day, potent increases in serum LH and FSH were observed after sc kisspeptin injection in women with HA (mean maximal increment from baseline within 4 h after injection: LH, 24.0 +/- 3.5 IU/liter; FSH, 9.1 +/- 2.5 IU/liter). These responses were significantly reduced on the 14th injection day (mean maximal increment from baseline within 4 h postinjection: LH, 2.5 +/- 2.2 IU/liter, P < 0.05; FSH, 0.5 +/- 0.5 IU/liter, P < 0.05). Subjects remained responsive to GnRH after kisspeptin treatment. No significant changes in LH pulsatility or ultrasound measurements of reproductive activity were observed. Acute administration of kisspeptin to women with infertility due to HA potently stimulates gonadotropin release, but chronic administration of kisspeptin results in desensitization to its effects on gonadotropin release. These data have important implications for the development of kisspeptin as a novel therapy for reproductive disorders in humans.

  9. Low-dose gonadotropin induction of ovulation in anovulatory women - still needed in the age of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Davinia; Hardy, Kate; Lovelock, Suzannah; Franks, Stephen

    2018-02-19

    Low-dose, step-up gonadotropin is the treatment of choice for women with PCOS who have not conceived after anti-estrogen treatment, and as an effective alternative to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). There has been, however, no large-scale, comparative study between the two groups using low-dose gonadotropins. Here we performed a retrospective, comparative analysis, in a single clinic database, of efficacy and safety of induction of ovulation using low-dose gonadotropins in 364 Women with PCOS and 80 women with HH. The rate of ovulation was high in both PCOS (83%) and HH (84%) but mono-follicular, ovulatory cycles were more prevalent in PCOS than in HH (77% vs 53%, p<0.0001) and the proportion of cycles that were abandoned was higher in HH than in PCOS (25% vs 15%, p<0.0001). The median threshold dose of gonadotropin required to induce ovulation was 75iu/day in PCOS and 113iu/day in HH (p<0.001) and the range of doses was greater in HH women. Forty-nine percent of women with PCOS and 65% of those with HH conceived (more than 90% within 6 cycles of treatment) and had a least one pregnancy. Multiple pregnancies (all twins) occurred in only 4% of women with PCOS and 5% of those with HH. These findings emphasise the efficacy and safety of low-dose gonadotropin treatment for both clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS and those with HH. These results highlight the importance of choosing the more physiological approach of gonadotropin induction of ovulation in both groups as the most appropriate treatment, in preference to IVF.

  10. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  11. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunas, Laurentiu; Tsampras, Nikolaos; Coomarasamy, Arri; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2016-05-20

    Subfertility affects 15% of couples and represents the inability to conceive naturally following 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction refers to procedures involving the in vitro handling of both human gametes and represents a key option for many subfertile couples. Most women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment will reach the stage of embryo transfer (ET) but the proportion of embryos that successfully implant following ET has remained small since the mid-1990s. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone synthesised and released by the syncytiotrophoblast and has a fundamental role in embryo implantation and the early stages of pregnancy. Intrauterine administration of synthetic or natural hCG via an ET catheter during a mock procedure around the time of ET is a novel approach that has recently been suggested to improve the outcomes of assisted reproduction. To investigate whether the intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET improves the clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We performed a comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, registers of ongoing trials andreference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews (from inception to 10 November 2015), in consultation with the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Search Co-ordinator. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating intrauterine administration of hCG around the time of ET in this review irrespective of language and country of origin. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data from studies and attempted to contact the authors where data were missing. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager 5 in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

  13. Ameliorative effects of exogenous gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty in a farm in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Am-In, Nutthee; Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn

    2017-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of gonadotropins on reproductive profiles of replacement gilts with delayed puberty. Totally, 136 Landrace × Yorkshire crossbred gilts, were categorized into control (n = 58) and treatment (n = 78) groups. Gonadotropins (400 U eCG plus 200 IU hCG) were administered in treatment group only. The results revealed that gilts in treatment group had higher number of gilts with estrus (92.3 vs 25.9%, P < 0.001), shorter onset to estrus (4.7 ± 0.3 vs 9.0 ± 0.8...

  14. Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of seven plant extracts. Titilayo Johnson, Oduje A. Akinsanmi, Enoch J. Banbilbwa, Tijani A. Yahaya, Karima Abdulaziz, Kolade Omole ...

  15. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... especially the four bacteria isolates used in this study are present in the epiphgram of both normal and ... Keyword: Albino snail, Archachatina marginata, Inhibitory activity, Epiphgram, Bacteria isolate. Introduction .... evolution.

  16. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy of endometriomas does not affect the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Guillermo; Vilela, Martín; Quintana, Ramiro; Sueldo, Carlos

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the ovarian response cycles of IVF-ET in patients who previously underwent laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas. Retrospective study with prospective selection of participants and controls. Instituto de Ginecología y Fertilidad Buenos Aires, Argentina. Thirty-nine patients underwent an operation for ovarian endometriomas by atraumatic removal of the pseudocapsule with minimal bipolar cauterization of small bleeders and an IVF-ET cycle (group A) and 39 control patients of similar age underwent an IVF-ET cycle for tubal factor infertility (group B). Laparoscopic endometrioma cystectomy, IVF-ET cycle. E(2) levels, number of gonadotropin ampoules, follicles, oocytes retrieved, number and quality of embryos transferred, and clinical pregnancy rate. There were no differences in all the parameters studied (E(2) levels, number of follicles, oocytes retrieved, number and quality of embryos transferred, and clinical pregnancy rate) except for the number of gonadotropin ampoules needed for ovarian hyperstimulation, which was significantly higher in group A than in group B. Our results indicate that laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas is an appropriate treatment since it did not negatively affect the ovarian response for IVF-ET.

  17. De novo frameshift mutation in fibroblast growth factor 8 in a male patient with gonadotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Erina; Yatsuga, Shuichi; Igarashi, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Keiko; Hata, Kenichirou; Umezawa, Akihiro; Yamada, Gen; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Missense, nonsense, and splice mutations in the Fibroblast Growth Factor 8(FGF8) have recently been identified in patients with hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction and craniofacial anomalies. Here, we report a male patient with a frameshift mutation in FGF8. The patient exhibited micropenis, craniofacial anomalies, and ventricular septal defect at birth. Clinical evaluation at 16 years and 8 months of age revealed delayed puberty, hyposmia, borderline mental retardation, and mild hearing difficulty. Endocrine findings included gonadotropin deficiency and primary hypothyroidism. Molecular analysis identified a de novo heterozygous p.S192fsX204 mutation in the last exon of FGF8. RT-PCR analysis of normal human tissues detected FGF8 expression in the genital skin, and whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of mouse embryos revealed Fgf8 expression in the anlage of the penis. The results indicate that frameshift mutations in FGF8 account for a part of the etiology of hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction. Micropenis in patients with FGF8 abnormalities appears to be caused by gonadotropin deficiency and defective outgrowth of the anlage of the penis.

  18. Female cancer survivors exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy have unique reproductive hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Sammel, Mary D; Schanne, Allison; Lechtenberg, Lara; Prewitt, Maureen; Gracia, Clarisa

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate reproductive hormone patterns in women exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy. Prospective cohort. University hospital. Normally menstruating mid-reproductive-age women (20-35 years old) who had previously been exposed to alkylating-agent chemotherapy for cancer treatment were compared with two healthy control populations: similarly-aged women and late-reproductive-age women (43-50 years old). Subjects collected daily urine samples for one cycle. Integrated urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG) and estrone conjugate (E1c) and urinary excretion of gonadotropins (FSH and LH). Thirty-eight women (13 survivors, 11 same-age control subjects, 14 late-reproductive-age control subjects) provided 1,082 urine samples. Cycle length, luteal phase length, and evidence of luteal activity were similar among the groups. As expected, ovarian reserve was impaired in cancer survivors compared with same-age control subjects but similar between survivors and late-reproductive-age control subjects. In contrast, survivors had total and peak PDG levels that were similar to same-age control subjects and higher than those observed in late-reproductive-age control subjects. Survivors had higher E1c levels than both same-age and late-reproductive-age control subjects. There was no difference in urinary gonadotropins among the groups. Women exposed to alkylating agents have a unique reproductive hormone milieu that is not solely explained by age or ovarian reserve. The urinary hormone profile observed in survivors appears more similar to same-age control subjects than to late-reproductive-age women with similar ovarian reserve, which may suggest that age plays a more important role than ovarian reserve in the follicular dynamics of survivors. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  20. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  1. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  2. Pituitary gonadotropic hormones in women with oligo/amenorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, A.; Nadir, S.

    2008-01-01

    Any abnormality of menstrual cycle makes women worried and requires proper evaluation. Oligomenorhea is one of the indicators of Polycystic Disease of the Ovary (PCO) which is associated not only with reproductive failure but it also has metabolic and cardiovascular complications. The recent study was conducted to find out the role of Pituitary Gonadotropins in the diagnosis. After diagnosing and finding out the cause for menstrual irregularities and chronic anovulation one can explain the prognosis and management of these disorders. Fifty patients were studied in the year 2005-06 in the outpatient department of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. A history Performa was duly completed in all subjects. Blood sample was collected for hormonal essay during first ten days of the cycle. Hormonal essay was performed by Microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) on AXSYM system of Abbott. Age ranged from 13-45 years, 82% of the women were infertile, 60% had infrequent periods and 22% of the women had amenorrhea, 30% patients were overweight while 48% were obese. Physical examination revealed hersuitism in 24%, acne in 8% and galactorrhea in 6% of the patients. Ultrasound examination showed classical picture of PCO in 28% patients while 32% women had multiple small follicles and 16 % women were devoid of follicles. Elevated LH levels were found in 36% women. FSH level were found normal in 64% patients while in 16% women the levels were in menopausal range. LH/FSH ratio of more than two was observed in 52% women. Prolactin level was raised in 22% women. TSH level was below normal in 16% and higher in 22% women. Hormonal essays are mandatory in the evaluation of women presenting with Oligomenorhea/amenorrhea and chronic anovulatory infertility for finding out the cause and explaining the prognosis of the disease to the patient. (author)

  3. Effects of Dietary Bacillus licheniformis on Gut Physical Barrier, Immunity, and Reproductive Hormones of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Du, Wei; Lei, Kai; Wang, Baikui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yingshan; Li, Weifen

    2017-09-01

    Previous study showed that dietary Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) administration contributes to the improvement of laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In this study, we aimed to further evaluate its underlying mechanisms. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line Variety W-36 hens (28 weeks of age) were randomized into four groups, each group with six replications (n = 15). The control group received the basal diet and the treatment groups received the same basal diets supplemented with 0.01, 0.03, and 0.06% B. licheniformis powder (2 × 10 10  cfu/g) for an 8-week trial. The results demonstrate that B. licheniformis significantly enhance the intestinal barrier functions via decreasing gut permeability, promoting mucin-2 transcription, and regulating inflammatory cytokines. The systemic immunity of layers in B. licheniformis treatment groups is improved through modulating the specific and non-specific immunity. In addition, gene expressions of hormone receptors, including estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, are also regulated by B. licheniformis. Meanwhile, compared with the control, B. licheniformis significantly increase gonadotropin-releasing hormone level, but markedly reduce ghrelin and inhibin secretions. Overall, our data suggest that dietary inclusion of B. licheniformis can improve the intestinal barrier function and systemic immunity and regulate reproductive hormone secretions, which contribute to better laying performance and egg quality of hens.

  4. A boy with Prader-Willi syndrome: unmasking precocious puberty during growth hormone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Natasha G; Radaeli, Rafael F; Silva, Mariana M X; Romero, Camila M; Carrilho, Alexandre J F; Bessa, Danielle; Macedo, Delanie B; Oliveira, Maria L; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Mazzuco, Tânia L

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder frequently characterized by obesity, growth hormone deficiency, genital abnormalities, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Incomplete or delayed pubertal development as well as premature adrenarche are usually found in PWS, whereas central precocious puberty (CPP) is very rare. This study aimed to report the clinical and biochemical follow-up of a PWS boy with CPP and to discuss the management of pubertal growth. By the age of 6, he had obesity, short stature, and many clinical criteria of PWS diagnosis, which was confirmed by DNA methylation test. Therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement (0.15 IU/kg/day) was started. Later, he presented psychomotor agitation, aggressive behavior, and increased testicular volume. Laboratory analyses were consistent with the diagnosis of CPP (gonadorelin-stimulated LH peak 15.8 IU/L, testosterone 54.7 ng/dL). The patient was then treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa). Hypothalamic dysfunctions have been implicated in hormonal disturbances related to pubertal development, but no morphologic abnormalities were detected in the present case. Additional methylation analysis (MS-MLPA) of the chromosome 15q11 locus confirmed PWS diagnosis. We presented the fifth case of CPP in a genetically-confirmed PWS male. Combined therapy with GnRHa and rhGH may be beneficial in this rare condition of precocious pubertal development in PWS.

  5. The problem of anti-doping control of luteinizing hormone in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llouquet, Jean Louis; Crepin, Nathalie; Lasne, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is physiologically produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Male athletes may use pharmaceutical LH for doping since it increases the production of testosterone by testes. This hormone is thus on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances prohibited for males. Anti-doping laboratories perform the assay of this hormone in urine and report abnormally elevated results. We observed a highly significant prevalence of abnormal results in samples taken after a boxing match. Comparison of the descriptive statistics for 426 LH values observed in boxing and other sports showed significant differences. An experimental study comparing urinary LH levels in 17 boxers before and after a match demonstrated a clear increase after the match. The same observation was made for urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in all of the eight boxers tested for this other pituitary gonadotropin. These observations have consequences for anti-doping controls, as the reference range for urinary LH levels must take into account the specificities of boxers. They also suggest consequences for the health of boxers. Although to our knowledge such observations have never been described, other pituitary disorders have been reported. Our results deserve further investigation from a medical point of view. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. OVULATION INDUCTION IN PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE - A PLACEBO-CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMBINING PITUITARY SUPPRESSION WITH GONADOTROPIN STIMULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKASTEREN, YM; HOEK, A; SCHOEMAKER, J

    Objectives: To determine the effect of pituitary suppression with a GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) on the success of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Design: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. The data were analyzed with a

  7. New radioimmunoassay for follicle-stimulating hormone in macaques: ovulatory menstrual cycles. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgen, G.D.; Wilks, J.W.; Vaitukaitis, J.L.; Chen, H.C.; Papkoff, H.; Ross, G.

    1976-07-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay system for macaque follicle-stimulating hormone (mFSH) was developed utilizing an antiserum (H-31) prepared in a rabbit against purified ovine FSH as the immunogen. Sera from castrated female, adult male, and juvenile rhesus monkeys, as well as urinary extracts from castrated rhesus and bonnet monkeys, were used to demonstrate parallelism with a standard of partially purified monkey pituitary gonadotropins (LER-M-907-D). An extract of baboon pituitary tissue also showed parallelism with the reference standard. A highly purified pituitary extract (WP-X-105-28), containing approximately 75 percent macaque luteinizing hormone (mLH) and 1 percent mFSH, was used to demonstrate the specificity of this mFSH assay system. Sera and urinary extracts obtained from hypophysectomized monkeys did not show cross-reactivity in the assay. Macaque chorionic gonadotropin (mCG) did not produce an inhibition curve in the assay, as determined from serum samples and urinary extracts collected from pregnant monkeys at the time of peak mCG secretion. Serum concentrations of mFSH were suppressed in ovariectomized monkeys by the administration of ethinyl estradiol for 3 days, but returned to near pretreatment values by 96 h after the last estradiol administration. The determination of serum mFSH concentrations in daily blood samples obtained from 20 rhesus monkeys throughout ovulatory menstrual cycles revealed a pattern similar to that previously reported for the rhesus monkey and the woman. The peak value of serum mFSH during the menstrual cycle coincided with the midcycle surge of mLH in each case. The gonadotropin peaks were preceded by increasing serum concentrations of estradiol and followed by rises in the serum concentrations of progesterone.

  8. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  9. Use of various gonadotropin and biosimilar formulations for in vitro fertilization cycles: results of a worldwide Web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Mindy S; Shoham, Gon; Tobler, Kyle J; Zhao, Yulian; Monseur, Brent; Leong, Milton; Shoham, Zeev

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify trends in gonadotropin therapy in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment worldwide. Retrospective evaluation utilizing the results of a Web-based survey, IVF-Worldwide ( www.IVF-worldwide.com ) was performed. Three hundred fourteen centers performing a total of 218,300 annual IVF cycles were evaluated. Respondents representing 62.2% of cycles (n = 135,800) did not believe there was a difference between urinary and recombinant gonadotropins in terms of efficacy and live birth rate. Of the respondents, 67.3% (n = 146,800) reported no difference between recombinant and urinary formulations in terms of short-term safety and risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In terms of long-term safety using human urinary gonadotropins, 50.6% (n = 110,400) of respondents believe there are potential long-term risks including prion disease. For 95.3% of units (n = 208,000), the clinician was the decision maker determining which specific gonadotropins are used for IVF. Of the units, 62.6% (n = 136,700) identified efficacy as the most important factor in deciding which gonadotropin to prescribe. While most (67.3%, n = 146,800) were aware of new biosimilar recombinant FSH products entering the market, 92% (n = 201,000) reported they would like more information. A fraction of respondents (25.6%, n = 55,900) reported having experience with these new products, and of these, 80.3% (n = 46,200) reported that they were similar in efficacy as previously used gonadotropins in a similar patient group. Respondents representing the majority of centers do not believe a difference exists between urinary and recombinant gonadotropins with respect to efficacy and live birth rates. While many are aware of new biosimilar recombinant FSH products entering the market, over 90% desire more information on these products.

  10. Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Shao, Rong; Rao, C V; Akoum, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Deep functional changes occurring within the endometrium during implantation are orchestrated by embryonic and maternal signals. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major embryonic signal, plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL) 1, one of the earliest embryonic signals, appears to exert a direct impact on the receptive endometrium and to induce major molecular changes that are essential for embryo implantation. Herein we investigate whether hCG can modulate endometrial stromal cell (ESC) receptivity to IL1 during the implantation window and assess the impact on angiogenesis in vitro. Primary cultures of ESCs from normal fertile women during the implantation window were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of hCG (0-100 ng/ml) and stimulated for 24 h with IL1B (0-0.1 ng/ml). IL1 receptors (IL1Rs), IL1R antagonist (IL1RA), and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 were analyzed by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The angiogenic activity in vitro was studied using human microvascular endothelial cell line, scratch wound assay, and cell proliferation via BrdU incorporation into DNA. Human CG induced a dose-dependent imbalance in ESC receptivity to IL1 by significantly upregulating the functional signaling IL1R1 and concomitantly downregulating the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and IL1RA upon subsequent exposure to IL1B. Prior exposure to hCG amplified MCP1 secretion by ESCs in response to IL1B and triggered the release of angiogenic activity in vitro in which MCP1 appeared to play a significant role. Overexpression of IL1R2 using cell transfection inhibited IL1 and hCG/IL1B-mediated MCP1 secretion. These findings suggest that hCG coordinates embryonic signal interaction with the maternal endometrium, and point to a new possible pathway by which it may promote embryonic growth.

  11. Mechanisms of action of nonpeptide hormones on resveratrol-induced antiproliferation of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Cheng, Guei-Yun; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Chin, Yu-Tang; Shih, Ya-Jung; Nana, André Wendindondé; Lin, Shin-Ying; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Chiang, I-Jen; Wang, Kuan

    2017-09-01

    Nonpeptide hormones, such as thyroid hormone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrogen, have been shown to stimulate cancer proliferation via different mechanisms. Aside from their cytosolic or membrane-bound receptors, there are receptors on integrin α v β 3 for nonpeptide hormones. Interaction between hormones and integrin α v β 3 can induce signal transduction and eventually stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Resveratrol induces inducible COX-2-dependent antiproliferation via integrin α v β 3 . Resveratrol and hormone-induced signals are both transduced by activated extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2); however, hormones promote cell proliferation, while resveratrol induces antiproliferation in cancer cells. Hormones inhibit resveratrol-stimulated phosphorylation of p53 on Ser15, resveratrol-induced nuclear COX-2 accumulation, and formation of p53-COX-2 nuclear complexes. Subsequently, hormones impair resveratrol-induced COX-2-/p53-dependent gene expression. The inhibitory effects of hormones on resveratrol action can be blocked by different antagonists of specific nonpeptide hormone receptors but not integrin α v β 3 blockers. Results suggest that nonpeptide hormones inhibit resveratrol-induced antiproliferation in cancer cells downstream of the interaction between ligand and receptor and ERK1/2 activation to interfere with nuclear COX-2 accumulation. Thus, the surface receptor sites for resveratrol and nonpeptide hormones are distinct and can induce discrete ERK1/2-dependent downstream antiproliferation biological activities. It also indicates the complex pathways by which antiproliferation is induced by resveratrol in various physiological hormonal environments. . © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Hamid; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Taherkhani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions.

  13. The laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery versus gonadotropin therapy in infertile women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ferdous; Eessaei, Fatemeh

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to compare two methods of treatment of infertility with gonadotropin with laparoscopic ovarian electrocauterization in patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A number of 104 nulipara patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, who were resistant to clomiphene citrate were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received gonadotropin; after the bleeding withdrawal and from the third day of the cycle, the injection of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) was started with 10 mg medroxy progesterone. The patients were followed with serial trans-vaginal sonographies. When the diameter of follicles reached to 18 mm, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was prescribed. The other group was treated with laparoscopic ovarian electrocauterization under general anesthesia. If after 3 cycles, the anovulation was established with progesterone measurement, the clomiphene citrate was prescribed. Gonadotropin was administered, if the lack of ovulation persisted. No significant difference was documented between the two groups in terms of the obesity indexes, duration of infertility, age, sonographic and laboratory findings. In the gonadotropin group, 37 cases (71%) of pregnancy occurred. The rate of pregnancy was the same in the other group consisting of 18 cases treated by electrocautery, 9 cases with cautery + clomiphene, and 10 cases with clomiphene + cautery + gonadotropin. In the group treated with gonadotropin, there were 1 triple and 4 twins pregnancies. In the group treated with ovarian electrocautery, one twin pregnancy was observed. In the group treated with gonadotropin, 2 cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 1 case of ectopic pregnancy and 6 cases of miscarriage occurred; the corresponding figure in the ovarian electrocautery group consisted of 5 cases of miscarriage. Our findings suggest that ovarian electrocauterization is an appropriate method with good efficacy and low complication rate for infertility

  14. The dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor vildagliptin does not accentuate glibenclamide-induced hypoglycemia but reduces glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Rehring, Erika; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 by vildagliptin enhances the concentrations of the active form of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). The present study asked whether vildagliptin accentuates glibenclamide-induced hy...

  15. Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0 lx, 1 lx, 10 lx, 100 lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1 lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Insulin resistance (IR and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH levels than controls and obese PCOS. These