Sample records for gonadal neoplasms seer

  1. SEER Statistics

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  2. What Is SEER?

    An infographic describing the functions of NCI’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program: collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and disseminating reliable population-based statistics.

  3. SEER Statistics | DCCPS/NCI/NIH

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  4. Early estimates of SEER cancer incidence, 2014.

    Lewis, Denise Riedel; Chen, Huann-Sheng; Cockburn, Myles G; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Stroup, Antoinette M; Midthune, Douglas N; Zou, Zhaohui; Krapcho, Martin F; Miller, Daniel G; Feuer, Eric J


    Cancer incidence rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2014 using data reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in February 2016 and a validation of rates and trends for cases diagnosed through 2013 and submitted in February 2015 using the November 2015 submission are reported. New cancer sites include the pancreas, kidney and renal pelvis, corpus and uterus, and childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years inclusive. A new reporting delay model is presented for these estimates for more consistent results with the model used for the usual November SEER submissions, adjusting for the large case undercount in the February submission. Joinpoint regression methodology was used to assess trends. Delay-adjusted rates and trends were checked for validity between the February 2016 and November 2016 submissions. Validation revealed that the delay model provides similar estimates of eventual counts using either February or November submission data. Trends declined through 2014 for prostate and colon and rectum cancer for males and females, male and female lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Thyroid cancer and liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer increased. Pancreas (male and female) and corpus and uterus cancer demonstrated a modest increase. Slight increases occurred for male kidney and renal pelvis, and for all childhood cancer sites for ages birth to 19 years. Evaluating early cancer data submissions, adjusted for reporting delay, produces timely and valid incidence rates and trends. The results of the current study support using delay-adjusted February submission data for valid incidence rate and trend estimates over several data cycles. Cancer 2017;123:2524-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report



    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  6. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report



    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  7. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T


    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  8. Cancer Incidence - Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registries Limited-Use

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SEER Limited-Use cancer incidence data with associated population data. Geographic areas available are county and SEER registry. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and...

  9. OpinionSeer: interactive visualization of hotel customer feedback.

    Wu, Yingcai; Wei, Furu; Liu, Shixia; Au, Norman; Cui, Weiwei; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin


    The rapid development of Web technology has resulted in an increasing number of hotel customers sharing their opinions on the hotel services. Effective visual analysis of online customer opinions is needed, as it has a significant impact on building a successful business. In this paper, we present OpinionSeer, an interactive visualization system that could visually analyze a large collection of online hotel customer reviews. The system is built on a new visualization-centric opinion mining technique that considers uncertainty for faithfully modeling and analyzing customer opinions. A new visual representation is developed to convey customer opinions by augmenting well-established scatterplots and radial visualization. To provide multiple-level exploration, we introduce subjective logic to handle and organize subjective opinions with degrees of uncertainty. Several case studies illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of OpinionSeer on analyzing relationships among multiple data dimensions and comparing opinions of different groups. Aside from data on hotel customer feedback, OpinionSeer could also be applied to visually analyze customer opinions on other products or services.

  10. Radiation therapy for malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: An analysis of SEER data.

    Kim, Yi-Jun; Kim, Kyubo


    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast (MPTB) accounts for less than 1% of whole breast neoplasm. Surgery is regarded as the primary treatment of choice in patients with MPTB, but the necessity of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has been a subject of debate. Our aim was to evaluate effects of postoperative RT for MPTB using a large population database. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database (1983-2013), clinico-pathologic prognostic factors were evaluated. Postoperative RT, tumor extent, grade, and lymph node (LN) metastasis were included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to evaluate prognostic power of variables on cancer specific survival (CSS). A total of 1974 patients with MPTB were reviewed. Of these, 825 (42%) and 1149 (58%) patients underwent mastectomy and breast conserving surgery (BCS), respectively. In each group, 130 (16%) and 122 (11%) patients received postoperative RT. For patients with adverse risk factors including high grade and large tumor size, postoperative RT was more likely to be performed. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity, tumor size, tumor extension and LN status were correlated with prognosis in mastectomy group, while postoperative RT did not affect CSS. In BCS group, age and grade were significant prognostic factors on CSS, meanwhile postoperative RT did not impact CSS in multivariate analysis. Although patients with more adverse prognostic factors underwent postoperative RT, RT groups were not inferior to non-RT group on CSS regardless of surgery (mastectomy or BCS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Female gonadal venous insufficiency].

    Fernández-Samos, R; Zorita, A; Ortega, J M; Morán, C; Morán, O; Vázquez, J; Vaquero, F


    The varicocele is a disease recognized and studied in the man. Dilatation of the ovarian veins and the pelvic varicosities secondaries to a varicocele in the woman is a rarely described disease but, if it were researched, it could be more frequent. Diverse syndromes of chronic abdominal pain in the woman with unrecognized etiology and associated with urologic and/or gynecologic symptomatology could be caused by this pathology, but the absence of a clinical description difficult the diagnosis of the most part of cases. The practice of gonadal selective venographies shows a high percentage of dilatation of the gonadal veins associated to a dilatation of the pelvic veins and of the lower limbs veins. The study of the anatomy of the gonadal veins shows diverse anomalies respect to the classical descriptions. Furthermore, the varicocele could be the cause of a high part of the "essential" varicosities presents during the pregnancy. We present a case that instead of being treated by Services of Urology or Gynecology, it was treated by the Vascular Surgery Service. So, the literature about the respect was reviewed. We think that, some entities, like the feminine varicocele, ovarian vein syndrome, pelvic congestion syndrome chronic pelvic pain, pelvic varicosities, vulvar varicosities and some "essential" pregnant varicosities at the lower limbs could be enclosed into the same clinical entity (with a common etiology, physiopathology, clinical presentation and treatment). It should be intending to unify criteria (etiologic, diagnostic and therapeutics criteria) by the different Specialized Unities in such type of pathology.

  12. 引文搜索引擎CiteSeerX调查评析%Analysis of tge Citation Search Engine CiteSeerX



    CiteSeerX的兴起与开放获取、电子科研和引文标引系统有着直接的关系.文章通过分析CiteSeerX的搜索原理和重要功能,与同为学术搜索引擎的Google Scholar进行对比,明确其优势所在,指出它的不足,给出相关改进建议.%The origin of CiteSeerX has direct relationship with Open Access, E-Science and ACI.This article analyzed the searching prinaple and important function of CiteSeerX and compared it with academic search engine Google Scholar, and then pointed out its advantages and disadvantages, and finally came up with some relevant recommendations for improvement

  13. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.


    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  14. Gonadal development in fish.

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru


    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  15. Gonadoblastoma arising in undifferentiated gonadal tissue within dysgenetic gonads

    M.L. Cools (Martine); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); J.A. Stoop (Hans); A.M. Kersemaekers (Anne-Marie); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); J.-P. Bourguignon (J.); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); K. Kula (Krzysztof); S.M.H. Faradz (Sultana)


    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of the study was to define the histological origin of gonadoblastomas, allowing the identification of high-risk patients. Experimental Design: Sixty paraffin-embedded gonadectomy or gonadal biopsy samples of 43 patients with gonadal dysgenesis were selected from our

  16. Myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia.

    Reiter, Andreas; Gotlib, Jason


    Molecular diagnostics has generated substantial dividends in dissecting the genetic basis of myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia. The family of diseases generated by dysregulated fusion tyrosine kinase (TK) genes is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) category, "Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1, or with PCM1-JAK2" In addition to myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), these patients can present with myelodysplastic syndrome/MPN, as well as de novo or secondary mixed-phenotype leukemias or lymphomas. Eosinophilia is a common, but not invariable, feature of these diseases. The natural history of PDGFRA- and PDGFRB-rearranged neoplasms has been dramatically altered by imatinib. In contrast, patients with FGFR1 and JAK2 fusion TK genes exhibit a more aggressive course and variable sensitivity to current TK inhibitors, and in most cases, long-term disease-free survival may only be achievable with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Similar poor prognosis outcomes may be observed with rearrangements of FLT3 or ABL1 (eg, both of which commonly partner with ETV6), and further investigation is needed to validate their inclusion in the current WHO-defined group of eosinophilia-associated TK fusion-driven neoplasms. The diagnosis chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified (CEL, NOS) is assigned to patients with MPN with eosinophilia and nonspecific cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities and/or increased myeloblasts. Myeloid mutation panels have identified somatic variants in patients with a provisional diagnosis of hypereosinophilia of undetermined significance, reclassifying some of these cases as eosinophilia-associated neoplasms. Looking forward, one of the many challenges will be how to use the results of molecular profiling to guide prognosis and selection of actionable therapeutic targets. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Trends in Post-mastectomy Reconstruction: A SEER Database Analysis

    Lang, Julie E.; Summers, Danielle E.; Cui, Haiyan; Carey, Joseph N.; Viscusi, Rebecca K.; Hurst, Craig A.; Waer, Amy L.; Ley, Michele L B.; Sener, Stephen F.; Vijayasekaran, Aparna


    Background and Objectives This study was performed to investigate recent trends and factors associated with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using a large population-based registry. We hypothesized that rates of IBR have increased since passage of the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998. Methods The SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database was used to evaluate Stage I–III breast cancer (BC) patients who underwent total mastectomy from 1998–2008. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to study predictors of IBR. Results Of 112,348 patients with BC treated by mastectomy, 18,001 (16%) had IBR. Rates of IBR increased significantly from 1998–2008 (pmastectomy radiation (XRT) and in 14,188 of 86,513 (16.4%) of those not having XRT (p<0.0001). Conclusions The utilization of IBR has increased significantly over the last decade. IBR was found to be significantly associated with age, race, geographical region, stage, ER, grade, LN status, and XRT (p<0.0001). PMID:23861196

  18. Peroxiredoxins in colorectal neoplasms

    Wu, X.Y.; Fu, X.Z.; Wang, X. H.


    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are novel group proteins with efficient antioxidant capacity, and some of them also have effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Altogether six distinct Prxs expressions were investigated in histological samples of colorectal neoplasm and the distant normal tissues and investigated associatedly with parameters such as clinical stage and lymphnodes metastasis. Normal colorectal tis...

  19. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    ... Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative ...

  20. A brief history of the pathology of the gonads.

    Young, Robert H


    Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators. Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma. The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors. In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma. The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors. In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis. The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad. Although comments on ovarian pathology were made by such legendary figures of earlier times as Giovanni Battista Morgagni and Matthew Baillie, it is only in the mid to later years of the 19th century that contributions, mostly in Europe, began to move knowledge of ovarian pathology to its current state. Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms. In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and

  1. Identification of SSEA-1 expressing enhanced reprogramming (SEER) cells in porcine embryonic fibroblasts

    Li, Dong; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Juhl, Morten


    Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells are the o......Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells...... in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We therefore termed these cells SSEA-1 Expressing Enhanced Reprogramming (SEER) cells. Interestingly, SEER cells were more effective at differentiating into osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. We conclude that SEER cells are more amenable for reprogramming...... and that the expression of mesenchymal stem cell genes is advantageous in the reprogramming process. This data provides evidence supporting the elite theory and helps to delineate which cell types and specific genes are important for reprogramming in the pig....

  2. Gonadal and adrenal androgen secretion in hirsute females.

    Molta, L; Schwartz, U


    The pathophysiology of glandular androgen hypersecretion must be regarded as a continuous process without sharp borderlines from normal to non-tumorous conditions, such as polycystic ovaries and hyperthecosis, to neoplastic disease. Hirsutism and related symptoms are most often caused by excess androgens of ovarian and/or adrenal origin, i.e. testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate. As demonstrated by selective catheterization of glandular effluents, combined hypersecretion occurs more frequently then either purely gonadal or adrenal overproduction. No correlation can be found between the type, frequency and extent of hormonal changes and the clinical, laparoscopic, angiographic, or histological findings. Dynamic function tests do not reliably discriminate between the various aetiological subgroups due to extremely variable and even non-specific individual responsiveness. Selective catheterization is presently the most sensitive method for the preoperative identification and localization of androgen-secreting neoplasms.

  3. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (10th, Annapolis, Maryland, December 3-7, 2000).

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 10th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include measuring success through student assessment, the Bay Schools Project (BSP), and a co-sponsored educational forum with…

  4. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (9th, San Diego, California, May 21-25, 2000).

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 9th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include connecting service learning and the Environment as an Integrated Context for learning (EIC), and reports from states on…

  5. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (11th, Des Moines, Iowa, May 20-24, 2001).

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 11th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include potential partnerships with national language arts organizations and associations, how environmental justice issues…

  6. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz


    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  7. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz


    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  8. Genomics of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Zoi, Katerina; Cross, Nicholas C P


    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of related clonal hematologic disorders characterized by excess accumulation of one or more myeloid cell lineages and a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. Deregulated JAK2 signaling has emerged as the central phenotypic driver of BCR -ABL1-negative MPNs and a unifying therapeutic target. In addition, MPNs show unexpected layers of genetic complexity, with multiple abnormalities associated with disease progression, interactions between inherited factors and phenotype driver mutations, and effects related to the order in which mutations are acquired. Although morphology and clinical laboratory analysis continue to play an important role in defining these conditions, genomic analysis is providing a platform for better disease definition, more accurate diagnosis, direction of therapy, and refined prognostication. There is an emerging consensus with regard to many prognostic factors, but there is a clear need to synthesize genomic findings into robust, clinically actionable and widely accepted scoring systems as well as the need to standardize the laboratory methodologies that are used.

  9. Differences in Survival between Colon and Rectal Cancer from SEER Data

    Yen-Chien Lee; Yen-Lin Lee; Jen-Pin Chuang; Jenq-Chang Lee


    BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,1...

  10. Risk of second malignant neoplasms in women and girls with germ cell tumors.

    Liao, Z; Rodrigues, M C; Poynter, J N; Amatruda, J F; Rodriguez-Galindo, C; Frazier, A L


    While an elevated risk of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) has been observed in men treated for germ cell tumors (GCTs), risk of SMNs have not been quantified in adult women or in girls treated for GCTs. One-year survivors of primary GCTs diagnosed between January 1980 and December 2012 were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 9) registries. Risk of SMNs was calculated using SEER*Stat. Among 1507 patients, a total of 47 SMNs were identified. The overall risk of SMNs was not elevated in females overall or in females treated for GCT during adulthood although SMN sites (pancreas, soft tissue, bladder, kidney, and thyroid) and trends were comparable with those in men. There were too few childhood GCT cases with SMNs for further analysis. Unlike men, women treated for GCTs did not have a statistically significant elevated risk of SMNs [standardized incidence ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.81-1.47]. The fact that SMNs in women occur in sites similar to those observed in men indicate that long-term follow-up of a larger cohort of females treated for GCT is warranted.

  11. Gonadal dysgenesis and bone metabolism.

    Breuil, V; Euller-Ziegler, L


    Gonadal dysgenesis is defined as congenital hypogonadism related to abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. Because sex steroids play a central role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass, studies have been done to investigate bone status in patients with gonadal dysgenesis, particularly Turner's syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome, which are the two most common types. The severe estrogen deficiency characteristic of Turner's syndrome (44, X0) is associated with a significant bone mass decrease ascribable to increased bone turnover, as shown by histological studies and assays of bone turnover markers. Estrogen therapy is followed by a significant bone mass gain and a return to normal of bone turnover markers, suggesting that it is the estrogen deficiency rather than the chromosomal abnormality that causes the bone mass deficiency, although abnormalities in the renal metabolism of vitamin D have been reported. Combined therapy with estrogens and growth hormone seems beneficial during the prepubertal period. In Klinefelter's syndrome (47XXY), serum testosterone levels are at the lower end of the normal range and dihydrotestosterone levels are low. Histological studies show depressed osteoblast function and a decrease in 5-alpha-reductase activity responsible for partial tissue resistance to androgens. Assays of bone turnover markers show evidence of increased bone turnover. The bone deficiency is most marked at the femoral neck and seems correlated with serum testosterone and estradiol levels. Androgen therapy has favorable effects on the bone only if it is started before puberty. Recent data suggest that estrogens may contribute to the development of demineralization in KS and that bisphosphonate therapy may be beneficial.

  12. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in a 45,X neonate with chromosome Y material in the dysgenetic gonad.

    Karatza, Ageliki; Chrysis, Dionisios; Stefanou, Eunice-Georgia; Mantagos, Stefanos; Salakos, Christos


    We report on a neonate with a disorder of sex development, Prader 3-4 external genitalia and a palpable structure in the right inguinal canal suggestive of gonadal tissue. Chromosome studies on blood lymphocytes showed monosomy of chromosome X. Laparoscopy identified a streak-like gonad on the left side, unicorn uterus and a dysgenetic testis on the right, attached to a Fallopian tube. Because of the unilateral palpable gonad and the presence of ambiguous genitalia we investigated further for the presence of Y material. Quantitative fluorescent PCR analysis of material from the dysgenetic gonad and skin fibroblasts revealed the presence of chromosome Y-derived sequences, suggesting sex chromosome mosaicism. In 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, chromosome studies carried out on peripheral lymphocytes do not always reflect the proportion of cell lines in the gonads. The detection of Y chromosome material in a dysgenetic gonad is extremely significant, due to the high risk of malignant transformation.

  13. MindSeer: a portable and extensible tool for visualization of structural and functional neuroimaging data

    Brinkley James F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional (3-D visualization of multimodality neuroimaging data provides a powerful technique for viewing the relationship between structure and function. A number of applications are available that include some aspect of 3-D visualization, including both free and commercial products. These applications range from highly specific programs for a single modality, to general purpose toolkits that include many image processing functions in addition to visualization. However, few if any of these combine both stand-alone and remote multi-modality visualization in an open source, portable and extensible tool that is easy to install and use, yet can be included as a component of a larger information system. Results We have developed a new open source multimodality 3-D visualization application, called MindSeer, that has these features: integrated and interactive 3-D volume and surface visualization, Java and Java3D for true cross-platform portability, one-click installation and startup, integrated data management to help organize large studies, extensibility through plugins, transparent remote visualization, and the ability to be integrated into larger information management systems. We describe the design and implementation of the system, as well as several case studies that demonstrate its utility. These case studies are available as tutorials or demos on the associated website: Conclusion MindSeer provides a powerful visualization tool for multimodality neuroimaging data. Its architecture and unique features also allow it to be extended into other visualization domains within biomedicine.

  14. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. [Gonadal function in Turner syndrome].

    Alves, Márcia; Bastos, Margarida; Almeida Santos, Teresa; Carrilho, Francisco


    Introdução: A síndrome de Turner caracteriza-se pela ausência, parcial ou total, de um cromossoma X no sexo feminino, sendo uma das cromossomopatias mais frequentes. O diagnóstico é realizado através do cariótipo e as suas manifestações incluem o hipogonadismo primário, antes ou após a puberdade (disgenesia gonadal). O grau de disfunção e a extensão dos defeitos gonadais são variáveis.Objectivos: Pretendeu-se avaliar a clínica, cariótipo, função gonadal e características ecográficas do útero e ovários de mulheres com síndrome de Turner.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de doentes com síndrome de Turner, seguidas nos Serviços de Endocrinologia ou Reprodução Humana dos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra - Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, E.P.E. Avaliou-se toda a amostra e consideraram-se o grupo 1 (com puberdade e menarca espontânea) e grupo 2 (sem puberdade espontânea). Parâmetros avaliados: idade do estudo inicial, puberdade, cariótipo, FSH, ecografia pélvica inicial e pós-pubertária, celioscopia e indução pubertária. Estudo estatístico: SPSS (20.0).Resultados: Amostra: 79 doentes, 14,7 ± 6,6 anos. Ausência de sinais pubertários em 57,1%, amenorreia primária 67,1% e secundária 6,6%. Cariótipo: monossomia X-37,2%, mosaico-37,2%, alterações estruturais de X-25,6%. Mediana da FSH 59,5mUI/mL. Ecografia inicial: útero normal-34,2%, atrófico-65,8%; ovários normais-21,6%, atróficos-78,4%, com folículos-5,1%. Ecografia pós-pubertária: útero normal-67,9%, atrófico-32,1%; ovários normais-36,4%, atróficos-63,6%. A laparoscopia realizada em 16 (20,3%) doentes confirmou os achados ecográficos. Duas mulheres com puberdade induzida engravidaram: uma espontaneamente, sem evolução; outra pordoação de ovócitos, evolutiva. Grupo 1 (com puberdade e menarca espontânea): 20 (25,3%) doentes, 16,1 ± 8,9 anos. Puberdade na avaliação inicial: M1-22,2%, M2-33,3%, M3-16,7%, M4-16,7%, M5-11,1%. Cari

  16. Stage I testicular seminoma: a SEER analysis of contemporary adjuvant radiotherapy trends.

    Thong, Alan E; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Almario, Leanne; Ingels, Alexandre; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Gonzalgo, Mark L


    Patients with clinical stage I testicular seminoma have historically been treated with adjuvant radiotherapy in the United States. However, nearly 80% of patients on surveillance will not experience relapse and even with relapse, salvage rates approach 100%. It remains unclear how practice patterns have changed with recently accumulating evidence and changes in guidelines. In a population based setting we evaluated contemporary trends and factors that may affect the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. A total of 8,151 men diagnosed with stage I testicular seminoma from 2000 to 2009 were identified in the national SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) registry. A multivariate regression model was constructed to analyze the association of year, age, race, socioeconomic status, SEER region, pathological stage and tumor size with the administration of adjuvant radiotherapy. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy decreased significantly from 2000 to 2009. In 2000, 74.7% of patients received radiation, compared with only 37.7% of patients in 2009 (p seminoma has decreased significantly in the last decade. Older age and higher socioeconomic status are associated with higher rates of adjuvant radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging of pediatric ovarian neoplasms.

    Epelman, Monica; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Chauvin, Nancy; Servaes, Sabah


    We review the clinical and imaging characteristics of the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. Because of the widespread use of diagnostic imaging, incidental ovarian neoplasms might be encountered during the evaluation of abdominal pain, trauma or other indications and might pose a diagnostic dilemma. Conducting adequate imaging studies under these conditions is important, as management strategies differ according to the size and appearance of the lesion as well as the age of the patient. US dominates in gynecological imaging because of its excellent visualization, absence of ionizing radiation and sedation risks and comparatively low cost. For further examination of indeterminate lesions found using US, MRI is being used more progressively in this field, particularly for the evaluation of complex pelvic masses with the aim of distinguishing benign and malignant conditions and conditions requiring surgical intervention. CT is reserved primarily for tumor staging and follow-up and for emergency situations.

  18. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

    Squillaci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Crecco, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Grandinetti, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Maspes, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Lo Presti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Squillaci, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy)


    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  19. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E


    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  20. Variant course of left gonadal artery

    Mamatha Y


    Full Text Available The variations of the arteries that develop from the mesonephric arteries, including renal, gonadal and suprarenal arteries are common. Variations in the anatomical relationship of the gonadal arteries to the renal vessels are frequently reported. We here present a case of an unusual origin and course of a left testicular artery arching over left renal vein. The arching of the left testicular artery over the left renal vein could be a possible cause of the left renal vein compression. Therefore, knowledge of the possible existence of arching gonadal vessels in relation to the renal vein could be of paramount importance to vascular surgeons and urologists during surgery in the retroperitoneal region.

  1. Gonadal ecdysteroidogenesis in arthropoda: occurrence and regulation.

    Brown, Mark R; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Rees, Huw H


    Ecdysteroids are multifunctional hormones in male and female arthropods and are stored in oocytes for use during embryogenesis. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis and its hormonal regulation are demonstrated for insect gonads, but not for the gonads of other arthropods. The Y-organ in the cephalothorax of crustaceans and the integument of ticks are sources of secreted ecdysteroids in adults, as in earlier stages, but the tissue source is not known for adults in many arthropod groups. Ecdysteroid metabolism occurs in several tissues of adult arthropods. This review summarizes the evidence for ecdysteroid biosynthesis by gonads and its metabolism in adult arthropods and considers the apparent uniqueness of ecdysteroid hormones in arthropods, given the predominance of vertebrate-type steroids in sister invertebrate groups and vertebrates.

  2. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg


    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  3. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J.E.; Perlman, S


    STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? SUMMARY ANSWER: RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal...... phenotype in fetal testis cultures. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA......-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated...

  4. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio


    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature.

  5. [XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis and XYY syndrome].

    Itoh, Naoki; Tsukamoto, Taiji


    XX 'pure' gonadal dysgenesis is a disease related to Turner's syndrome. Patients of this disease are characterized by normal female external genitalia, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea and sexual infantilism. Recently, it has been reported that point mutations of the FSH receptor gene may be one of cause of this disease. The relationship between criminal behavior and XYY syndrome is still controversial. Increased incidence of disomic sperm in 47,XYY males has been reported by fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH). Genetic counseling should be done when they undergo intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  6. Induced autoimmunity against gonadal proteins affects gonadal development in juvenile zebrafish.

    Christopher Presslauer

    Full Text Available A method to mitigate or possibly eliminate reproduction in farmed fish is highly demanded. The existing approaches have certain applicative limitations. So far, no immunization strategies affecting gonadal development in juvenile animals have been developed. We hypothesized that autoimmune mechanisms, occurring spontaneously in a number of diseases, could be induced by targeted immunization. We have asked whether the immunization against specific targets in a juvenile zebrafish gonad will produce an autoimmune response, and, consequently, disturbance in gonadal development. Gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf, growth differentiation factor (Gdf9, and lymphocyte antigen 75 (Cd205/Ly75, all essential for early gonad development, were targeted with 5 immunization tests. Zebrafish (n = 329 were injected at 6 weeks post fertilization, a booster injection was applied 15 days later, and fish were sampled at 30 days. We localized transcripts encoding targeted proteins by in situ hybridization, quantified expression of immune-, apoptosis-, and gonad-related genes with quantitative real-time PCR, and performed gonadal histology and whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Bcl2-interacting-killer (Bik pro-apoptotic protein. The treatments resulted in an autoimmune reaction, gonad developmental retardation, intensive apoptosis, cell atresia, and disturbed transcript production. Testes were remarkably underdeveloped after anti-Gsdf treatments. Anti-Gdf9 treatments promoted apoptosis in testes and abnormal development of ovaries. Anti-Cd205 treatment stimulated a strong immune response in both sexes, resulting in oocyte atresia and strong apoptosis in supporting somatic cells. The effect of immunization was FSH-independent. Furthermore, immunization against germ cell proteins disturbed somatic supporting cell development. This is the first report to demonstrate that targeted autoimmunity can disturb gonadal development in a juvenile fish. It shows a

  7. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    Özpolat, B. Duygu; Sloane, Emily S; Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E


    ... these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi...

  8. Survival patterns in United States (US medicare enrollees with non-CML myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN.

    Gregory L Price

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-CML myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN include essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV, and myelofibrosis (MF. Reported median overall survival (OS ranges from a few to several years for MF, a decade or more for ET and PV. The study objective was to compare US survival rates of ET, PV, and MF patients with matched non-MPN/non-cancer controls in a nationally representative database. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were taken retrospectively from the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER-Medicare linked database. Medicare enrollees with a new SEER MPN diagnosis between Jan 1, 2001 and Dec 31, 2007 were eligible. First MPN diagnosis was required at or after Medicare enrollment to allow for continuous follow-up. Non-MPN/non-cancer control groups were selected from Medicare separately for each MPN subtype and demographically matched to cases at a ratio of 5:1. Survival was determined starting from the case diagnosis date using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A total of 3,364 MPN patients (n = 1,217 ET; 1,625 PV; 522 MF met the inclusion criteria and were matched to controls. Mean age was 78.4, 76.1, and 77.4 years for ET, PV, and MF, respectively, and percent female was 63, 50, and 41. Median OS was significantly (p<0.05 lower for MPN cases vs. controls (ET: 68 vs. 101 months; PV: 65 vs. 104; MF: 24 vs. 106. CONCLUSIONS: In the US Medicare population, survival in MF patients was worse than that of patients with ET or PV and significantly worse than matched controls. Survival of patients with ET or PV was substantially inferior to matched controls. These findings have implications for the clinical management of MPN patients and underscore the need for effective therapies in all MPN subtypes.

  9. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah


    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  10. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei


    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC.

  11. Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents

    Giovanni Cecchetto


    Full Text Available Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors. The gonadal sites (ovary and testis account for 40% of cases. Ovarian GCTs: Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST; dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80% and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Testicular GCT: Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations. Conclusion: Patients with gonadal



    2003172 Impact of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 on resistance of ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids to taxol. XING Hui(刑辉), et al. Dept Ob-stetr Gynecol.Tongji Hosp.Tongiji Med Coll, Huazhong Univ Sci & Technol, Wuhan 430030. Nad Med J China 2003;83(1):37-43.



    950253 The characteristics of bone metastatic tumorsin the elderly-a report of 163 cases.LI Xiaoying(李小鹰),et al.General Hosp,PLA,Beijing,100853.ChinJ Geriatr 1994;13(6):333-334.A study of bone metastatic tumors(BMT) was car-ried out in 163 cases with age of 60 years and over.The characteristics of BMT in the elderly were as fol-lows:1.the elderly patients with BMT made up 7.9percent of all the patients with primary malignant tu-



    2004193 Quantitation and detection of deletion in tumor mitochondrial DNA by microarray technique.HAN Chengbo (韩琤波), et al. Tumor Instit, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Oncol 2004;26(1):10-13.Objective: To develop a method to rapidly quanti-tate and detect deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtD-



    970246 Detection of point mutations of p53 gene bynon-isotopic PCR-SSCP in paraffin-embedded malig-nant mesothelioma tissue. LUO Suqiong(罗素琼), etal. Pneumoconiosis Res Unit, Public Health Sch,West-China Med Univ, Chengdu, 610041. Chin J Ind



    920632 Phenotypic analysis of T lympho-cytes from the patient with thymoma com-plicated with pure red cell aplasia. LIUBai(刘白), et al. Beijing Med Univ. Chin J Hema-tol 1992; 13(5): 244-246. The thymocytes in thymoma tissue and mono-nuclear cells in peripheral blood and bone marrowwere obtained from a patient with thymomacomplicated with pure red cell aplasia. The



    2003034 NOEY2 gene mRNA expression in breast cancer tissue and its relation to clinicopathological parameters. SHI Zonggao ( 施宗高 ), et al. Molec Pathol Lab, Fudan Univ Cancer Hosp, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Oncol 2002;24(5) :475 - 478.Objective: To investigate the expression of NOEY2 gene in breast cancer tissue and its relation to clinico-

  18. Clotrimazole exposure modulates aromatase activity in gonads and brain during gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs.

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Eriksson, Hanna; Söderqvist, Anneli; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia


    Clotrimazole is a pharmaceutical used for treatment of fungal infections. It has been found in surface waters outside municipal wastewater treatment plants but data are scarce regarding its effects on aquatic organisms. It is known that clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides are inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase (CYP 19). Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and is suggested to be involved in the sex differentiation in amphibians. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of larval exposure to clotrimazole on aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs. Another purpose was to determine if larval exposure to ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), at a concentration known to cause male-to-female sex reversal, affects aromatase activity in brain and gonads during gonadal differentiation. Tadpoles were exposed from shortly after hatching (Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stages 47-48) until complete metamorphosis (NF stage 66) to 6, 41, and 375 nM clotrimazole or 100 nM (nominal) EE(2). Aromatase activity was measured in the brain and gonad/kidney complex of tadpoles during gonadal differentiation (NF stage 56) and, in the clotrimazole experiment, also at metamorphosis. In clotrimazole-exposed tadpoles gonadal aromatase activity increased over exposure time in the 41 and 375 nM groups but did not differ significantly from the control group. Gonadal aromatase activity was increased in both sexes exposed to 41 and 375 nM clotrimazole at metamorphosis. Brain aromatase activity was decreased in tadpoles (NF stage 56) exposed to 375 nM clotrimazole, but at metamorphosis no differences were seen between groups or between sexes. No effects of clotrimazole on sex ratio or gonadal histology were noted at completed metamorphosis. EE(2)-exposed tadpoles had a slightly decreased gonadal aromatase activity, though not significantly different from control group, and there was no effect of EE(2) on brain aromatase

  19. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich


    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  20. Less common neoplasms of the pancreas

    Abby L Mulkeen; Peter S Yoo; Charles Cha


    Recently, there has been an increased recognition of neoplasms of the pancreas other than ductal adenocarcinoma. Although not as well studied or characterized as pancreatic adenocarcinoma there are many distinct lesions which exhibit diverse biological behaviors and varying degrees of malignancy. These lesions include: endocrine neoplasms, cystic tumors, solid pseudopapillary tumors, acinar cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, primary lymphoma of the pancreas, and metastatic lesions to the pancreas. These less common neoplasms are being diagnosed more frequently as the number and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging studies increase. This review article discusses the clinical course,diagnosis, and treatment of these less common, but quite relevant, neoplasms of the pancreas.

  1. Radiation Therapy Improves Survival Outcome in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Comparison of a 15-Year Institutional Experience at the University of Nebraska Medical Center with SEER Data

    Baine, Michael J.; Chi Lin


    Objectives. We examined the role of radiation therapy (RT) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) treatment through a 15-year retrospective analysis of patients treated at University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) as well as those from the SEER database. Methods. A total of 561 patients diagnosed with PA at UNMC between 1995 and 2011 and 60,587 patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 from the SEER were included. Examined prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) were age, gender, race, stag...

  2. Analysis for SEER of variable speed room air conditioner in China. Paper no. IGEC-1-104

    Yitai, M.; Shengchun, L.; Lirong, M. [Tianjin Univ., Thermal Energy Research Inst., Tianjin (China)]. E-mail:


    In this paper, the calculation method for seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) given in Standard JRA4046-1999 is analyzed and further modified. Based on temperature zone map of U.S., Japan and China and detailed weather data of eight Chinese cities in last 30 years, regional seasonal energy efficiency ratio (RSEER) and energy saving percentage of variable speed room air conditioner are analyzed and compared with various geographical regions in China. It is concluded that RSEER presents the associated effect of season, climate and geography, and therefore should be taken as an evaluation standard for room air conditioner, especially variable speed room air conditioner. Experimental measurements are conducted in the analysis to investigate the effect of energy efficiency ratio (EER) on the improvement of energy saving percentage and SEER. (author)

  3. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Semra Paydas


    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  4. Neuropeptides in the Gonads: From Evolution to Pharmacology

    Nicolette L McGuire


    Full Text Available Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meagre. This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH. Comparative studies have provided us with a degree of understanding as to how a gonadal GnRH system might have evolved, and they have been responsible for the discovery of GnIH and its gonadal counterpart. We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology.

  5. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen;


    Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type of invest......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...... was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows...

  6. Trends of Incidence and Survival of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors in the United States: A Seer Analysis

    Vassiliki L. Tsikitis, Betsy C. Wertheim, Marlon A. Guerrero


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in detection and survival of hollow viscus gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs across time and geographic regions of the U.S.METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to investigate 19,669 individuals with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal NETs. Trends in incidence were tested using Poisson regression. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine survival.RESULTS: Incidence increased over time for NETs of all gastrointestinal sites (all P < 0.001, except appendix. Rates have risen faster for NETs of the small intestine and rectum than stomach and colon. Rectal NETs were detected at a faster pace among blacks than whites (P < 0.001 and slower in the East than other regions (P < 0.001. We observed that appendiceal and rectal NETs carry the best prognosis and survival of small intestinal and colon NETs has improved for both men and women. Colon NETs showed different temporal trends in survival according to geographic region (Pinteraction = 0.028. Improved prognosis was more consistent across the country for small intestinal NETs.CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has increased, accompanied by inconsistently improved survival for different anatomic sites among certain groups defined by race and geographic region.

  7. Skeletal Plasmacytoma: Progression of disease and impact of local treatment; an analysis of SEER database

    Scully Sean P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports suggest an as yet unidentifiable subset of patients with plasmacytoma will progress to myeloma. The current study sought to establish the risk of developing myeloma and determine the prognostic factors affecting the progression of disease. Methods Patients with plasmacytoma diagnosed between 1973 and 2005 were identified in the SEER database(1164 patients. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics, treatment(s, cause of death, and survival were extracted. Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, and Cox regression were used to analyze prognostic factors. Results The five year survival among patients initially diagnosed with plasmacytoma that later progressed to multiple myeloma and those initially diagnosed with multiple myeloma were almost identical (25% and 23%; respectively. Five year survival for patients with plasmacytoma that did not progress to multiple myeloma was significantly better (72%. Age > 60 years was the only factor that correlated with progression of disease (p = 0.027. Discussion Plasmacytoma consists of two cohorts of patients with different overall survival; those patients that do not progress to systemic disease and those that develop myeloma. Age > 60 years is associated with disease progression. Identifying patients with systemic disease early in the treatment will permit aggressive and novel treatment strategies to be implemented.

  8. A perspective on fish gonad manipulation for biotechnical applications


    The gonad is an essential organ for generating sperm and ova in vertebrates. This review describes several pilot studies on gonad gene manipulation and development in fish. With antisense RNA techniques, we suppressed the gonad development, and thus the fertility, of an antisense gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) transgenic common carp. Then, using a tissue-specific exogenous gene excision strategy with sexual compensation, we knocked out the gonad-specific transgene. Under the control of the rainbow trout protamine promoter, the transgenic fish expressed the reporter gene eGFP specifically in the spermary. These results indicate that the fish gonad is a new model organ that can improve contemporary biotechnology experiments. Herein we discuss the potential of fish gonad manipulation for resolving important biosafety problems regarding transgenic fish generation and producing the new transgenic animal bioreactor.

  9. Ionizing radiation exposures in treatments of solid neoplasms are not associated with subsequent increased risks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Sachs, Rainer K; Gale, Robert Peter; Smith, Mitchell R; Hill, Brian T


    Exposure to ionizing radiation is not thought to cause chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Challenging this notion are recent data suggesting CLL incidence may be increased by radiation exposure from the atomic bombs (after many decades), uranium mining and nuclear power facility accidents. To assess the effects of therapeutic ionizing radiation for the treatment of solid neoplasms we studied CLL risks in data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Specifically, we compared the risks of developing CLL in persons with a 1(st) non-hematologic cancer treated with or without ionizing radiation. We controlled for early detection effects on CLL risk induced by surveillance after 1(st) cancer diagnoses by forming all-time cumulative CLL relative risks (RR). We estimate such CLL RR to be 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17, 1.23) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with ionizing radiation and 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) for persons whose 1(st) cancer was treated with ionizing radiations. These results imply that diagnosis of a solid neoplasm is associated with an increased risk of developing CLL only in persons whose 1(st) cancer was not treated with radiation therapy.

  10. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    B. Duygu Özpolat


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. Results We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  11. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Sloane, Emily S; Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E


    Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  12. Migratory mechanisms of chick primordial germ cells toward gonadal anlage.

    Kuwana, T; Rogulska, T


    After appearing at the germinal crescent region, chick primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate toward the presumptive gonads (pG) till stage 19 (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951). This study seeks to elucidate the roles of passive and active factors in the PGC-migration, physical trapping of circulating PGCs by the capillary network and PGC attraction by chemotactic factor from presumptive gonads. Firstly, latex beads/pollens (the same size or larger than PGCs) were injected into the embryonic bloodstream at stage 13-19 (when PGCs are in the migrating and settlement phase to the presumptive gonad) in ovo in order to determine whether the PGCs passively reach pG. Most of such particles accumulated in the head region (60%), whereas the remainder did the same in the gonadal region (23% at the peak) at stage 16 when both the head and gonadal regions are rich in capillary plexus. After 3 days, most particles in the gonadal region were located at the angles of dorsal mesentery near the developing gonads where many extra-gonadal PGCs had been located, and a few particles were detected close to the gonad. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of PGC-migration to the developing gonads is an autonomous trapping of PGCs by the capillary network quite close to the germinal epithelium (GE) and passive translocation by morphogenetic movement. Secondly, the attraction for PGCs by the gonadal anlage proper was examined in ovo using chick and quail embryos. Grafts of quail gonadal anlage containing gonadal epithelium and neighbouring mesenchymal tissue were excised from the quail embryo at stages 12 to 16 (staging by Zacchei, 1961). With the aims of eliminating the influence of surrounding tissue, the quail graft was ectopically transplanted into the posterior to the optic vesicle of 8 to 17 somite chick embryo from the point of a posterior region to the auditory vesicle by a fine tungsten needle under the illumination by the method of Hara (1971). Then the region posterior to

  13. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms of Pancreas

    Naveed, Shah; Qari, Hasina; Banday, Tanveer; Altaf, Asma; Para, Mah


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual management of mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas. A systematic review was performed in December 2009 by consulting PubMed MEDLINE for publications and matching the key words “pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic tumor”, “pancreatic mucinous cystic mass”, “pancreatic cyst” and “pancreatic cystic neoplasm” to identify English language articles describing the diagnosis and treatment of the MCN of the pancreas. In total, 16,322 references ranging from January 1969 to December 2009 were analyzed and 77 articles were identified. No articles published before 1996 were selected because MCNs were not previously considered to be a completely autonomous disease. Definition, epidemiology, anatomopathological findings, clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, treatment and prognosis were reviewed. MCNs are pancreatic mucin-producing cysts with a distinctive ovarian-type stroma localized in the body-tail of the gland and occurring in middle-aged females. The majority of MCNs are slow growing and asymptomatic. The prevalence of invasive carcinoma varies between 6% and 55%. Preoperative diagnosis depends on a combination of clinical features, tumor markers, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound with cyst fluid analysis and positron emission tomography-CT. Surgery is indicated for all MCNs.

  14. Cytokeratins in epithelia of odontogenic neoplasms

    Crivelini, MM; de Araujo, VC; de Sousa, SOM; de Araujo, NS

    Neoplasms and tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus may be composed only of epithelial tissue or epithelial tissue associated with odontogenic ectomesenchyme. The immunohistochemical detection of different cytokeratins (CKs) polypeptides and vimentin has made it easier to explain the

  15. Premalignant cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Dudeja, Vikas; Allen, Peter J


    Due to increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are frequently being diagnosed. Many of these cysts have premalignant potential and offer a unique opportunity for cancer prevention. Mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are the major premalignant cystic neoplasms of pancreas. The prediction of the risk of malignancy (incidental and future risk of malignant transformation) and balancing the risks of watchful waiting with that of operative management with associated mortality and morbidity is the key to the management of these lesions. We review the literature that has contributed to the development of our approach to the management of these cystic neoplasms. We provide an overview of the key features used in diagnosis and in predicting malignancy. Particular attention is given to the natural history and management decision making.

  16. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    present two cases in young female patients. Both tumours were surgically ... cases was consistent with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm. .... study and literature review. BMJ Case Rep. 2012 ... Orlando CA, Bowman RL, Loose JH. Multicentric ...

  17. WHO classification 2008 of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Madelung, Ann B; Bondo, Henrik; Stamp, Inger


    We examined the learning effect of a workshop for Danish hematopathologists led by an international expert regarding histological subtyping of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Six hematopathologists evaluated 43 bone marrow (BM) biopsies according to the WHO description (2008), blinded...

  18. Cytokeratins in epithelia of odontogenic neoplasms

    Crivelini, MM; de Araujo, VC; de Sousa, SOM; de Araujo, NS


    Neoplasms and tumours related to the odontogenic apparatus may be composed only of epithelial tissue or epithelial tissue associated with odontogenic ectomesenchyme. The immunohistochemical detection of different cytokeratins (CKs) polypeptides and vimentin has made it easier to explain the histogen

  19. Expression of miRNAs in ovine fetal gonads: potential role in gonadal differentiation

    Winger Quinton A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal differentiation in the mammalian fetus involves a complex dose-dependent genetic network. Initiation and progression of fetal ovarian and testicular pathways are accompanied by dynamic expression patterns of thousands of genes. We postulate these expression patterns are regulated by small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of miRNAs in mammalian fetal gonads using sheep as a model. Methods We determined the expression of 128 miRNAs by real time PCR in early-gestational (gestational day (GD 42 and mid-gestational (GD75 sheep ovaries and testes. Expression data were further examined and validated by bioinformatic analysis. Results Expression analysis revealed significant differences between ovaries and testes among 24 miRNAs at GD42, and 43 miRNAs at GD75. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a number of differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to target genes known to be important in mammalian gonadal development, including ESR1, CYP19A1, and SOX9. In situ hybridization revealed miR-22 localization within fetal testicular cords. As estrogen signaling is important in human and sheep ovarian development, these data indicate that miR-22 is involved in repressing estrogen signaling within fetal testes. Conclusions Based on our results we postulate that gene expression networks underlying fetal gonadal development are regulated by miRNAs.

  20. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.


    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  1. Breast cancer and other neoplasms in women with neurofibromatosis type 1: a retrospective review of cases in the Detroit metropolitan area.

    Wang, X; Levin, A M; Smolinski, S E; Vigneau, F D; Levin, N K; Tainsky, M A


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common cancer predisposing syndromes with an incidence of 1 in 3,500 worldwide. Certain neoplasms or malignancies are over-represented in individuals with NF1; however, an increased risk of breast cancer has not been widely recognized or accepted. We identified 76 women with NF1 seen in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) from 1990 to 2009, and linked them to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry covering the metropolitan Detroit area. Fifty-one women (67%) were under age 50 years at the time of data analysis. Six women developed invasive breast cancer before age 50, and three developed invasive breast cancer after age 50. Using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) calculated based on the SEER age-adjusted invasive breast cancer incidence rates, our findings demonstrated a statistically significant increase of breast cancer incidence occurring in NF1 women (SIR = 5.2; 95% CI 2.4-9.8), and this relative increase was especially evident among those with breast cancer onset under age 50 (SIR = 8.8; 95% CI 3.2-19.2). These data are consistent with other reports suggesting an increase in breast cancer risk among females with NF1, which indicate that breast cancer screening guidelines should be evaluated for this potentially high-risk group.

  2. [Primary nontransitional neoplasms of the bladder].

    Varo Solís, C; Soto Delgado, M; Hens Pérez, A; Baez Perea, J M; Estudillo González, F; Juárez Soto, A; Bachiller Burgos, J; Beltrán Aguilar, V


    Revision of all primitive tumours of the bladder diagnosed in our Service between July 1990 and July 1998. Among a total of 703 neoplasms of the bladder only 14 were non-transitional primitive tumours, accounting for just 1.98%. Eleven were malignant neoplasms with a diagnosis of epidermoid carcinoma in nine cases, one adenocarcinoma and one bladder adenocarcinoma. The other three were benign tumours: one haemangioma and two leiomyomas. From a clinical perspective, the predominant symptom was haematuria, followed by irritative symptoms. The two leiomyomas were accidental findings during a gynaecological examination (ultrasound) and a diagnostic examination for a nephritic colic (urography). The diagnostic means used and the extension studies were the same as used for transitional neoplasms. In general, treatment of benign neoplasms was partial cystectomy or transurethral resection while it was radical surgery for the malignant tumours when the existing criteria were an indication for that type of surgery (cystoprostatectomy with bypass), since there are no definite criteria with regards to therapy due to the low incidence of these tumours. Only three of the 11 patients with malignant neoplasms are still alive. All the others died within one year of diagnosis, an evidence of the aggressiveness of these tumours. These cases were considered primitive bladder tumours once it was concluded that there was no relation with any previous or simultaneous transitional neoplasms and that there had been no primitive tumour in a different organ.

  3. Neoplasms derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Facchetti, Fabio; Cigognetti, Marta; Fisogni, Simona; Rossi, Giuseppe; Lonardi, Silvia; Vermi, William


    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms manifest in two clinically and pathologically distinct forms. The first variant is represented by nodular aggregates of clonally expanded plasmacytoid dendritic cells found in lymph nodes, skin, and bone marrow ('Mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells proliferation associated with myeloid neoplasms'). This entity is rare, although likely underestimated in incidence, and affects predominantly males. Almost invariably, it is associated with a myeloid neoplasm such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia or other myeloid proliferations with monocytic differentiation. The concurrent myeloid neoplasm dominates the clinical pictures and guides treatment. The prognosis is usually dismal, but reflects the evolution of the associated myeloid leukemia rather than progressive expansion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. A second form of plasmacytoid dendritic cells tumor has been recently reported and described as 'blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm'. In this tumor, which is characterized by a distinctive cutaneous and bone marrow tropism, proliferating cells derive from immediate CD4(+)CD56(+) precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. The diagnosis of this form can be easily accomplished by immunohistochemistry, using a panel of plasmacytoid dendritic cells markers. The clinical course of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is characterized by a rapid progression to systemic disease via hematogenous dissemination. The genomic landscape of this entity is currently under intense investigation. Recurrent somatic mutations have been uncovered in different genes, a finding that may open important perspectives for precision medicine also for this rare, but highly aggressive leukemia.

  4. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  5. Changing incidence of esophageal cancer among white women: analysis of SEER data (1992–2010)

    Raman, Rachna; Deorah, Sundeep; McDowell, Bradley D.; Hejleh, Taher Abu; Lynch, Charles F.


    Aim of the study To analyse trends in the incidence rates of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (ACE and SCC, respectively) in white women between 1992 and 2010. Material and methods We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER program to identify cases of esophageal cancer). Age adjusted incidence rates (IR) were calculated for ACE and SCC for two different time periods (1992–1996 and 2006–2010) and stratified by age, stage, and histologic type. We used joinpoint analysis to detect changes in rates between 1992 and 2010. Results Between the time periods 1992–1996 and 2006–2010, the age-adjusted incidence rates for SCC in white women decreased from 1.2/100,000 to 0.8/100,000 personyears, and for ACE it increased from 0.5/100,000 to 0.7/100,000 personyears. Similar to white men, the increase in the incidence of ACE was consistent for all stages and all age groups in white women. However, it was most pronounced in women aged 45–59 years, where the incidence of ACE (0.9/100,000 person-years) in 2006–2010 exceeded the incidence of SCC (0.6/100,000 person-years). On joinpoint regression analysis, an inflection point was seen in 1999 for ACE, indicating a slower rate of increase for ACE after 1999 (annual percentage change of 8.00 before 1999 vs. 0.88 starting in 1999). Conclusions The incidence of ACE is increasing in white women, irrespective of age or stage. Indeed, ACE is now more common than SCC in white women between 45 and 59 years of age. PMID:26557784

  6. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Noa Lavi


    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  7. Radiation Therapy Improves Survival Outcome in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Comparison of a 15-Year Institutional Experience at the University of Nebraska Medical Center with SEER Data

    Michael J. Baine


    Full Text Available Objectives. We examined the role of radiation therapy (RT in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA treatment through a 15-year retrospective analysis of patients treated at University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC as well as those from the SEER database. Methods. A total of 561 patients diagnosed with PA at UNMC between 1995 and 2011 and 60,587 patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 from the SEER were included. Examined prognostic factors for overall survival (OS were age, gender, race, stage, year of diagnosis, and treatment with surgery, chemotherapy (CT, or RT. Time to death was plotted by Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate prognostic factors for OS. Results. The median OS was 7.3 and 5 months for patients from UNMC and the SEER database, respectively. A Cox model of patients from UNMC showed that RT was associated with improved OS (HR 0.77, P=0.018 after adjusting for factors including age, race, gender, stage, year of diagnosis, having surgery, or having CT. Cox analysis of patients from the SEER showed similar results (HR 0.65, P<0.0001. Conclusions. RT confers an independent survival advantage in patients being treated for PA which is apparent both at UNMC and through SEER data.

  8. Calculation the Received dose by gonads arising from some common diagnostic radiography

    Hassan Zarghani


    Conclusion: One of the ways for patient and gonadal dose reduction is to use appropriate shields for radiosensitive organs such as gonads. Hence its recommended to use appropriate shields for gonads because of their high radiosensitivity.

  9. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after radiotherapy among older women with localized breast cancer: A population-based study

    Long, Jessica B.; Wang, Rong; Hu, Xin; Yu, James B.; Huntington, Scott F.; Abel, Gregory A.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Podoltsev, Nikolai A.; Gore, Steven D.; Gross, Cary P.; Ma, Xiaomei; Davidoff, Amy J.


    Background There are inconsistent and limited data regarding the risk of myeloid neoplasms (MN) among breast cancer survivors who received radiotherapy (RT) in the absence of chemotherapy. Concern about subsequent MN might influence the decision to use adjuvant RT for women with localized disease. As patients with therapy-related MN have generally poor outcomes, the presumption of subsequent MN being therapy-related could affect treatment recommendations. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database to study older women with in-situ or stage 1–3 breast cancer diagnosed 2001–2009 who received surgery. Chemotherapy and RT were ascertained using Medicare claims, and new MN diagnoses were captured using both SEER registry and Medicare claims. We excluded women who received chemotherapy for initial treatment, and censored at receipt of subsequent chemotherapy. Competing-risk survival analysis was used to assess the association between RT and risk of subsequent MN adjusting for relevant characteristics. Results Median follow-up for 60,426 eligible patients was 68 months (interquartile range, 46 to 92 months), with 47.6% receiving RT. In total, 316 patients (0.52%) were diagnosed with MN; the cumulative incidence per 10,000 person-years was 10.6 vs 9.0 among RT-treated vs non-RT-treated women, respectively (p = .004); the increased risk of subsequent MN persisted in the adjusted analysis (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.80). The results were consistent in multiple sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our data suggest that RT is associated with a significant risk of subsequent MN among older breast cancer survivors, though the absolute risk increase is very small. These findings suggest the benefits of RT outweigh the risks of development of subsequent MN. PMID:28902882

  10. Dissecting the Role of Hedgehog Pathway in Murine Gonadal Development

    Barsoum, Ivraym Boshra


    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the universal pathways involved in animal development. This dissertation focuses on Hh role in the mammalian gonad development, which is a central part of mammalian sexual development and identity. The central dogma of mammalian sex development is that genetic sex determines the gonadal sex, which in turn…


    PENGYing-Xiu; LIUGuo


    The relationship between gonadal hormones and Met-enkephalin ( MEK ) in the brain was investigated to explore the role of gonadal hormones in regulating the contents of MEK, Experiments were performed on rats of both sexes. The animals were divided into

  12. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: disadvantages prevail over benefit

    Frantzen, M.J.; Robben, S.; Postma, A.A.; Zoetelief, J.; Wildberger, J.E.; Kemerink, G.J.


    Objective To re-evaluate gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography in terms of attainable radiation risk reduction and associated loss of diagnostic information. Methods A study on patient dose and the quality of gonad shielding was performed retrospectively using 500 pelvic radiographs of ch

  13. Predictors of IMRT and Conformal Radiotherapy Use in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A SEER-Medicare Analysis

    Sher, David J., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Neville, Bridget A. [Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Aileen B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Schrag, Deborah [Center for Outcomes and Policy Research, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: The extent to which new techniques for the delivery of radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have diffused into clinical practice is unclear, including the use of 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-RT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database, we identified 2,495 Medicare patients with Stage I-IVB HNSCC diagnosed at age 65 years or older between 2000 and 2005 and treated with either definitive (80%) or adjuvant (20%) radiotherapy. Our primary aim was to analyze the trends and predictors of IMRT use over this time, and the secondary aim was a similar description of the trends and predictors of conformal radiotherapy (CRT) use, defined as treatment with either 3D-RT or IMRT. Results: Three hundred sixty-four (15%) patients were treated with IMRT, and 1,190 patients (48%) were treated with 3D-RT. Claims for IMRT and CRT rose from 0% to 33% and 39% to 86%, respectively, between 2000 and 2005. On multivariable analysis, IMRT use was associated with SEER region (West 18%; Northeast 11%; South 12%; Midwest 13%), advanced stage (advanced, 21%; early, 9%), non-larynx site (non-larynx, 23%; larynx, 7%), higher median census tract income (highest vs. lowest quartile, 18% vs. 10%), treatment year (2003-2005, 31%; 2000-2002, 6%), use of chemotherapy (26% with; 9% without), and higher radiation oncologist treatment volume (highest vs. lowest tertile, 23% vs. 8%). With CRT as the outcome, only SEER region, treatment year, use of chemotherapy, and increasing radiation oncologist HNSCC volume were significant on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: The use of IMRT and CRT by Medicare beneficiaries with HNSCC rose significantly between 2000 and 2005 and was associated with both clinical and non-clinical factors, with treatment era and radiation oncologist HNSCC treatment volume serving as the strongest predictors of IMRT use.

  14. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath


    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.



    Objective.Th purpose of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative ultrasound(IOUS)on the management of patients with neoplasms of the liver.Methods.Forty-nine patients operated on for liver or other pathologic processes were examined intraopertively with 5.0 MHz special ultrasound transducers during surgical exploration of the abdomen.Subjects were evaluated because of known or suspected disease of the liver.Preoperative imaging studies included percutaneous ultrasound(n=49),magnetic resonance imaging(n=11),and computed tomography(n=34).Intraoperative evaluation on all patients included inspection,bimanual palpation,and ultrasnography.Comparison between preoperative imagings and IOUS were analysed.Results.Sensitivity for detection of hepatic neoplasms showed in intraoperative ultrasound,percutaneous ultrasound,magnetic resonance imaging andcomputed tomography as 100%(23/23),74%(17/23),74%(14/19) and 75%(6/8).Specificity showed 100%(26/26),100%(26/26),93%(14/15) and 67(2/3).In seven patients(14%),the neoplasms were not found by inspection,bimanual palpation,and identified only by IOUS.Conclusions.Intraoperative ultrasound is the most sensitive and specific method for detection and surgery of liver neoplasms,especially the occult neoplasms and small size lesion(<2cm).

  16. Angiotensin II receptors in the gonads

    Aguilera, G.; Millan, M.A.; Harwood, J.P.


    The presence of components of the renin-angiotensin system in ovaries and testes suggests that angiotensin II (AII) is involved in gonadal function, and thus we sought to characterize receptors for AII in rat and primate gonads. In the testes, autoradiographic studies showed receptors in the interstitium in all species. In rat interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptors coincided with hCG receptors indicating that AII receptors are located on the Leydig cells. In Leydig cells and membranes from rat and rhesus monkey prepuberal testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogues and of high affinity (Kd=nM). During development, AII receptor content in rat testes decreases with age parallel to a fall in the ratio of interstitial to tubular tissue. In the ovary, the distribution of AII receptors was dependent on the stage of development, being high in the germinal epithelium and stromal tissue between five and 15 days, and becoming localized in secondary follicles in 20-and 40-day-old rats. No binding was found in primordial or primary follicles. In rhesus monkey ovary, AII receptors were higher in stromal tissue and lower in granulosa and luteal cells of the follicles. Characterization of the binding in rat and monkey ovarian membranes showed a single class of sites with a Kd in the nmol/L range and specificity similar to that of the adrenal glomerulosa and testicular AII receptors. Receptors for AII were also present in membrane fractions from PMSG/hCG primed rat ovaries. Infusion of AII (25 ng/min) or captopril (1.4 micrograms/min) during the PMSG/hCG induction period had no effect on ovarian weight or AII receptor concentration in the ovaries.

  17. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V


    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas.

  18. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Yi-Zhuo; Li; Pei-Hong; Wu


    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal(GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimallyor not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread.

  19. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the pancreas: a case of a second neoplasm in a pancreas cancer survivor.

    Garg, Mrinal S; Schuerle, Theresa; Liu, Yulin; Thakkar, Shyam J


    Cystic neoplasms, which are less common forms of exocrine pancreatic neoplasms, consist of mainly intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasms, unlike IPMN, are not associated with ductal growth, are usually multilocular in nature, and have ovarian type stroma. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of mucinous cystic neoplasm more commonly found in women. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas are the least common variant of IPMN. Despite this classification, intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms have been compared to mucinous cystic neoplasms in previous studies and the classification is still questioned. We report a rare case of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the pancreas occurring in a 52-year-old male with a prior history of surgically excised mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This is the first known case of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm occurring after a prior pancreatic neoplasm. As the diagnosis of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms are rare, having only a few case reports and small series on which to understand its disease process, it is imperative to discuss each case and detail possible correlations with other pancreatic cystic neoplasms as well as distinctions from its current association within IPMN.

  20. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas: A Case of a Second Neoplasm in a Pancreas Cancer Survivor

    Mrinal S Garg


    Full Text Available Context Cystic neoplasms, which are less common forms of exocrine pancreatic neoplasms, consist of mainly intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN and mucinous cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasms, unlike IPMN, are not associated with ductal growth, are usually multilocular in nature, and have ovarian type stroma. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a type of mucinous cystic neoplasm more commonly found in women. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas are the least common variant of IPMN. Despite this classification, intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms have been compared to mucinous cystic neoplasms in previous studies and the classification is still questioned. Case report We report a rare case of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the pancreas occurring in a 52-year-old male with a prior history of surgically excised mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. This is the first known case of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm occurring after a prior pancreatic neoplasm. Conclusion As the diagnosis of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms are rare, having only a few case reports and small series on which to understand its disease process, it is imperative to discuss each case and detail possible correlations with other pancreatic cystic neoplasms as well as distinctions from its current association within IPMN.

  1. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    Bishop, Justin A


    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  2. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  3. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  4. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...




    Jan 1, 2000 ... The definitive neurons, glial cells and ... indicate neoplasms arising from these primitive cells(1). .... adults, there was an equal sex distribution. All eight .... of the total number of secondary intracranial neoplasms. Burkitt's ...

  7. Clinical experience in appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    Ozcelik, Caglar K.; Bozdogan, Nazan; Dibekoglu, Cengiz


    Aim of the study To analyse the incidence of appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms in appendectomy specimens and establish the epidemiological and histopathological features, treatment, and clinical course. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2013, 975 patients who underwent appendectomy in Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital were retrospectively analysed. Results Neuroendocrine neoplasm was detected in the nine of 975 (0.9%) patients. Neuroendocrine neoplasms were diagnosed in eight patients by appendectomy, which was performed because of the prediagnosis of acute appendicitis, and in one patient by the suspicious mass detection during surgical procedures that were done in the appendix for a different reason. Eight of the patients’ tumours were in the tip of the appendix, and one of the patients’ tumours was at the base of appendix. Tumour size in 77.8% of patients was equal or less than 1 cm, in 22.2% patients it was 1–2 cm. There was tumour invasion in the muscularis propria layer in four patients, in the serosa layer in three patients, and in the deep mesoappendix in two patients. Patients were followed for a median of 78 months. In the follow-up of patients who were operated because of colon cancer, metachronous colon tumour evolved. This patient died due to progressive disease. Other patients are still disease-free. Conclusions The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasm is often incidentally done after appendectomy. Tumour size is important in determining the extent of disease and in the selection of the surgical method during operation. PMID:26793027

  8. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis


    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007-2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment...

  9. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F


    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  10. Delusional Disorder Arising From a CNS Neoplasm.

    Stupinski, John; Kim, Jihye; Francois, Dimitry


    Erotomania arising from a central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm has not been previously described. Here, we present the first known case, to our knowledge, of erotomania with associated persecutory delusions arising following diagnosis and treatment of a left frontal lobe brain tumor.

  11. Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Rosane Isabel Bittencourt


    Full Text Available Chronic myeloproliferative diseases without the Philadelphia chromosome marker (Ph-, although first described 60 years ago, only became the subject of interest after the turn of the millennium. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO defined the classification of this group of diseases and in 2008 they were renamed myeloproliferative neoplasms based on morphological, cytogenetic and molecular features. In 2005, the identification of a recurrent molecular abnormality characterized by a gain of function with a mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 paved the way for greater knowledge of the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The JAK2 mutation is found in 90-98% of polycythemia vera and in about 50% essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. In addition to the JAK2 mutation, other mutations involving TET2 (ten-eleven translocation, LNK (a membrane-bound adaptor protein; IDH1/2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 enzyme; ASXL1 (additional sex combs-like 1 genes were found in myeloproliferative neoplasms thus showing the importance of identifying molecular genetic alterations to confirm diagnosis, guide treatment and improve our understanding of the biology of these diseases. Currently, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia and mastocytosis are included in this group of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but are considered different situations with individualized diagnostic methods and treatment. This review updates pathogenic aspects, molecular genetic alterations, the fundamental criteria for diagnosis and the best approach for each of these entities.

  12. SNP Array in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review

    Jinming Song


    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematopoietic neoplasms in current clinical practice. Many hematopoietic malignancies are characterized by structural chromosomal abnormalities such as specific translocations, inversions, deletions and/or numerical abnormalities that can be identified by karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays offer high-resolution identification of copy number variants (CNVs and acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH/uniparental disomy (UPD that are usually not identifiable by conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies. As a result, SNP arrays have been increasingly applied to hematopoietic neoplasms to search for clinically-significant genetic abnormalities. A large numbers of CNVs and UPDs have been identified in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms. CNVs detected by SNP array in some hematopoietic neoplasms are of prognostic significance. A few specific genes in the affected regions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and may be the targets for specific therapeutic agents in the future. In this review, we summarize the current findings of application of SNP arrays in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies with an emphasis on the clinically significant genetic variants.

  13. Ocular melanoma-when you have seen one, you have not seen them all: a clinical outcome study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database (1973–2012

    Mahendraraj K


    Full Text Available Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Sneha Shrestha,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA; 4Department of Surgery, Rutgers University, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA Background: Ocular melanoma (OM comprises <5% of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma (UM is the most common subtype of OM, while conjunctival melanoma (CM is rare and differs significantly from UM. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a large cohort of OM patients to differentiate demographic, pathologic, and clinical factors between these two neoplasms, which may affect treatment and outcomes. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973–2012 was used to extract demographic and clinical data on 8,165 OM patients (92.1% UM and 7.9% CM. Results: Both CM and UM were most prevalent among Caucasian males in the seventh decade of life. UM patients presented more often with localized disease (90.9% vs 81.2, P<0.01. Surgery (42.8%, radiation (43.0%, or combined surgery and radiation (7.0% were used in the treatment of UM, while CM was treated almost exclusively with surgery (88.7%. Mean overall survival was longer (15.4 vs 14.6 years; P<0.01 and mortality rates were lower in patients (38.8% vs 46.1%; P<0.01 with CM. Conclusion: Despite presenting with more advanced disease than UM, CM is associated with an increased overall survival. Surgery is the primary therapy for CM, whereas radiotherapy is the primary therapy for UM and is associated with prolonged survival. Keywords: ocular melanoma, uveal melanoma, conjunctival melanoma, SEER

  14. Gonadal hormone regulation of the emotion circuitry in humans

    Wingen, G.A. van; Ossewaarde, L.; Backstrom, T.; Hermans, E.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.


    Gonadal hormones are known to influence the regulation of emotional responses and affective states. Whereas fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol are associated with increased vulnerability for mood disorders, testosterone is mainly associated with social dominance, aggressive, and antisocial b

  15. Gonadal function in male and female patients with classic galactosemia

    Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.; Gubbels, C. S.; Bakker, J. A.; Menheere, P. P. C. A.; Wodzig, W. K. W. H.; Land, J. A.


    Hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic infertility is the most burdensome complication for females suffering from classic galactosemia. In contrast, male gonadal function seems less affected. The underlying mechanism is not understood and several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Timing of the les

  16. Premature sternal fusion in gonadal dysgenesis with coarctation

    Herman, T.E.; Kushner, D.C.; Cleveland, R.H.


    In reviewing lateral chest roentgenograms in three infants with Turner's syndrome and aortic coarctation, and in infant with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and aortic coarctation, we have found obvious sternal fusion abnormalities which are reported here.

  17. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.


    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  18. [Asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis. Report of a case (author's transl)].

    Chapoy, P; Mattei, J F; Exbrayat, C; Louchet, E

    The authors report a case of asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis related to 45XO-46XY mosaicism in a 16 year old girl. Delayed, growth and puberty, Turner's dysmorphism without sexual ambiguity and skeletal abnormalities are the main clinical features suggesting the diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy reveals infantil uterus, bilateral falopian tubes and streak gonads. A right dysgenetic testis is identified on electron microscopic examination. Theories on pathogenesis of this unusual genetic defect are discussed.

  19. Pathogenetics of 45,X/46,XY gonadal mosaicism.

    Reddy, K S; Sulcova, V


    Five patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism ranging from 8% to 66% of 46, XY lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were studied. Their age when chromosome studies were performed ranged from a few days to 37 yr. The phenotypic presentations were two females with gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome features (cases 1 and 2), two males with ambiguous genitalia and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (cases 3 and 4), and an infertile male with an atrophic testis (case 5). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using dual-color X and Y probes on paraffin-embedded sections of the gonads was performed to assess mosaicism. A mosaic cell line with a Y chromosome was present in the streak ovary, dysgenetic gonad, and testis. In the mixed gonadal dysgenesis cases (cases 3 and 4), the testis had a higher percentage (greater than two fold) of XY cells than the ovary had. However, the highest ratio of cells with a Y chromosome was in the atrophic testis of the infertile male (case 5). The distribution of mosaic clones in the different gonadal cell types was examined. Both females (cases 1 and 2) with dysgenetic gonads had scant ovarian stroma and nests of Leydig or hilus cells. In FISH studies, the coelomic epithelial cells were predominantly 46,XY; in comparison, the Leydig and hilus cells had a lower percentage and the ovarian stroma the least number of cells with a Y signal. A mixed gonadal dysgenesis case (case 3) possessed a right testis with an XY complement in approximately 21% of Sertoli cells and approximately 14% of Leydig cells. The infertile male had an atrophic testis with interstitial hyperplasia (case 5). His testis contained Sertoli cells but no evidence of spermatogenesis. FISH detected a Y signal in about 50-60% of the Sertoli and Leydig cells.

  20. Case of microgastria in association with splenic-gonadal fusion

    Mandell, G.A.; Alavi, A.; Heyman, S.; Ziegler, M.M.


    Microgastria is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with asplenia. In this 2 1/2-year-old presenting with left hydrocele and inguinal hernia multiple accessory spleens were found in the inguinal-scrotal region compatible with splenic-gonadal fusion. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid scanning is helpful in microgastria searching for the presence of splenic tissue and in splenic-gonadal fusion for the location of accessory heterotopic spleens.

  1. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasm Having Clinical Characteristics of Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm and a Benign Histology

    Takatomi Oku


    Full Text Available Context An intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumor which was first described by Adsay et al. in 1996. It has been defined as a new subgroup of IPMN. Case report We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with nausea. Imaging studies revealed a cystic mass in the body of the pancreas. She underwent a successful distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, and has subsequently remained well. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by columnar epithelium similar to pancreatic duct epithelium, and the nodular projection consisted of arborizing papillary structures, lined by plump cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. These eosinophilic cells were immunohistochemically positively stained with anti-mitochondrial antibody. The cellular atypism was mild and the proliferating index was low, compatible with adenoma of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm. Although no ovarian type stroma was identified, in our case, no communication to main pancreatic duct (located in the pancreatic body and rapid growth by intracystic hemorrhage were clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm, but not IPMN. Conclusion With only 17 cases reported to date, the clinical and pathological details of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm are still unclear. We herein add one case with different characteristics from those of the past reports. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm with the clinical characteristics of a mucinous cystic neoplasm.

  2. [SF-1, a key player in adrenal and gonadal differentiation: implications in gonadal dysgenesis and primary ovarian insufficiency].

    Martinerie, L; Bouvattier, C; Lombes, M


    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene, identified by Keith Parker in 1992, encodes for an orphan nuclear receptor, NR5A1, whose expression is detected during fetal life in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenic tissues, but also in the developing hypothalamus and in pituitary gonadotropic cells. SF-1 knock-out mouse models exhibit complete adrenal and gonadal agenesis. Human mutations of this transcription factor, were initially associated with primary adrenal failure and male gonadal dysgenesis with various degrees of under androgenization. More recently, identification of novel SF-1 mutations responsible for isolated 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis or 46, XX primary ovarian insufficiency, underscores its central role in the control and maintenance of adrenal and reproductive functions. A better understanding in the regulatory mechanisms of SF-1 signaling pathway, will open new avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic managements of sex differentiation disorders and infertilities.

  3. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?



    Full Text Available Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations and the availability of gonad shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments. Materials and Methods A retrospective, observational cross-sectional study on the application of gonad shielding, the availability of gonad shields and the existence of gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments was performed in five different hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Results The highest application of gonad shielding was 6.6% for the pediatric hospital. The prevalence of gonad shielding was less than 0.2%. In 64.3% of the radiography rooms, at least one flat-contact gonad shield of a large size was available. Only large-sized gonad shields were available. Curved-contact and shadow gonad shields did not exist. Gonad shielding protocols were not existence in any of the fourteen radiography rooms investigated. Conclusions Comprehensive protection programs with on-the-job training courses for staff members are strongly recommended, as well as, the provision of radiological shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments to reduce the patient’s radiation dose during radiological examinations.

  4. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and the Incidence of Oral, Pharyngeal and Cervical Cancer and Melanoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data.

    Adams, Spencer; Lin, Jie; Brown, Derek; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin


    Based on the hypothesis that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure can cause DNA damage that may activate dormant viruses such as human papilloma virus, a recent ecological study, which estimated state-level UVR exposure, reported positive correlations between annual UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer in 16 U.S. states using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) data. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate whether the annual UVR level, estimated on a county level, is associated with incidence rates of such cancers using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 data. If UVR exposure is associated with incidence of these cancer types, we would expect to see a similar or stronger association with melanoma because UVR exposure is a well-demonstrated risk factor for this disease. Thus, we also included melanoma in the study. The study subjects were White and Black individuals with oral, pharyngeal, cervical cancer or melanoma diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 from the SEER 18 data. UVR was estimated at the county level and grouped into high-, medium- and low-exposure levels. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancer were calculated and compared among the UVR exposure groups. The comparisons were also stratified by sex and race. There was an inverse association between UVR exposure and incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer. The inverse association was also observed for melanoma. When stratified by race and sex, the inverse associations remained except for melanoma among Blacks. In contrast to a previous study, our study found that there were inverse associations between UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer, as well as of melanoma. Our findings are in agreement with several other published studies reporting no positive correlation between UVR exposure and the incidence rates of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical

  5. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Weller, R.E.


    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  6. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Naomi Kakushima; Mitsuhiro Fujishiro


    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique of therapeutic endoscopy for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasms. Three steps characterize it:injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the lesion,cutting the surrounding mucosa of the lesion, and dissecting the submucosa beneath the lesion. The ESD technique has rapidly permeated in Japan for treatment of early gastric cancer, due to its excellent results of enbloc resection compared to endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Although there is still room for improvement to lessen its technical difficulty, ESD has recently been applied to esophageal and colorectal neoplasms.Favorable short-term results have been reported, but the application of ESD should be well considered by three aspects: (1) the possibility of nodal metastases of the lesion, (2) technical difficulty such as location, ulceration and operator's skill, and (3) organ characteristics.

  7. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Maria E. Trost


    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.


    Claudia Ortiz A.


    Full Text Available


    Objetivo: Reporte de un caso de embarazo exitoso en una paciente con disgenesia gonadal pura.
    Diseño de estudio: Informe de caso.
    Lugar: Centro de Fertilidad y Reproducción Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá (REPROTEC.
    Paciente: Una paciente con disgenesia gonadal 46,XY confi rmada.
    Intervención: Gonadectomía por laparoscopia, fertilización in vitro con donación de oocitos, transferencia de embriones en blastocisto (2 y parto por cesárMea.
    Resultado principal: Embarazo exitoso y nacido vivo.
    Conclusiones: Las pacientes con disgenesia gonadal pura 46,XY; tienen como opción de fertilidad, la donación de ovocitos y transferencia de embriones con adecuadas tasas de embarazos exitosos.

    Palabras clave: síndrome de Swyer, disgenesia gonadal pura, fertilización in vitro



    Sexual differentiation is a complex process, that begins from conception with determination of genetic sex and from sixth week, gonadal differentiation; any alteration in any of the tracts can cause conditions where there is discordance between phenotype and genotype, that are called alterations in sexual development. Swyers syndrome and the syndrome of androgen insensitivity share the characteristics of a female phenotype with 46, XY karyotype.

    Key words: Swyer Syndrome, Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis, in vitro fertilization.

  9. Acquired uniparental disomy in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Score, Joannah; Cross, Nicholas C P


    The finding of somatically acquired uniparental disomy, where both copies of a chromosome pair or parts of chromosomes have originated from one parent, has led to the discovery of several novel mutated genes in myeloproliferative neoplasms and related disorders. This article examines how the development of single nucleotide polymorphism array technology has facilitated the identification of regions of acquired uniparental disomy and has led to a much greater understanding of the molecular pathology of these heterogeneous diseases.

  10. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)


    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  11. Extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and function.

    Barakat, Radwa; Oakley, Oliver; Kim, Heehyen; Jin, Jooyoung; Ko, CheMyong Jay


    Estrogens are the key hormones regulating the development and function of reproductive organs in all vertebrates. Recent evidence indicates that estrogens play important roles in the immune system, cancer development, and other critical biological processes related to human well-being. Obviously, the gonads (ovary and testis) are the primary sites of estrogen synthesis, but estrogens synthesized in extra- gonadal sites play an equally important role in controlling biological activities. Understanding non-gonadal sites of estrogen synthesis and function is crucial and will lead to therapeutic interventions targeting estrogen signaling in disease prevention and treatment. Developing a rationale targeting strategy remains challenging because knowledge of extra-gonadal biosynthesis of estrogens, and the mechanism by which estrogen activity is exerted, is very limited. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries of extra-gonadal sites of estrogen biosynthesis and their local functions and discuss the significance of the most recent novel discovery of intestinal estrogen biosynthesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 488-496].

  12. Testing the gonadal regression-cytoprotection hypothesis.

    Crawford, B A; Spaliviero, J A; Simpson, J M; Handelsman, D J


    Germinal damage is an almost universal accompaniment of cancer treatment as the result of bystander damage to the testis from cytotoxic drugs and/or irradiation. Cancer treatment for the most common cancers of the reproductive age group in men has improved such that most are now treated with curative intent, and many others are treated with likelihood of prolonged survival, so that the preservation of fertility is an important component of posttreatment quality of life. This has led to the consideration of developing adjuvant treatments that may reduce the gonadal toxicity of cancer therapy. One dominant hypothesis has been based on the supposition that the immature testis was resistant to cytotoxin damage. Hence, if hormonal treatment were able to cause spermatogenic regression to an immature state via an effective withdrawal of gonadotrophin secretion, the testis might be maintained temporarily in a protected state during cytotoxin exposure. However, clinical studies have been disappointing but have also been unable to test the hypothesis definitively thus far, due to the inability to completely suppress gonadotrophin secretion. Similarly, experimental models have also given conflicting results and, at best, a modest cytoprotection. To definitively test this hypothesis experimentally, we used the fact that the functionally hpg mouse has complete gonadotrophin deficiency but can undergo the induction of full spermatogenesis by testosterone. Thus, if complete gonadotrophin deficiency were an advantage during cytotoxin exposure, then the hpg mouse should exhibit some degree of germinal protection against cytotoxin-induced damage. We therefore administered three different cytotoxins (200 mg/kg procarbazine, 9 mg/kg doxorubicin, 8 Gy of X irradiation) to produce a range of severity in testicular damage and mechanism of action to either phenotypically normal or hpg mice. Testis weight and homogenization-resistant spermatid numbers were measured to evaluate the

  13. I Workshop Virtual Cibereduc: SEER: Periódicos eletrônicos: Editoração e acesso/I Workshop Virtual Cibereduc: SEER: Electronic journals – Editing and access

    Suely de Brito Clemente Soares


    Full Text Available Descrição do “I Workshop Virtual CiberEduc”, ocorrido no dia 14.10.2004, das 9:00 às 11:00 horas. Foram conectadas duas salas de videoconferência, uma na Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP, em Campinas, SP, e outra na RNP, Brasília, com retransmissão simultânea via Internet, o que permitiu aos participantes uma interação síncrona, mediante envio de perguntas para o e-mail O tema discutido foi “SEER: periódicos eletrônicos: editoração e acesso”. As inscrições, gratuitas, foram feitas on-line. Os certificados ficaram disponíveis posteriormente, em formato PDF, para impressão, aos inscritos que comprovaram participação enviando, por e-mail, pelo menos uma pergunta sobre o SEER. Foram recebidas duzentos e dezoito inscrições e expedidos cento e vinte e seis certificados. Foram respondidas trinta e cinco perguntas durante o workshop e dez posteriormente, por e-mail. Dois servidores web da UNICAMP retransmitiram o evento. Instruções foram fornecidas antecipadamente aos inscritos, um telefone para contato durante o evento foi divulgado e, mesmo assim, nem todos os inscritos conseguiram conexão em tempo real. O vídeo do evento e os arquivos das apresentações ficaram disponíveis na Internet para consulta posterior. A experiência foi positiva, tanto na opinião dos organizadores, dos conferencistas, como dos inscritos, sendo um estímulo para a continuidade desses workshops virtuais. Description of the virtual event “I Workshop Virtual CiberEduc”, which had placed on the 14th of September 2004, from 9am to 11am. Two videoconference rooms were connected; one at the Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP, in Campinas, São Paulo, and other at the Rede Nacional de Pesquisa in Brasília, with transmission on-line on the Internet, this fact allowed the synchronic interaction trough the use of e-mail for submission of questions to Two Web servers of the UNICAMP were used to transmit

  14. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    Manish Rathi


    Full Text Available Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  15. Gonadal mosaicism as a rare cause of autosomal recessive inheritance.

    Anazi, S; Al-Sabban, E; Alkuraya, F S


    Autosomal recessive diseases are typically caused by the biparental inheritance of familial mutant alleles. Unusual mechanisms by which the recessiveness of a mutant allele is unmasked include uniparental isodisomy and the occurrence of a de novo chromosomal rearrangement that disrupts the other allele. Gonadal mosaicism is a condition in which a postfertilization mutation is confined to the gamete precursors and is not detected in somatic tissues. Gonadal mosaicism is known to give the impression of autosomal recessive inheritance when recurrence of an autosomal-dominant condition among offspring of phenotypically normal parents is observed. Here, we report an extremely rare event in which maternal gonadal mosaicism for a recessive mutation in COL4A4 caused the recurrence of Alport syndrome within a consanguineous family. Such rare occurrence should be taken into account when analyzing pedigrees both for clinical and research purposes.

  16. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S


    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...


    Made Ayu Krishna Levina


    Full Text Available Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is a very rare case with genital ambiguity as a clinical manifestation.Diagnosis of this condition is emerging due to proper gender assignment and  prompt treatment toachieve optimal physical and psychologic development. We reported a genital ambigous in a 7 month old baby, who was referred with enlargement of clitoris, an unpalpable testis, but with a highconcentration testosteron serum level, an uterus from genitography, and a mosaic karyotype 45,X/46,XY. The working diagnosis of this baby is mixed gonadal dysgenesis. Patients is being evaluated by a multidisciplinary team and planned having laparoscopy.  [MEDICINA 2014;45:52-57

  18. Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Barbui, T.; Barosi, G.; Birgegard, G.


    We present a review of critical concepts and produce recommendations on the management of Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms, including monitoring, response definition, first- and second-line therapy, and therapy for special issues. Key questions were selected according......, with the addition of cytogenetics evaluation and transfusion status. High-risk patients with PV should be managed with phlebotomy, low-dose aspirin, and cytoreduction, with either hydroxyurea or interferon at any age. High-risk patients with ET should be managed with cytoreduction, using hydroxyurea at any age...

  19. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan


    Objective:To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs) of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Methods:The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India). Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results:A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm) were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions:Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  20. Stimulation of gonadal development by sexual interaction of pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    van Weerd, J H; Sukkel, M; Bongers, A B; van der Does, H M; Steynis, E; Richter, C J


    Stimulation and inhibition of gonadal development by intersexual contact was studied in pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The effect of a possible interaction was studied by evaluation after a 98-day experimental period of gonadal development in combinations of intact and anosmic males and females. In addition, separate groups of males and females, respectively, were exposed to holding water from these combinations. A tentative model of stimulation of gonadal development by intersexual contact in pubertal fish was developed. Males stimulate ovarian development of females by both olfactory and tactile cues. In addition, males seem to enhance gonadal development of other males through olfactory stimulation via holding water. In contrast, females tended to inhibit male gonadal development, especially through tactile cues. It seems that although males are hampered by female tactile stimuli in their gonadal development and ability to stimulate male gonadal development, their ability to stimulate female gonadal development is not affected.

  1. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M


    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  2. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)


    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  3. Topical treatment options for conjunctival neoplasms

    Jonathan W Kim


    Full Text Available Jonathan W Kim, David H AbramsonOphthalmic Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Topical therapies offer a nonsurgical method for treating conjunctival tumors by delivering high drug concentrations to the ocular surface. Over the past ten years, topical agents have been used by investigators to treat various premalignant and malignant lesions of the conjunctiva, such as primary acquired melanosis with atypia, conjunctival melanoma, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and pagetoid spread of the conjunctiva arising from sebaceous cell carcinoma. Despite the enthusiasm generated by the success of these agents, there are unanswered questions regarding the clinical efficacy of this new nonsurgical approach, and whether a single topical agent can achieve cure rates comparable with traditional therapies. Furthermore, the long-term consequences of prolonged courses of topical chemotherapeutic drugs on the ocular surface are unknown, and the ideal regimen for each of these agents is still being refined. In this review, we present specific guidelines for treating both melanocytic and squamous neoplasms of the conjunctiva, utilizing the available data in the literature as well as our own clinical experience at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.Keywords: topical therapies, conjunctival neoplasms melanosis, Mitomycin-C, 5-Fluorouracil

  4. Survival outcomes of secondary cancers in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia: An analysis of the SEER database.

    Castillo, Jorge J; Olszewski, Adam J; Kanan, Sandra; Meid, Kirsten; Hunter, Zachary R; Treon, Steven P


    We hypothesized that survival outcomes of WM patients who develop SM is distinct from the general population of individuals who develop those same malignancies. Using the SEER-18 data (2000-2011), we identified patients with cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, colorectum, bladder, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and acute leukemia, and compared their outcomes according to having antecedent WM or not. The outcome of interest was overall survival (OS), which was analyzed in proportional-hazard models adjusted for age, sex, race, and stage. We found that patients with WM who developed SM were older than population controls with those same cancers. In the multivariate analysis, WM cases with colorectal cancer (HR 1.97; P < 0.001), melanoma (HR 2.63; P < 0.001) and NHL (HR = 1.35; P = 0.02) had worse OS than controls with those respective cancers. WM patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma also had worse OS (HR = 1.86; P = 0.008). The utilization of surgery and radiation was similar between WM cases and controls, except lower rates of prostatectomy and melanoma surgery among WM patients. The survival of WM patients with colorectal cancer, melanoma, and NHL is worse than among general population controls, arguing in favor of age-appropriate cancer screening.

  5. The effect of marital status on breast cancer-related outcomes in women under 65: A SEER database analysis.

    Hinyard, Leslie; Wirth, Lorinette Saphire; Clancy, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Theresa


    Marital status is strongly associated with improved health and longevity. Being married has been shown to be positively associated with survival in patients with multiple different types of malignancy; however, little is known about the relationship between marital status and breast cancer in younger women. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of marital status on diagnosis, and survival of women under the age of 65 with breast cancer. The SEER 18 regions database was used to identify women between the ages of 25-64 diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the years 2004-2009. Logistic regression was used to predict later stage diagnosis by marital status and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare breast cancer-related and all-cause survival by marital status classification. Models were stratified by AJCC stage. After adjusting for age, race, and ER status, unmarried women were 1.18 times more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage than married women (95% CI 1.15, 1.20). In adjusted analysis unmarried women were more likely to die of breast cancer and more likely to die of all causes than married women across all AJCC stages. Younger unmarried women with breast cancer may benefit from additional counseling, psychosocial support and case management at the time of diagnosis to ensure their overall outcomes are optimized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AMPK : a master energy regulator for gonadal functions.

    Michael eBertoldo


    Full Text Available From c.elegans to mammals (including humans, nutrition and energy metabolism strongly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity, or poor (diet restriction. One of these detectors is AMPK (5 'AMP-activated protein kinase, a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome.

  7. AMPK: a master energy regulator for gonadal function

    Bertoldo, Michael J.; Faure, Melanie; Dupont, Joëlle; Froment, Pascal


    From C. elegans to mammals (including humans), nutrition and energy metabolism significantly influence reproduction. At the cellular level, some detectors of energy status indicate whether energy reserves are abundant (obesity), or poor (diet restriction). One of these detectors is AMPK (5′ AMP-activated protein kinase), a protein kinase activated by ATP deficiency but also by several natural substances such as polyphenols or synthetic molecules like metformin, used in the treatment of insulin resistance. AMPK is expressed in muscle and liver, but also in the ovary and testis. This review focuses on the main effects of AMPK identified in gonadal cells. We describe the role of AMPK in gonadal steroidogenesis, in proliferation and survival of somatic gonadal cells and in the maturation of oocytes or spermatozoa. We discuss also the role of AMPK in germ and somatic cell interactions within the cumulus-oocyte complex and in the blood testis barrier. Finally, the interface in the gonad between AMPK and modification of metabolism is reported and discussion about the role of AMPK on fertility, in regards to the treatment of infertility associated with insulin resistance (male obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome). PMID:26236179

  8. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX388185 htt...p:// ...

  9. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149180...,SRX149178,SRX804053 ...

  10. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149180,...SRX149179,SRX804052,SRX804051,SRX149181,SRX149178,SRX149182,SRX804053,SRX388185 ...

  11. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149179,SRX80...4052,SRX804051,SRX149181,SRX149182 ...

  12. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  13. File list: DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Gonadal somatic cells h...ttp:// ...

  14. File list: Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s ...

  15. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s SRX685753 ...

  16. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s ...

  17. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Embryo Gonadal somatic cells SRX...685753 ...

  18. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s SRX685753 ...

  19. File list: Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s ...

  20. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s SRX685753 ...

  1. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Embryo Gonadal somatic cells SRX...685753 ...

  2. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Embryo Gonadal somatic cells SRX...685753 ...

  3. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  4. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  5. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  6. File list: Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s ...

  7. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  8. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  9. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  10. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Embryo Gonadal somatic cells SRX...685753 ...

  11. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Gonadal somatic cells h...ttp:// ...

  12. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Embryo Gonadal somatic cell...s SRX685753 ...

  13. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149181,...SRX804051,SRX804052,SRX149179,SRX149180,SRX149178,SRX804053,SRX149182 ...

  14. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149181,SRX80...4051,SRX804052,SRX149179,SRX149182 ...

  15. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149181,SRX80...4051,SRX804052,SRX149179,SRX149182 ...

  16. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149182,SRX14...9179,SRX149181,SRX804052,SRX804051 ...

  17. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149180...,SRX149178,SRX804053 ...

  18. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149180,...SRX149182,SRX149179,SRX149178,SRX149181,SRX804052,SRX804051,SRX804053,SRX388185 ...

  19. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_gonad mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic gonad SRX149181,...SRX804051,SRX804052,SRX149179,SRX149180,SRX149178,SRX804053,SRX149182 ...

  20. Gonad establishment during asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Bely, Alexandra E


    Animals that can reproduce by both asexual agametic reproduction and sexual reproduction must transmit or re-establish their germ line post-embryonically. Although such a dual reproductive mode has evolved repeatedly among animals, how asexually produced individuals establish their germ line remains poorly understood in most groups. We investigated germ line development in the annelid Pristina leidyi, a species that typically reproduces asexually by paratomic fission, intercalating a new tail and head in the middle of the body followed by splitting. We found that in fissioning individuals, gonads occur in anterior segments in the anterior-most individual as well as in new heads forming within fission zones. Homologs of the germ line/multipotency genes piwi, vasa, and nanos are expressed in the gonads, as well as in proliferative tissues including the posterior growth zone, fission zone, and regeneration blastema. In fissioning animals, certain cells on the ventral nerve cord express a homolog of piwi, are abundant near fission zones, and sometimes make contact with gonads. Such cells are typically undetectable near the blastema and posterior growth zone. Time-lapse imaging provides direct evidence that cells on the ventral nerve cord migrate preferentially towards fission zones. Our findings indicate that gonads form routinely in fissioning individuals, that a population of piwi-positive cells on the ventral nerve cord is associated with fission and gonads, and that cells resembling these piwi-positive cells migrate along the ventral nerve cord. We suggest that the piwi-positive ventral cells are germ cells that transmit the germ line across asexually produced individuals via migration along the ventral nerve cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary cardiac neoplasms:a clinicopathologic analysis of 81 cases



    Objective To study the disease spectrum,clinical and pathologic features of primary cardiac neoplasms at asingle medical in stitution during a period of eight years.Methods The clinical and pathologic features of 81 cases of primary cardiac neoplasms encountered at the Affiliated

  2. File list: Unc.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ... ...

  3. File list: Unc.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ... ...

  4. File list: Unc.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ... ...

  5. File list: Unc.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ... ...

  6. File list: His.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms http:...// ...

  7. File list: His.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms http:...// ...

  8. File list: His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms http:...// ...

  9. File list: His.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms http:...// ...

  10. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A


    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  11. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas: a rare presentation

    Mohd Jafar Memon


    Full Text Available Pancreatic neoplasms are rare in children and have a different histo-logic spectrum and prognosis than those in adults. Pancreatoblastoma is the most common pancreatic neoplasm in young children. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm occurs in adolescent girls. It is heterogeneous in internal architecture, with a mixture of solid and cystic hemorrhagic and necrotic elements. All pancreatic neoplasms in children are capable of producing metastases, usually to the liver and lymph nodes; however, on the whole, these tumors have a better clinical outcome than most pancreatic tumors in adults. We present a case of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm with a liver metastasis in a 13 year old male patient. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 3090-3093

  12. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V


    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  13. Clinical photodynamic therapy of malignant neoplasms

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litwin, Gregory; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.


    The analysis of the results of treatment of 379 malignant neoplasms with PDT in 89 patients has been made. Photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated derivative) -- both produced in Russia -- were used as photosensitizers. An argon-pumped dye- laser called `Innova 200' (Coherent USA), a Russian dye laser with copper vapor pumping (Yakhroma 2), a gold vapor laser (630 nm and 627.8 nm, accordingly) for Photogem, and a solid aluminate ittrium laser (672 nm) for Photosense were used. Up to now we have had follow-up control of 75 patients for the period of 2 months to 2.5 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 90.7% (68 out of 75); including complete regression -39 (52%), partial (50 - 100%), -in 29 (38.7%).

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for stomach neoplasms

    Mitsuhiro Fujishiro


    Recent advances in techniques of therapeutic endoscopy for stomach neoplasms are rapidly achieved. One of the major topics in this field is endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). ESD is a new endoscopic technique using cutting devices to remove the tumor by thefollowing three steps: injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the tumor from the muscle layer, pre-cutting the surrounding mucosa of the tumor, and dissecting the connective tissue of the submucosa beneath the tumor. So the tumors are resectable in an en bloc fashion, regardless of the size, shape, coexisting ulcer,and location. Indication for ESD is strictly confined by two aspects: the possibility of nodal metastases and technical difficulty, which depends on the operators. Although long-term outcome data are still lacking, short-term outcomes of ESD are extremely favourable and laparotomy with gastrectomy is replaced with ESD in some parts of therapeutic strategy for early gastric cancer.

  15. Cytogenetically unrelated clones in hematological neoplasms.

    Heim, S; Mitelman, F


    We have reviewed literature data on 6,306 cases of hematological neoplasia--acute and chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemias (CML excepted), myelodysplastic and chronic lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphomas--with the goal of quantitatively ascertaining how often cytogenetically unrelated clones occur in these diseases. Unexpectedly wide variations were found: in ANLL, unrelated clones were present in 1.1% of the 2,506 known cases with chromosome abnormalities characterized with banding technique; in the various myelodysplastic (MDS) and chronic myeloproliferative (CMD) disorders (total number of cases 1,299) the frequency was 4.3% and in lymphatic malignancies 1.3% (total case number 2,501). In the latter group the proportions varied between 0.4% and 0.6% in ALL and malignant lymphoma (ML) to as much as 6.2% in CLD and 7.3% in CLL. Some karyotypic abnormalities were encountered more often than would be expected from their general frequency in the various diseases. This discrepancy was particularly evident in MDS and CMD, where 5q- was found in slightly less and +8 in somewhat more than half of the 56 cases. Furthermore, these two aberrations were found as the only changes in the two coexisting clones in one-fourth of the material. Although if viewed in isolation these data would undoubtedly be best explained by assuming a multicellular origin of the neoplasm, it is entirely possible that what are cytogenetically perceived as unrelated clones could be subclones with some invisible aberration in common. If so, this interpretation indicates that changes like +8 and 5q-, both of which are common rearrangements in bone marrow neoplasms, are actually secondary changes that develop during tumor progression.

  16. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots.

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin


    To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ (2) test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population.

  17. Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Klampfl, Thorsten; Gisslinger, Heinz; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Nivarthi, Harini; Rumi, Elisa; Milosevic, Jelena D; Them, Nicole C C; Berg, Tiina; Gisslinger, Bettina; Pietra, Daniela; Chen, Doris; Vladimer, Gregory I; Bagienski, Klaudia; Milanesi, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria Carola; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Schischlik, Fiorella; Cleary, Ciara; Six, Melanie; Schalling, Martin; Schönegger, Andreas; Bock, Christoph; Malcovati, Luca; Pascutto, Cristiana; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert


    Approximately 50 to 60% of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2), and an additional 5 to 10% have activating mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). So far, no specific molecular marker has been identified in the remaining 30 to 45% of patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify somatically acquired mutations in six patients who had primary myelofibrosis without mutations in JAK2 or MPL. Resequencing of CALR, encoding calreticulin, was then performed in cohorts of patients with myeloid neoplasms. Somatic insertions or deletions in exon 9 of CALR were detected in all patients who underwent whole-exome sequencing. Resequencing in 1107 samples from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms showed that CALR mutations were absent in polycythemia vera. In essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, CALR mutations and JAK2 and MPL mutations were mutually exclusive. Among patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis with nonmutated JAK2 or MPL, CALR mutations were detected in 67% of those with essential thrombocythemia and 88% of those with primary myelofibrosis. A total of 36 types of insertions or deletions were identified that all cause a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame and generate a novel C-terminal peptide in the mutant calreticulin. Overexpression of the most frequent CALR deletion caused cytokine-independent growth in vitro owing to the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) by means of an unknown mechanism. Patients with mutated CALR had a lower risk of thrombosis and longer overall survival than patients with mutated JAK2. Most patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis that was not associated with a JAK2 or MPL alteration carried a somatic mutation in CALR. The clinical course in these patients was more indolent than that in patients with the JAK2 V617F

  18. Identification and lineage tracing of two populations of somatic gonadal precursors in medaka embryos.

    Nakamura, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Aoki, Yumiko; Yokoi, Hayato; Ebe, Youko; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Tanaka, Minoru


    The gonad contains two major cell lineages, germline and somatic cells. Little is known, however, about the somatic gonadal cell lineage in vertebrates. Using fate mapping studies and ablation experiments in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes), we determined that somatic gonadal precursors arise from the most posterior part of the sdf-1a expression domain in the lateral plate mesoderm at the early segmentation stage; this region has the properties of a gonadal field. Somatic gonadal precursors in this field, which continuously express sdf-1a, move anteriorly and medially to the prospective gonadal area by convergent movement. By the stage at which these somatic gonadal precursors have become located adjacent to the embryonic body, the precursors no longer replace the surrounding lateral plate mesoderm, becoming spatially organized into two distinct populations. We further show that, prior to reaching the prospective gonadal area, these populations can be distinguished by expression of either ftz-f1 or sox9b. These results clearly indicate that different populations of gonadal precursors are present before the formation of a single gonadal primordium, shedding new light on the developmental processes of somatic gonadal cell and subsequent sex differentiation.

  19. Role of postoperative radiotherapy in the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma. A propensity score matching of the SEER database

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar [Ain Shams University, Clinical Oncology department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo (Egypt)


    This study assessed the prognostic impact of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with surgically resected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). MPM patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 were identified from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. A propensity-matched analysis was performed considering baseline characteristics (age, gender, race, histology, TNM stage, and type of surgery). A total of 2166 patients were identified. The median age was 60 years (range 25-85 years), and 469 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Both before and after propensity score matching, overall survival (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.012, respectively) was better in the postoperative radiotherapy group. When the overall survival was stratified by histology, postoperative radiotherapy did not improve the survival in sarcomatoid histology patients both before and after matching (P = 0.424 and P = 0.281, respectively). In multivariate analysis of the matched population, not receiving postoperative radiotherapy did not correlate with worse survival (hazard ratio: 1.175; P = 0.12). Factors associated with worse survival include sarcomatoid histology, nodal positivity, and age ≥70. Evidence from this analysis is insufficient on its own to routinely recommend postoperative radiotherapy for surgically resected MPM. However, large-scale prospective clinical trials are warranted to further evaluate this intervention in nonsarcomatoid histology. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wurde der prognostische Einfluss der postoperativen Strahlentherapie bei Patienten mit chirurgisch reseziertem malignem Pleuramesotheliom (MPM) untersucht. In der SEER-Datenbank (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) wurden Patienten ermittelt, bei denen zwischen 2000 und 2013 die Diagnose eines MPM gestellt worden war. Unter Beruecksichtigung der Ausgangsmerkmale (Alter, Geschlecht, Ethnizitaet, Histologie, TNM-Stadium und Art des chirurgischen Eingriffs) wurde eine

  20. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Chang, Andrew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, IN (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  1. Bayesian pretest probability estimation for primary malignant bone tumors based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database.

    Benndorf, Matthias; Neubauer, Jakob; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar


    In the diagnostic process of primary bone tumors, patient age, tumor localization and to a lesser extent sex affect the differential diagnosis. We therefore aim to develop a pretest probability calculator for primary malignant bone tumors based on population data taking these variables into account. We access the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 2015 release) database and analyze data of all primary malignant bone tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. We record age at diagnosis, tumor localization according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-O-3) and sex. We take relative probability of the single tumor entity as a surrogate parameter for unadjusted pretest probability. We build a probabilistic (naïve Bayes) classifier to calculate pretest probabilities adjusted for age, tumor localization and sex. We analyze data from 12,931 patients (647 chondroblastic osteosarcomas, 3659 chondrosarcomas, 1080 chordomas, 185 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, 2006 Ewing's sarcomas, 281 fibroblastic osteosarcomas, 129 fibrosarcomas, 291 fibrous malignant histiocytomas, 289 malignant giant cell tumors, 238 myxoid chondrosarcomas, 3730 osteosarcomas, 252 parosteal osteosarcomas, 144 telangiectatic osteosarcomas). We make our probability calculator accessible at . We provide exhaustive tables for age and localization data. Results from tenfold cross-validation show that in 79.8 % of cases the pretest probability is correctly raised. Our approach employs population data to calculate relative pretest probabilities for primary malignant bone tumors. The calculator is not diagnostic in nature. However, resulting probabilities might serve as an initial evaluation of probabilities of tumors on the differential diagnosis list.

  2. The association of statin use after cancer diagnosis with survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER-medicare analysis.

    Christie Y Jeon

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has poor prognosis and existing interventions provide a modest benefit. Statin has anti-cancer properties that might enhance survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We sought to determine whether statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with longer survival in those with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC.We analyzed data on 7813 elderly patients with PDAC using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER - Medicare claims files. Information on the type, intensity and duration of statin use after cancer diagnosis was extracted from Medicare Part D. We treated statin as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model to determine the association with overall survival adjusting for follow-up, age, sex, race, neighborhood income, stage, grade, tumor size, pancreatectomy, chemotherapy, radiation, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Overall, statin use after cancer diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival when all PDAC patients were considered (HR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.89, 1.01. However, statin use after cancer diagnosis was associated with a 21% reduced hazard of death (Hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.67, 0.93 in those with grade I or II PDAC and to a similar extent in those who had undergone a pancreatectomy, in those with chronic pancreatitis and in those who had not been treated with statin prior to cancer diagnosis.We found that statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with enhanced survival in patients with low-grade, resectable PDAC.

  3. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Survival Outcomes of Invasive Cribriform Carcinoma of Breast: A SEER Population-Based Study.

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Shao, Zhi-Ming


    Invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC) is a rare histologic subtype of breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of ICC.Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 233,337 female patients diagnosed with ICC (n = 618) or infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) (n = 232,719). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were utilized to calculate and compare disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). A 1:1 paired match was carried out on age, tumor stage, tumor grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Baseline characteristics and survival outcomes were also analyzed in ER-positive tumors. Subgroup analyses summarized the hazard ratio (HR) of IDC versus ICC using a forest plot.ICCs presented smaller size, lower grade, higher ER and PR positive rate, less nodal metastasis, and were less likely to be treated with mastectomy compared to IDCs. Five-year DSS rates were significantly better for patients with ICC than for patients with IDC (98.8% vs. 93%, P analysis, patients with ICC showed limited DSS advantage over the IDC group (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.38-1.51, P = 0.421). No significant difference in DSS nor OS was observed in matched groups between ICC and IDC. Analysis among ER-positive patients revealed similar prognostic factors as among all patients. Survival analysis in different tumor grade subgroups showed no significant difference between ICC and IDC.ICCs have unique clinicopathological characteristics, higher rates of breast-conserving surgery, and more favorable prognosis compared to the overall IDC population. Difference in tumor grade between the 2 groups may partially explain the different outcome. Improved clinical and biological understanding of ICC might lead to more individualized and tailored therapy for breast cancer patients.

  4. Determinants of Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER Study of 14,228 Patients.

    Emanuela Taioli

    Full Text Available Left untreated, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with uniformly poor prognosis. Better survival has been reported with surgery-based multimodality therapy, but to date, no trial has demonstrated survival benefit of surgery over other therapies. We evaluated whether cancer-directed surgery influenced survival independently from other predictors in a large population-based dataset.The SEER database was explored from 1973 to 2009 to identify all cases of pathologically-proven MPM. Age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, histology stage, cancer-directed surgery, radiation, and vital status were analyzed. The association between prognostic factors and survival was estimated using Cox regression and propensity matched analysis.There were 14,228 patients with pathologic diagnosis of MPM. On multivariable analysis, female gender, younger age, early stage, and treatment with surgery were independent predictors of longer survival. In comparison to no treatment, surgery alone was associated with significant improvement in survival [adjusted hazard ratio (adj HR 0.64 (0.61-0.67], but not radiation [adj HR 1.15 (1.08-1.23]. Surgery and radiation combined had similar survival as surgery alone [adj HR 0.69 (0.64-0.76]. Results were similar when cases diagnosed between 1973 and 1999 were compared to cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009.Despite developments in surgical and radiation techniques, the prognosis for MPM patients has not improved over the past 4 decades. Cancer-directed surgery is independently associated with better survival, suggesting that multimodal surgery-based therapy can benefit these patients. Further research in adjuvant treatment is necessary to improve prognosis in this challenging disease.

  5. CT findings of intrathoricic neoplasm associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy

    Hwang, Hee Sung; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Il; Oh, Sei Chung [College of Medicine Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy(HOA) is a clinical syndrome consisting of clubbing, periostitis and synovitis. Most frequent causes of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy are intrathoracic neoplasms, among which the bronchogenic carcinoma ranks the highest. But computed tomographic evaluation of intrathoracic neoplasm associated with HOA has been seldom reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate CT findings of intrathoracic neoplasm associated with HOA, and to infer possible mechanism. Seven cases of intrathoracic neoplasm associated with HOA were included in our study. Diagnoses of HOA were made by Tc99m bone scintigraphy or plain radiography. The findings of chest CT scans were reviewed retrospectively, with main interests on their size, location and internal characteristics, ect. Seven cases of intrathoracic neoplasm consisted of five bronchogenic carcinomas and two thymic tumors. The size of intrathoracic tumors were relatively large ranging from 6cm to 13cm(average 8.0cm). All thoracic neoplasms showed wide pleural contact, and one of them invaded thoracic wall. The range of length of pleural contact was 5-18cm(average 9.9cm). All of seven patients had internal necrosis, and one of them showed cavitation in thoracic mass. Intrathoracic neoplasms associated with HOA had a tendency to be large, to contain internal necrosis, and to widely abut the thoracic pleura.

  6. Dielectric properties of porcine glands, gonads and body fluids.

    Peyman, A; Gabriel, C


    Dielectric properties of porcine glandular tissues and gonads (in vivo) and body fluids (in vitro) have been obtained in the frequency range of 50 MHz to 20 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a two term Cole-Cole expression. The data presented complement the available dielectric properties of tissues in the literature and can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of people to electromagnetic fields.

  7. Appetite for reproduction: dietary restriction, aging and the mammalian gonad

    Nalam, Roopa L; Pletcher, Scott D; Matzuk, Martin M


    The major physiologic theory of aging, the disposable soma theory, links dietary restriction (DR), also known as calorie or food restriction, to prolonged lifespan and makes specific predictions about the effects of aging and DR on reproduction. A recent study in BMC Biology profiling the effects of aging and DR on gonadal gene expression provides novel molecular evidence that has a significant impact on this theory of aging. PMID:18828876

  8. Regulation of meiosis in the foetal mouse gonad.

    Evans, C W; Robb, D I; Tuckett, F; Challoner, S


    In vitro culture of male and female gonads was found to have significant effects on gonadal structure and development. Culture resulted in a reduction of testicular cord diameter and a reduction in the number of Sertoli cells lining each cord in cross section. In the female, culture increased the percentage of pyknotic oocytes and fewer germ cells per unit of ovary volume reached diplotene. Mixed sex co-culture using different culture methods showed that day 14 p.c. testes inhibited meiosis in day 14 p.c. ovaries when the cultures were continued until the equivalent of day 21 p.c. Day 15 p.c. and mixed age co-cultures of mixed sex provided more equivocal data since meiosis was inhibited in some preparations but not in others. The possibility is suggested that prophase I may proceed irrevocably to diplotene after about day 15 p.c. and thus the inhibitory effects of foetal testes may be a function of female gonadal age. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that mixed sex co-culture may stimulate meiosis precociously in foetal testes.

  9. Identification of side population cells in chicken embryonic gonads.

    Bachelard, Elodie; Raucci, Franca; Montillet, Guillaume; Pain, Bertrand


    The side population (SP) phenotype, defined by the ability of a cell to efflux fluorescent dyes such as Hoechst, is common to several stem/progenitor cell types. In avian species, SP phenotype has been identified in pubertal and adult testes, but nothing is known about its expression during prenatal development of a male gonad. In this study, we characterized the Hoechst SP phenotype via the cytofluorimetric analysis of disaggregated testes on different days of chicken embryonic development. Male prenatal gonads contained a fraction of SP cells at each stage analyzed. At least two main SP fractions, named P3 and P4, were identified. The percentage of P3 fraction decreased as development proceeds, whereas P4 cell number was not affected by gonad growth. Functional inhibition of BCRP1 channel membrane using Verapamil and/or Ko143 showed that P3, but not P4 phenotype, was dependent on BCRP1 activity. Molecular analysis of both P3- and P4-sorted fractions revealed a differential RNA expression pattern, indicating that P3 cells mainly contained germinal stem cell markers, whereas P4 was preferentially composed of both Sertoli and Leydig cell progenitor markers. Finally, these findings provided evidence that the SP phenotype is a common feature of both germ and somatic cells detected in chicken developing testis.


    KOZÁK P.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the gonadal development in freshwater crayfish Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque by histological examination of ovaries and testes as well as monthly investigation of the gonadosomatic index over a period of one year. Male gonadosomatic index (IG ranged between 0.11 to 0.79% with a minimum in July (0.11% and maximum in September (0.79% while in females it ranged between 0.25 to 6.15% with a minimum in July (0.25% and maximum in April (6.15%. Between April and May, the histological dissection indicated presence of mature oocytes and oocytes undergoing resorption. Egg extrusion took place in mid April. During the summer months, the volume of oocytes gradually decreased. In winter and spring, the volume of oocytes began to increase during preparation for egg extrusion. The size of oocytes in the ovary increased from 0.2 mm at the beginning of the reproductive cycle to 1.8 mm immediately before egg extrusion. Average number of eggs in the ovary was 140.8 ± 51.63 (76-290. The ovary was of brown colour for the majority of the cycle, but white in June and July and orange in August and September. Mating started in October and continued through the winter. A difference was found in the proportions of testis and vas deferens in the male reproductive organ during the year. The male gonadosomatic index increased in September during preparation for mating (IG = 0.79%. During the mating season, the male spermatophores were predominantly filled with spermatozoa and sperm was also noted in the vas deferens. Two out of 15 males sampled during the winter were found to be intersex, in which atretic oogonia and oocytes were present at the periphery of testicular tissue and occupied less than 15% of testicular tissue. The evidence of intersex strongly suggested transitional stages of a gradual change of sex, which may be qualified as partial hermaphroditism.

  11. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of pancreas

    Norman Oneil Machado


    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN. The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as "worrisome features." Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The

  12. Mutations in SRY and WT1 genes required for gonadal development are not responsible for XY partial gonadal dysgenesis

    E.B. Tagliarini


    Full Text Available The WT1 transcription factor regulates SRY expression during the initial steps of the sex determination process in humans, activating a gene cascade leading to testis differentiation. In addition to causing Wilms' tumor, mutations in WT1 are often responsible for urogenital defects in men, while SRY mutations are mainly related to 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis. In order to evaluate their role in abnormal testicular organogenesis, we screened for SRY and WT1 gene mutations in 10 children with XY partial gonadal dysgenesis, 2 of whom with a history of Wilms' tumor. The open reading frame and 360 bp of the 5' flanking sequence of the SRY gene, and the ten exons and intron boundaries of the WT1 gene were amplified by PCR of genomic DNA. Single-strand conformation polymorphism was initially used for WT1 mutation screening. Since shifts in fragment migration were only observed for intron/exon 4, the ten WT1 exons from all patients were sequenced manually. No mutations were detected in the SRY 5' untranslated region or within SRY open-reading frame sequences. WT1 sequencing revealed one missense mutation (D396N in the ninth exon of a patient who also had Wilms' tumor. In addition, two silent point mutations were found in the first exon including one described here for the first time. Some non-coding sequence variations were detected, representing one new (IVS4+85A>G and two already described (-7ATG T>G, IVS9-49 T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms. Therefore, mutations in two major genes required for gonadal development, SRY and WT1, are not responsible for XY partial gonadal dysgenesis.


    Ibnu Rusdi


    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  14. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P


    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Future therapies for the myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Scherber, Robyn; Mesa, Ruben A


    Ever since their description as "myeloproliferative syndromes" by William Dameshek in 1951, the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have been managed by the selective use of rather mundane, nonspecific therapies that rely on either antiplatelet effects or myelosuppression. The year 2005 ushered in a new era of drug development and discovery for the MPNs after the description of the JAK2 V617F mutation and the role this constitutively active tyrosine kinase has in MPN pathogenesis. Subsequently, multiple pharmacologic agents have begun (or are about to begin) testing for the inhibition of JAK2 in an attempt to improve the treatment of MPNs. Both primary myelofibrosis and myelofibrosis following essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera have been the targets of the most extensive testing of these agents to date. Responses to these oral JAK2 inhibitors have been primarily intended to reduce splenomegaly and meaningfully improve symptoms; effects on the JAK2 V617F allele burden or marrow histology are limited. Toxicities have ranged from myelosuppression to significant diarrhea. Additional agents with other mechanisms of action are also targeting JAK2, including histone deacetylase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The results of preliminary trials of JAK2 inhibitors in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia have been mixed but are premature. Many questions remain as to the optimal JAK2 inhibitory strategy and the full extent of the benefit of single-agent JAK2 inhibition.

  16. Origin and Molecular Pathology of Adrenocortical Neoplasms

    Bielinska, M.; Parviainen, H.; Kiiveri, S.; Heikinheimo, M.; Wilson, D.B.


    Neoplastic adrenocortical lesions are common in humans and several species of domestic animals. Although there are unanswered questions about the origin and evolution of adrenocortical neoplasms, analysis of human tumor specimens and animal models indicates that adrenocortical tumorigenesis involves both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Chromosomal changes accumulate during tumor progression, and aberrant telomere function is one of the key mechanisms underlying chromosome instability during this process. Epigenetic changes serve to expand the size of the uncommitted adrenal progenitor population, modulate their phenotypic plasticity (i.e., responsiveness to extracellular signals), and increase the likelihood of subsequent genetic alterations. Analyses of heritable and spontaneous types of human adrenocortical tumors have documented alterations in either cell surface receptors or their downstream effectors that impact neoplastic transformation. Many of the mutations associated with benign human adrenocortical tumors result in dysregulated cyclic AMP signaling, whereas key factors/signaling pathways associated with adrenocortical carcinomas include dysregulated expression of the IGF2 gene cluster, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. A better understanding of the factors and signaling pathways involved in adrenal tumorigenesis is necessary to develop targeted pharmacologic and genetic therapies. PMID:19261630

  17. The Hematopoietic Niche in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Annette H. Schmitt-Graeff


    Full Text Available Specialized microanatomical areas of the bone marrow provide the signals that are mandatory for the maintenance and regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and progenitor cells. A complex microenvironment adjacent to the marrow vasculature (vascular niche and close to the endosteum (endosteal niche harbors multiple cell types including mesenchymal stromal cells and their derivatives such as CAR cells expressing high levels of chemokines C-X-C motif ligand 12 and early osteoblastic lineage cells, endothelial cells, and megakaryocytes. The characterization of the cellular and molecular networks operating in the HSC niche has opened new perspectives for the understanding of the bidirectional cross-talk between HSCs and stromal cell populations in normal and malignant conditions. A structural and functional remodeling of the niche may contribute to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN. Malignant HSCs may alter the function and survival of MSCs that do not belong to the neoplastic clone. For example, a regression of nestin+ MSCs by apoptosis has been attributed to neuroglial damage in MPN. Nonneoplastic MSCs in turn can promote aggressiveness and drug resistance of malignant cells. In the future, strategies to counteract the pathological interaction between the niche and neoplastic HSCs may offer additional treatment strategies for MPN patients.

  18. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Kabayegit Ozlem


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  19. Analysis of Environmental Chemical Mixtures and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk in the NCI-SEER NHL Study

    Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Colt, Joanne S.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.


    , Wheeler DC. 2015. Analysis of environmental chemical mixtures and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk in the NCI-SEER NHL Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:965–970; PMID:25748701

  20. Life expectancy of colon, breast, and testicular cancer patients: an analysis of US-SEER population-based data.

    Capocaccia, R; Gatta, G; Dal Maso, L


    Cancer survivorship is an increasingly important issue in cancer control. Life expectancy of patients diagnosed with breast, colon, and testicular cancers, stratified by age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis, is provided as an indicator to evaluate future mortality risks and health care needs of cancer survivors. The standard period life table methodology was applied to estimate excess mortality risk for cancer patients diagnosed in 1985-2011 from SEER registries and mortality data of the general US population. The sensitivity of life expectancy estimates on different assumptions was evaluated. Younger patients with colon cancer showed wider differences in life expectancy compared with that of the general population (11.2 years in women and 10.7 in men at age 45-49 years) than older patients (6.3 and 5.8 at age 60-64 years, respectively). Life expectancy progressively increases in patients surviving the first years, up to 4 years from diagnosis, and then starts to decrease again, approaching that of the general population. For breast cancer, the initial drop in life expectancy is less marked, and again with wider differences in younger patients, varying from 8.7 at age 40-44 years to 2.4 at ages 70-74 years. After diagnosis, life expectancy still decreases with time, but less than that in the general population, slowly approaching that of cancer-free women. Life expectancy of men diagnosed with testicular cancer at age 30 years is estimated as 45.2 years, 2 years less than cancer-free men of the same age. The difference becomes 1.3 years for patients surviving the first year, and then slowly approaches zero with increasing survival time. Life expectancy provides meaningful information on cancer patients, and can help in assessing when a cancer survivor can be considered as cured. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  1. File list: Pol.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  2. File list: NoD.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 No description Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  3. File list: Oth.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s SRX739215,SRX739214,SRX739216,SRX739217 ...

  4. File list: NoD.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 No description Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  5. File list: Oth.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s SRX739214,SRX739215,SRX739217,SRX739216 ...

  6. File list: Oth.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s SRX739215,SRX739214,SRX739216,SRX739217 ...

  7. File list: Oth.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s SRX739215,SRX739214,SRX739216,SRX739217 ...

  8. File list: NoD.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 No description Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  9. File list: Pol.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  10. File list: Pol.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  11. File list: Pol.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  12. File list: NoD.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 No description Prostate Prostatic Neoplasm...s ...

  13. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    J. J. Corrales


    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  14. Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms: gender differences in prevalence and malignant potential.

    Rondagh, Eveline J A; Masclee, Ad A M; van der Valk, Mirthe E; Winkens, Bjorn; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Soetikno, Roy M; Sanduleanu, Silvia


    Colonoscopy may fail to prevent colorectal cancer, especially in the proximal colon and in women. Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms may potentially explain some of these post-colonoscopy cancers. In the present study, we aimed to examine the prevalence and malignant potential of nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms in a large population, with special attention to gender and location. We performed a cross-sectional study of all consecutive patients undergoing elective colonoscopy at a single academic medical center. The endoscopists were familiarized on the detection and treatment of nonpolypoid lesions. Advanced histology was defined by the presence of high-grade dysplasia or early cancer. We included 2310 patients (53.9% women, mean age 58.4 years) with 2143 colorectal polyps. Prevalences of colorectal neoplasms and nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms were lower in women than in men (20.9% vs. 33.7%, p colorectal neoplasms were significantly more likely to contain advanced histology than polypoid ones (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.24-6.74, p = 0.01), while this was not the case in men (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.40-2.06, p = 0.83). Proximal neoplasms with advanced histology were more likely to be nonpolypoid than distal ones (OR 4.68, 95% CI 1.54-14.2, p = 0.006). Nonpolypoid mechanisms may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis, in both women and men. Although women have fewer colorectal neoplasms than men, they have nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms, which frequently contain advanced histology.

  15. Morbidity and mortality of malignant neoplasms in Macedonia

    Vukovikj, Viktorija; Markovski, Velo


    Introductions: Malignant neoplasms are the second cause of death among the population in Republic of Macedonia with representation of and represent 19.0% in the structure of total deaths. Objective: To analyze the morbidity and mortality of the most common malignant neoplasms in Republic of Macedonia. Material and methods: Were used a data from the Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Macedonia, National institute for statistic of Republic Macedonia. Results and discussions:...

  16. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Kamran P. Sajadi


    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  17. [Pure gonad dysgenesia or Swyer sindrome. A case report having tumoral development: melanoma].

    Russo, D; Blanco, M; Falke, G; Rocca Rivarola, M; Séller, R; Puigdevall, J C; Bergada, C


    A 14 year old girl having 10-days lumbar pain, polaquiuria and moderate pain to palpation is reported. Blood and urine analysis were normal. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed cavity free and solid, rounded, heterogeneous, intrapelvic mass compressing bladder and uterus. Magnetic resonance image was performed showing right gonad compromise with extensive liver and sacro-lumbar spine invasion. Tumoral markers were ruled out. During surgery, primary tumor mass localizad in the right gonad was completely excised. Melanotic peritoneal and hepatic disemination were observed. The patient had left streak gonad and infantile uterus (2 x 3 cm). As gonad dysgenesia was suspected, high resolution cromosomic study was performed and resulted in cariotype 46 XY. Microscopy of the resected gonad showed primary gonad melanoma. Chemotherapy was instituted with no tumor response and the patient died two month later.

  18. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children

    Xu Yufeng; Wang Jichen [Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8, Xishike Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034 (China); Peng Yun [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Zeng Jinjin, E-mail: [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China)


    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  19. Second neoplasms following megavoltage radiation in a pediatric population

    Haselow, R.E.; Nesbit, M.; Dehner, L.P.; Khan, F.M.; McHugh, R.; Levitt, S.H.


    Previous reports of radiation-related neoplasia have relied primarily upon patients treated by orthovoltage to low doses for benign disease. This survey is believed to be the first to assess the incidence of second neoplasms following megavoltage therapy. The source was the records of all long-term pediatric survivors (88 patients) who were treated with megavoltage radiation (cobalt 60) at the University of Minnesota. There was an average follow-up period of 14 years during which 7 second neoplasms were discovered (8%). Five were not associated with prior radiation. Both radiation-related neoplasms were associated with low doses and one was without significant morbidity. Two of the seven neoplasms were malignant; one was not associated with radiation while the other was associated with prolonged chemotherapy and low dose radiation (1%). The only fatal second neoplasm was not associated with radiation but developed 5 years after prolonged chlorambucil treatment. This review reveals the tendency of childhood cancer victims to develop other neoplasms regardless of radiation. The finding of neoplasia induction only at low radiation doses supports the Gray hypothesis of decreased tumor induction at high doses through increased cell killing.

  20. Origin of B-Cell Neoplasms in Autoimmune Disease.

    Kari Hemminki

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs are associated with a number of B-cell neoplasms but the associations are selective in regard to the type of neoplasm and the conferred risks are variable. So far no mechanistic bases for these differential associations have been demonstrated. We speculate that developmental origin of B-cells might propose a mechanistic rationale for their carcinogenic response to autoimmune stimuli and tested the hypothesis on our previous studies on the risks of B-cell neoplasms after any of 33 ADs. We found that predominantly germinal center (GC-derived B-cells showed multiple associations with ADs: diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with 15 ADs, follicular lymphoma with 7 ADs and Hodgkin lymphoma with 11 ADs. Notably, these neoplasms shared significant associations with 5 ADs (immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosis. By contrast, primarily non-GC neoplasms, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma associated with 2 ADs only and mantle cell lymphoma with 1 AD. None of the neoplasms shared associated ADs. These data may suggest that autoimmune stimulation critically interferes with the rapid cell division, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and immunological selection of maturing B-cell in the GC and delivers damage contributing to transformation.

  1. Mucins in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic neoplasms: report of 40 cases

    JI Yuan; TAN Yun-shan; XU Jian-fang; QI Wei-dong; LI Xiao-ping; SU-JIE Ake-su; ZHU Xiong-zeng


    @@ Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas account for 10% to 15% of all cystic pancreatic lesions.The majority (85% to 90%) of cystic lesions of the pancreas are pseudocysts. Although cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are rare, they range from benign to malignant neoplasms. The clinical challenge is the differential diagnosis and management of the cystic neoplasms, which represent 10% to 25% of primary pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreatic neoplasms and tumour like lesions with cystic features have been recently reviewed. The incidence of pancreatic cystic neoplasms reported is variable. Because there is no large, systematic study on tne cases from China comparing the incidence and biology of cystic neoplasms of pancreas to that of Western series, we reviewed all the cases of cystic neoplasms from Zhongshan Hospital over 6 years. Most of the neoplasms in our series were classified according to the recent World Health Organization (WHO)classification.1,2

  2. Oestrogen blocks the nuclear entry of SOX9 in the developing gonad of a marsupial mammal

    Pask Andrew J; Calatayud Natalie E; Shaw Geoff; Wood William M; Renfree Marilyn B


    Abstract Background Hormones are critical for early gonadal development in nonmammalian vertebrates, and oestrogen is required for normal ovarian development. In contrast, mammals determine sex by the presence or absence of the SRY gene, and hormones are not thought to play a role in early gonadal development. Despite an XY sex-determining system in marsupial mammals, exposure to oestrogen can override SRY and induce ovarian development of XY gonads if administered early enough. Here we asses...

  3. [New aspects of diagnosing and treating pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XY and 46XX].

    Baron, J; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Miedzianowski, J; Baron, J J


    Among 67 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis, karyotype 46XY was found in 46 and karyotype 46XX in 21 (26.3% of all intersexual subjects). Karyotype 46XY was either of pure type or mosaicism 45,X/46,XY (10.9%). Primary amenorrhea, underdevelopment of mammary glands and lack or poor development of pubic hair were the main complaints of the patients. In gonadal dysgenesis 46XY mammary glands were developed in 21.8% and pubic hair in 26% suggesting the presence within the gonads of the hormonally active tumor or the state after hormonal treatment. The patients with gonadal dysgenesis 46XX had lowered levels of estrogens and elevated levels of FSH and LH. Karyotype 46XY was not associated with evident changes in hormonal levels. Estrogens were both low and normal, and FSH was elevated (21.5 + 16.6 ug/ml) or normal (3.2-5.0 ng/ml). Total testosterone values were normal or slightly elevated. Such situation can be explained by the presence in some patients of tumors secreting either estrogens or androgens. Taeniform character of gonads was observed by ultrasonography whenever the presence of gonadal tumor was excluded. Histology of specimens taken from gonads or tumors demonstrated the presence of dysgerminoma or gonadoblastoma type of malignancy in 53.1%, foci or proliferation of the Leydig cells in 31.3% and typical morphology of residual gonads without germinal cells only in 12.5%. The differentiation between pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX and primary ovarian insufficiency is required whenever no characteristic pattern emerges from clinical, hormonal, cytogenetic or ultrasonographic examination. Diagnosis of pure gonadal dysgenesis 46XX can be finally confirmed by the absence of gonocytes in the residual gonad. Besides of removal of gonads or tumors by surgery, the treatment of patients with 46XY karyotype consists in cyclic administration of estrogens and progestagens restoring menstruation and bringing development of secondary sex attributes.

  4. Treatment Outcomes in Black and White Children With Cancer: Results From the SEER Database and St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 1992 Through 2007

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Pei, Deqing; Pappo, Alberto S.; Howard, Scott C.; Cheng, Cheng; Sandlund, John T.; Furman, Wayne L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Jeha, Sima; Hudson, Melissa M.; Kun, Larry E.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kocak, Mehmet; Broniscer, Alberto; Metzger, Monika L.; Downing, James R.; Leung, Wing; Evans, William E.; Gajjar, Amar


    Purpose Treatment outcome for black patients with cancer has been significantly worse than for their white counterparts. We determined whether recent improved treatment had narrowed the gap in outcome between black and white pediatric patients. Patients and Methods In a parallel comparison, we analyzed survival by disease category between black and white patients with childhood cancer registered in one of the 17 cancer registries of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program or treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, which provides comprehensive treatment to all patients regardless of their ability to pay, from 1992 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2007. Results Analysis of the SEER data indicated that in both study periods, black patients had significantly poorer rates of survival than did white patients, with the exception of a few types of cancer. Despite significantly improved treatment outcomes for patients who were treated from 2001 to 2007, the racial difference in survival has actually widened for acute myeloid leukemia and neuroblastoma. By contrast, in the cohorts treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, there were no significant differences in survival between black and white patients in either study period, regardless of the cancer type. Importantly, the outcome of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and retinoblastoma has improved in parallel for both races during the most recent study period. Conclusion With equal access to comprehensive treatment, black and white children with cancer can achieve the same high cure rates. PMID:22547602

  5. SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  6. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J


    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intersex gonad differentiation in cultured Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeon.

    Rzepkowska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Gibala, Monika; Roszko, Marek Lukasz


    Among sturgeons, the occurrence of individuals with gonads containing both testis and ovary components is considered pathological, and such fish are described as intersex individuals or intersexes. Intersexes are observed in both wild and cultured populations of sturgeon, usually at low frequencies. In the present study, intersex Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons constituted 30% of the studied populations. Macroscopically, intersex gonads were recognizable from 500 days posthatching (dph). Initially, gonads with predominantly male characteristics (testis-ova) were observed, but in older fish gonads with predominantly female traits (ova-testis) were more frequent. Using microscopic analysis, intersex gonads were discernible by 130-200 dph. Observations of intersex germinal epithelium development and analysis of sex distribution in the study populations indicated that feminization was occurring. Histological analysis revealed that differentiation of the germinal epithelium in such gonads was accompanied by various morphological alterations (transformations) that were described using quantitative and localization criteria. The most common type of transformations, massive subepithelial transformations, was manifested by the presence of abundant female germinal tissue located under the gonad surface epithelium in the developing testis. These transformations were identified in the early development stage (100-200 dph). In this type of transformation, differentiation of female germinal tissue at the gonad surface and male tissue at the mesorchium/mesovarium resulted in complete formation of both male and female germinal epithelia within the same gonad.

  8. Dysgerminoma in a case of 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (swyer syndrome: a case report

    He Anguang


    Full Text Available Abstract Simple 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, also called Swyer syndrome, is known as pure gonadal dysgenesis. Individuals with the syndrome are characterized by 46, XY karyotype and phenotypically female with female genital appearance, normal Müllerian structures and absent testicular tissue. The condition usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to the gonads have no hormonal or reproductive potential. Herein, we report a case of dysgerminoma diagnosed in a dysgenetic gonad of a 21-year-old patient with Swyer syndrome.

  9. Dynamics of miRNA transcriptome during gonadal development of zebrafish

    Presslauer, Christopher; Tilahun Bizuayehu, Teshome; Kopp, Martina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Babiak, Igor


    Studies in non-teleost vertebrates have found microRNAs (miRNAs) to be essential for proper gonadal development. However, comparatively little is known about their role during gonadal development in teleost fishes. So far in zebrafish, a model teleost, transcript profiling throughout gonadal development has not been established because of a tiny size of an organ in juvenile stages and its poor distinguishability from surrounding tissues. We performed small RNA sequencing on isolated gonads of See-Thru-Gonad line, from the undifferentiated state at 3 weeks post fertilization (wpf) to fully mature adults at 24 wpf. We identified 520 gonadal mature miRNAs; 111 of them had significant changes in abundance over time, while 50 miRNAs were either testis- or ovary-enriched significantly in at least one developmental stage. We characterized patterns of miRNA abundance over time including isomiR variants. We identified putative germline versus gonadal somatic miRNAs through differential small RNA sequencing of isolated gametes versus the whole gonads. This report is the most comprehensive analysis of the miRNA repertoire in zebrafish gonads during the sexual development to date and provides an important database from which functional studies can be performed. PMID:28262836

  10. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S. [Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  11. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Endocrine System in the Hagfish

    Masumi eNozaki


    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates. Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates, the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTH mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  12. New type of canned cod gonads and liver pastes

    Grokhovsky V. A.


    Full Text Available The urgency of rational way of processing the offal of the Gadidae family (liver and gonads for food purposes has been proved. The possibility of using the frozen gonads (milt and caviar and the liver of the cod in the human nutrition (especially for the people of elderly age has been researched. The frozen gonads with addition of fish liver are proven to be used for producing the canned foods with high quality level. The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the product have been determined by the standardized methods. The quality level of canned foods has been obtained using the developed criteria of the objective evaluation of the quality. The specimens of the canned pastes produced from the frozen cod milt, caviar and liver using different compositions have been researched. Near-to-optimal composition of the new product has been defined. The quality level of canned food is 88.6 %. The commercial sterility of the canned food specimens prepared using the developed technology has been established. The chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of canned food have been researched. It has been established that protein content in the canned food is 12.9 %, fat content – 13.5 %, water content – 71.2 %, sodium chloride content – 1.3 %, carbohydrates content – 0.5 %. The product is the uniform, finely ground, evenly mixed mass with the presence of the separate caviar grains. The color of the paste is light-beige. The canned food has the tender consistency, pleasant taste and aroma. The energy value of the product is 678 kJ (162 kcal. Using the frozen cod caviar, milt and liver for producing the developed assortment of canned foods will make it possible to solve the problem of the complex processing of fish, and also to manufacture the canned food of high quality on the shore enterprises from the frozen fish offal (caviar, milt and liver all the year round.

  13. Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases

    Sandeep Kharb


    Full Text Available Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH, chronic liver disease (CLD, and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT. Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1 and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2, and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16% and 24 (28% patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%, followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%, subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3% and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50% followed by LT (3; 33%, CLD-1 (4; 20%, and AH (3; 14%. Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism.

  14. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Clément, Frédérique


    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  15. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis

    Rakesh Arora


    Full Text Available A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner′s stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml. Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251. Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD. The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient′s caregivers.

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish.

    Nozaki, Masumi


    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  17. Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2

    Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Van Loo, P.; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O’Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.-Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.P.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.P.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.


    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with

  18. Transcriptomic analyses reveal novel genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the zebrafish gonad and brain.

    Rajini Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our knowledge on zebrafish reproduction is very limited. We generated a gonad-derived cDNA microarray from zebrafish and used it to analyze large-scale gene expression profiles in adult gonads and other organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified 116638 gonad-derived zebrafish expressed sequence tags (ESTs, 21% of which were isolated in our lab. Following in silico normalization, we constructed a gonad-derived microarray comprising 6370 unique, full-length cDNAs from differentiating and adult gonads. Labeled targets from adult gonad, brain, kidney and 'rest-of-body' from both sexes were hybridized onto the microarray. Our analyses revealed 1366, 881 and 656 differentially expressed transcripts (34.7% novel that showed highest expression in ovary, testis and both gonads respectively. Hierarchical clustering showed correlation of the two gonadal transcriptomes and their similarities to those of the brains. In addition, we have identified 276 genes showing sexually dimorphic expression both between the brains and between the gonads. By in situ hybridization, we showed that the gonadal transcripts with the strongest array signal intensities were germline-expressed. We found that five members of the GTP-binding septin gene family, from which only one member (septin 4 has previously been implicated in reproduction in mice, were all strongly expressed in the gonads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated a gonad-derived zebrafish cDNA microarray and demonstrated its usefulness in identifying genes with sexually dimorphic co-expression in both the gonads and the brains. We have also provided the first evidence of large-scale differential gene expression between female and male brains of a teleost. Our microarray would be useful for studying gonad development, differentiation and function not only in zebrafish but also in related teleosts via cross-species hybridizations. Since several genes have been shown to play similar

  19. Gonadal differentiation in reptiles exhibiting environmental sex determination.

    Kohno, Satomi; Parrott, Benjamin B; Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Brandon C; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis


    As temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and homozygote or heterozygote genetic sex determination (GSD) exist in multiple reptilian taxa, they represent sex determination systems that have emerged de novo. Current investigations have revealed that the genetic mechanisms used by various reptilian species are similar to those used by other vertebrates. However, the recent completion or near completion of various reptilian genome projects suggests that new studies examining related species with and without TSD could begin to provide additional insight into the evolution of TSD and GSD in vertebrate ancestors. Major questions still remain concerning germ cell migration and specification, the differentiation of gonadal accessory cells, such as the Sertoli cells and granulosa cells of the developing testis and ovary, respectively, and the mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated during TSD events. Further, reptilian sentinels and their mechanisms of gonadogenesis will likely remain important indicator species for environmental health. Thus, ongoing and new investigations need to tie molecular information to gonadal morphogenesis and function in reptiles. Such data will not only provide important information for an understanding of the evolution of these phenomena in vertebrates, but could also provide an important understanding of the health of the environment around us.


    郭丽娜; 刘丹华; 田秦杰


    The gonadal histopathology, and its correlation with the clinical features has been investigated in 9 true hermaphroditism patients, aged 5-21 yr. Seven of 9 patients had been raised as females, of which the chromosomal karyotype was 46XX in 5 cases, 46XX/46XY and 46XX/47XXY in 2 cases. Two of 9 patients were raised as males, the chromosomal karyotypes being 46XX and 46XX/46XY. All 9 patients had testieular tissue excised, and biopsies of the conserved ovaxian tissue were performed. Ovotestis was the most common form of the abnormal gonads; two of 9 patients had bilateral ovotestes, seven had unilsteral ovotestes (5 in right side, 2 in left side). In seven patients with a unilateral ovotestis, 6 had a contralateral ovary and one had a contralateral testis. Microscopically, the ovarian tissue of 11 ovotestes, including 6 biopsies from contealateral ovaris, were normal, with many primordal follicles and a few growing follicles.In two of the patients, aged over 15 years, evidence of ovulation was observed. In comparison, the testicular tissue of the ovotestis and the one left inguinal testis was histologically abnormal, with immature seminiferous tubbers, most of which filled with Sertoli cells only, Three of 9 patients married after surgical treatment. Two of these subsequently conceived and delivered of normal infants by cesarean section.

  1. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    A. Marijne Heeren


    Full Text Available Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception. Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development.

  2. [XY gonadal dysgenesis with female phenotype (author's transpl)].

    Trias, J V; Martínez, F B


    In this paper, we are dealing with the study of a case of multiple somatic malformations, with external female genitals and 46 XY caryotype. The anatomical and histological study of the genital organs, allows us to verify the existence of internal genital organs; consisting essentially in tubes, bicornous uterus, a gonadal ligament in a normotopical position, Wolffian remains and the absence of a vagina. The external female genitals are completely normal. When we interpreted these findings, we paid special attention to the relation existing between the abnormal presence of the Wolffian remains, male genotype, and typical female genital structures. Taking account of the latest scientific advances concerning genital development, we considered the possibility of the existence of secretions of a "masculinizing" substance from the gonad, before its morphological differentiation, which was interrupted by an etiological undetermined noxa. When this evolution was arrested, together with the secretions of the masculinizing substance, the genital development continued normally for a female. The terminal teratogenic period for this malformation is situated from the 5th to the 6th week of gestation (human embryos from 11 to 14 mm., Streeter Horizon XVII).

  3. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Paulo Vidal Campregher


    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mutations described in several genes have revealed a considerable degree of molecular homogeneity between different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. At the same time, the molecular differences between each subtype have become clearer. While mutations in several genes, such as JAK2, myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL and LNK have been validated in functional assays or animal models as causative mutations, the roles of other recurring mutations in the development of disease, such as TET2 and ASXL1 remain to be elucidated. In this review we will examine the most prevalent recurring gene mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms and their molecular consequences.

  4. Increased risk of lymphoid neoplasms in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Masala, Giovanna; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Chiara Susini, Maria; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pieri, Lisa; Maggi, Laura; Caini, Saverio; Palli, Domenico; Bogani, Costanza; Ponziani, Vanessa; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Annunziato, Francesco; Bosi, Alberto


    Association of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) with lymphoproliferative neoplasm (LPN) has been occasionally reported. The aim of this study, which included 353 patients with polycythemia vera and 467 with essential thrombocythemia, was to assess whether the risk of developing LPN is increased in MPN patients. Expected numbers of LPN incident cases were calculated based on 5-year age group, gender, and calendar time-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population of the same area. Standardized incidence ratios were computed to estimate the relative risk of developing LPN. Analyses were carried out for the whole series and then separately for essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, gender, and JAK2V617F genotype. With 4,421 person-years, we found 11 patients developing LPN, including four chronic lymphocytic leukemias, five non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and two plasma cell disorders, after a median interval time of 68 months from MPN diagnosis. Cumulative risk to develop LPN at 5 and 10 years was 0.93% (95% confidence interval, 0.39-2.22) and 2.96% (95% confidence interval, 1.52-5.72), respectively. There was a 3.44-fold increased risk of LPN compared with the general population, ranging from 2.86 for plasma cell disorder to 12.42 for chronic lymphocytic leukemia; the risk was significantly increased in JAK2V617F mutated patients (5.46-fold) and in males (4.52-fold). The JAK2V617F mutation was found in lymphoid tumor cells in two of three cases evaluated, indicating that, in some patients, LPN originated in a JAK2V617F mutated common lymphoid-myeloid hematopoietic progenitor cell. We conclude that the risk of developing LPN is significantly increased in MPN patients compared with the general population.

  5. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential☆,☆☆

    Gill, Ryan M.; Buelow, Benjamin; Mather, Cheryl; Joseph, Nancy M.; Alves, Venancio; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Makhlouf, Hala; Marginean, Celia; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Sempoux, Christine; Snover, Dale C.; Thung, Swan N.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Ferrell, Linda D.


    Summary Characteristic but rare vascular neoplasms in the adult liver composed of small vessels with an infiltrative border were collected from an international group of collaborators over a 5-year period (N = 17). These tumors were termed hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN), and the histologic differential diagnosis was angiosarcoma (AS). The average age of patients was 54 years (range, 24–83 years). HSVN was more common in men. The average size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.2–5.5 cm). Diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemical stains for vascular lineage (CD31, CD34, FLI-1), which were uniformly positive in HSVN. Immunohistochemical stains (p53, c-Myc, GLUT-1, and Ki-67) for possible malignant potential are suggestive of a benign/low-grade tumor. Capture-based next-generation sequencing (using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA. When compared with hepatic AS (n = 10) and cavernous hemangioma (n = 6), the Ki-67 proliferative index is the most helpful tool in excluding AS, which demonstrated a tumor cell proliferative index greater than 10% in all cases. Strong p53 and diffuse c-Myc staining was also significantly associated with AS but not with HSVN or cavernous hemangioma. There have been no cases with rupture/hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Thus far, there has been no metastasis or recurrence of HSVN, but complete resection and close clinical follow-up are recommended because the outcome remains unknown. PMID:27090685

  6. On gonads and reproductive behaviour in the cichlid fish Aequidens portalegrensis (Hensel)

    Polder, Johan Jan Willem


    In this paper on the cichlid fish Aequidensp ortalegrensis,in formation is given on 1) the anatomy and histology of the gonads, 2) the functional anatomy of the accessory organs, 3) the occurrence of cyclical changes in the gonads, 4) the mutual behaviour of male and female under different condition

  7. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Chih-Ping Chen


    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  9. On gonads and reproductive behaviour in the cichlid fish Aequidens portalegrensis (Hensel)

    Polder, Johan Jan Willem


    In this paper on the cichlid fish Aequidensp ortalegrensis,in formation is given on 1) the anatomy and histology of the gonads, 2) the functional anatomy of the accessory organs, 3) the occurrence of cyclical changes in the gonads, 4) the mutual behaviour of male and female under different

  10. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  11. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and other pancreatic cystic lesions

    Hugh James Freeman


    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being increasingly recognized, even in the absence of symptoms, in large part, due to markedly improved imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography (MRCP) and computer tomography (CT) scanning. During the past 2 decades, better imaging of these cystic lesions has resulted in definition of different types, including pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). While IPMN represent only a distinct minority of all pancreatic cancers, they appear to be a relatively frequent neoplastic form of pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Moreover, IPMN have a much better outcome and prognosis compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Therefore, recognition of this entity is exceedingly important for the clinician involved in diagnosis and further evaluation of a potentially curable form of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Interdisciplinary Management of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    Linda S. Lee


    Full Text Available Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are increasingly recognized due to the frequent use of abdominal imaging. It is reported that up to 20% of abdominal cross-sectional scans identify incidental asymptomatic pancreatic cysts. Proper characterization of pancreatic cystic neoplasms is important not only to recognize premalignant lesions that will require surgical resection, but also to allow nonoperative management of many cystic lesions that will not require resection with its inherent morbidity. Though reliable biomarkers are lacking, a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities are available to evaluate pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including radiologic, endoscopic, laboratory, and pathologic analysis. An interdisciplinary approach to management of these lesions which incorporates recent, specialty-specific advances in the medical literature is herein suggested.

  13. Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms.

    Ng, Simon S M; Lee, Janet F Y; Yiu, Raymond Y C; Li, Jimmy C M; Leung, Ka Lau


    Synchronous laparoscopic resections of coexisting abdominal diseases are shown to be feasible without additional postoperative morbidity. We report our experience with synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal carcinoma and renal/adrenal neoplasms with an emphasis on surgical and oncologic outcomes. Five patients diagnosed to have synchronous colorectal carcinoma and renal/adrenal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma in 2 patients, adrenal cortical adenoma in 2 patients, and adrenal metastasis in 1 patient) underwent synchronous laparoscopic resection. The median operative time was 420 minutes and the median operative blood loss was 1000 mL. Three patients developed minor complications, including wound infection in 2 patients and retention of urine in 1 patient. There was no operative mortality. The median duration of hospital stay was 11 days. At a median follow-up of 17.6 months, no patient developed recurrence of disease. Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms is technically feasible and safe.

  14. Gonad morphology and histology of an endemic tooth-carp, Aphanius sophiae (Heckel, 1847 from Iran

    Shadi Aminaghaie


    Full Text Available This study presents the first details on morphological and histological characteristics of gonads and gonadal development stages of an endemic tooth-carp, Aphanius sophiae (Heckel, 1847 from a spring-stream system (south of Iran. The sampling was done from March 2012 to March 2013 using dip net, and a total of 226 individuals were collected. The gonads of specimens were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution after checking their morphology and measuring their weights, lengths and widths. Based on the size, shape and weight of the gonads, degree of occupation of the body cavity, presence or absence of ripe oocytes or milt, diameter of the oocytes in the ovary, and histological observations, five stages of sexual maturation in females and males were determined by macroscopic and microscopic criteria. The results of the gonadal stages indicated that A. sophiae spawns at the beginning of spring.

  15. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund;


    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  16. Canine Central Nervous System Neoplasm Phenotyping Using Tissue Microarray Technique.

    Spitzbarth, I; Heinrich, F; Herder, V; Recker, T; Wohlsein, P; Baumgärtner, W


    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm. Tumor cells were phenotyped using a panel of 28 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group neoplasms according to similarities in their expression profiles. Hierarchical clustering generally grouped cases with similar histologic diagnoses; however, gliomas especially exhibited a considerable heterogeneity in their positivity scores. Multiple tumor groups, such as astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, significantly differed in the proportion of positive immunoreaction for certain markers such as p75(NTR), AQP4, GFAP, and S100 protein. The study highlights AQP4 and p75(NTR) as novel markers, helping to discriminate between canine astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Furthermore, the results suggest that p75(NTR) and proteolipid protein may represent useful markers, whose expression inversely correlates with malignant transformation in canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, respectively. Tissue microarray was demonstrated to be a useful and time-saving tool for the simultaneous immunohistochemical characterization of multiple canine CNS neoplasms. The present study provides a detailed overview of the expression patterns of different types of canine CNS neoplasms.

  17. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    Rasmussen Lene J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. Results In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a and high in females (fig alpha and cyp19a1a was segregated in two groups with more than 10 times difference in expression levels. All of the investigated genes showed peaks in expression levels during the time of sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Expression of all genes was investigated on cDNA from the same fish allowing comparison of the high and low expressers of genes that are expected to be highest expressed in either males or females. There were 78% high or low expressers of all three "male" genes (ar, sox9a and dmrt1 in the investigated period and 81% were high or low expressers of both "female" genes (fig alpha and cyp19a1a. When comparing all five genes with expected sex related expression 56% show expression expected for either male or female. Furthermore, the expression of all genes was investigated in different tissue of adult male and female zebrafish. Conclusion In zebrafish, the first significant peak in gene expression during the investigated period (2–40 dph was dmrt1 at 10 dph which indicates involvement of this gene


    F. Ghaemmaghami T. Ashraf Ganjoie


    Full Text Available Early recognition of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN will maximize the chances of cure with chemotherapy but some patients present with many different symptoms months or even years after the causative pregnancy making diagnosis difficult. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of GTN in any reproductive age woman with bizarre central nervous system, gastrointestinal, pulmonary symptoms or radiographic evidence of metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin. We reported five cases of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasms with bizarre pulmonary symptoms, acute abdomen, neurologic symptoms presenting without gynecological symptoms.

  19. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru


    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  20. CD4~+CD56~+ hematodermic neoplasm in a child

    GUO Xia; LI Qiang; ZHOU Chen-yan


    @@ CD4~+CD56~+ hematodermic neoplasm (HN) is a rare, highly aggressive systemic neoplasm, which had been described under various names including lymphoblastic lymphoma of natural killer (NK) phenotype, blastic NK cell lymphoma (BNK), leukemic lymphoma of immature NK lineage and CD4~+CD56~+ HN. This malignancy is mainly involved in elderly people and usually a rapidly fatal disease, since consistently effective treatments have not yet been developed. It is relatively rare in children.~(1-6) Herein we report a boy with CD4~+CD56~+ HN.

  1. Unicentric Castleman’s Disease Masquerading Pancreatic Neoplasm

    Saurabh Jain


    Full Text Available Castleman’s disease is a rare nonclonal proliferative disorder of the lymph nodes with an unknown etiology. Common locations of Castleman’s disease are mediastinum, neck, axilla, and abdomen. Castleman’s disease of a peripancreatic location masquerading as pancreatic neoplasm is an even rarer entity. On search of published data, we came across about 17 cases published on peripancreatic Castleman’s disease until now. Here we are reporting a case of retropancreatic Castleman's disease masquerading as retroperitoneal neoplasm in a 46-year-old male patient.

  2. The health care experience of patients with cancer during the last year of life: Analysis of the SEER-CAHPS data set.

    Halpern, Michael T; Urato, Matthew P; Kent, Erin E


    Providing high-quality medical care for individuals with cancer during their last year of life involves a range of challenges. An important component of high-quality care during this critical period is ensuring optimal patient satisfaction. The objective of the current study was to assess factors influencing health care ratings among individuals with cancer within 1 year before death. The current study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) data set, a new data resource linking patient-reported information from the CAHPS Medicare Survey with clinical information from the National Cancer Institute's SEER program. The study included 5102 Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer who completed CAHPS between 1998 and 2011 within 1 year before their death. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between patient demographic and insurance characteristics with 9 measures of health care experience. Patients with higher general or mental health status were significantly more likely to indicate excellent experience with nearly all measures examined. Sex, race/ethnicity, and education also were found to be significant predictors for certain ratings. Greater time before death predicted an increased likelihood of higher ratings for health plan and specialist physician. Clinical characteristics were found to have few significant associations with experience of care. Individuals in fee-for-service Medicare plans (vs Medicare Advantage) had a greater likelihood of excellent experience with health plans, getting care quickly, and getting needed care. Among patients with cancer within 1 year before death, experience with health plans, physicians, and medical care were found to be associated with sociodemographic, insurance, and clinical characteristics. These findings provide guidance for the development of programs to improve the experience of care among individuals with

  3. Clinical and Prognostic Factors for Renal Parenchymal, Pelvis, and Ureter Cancers in SEER Registries: Collaborative Stage Data Collection System, Version 2

    Altekruse, Sean F.; Dickie, Lois; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Wu, Manxia; Lee, Richard; Delacroix, Scott


    BACKGROUND The American Joint Committee on Cancer’s (AJCC) 7th edition cancer staging manual reflects recent changes in cancer care practices. This report assesses changes from the AJCC 6th to the AJCC 7th edition stage distributions and the quality of site-specific factors (SSFs). METHODS Incidence data for renal parenchyma and pelvis and ureter cancers from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries were examined, including staging trends during 2004–2010, stage distribution changes between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions, and SSF completeness for cases diagnosed in 2010. RESULTS From 2004 to 2010, the percentage of stage I renal parenchyma cancers increased from 50% to 58%, whereas stage IV and unknown stage cases decreased (18% to 15%, and 10% to 6%, respectively). During this period, the percentage of stage 0a renal pelvis and ureter cancers increased from 21% to 25%, and stage IV and unknown stage tumors decreased (20% to 18%, and 7% to 5%, respectively). Stage distributions under the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were about the same. For renal parenchymal cancers, 71%–90% of cases had known values for 6 required SSFs. For renal pelvis and ureter cancers, 74% of cases were coded as known for SSF1 (WHO/ISUP grade) and 47% as known for SSF2 (depth of renal parenchymal invasion). SSF values were known for larger proportions of cases with reported resections. CONCLUSIONS Stage distributions between the AJCC 6th and 7th editions were similar. SSFs were known for more than two-thirds of cases, providing more detail in the SEER database relevant to prognosis. PMID:25412394

  4. Ascending aortic aneurysm in a patient with mixed gonadal dysgenesis.

    Bakoto, N; Corman, V; Legros, J J


    Cardiovascular and endocrine complications in male or sexually-ambiguous patients carrying a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are rarely discussed in the medical literature. However, young female patients with a diagnosis of Turner's disease usually benefit from regular cardiologic and endocrine follow-up, in accordance with current international guidelines. We report the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with an ambiguous phenotype known to harbor a mixed gonadic 45,X/46,XY type dysgenesis. The patient was admitted to the cardiology ward for investigation and management of cardiac failure secondary to both a biscupid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm. This case report, and the few others, which have been previously reported in the literature, emphasizes the importance of cardiologic and endocrine follow-up in male carriers of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism.

  5. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Embryo Gonadal somatic ...

  6. File list: NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 No description Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  7. File list: NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 No description Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  8. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 No description Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  9. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Embryo Gonadal somatic ...

  10. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Embryo Gonadal somatic ...

  11. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Gonadal_somatic_cells mm9 No description Embryo Gonadal somatic ce...lls ...

  12. A questionnaire study about gonadal shield use of urologists

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar


    Full Text Available Objectives: Our aim is to reflect routines, awareness,and consciousness level of urologists about usage of gonadalshield (GS in Turkey.Materials and methods: Because of this objective aquestionnaire which includes 15 questions was prepared.The questionnaire was delivered to urologists in a TurkishUrology congress. Data derived from 271 urologists byface to face interview were evaluated.Results: Participant were urologists (n=271, consistedof professors (n=33, associate professors (n= 36, assistantprofessors (n= 36, specialists (n=94, and residents(n=81. According to the data obtained from the questionnaires,22% of the participants acquired their first informationabout GS as a medical student, 44% during theirresidency training, and 14% of them had no informationabout GS at all. Besides 64% of them did not read anymedical article about this subject until that time, and 54%them practically hadn’t seen any GS during their urologypractice. In 82% of the hospitals where participants wereworking hadn’t had any GS, and 18% of the urologistshad indicated that GS was available in their hospitals, andthey used them once in a while. Urologists responded favorably(20% or unfavorably (80 % to the question of ‘Doyou find yourself or your colleagues adequately sensitive,and mindful about GS use?Conclusions: Sensitivity and awareness about use ofgonadal shields among Turkish urologists are not at adesired level and for this reason, it is not used widely.The urologists should be informed in urological academicplatforms about gonad protecting devices.Key words: Gonad shield, questionnaire survey, radiation,urologist

  13. Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: III. Pituitary regulation.

    Farthing, M J; Rees, L H; Dawson, A M


    Pituitary regulation of gonadal function was investigated in 39 consecutive men with treated and untreated coeliac disease and in an intestinal disease control group of 19 men with Crohn's disease of similar age and general nutritional status. Basal serum FSH concentration was increased in 10 of the coeliacs (26%) compared to only two of 19 men with Crohn's disease (11%). This abnormality was observed with equal frequency in both treated and untreated coeliacs, and was not associated with oligospermia. Serum LH concentration was increased in eight of 15 untreated coeliacs (53%) with sub-total villous atrophy, an abnormality which unlike the elevation of serum FSH, appears to return towards normal after gluten withdrawal. Serum LH was high in coeliacs despite marked elevation of the free testosterone index. Exaggerated responses of FSH and LH to LHRH were found in 89% and 45% respectively, of coeliacs with sub-total villous atrophy. However, exaggerated responses of LH alone were found more frequently in coeliacs than in men with Crohn's disease (P less than 0.02) and unlike the exaggerated FSH responses, LH responses were closely related to jejunal morphology. Exaggerated responses of FSH and LH in coeliacs were commonly found when basal gonadotrophin concentrations were normal. The occurrence of exaggerated gonadotrophin responses could not be related to plasma concentration of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol or the free testosterone index. Serum prolactin was modestly raised in 25% of untreated and partially treated coeliacs and in the same proportion of men with Crohn's disease. Elevated serum prolactin concentrations never exceeded 809 mU/l and were not associated with impotence or infertility. This study provides further evidence that in men with coeliac disease there is a derangement of pituitary regulation of gonadal function. This would seem to be part of a wider disturbance of central regulatory mechanisms of endocrine function in coeliac

  14. The Continuing Value of Ultrastructural Observation in Central Nervous System Neoplasms in Children

    Na Rae Kim


    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS neoplasms are the second most common childhood malignancy after leukemia and the most common solid organ neoplasm in children. Diagnostic dilemmas with small specimens from CNS neoplasms are often the result of multifactorial etiologies such as frozen or fixation artifact, biopsy size, or lack of knowledge about rare or unfamiliar entities. Since the late 1950s, ultrastructural examination has been used in the diagnosis of CNS neoplasms, though it has largely been replaced by immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic studies. Nowadays, pathologic diagnosis of CNS neoplasms is achieved through intraoperative cytology, light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and molecular cytogenetic results. However, the utility of electron microscopy (EM in the final diagnosis of CNS neoplasms and investigation of its pathogenetic origin remains critical. Here, we reviewed the distinguishing ultrastructural features of pediatric CNS neoplasms and emphasize the continuing value of EM in the diagnosis of CNS neoplasms.

  15. Estudo morfometrico gonadal : condição necessaria a confirmação histologica da disgenesia gonadal parcial

    Marcia Ribeiro Scolfaro


    Resumo: Justificativa: A Disgenesia Gonadal Parcial (DGP) é um distúrbio da diferenciação sexual caracterizado por testículos disgenéticos bilaterais, derivados dos duetos de Müller e criptorquidismo em pacientes com cariótipo 46,XY. Entretanto, os critérios histológicos diagnósticos são pouco utilizados. Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações histológicas das gônadas de crianças com DGP. Casuística e Metodologia: Entre 1996 e 1998, 13 crianças com DGP foram avaliadas em nosso serviço. O diagnóstico...

  16. Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: A diagnostic challenge

    Grant F Hutchins; Peter V Draganov


    Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are increasingly recognized due to the expanding use and improved sensitivity of cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Major advances in the last decade have led to an improved understanding of the various types of cystic lesions and their biologic behavior. Despite significant improvements in imaging technology and the advent of endoscopic-ultrasound (EUS)-guided fineneedle aspiration, the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cystic lesions remains a significant clinical challenge. The first diagnostic step is to differentiate between pancreatic pseudocyst and cystic neoplasm.If a pseudocyst has been effectively excluded, the cornerstone issue is then to determine the malignant potential of the pancreatic cystic neoplasm. In the majority of cases, the correct diagnosis and successful management is based not on a single test but on incorporating data from various sources including patient history, radiologic studies, endoscopic evaluation, and cyst fluid analysis. This review will focus on describing the various types of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, their malignant potential, and will provide the clinician with a comprehensive diagnostic approach.

  17. Pattern of metastatic deposits of malignant neoplasms to the chest ...

    Pattern of metastatic deposits of malignant neoplasms to the chest seen on plain ... chest x-ray (CXR) is a veritable tool in the survey of metastases to the lung. ... from breast, prostate, thyroid and cervix Rare from osteosarcoma and melanoma.

  18. Mucin profile of the pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms

    JI Yuan; XU Jian-fang; KUANG Tian-tao; ZHOU Yan-nan; LU Shao-hua; TAN Yun-shan


    @@ Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas are a distinct entity, account for 1% of pancreatic exocrine tumors. MCNs can be classified histologically as adenomas, borderline tumors, or carcinomas. Because several evidences showing that mucinous cystadenomas are poten- tially malignant and may transform into cystadeno- carcinomas, particularly if treated by drainage, these tumors should be identified accurately.1

  19. Confocal Endomicroscopy Characteristics of Different Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Subtypes.

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Dewitt, John M; Modi, Rohan M; Conwell, Darwin L; Krishna, Somashekar G


    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic subtypes where morphology portends disease prognosis. The study aim was to demonstrate EUS-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes. Four subjects, each with a specific intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtype were enrolled. An EUS-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy miniprobe was utilized for image acquisition. The mean cyst size from the 4 subjects (2 females; mean age = 65.3±12 years) was 36.8±12 mm. All lesions demonstrated mural nodules and focal dilation of the main pancreatic duct. EUS-nCLE demonstrated characteristic finger-like papillae with inner vascular core for all subtypes. The image patterns of the papillae for the gastric, intestinal, and pancreatobiliary subtypes were similar. However, the papillae in the oncocytic subtype were thick and demonstrated a fine scale-like or honeycomb pattern with intraepithelial lumina correlating with histopathology. There was significant overlap in the needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy findings for the different intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm subtypes; however, the oncocytic subtype demonstrated distinct patterns. These findings need to be replicated in larger multicenter studies.

  20. Cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma: a neoplasm with potential pitfalls in diagnosis.

    Mobini, Narciss


    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm. Cutaneous AS is the most common form of AS. The epithelioid variant of the disease, however, is a rare entity. This subset can histologically mimic non-vascular neoplasms and impose serious challenges in reaching the correct diagnosis. We present five patients with cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS); in none, the clinical diagnosis included a vascular lesion. Three patients had history of breast conservation surgery with/without radiation therapy. Other patients had no previous radiation, and there was no lymphedema in any of the cases. The histopathological examination of the biopsy specimens by hematoxylin and eosin method was not suggestive of a malignant vascular neoplasm initially and the differential diagnoses included carcinoma, malignant melanoma and atypical lymphoid infiltrate. Only after performing immunohistochemical studies that included vascular markers, a definitive diagnosis was possible. Some cases showed unusual histopathological features. Cutaneous EAS is a rare variant of cutaneous AS that can mimic a variety of more common, non-vascular neoplasms, creating a major pitfall in the diagnosis. A careful and thorough histopathological examination and a high index of suspicion, along with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation, can help reach a correct diagnosis and provide optimal patient care.

  1. Secondary neoplasms of the larynx from a colonic adenocarcinoma

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer


    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, fol-lowed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx...

  2. Sex Chromosome Mosaicism in the Gonads of DSD Patients: A Karyotype/Phenotype Correlation.

    Kamel, Alaa K; Abd El-Ghany, Hoda M; Mekkawy, Mona K; Makhlouf, Manal M; Mazen, Inas M; El Dessouky, Nabil; Mahmoud, Wael; Abd El Kader, Shereen A


    Sex chromosome mosaicism results in a large clinical spectrum of disorders of sexual development (DSD). The percentage of 45,X cells in the developing gonad plays a major role in sex determination. However, few reports on the gonadal mosaic status have been published, and the phenotype is usually correlated with peripheral lymphocyte karyotypes, which makes the phenotype prediction imprecise. This study was conducted on 7 Egyptian DSD patients to demonstrate the effect of sex chromosome constitution of both blood lymphocytes and gonadal tissues on the phenotypic manifestations. Conventional cytogenetic and FISH analyses of blood lymphocytes were conducted, and laparoscopy with gonadal biopsy was performed for histopathologic examination and FISH analysis. Gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 3 patients who had a non-mosaic chromosome pattern in blood lymphocytes. Two patients showed the same type of sex chromosome mosaicism in both the blood and gonadal tissues but with different distributions. Two other patients revealed a non-mosaic pattern in both tissues. The present study elucidates the importance of examining sex chromosome mosaicism in gonadal tissues of DSD patients and highlights the critical role of 45,X mosaicism which can lead to serious effects during early gonadal organogenesis.

  3. Gonadal status following bone marrow transplantation with low dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide regimen

    Mohsen Khosh niat Nikoo


    Full Text Available Background: Gonadal dysfunction is one of the short and long-term side effects following bone marrow transplantation (BMT. We assessed hypophyseal-gonadal axis after BMT by low dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen (120 mg/kg. Methods: In this cohort study, we evaluated gonadal function in 48 patients (25 pubert males and 23 pubert females. Data were obtained by history, physical examination, LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol (E2, progesterone, testosterone and semen analysis before BMT and in 6 and 12 months of post-BMT. Results: Gonadal axis in 16 male subjects (64% was normal before BMT and remained normal in 6 subjects (37% 12 months post BMT. In another 10 patients (63%, hypogonadism was started in 6 months post BMT. Spermatogenesis failure (31%, low level of testosterone (25% and spermatogenesis failure plus low level of testosterone in 12.5% were found. Gonadal axis in 20 female subjects (87% was normal before BMT, but remained normal only in 10% of subject until the end of the study. Other patients (90% had primary hypogonadism in 6 months of post BMT. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of gonadal dysfunction following BMT in both adult sexes (especially in female patients. Therefore, regular gonadal assessment is recommended following BMT.

  4. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo


    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene expression profiling reveals new potential players of gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo.

    Gwenn-Aël Carré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors

  6. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... ...

  7. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 ...

  8. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 ...

  9. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  10. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 ...

  11. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... ...

  12. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... ...

  13. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms ...

  14. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms ...

  15. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 ...

  16. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 ...

  17. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  18. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  19. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms ...

  20. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  1. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp:// ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms SRX337965 ...

  3. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp:// ...

  4. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp:// ...

  5. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 ...

  6. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Histone Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms h...ttp:// ...

  7. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 TFs and others Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms SRX337965 ...

  8. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Neural Nerve Sheath Neoplasms... ...

  9. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Unclassified Neural Nerve Sheath Neopla...sms ...

  10. File list: ALL.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ...SRX739215,SRX739213,SRX739214,SRX739216,SRX739217 ...

  11. File list: ALL.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ...SRX739213,SRX739215,SRX739214,SRX739216,SRX739217 ...

  12. File list: InP.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms... SRX739213 ...

  13. File list: InP.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms... SRX739213 ...

  14. File list: ALL.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ...SRX739214,SRX739215,SRX739217,SRX739216,SRX739213 ...

  15. File list: InP.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms... SRX739213 ...

  16. File list: DNS.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.20.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms htt...p:// ...

  17. File list: DNS.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.10.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms htt...p:// ...

  18. File list: InP.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms... SRX739213 ...

  19. File list: DNS.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.50.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms htt...p:// ...

  20. File list: DNS.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 DNase-seq Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms htt...p:// ...

  1. File list: ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Prs.05.AllAg.Prostatic_Neoplasms mm9 All antigens Prostate Prostatic Neoplasms ...SRX739215,SRX739213,SRX739214,SRX739216,SRX739217 ...

  2. Final height and gonad function after total body irradiation during childhood.

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Esperou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Lemaire, P; Brauner, R


    Short stature and gonad failure can be a side effect of total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors influencing final height and gonad function after TBI. Fifty young adults given TBI during childhood were included. Twenty-seven had been treated with growth hormone (GH). Those given single 10 Grays (Gy) or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, GH peaks, final heights and gonad function. After the end of GH treatment, 11/20 patients evaluated had GH peak >10 microg/l. Final height was irradiated (Pirradiation, taking into account the GH peak. The plasma FSH and inhibin B concentrations may predict sperm function.

  3. Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome with 46,XX,del(18p)3

    Telvi, L.; Ion, R. [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Bernheim, A. [CNRS, Villejif (France)] [and others


    The authors report a case of a female infant with gonadal dysgenesis, clinical features of Turner syndrome and a de novo del(18p). The factors controlling gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome are unknown to date. The genes involved could be located not only on X chromosome but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on the short arm of chromosome 18. We conclude that patients with del(18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis.

  4. Mucin-hypersecreting bile duct neoplasm characterized by clinicopathological resemblance to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas

    Harimoto Norifumi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is acceptable as a distinct disease entity, the concept of mucin-secreting biliary tumors has not been fully established. Case presentation We describe herein a case of mucin secreting biliary neoplasm. Imaging revealed a cystic lesion 2 cm in diameter at the left lateral segment of the liver. Duodenal endoscopy revealed mucin secretion through an enlarged papilla of Vater. On the cholangiogram, the cystic lesion communicated with bile duct, and large filling defects caused by mucin were observed in the dilated common bile duct. This lesion was diagnosed as a mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. Left and caudate lobectomy of the liver with extrahepatic bile duct resection and reconstruction was performed according to the possibility of the tumor's malignant behavior. Histological examination of the specimen revealed biliary cystic wall was covered by micropapillary neoplastic epithelium with mucin secretion lacking stromal invasion nor ovarian-like stroma. The patient has remained well with no evidence of recurrence for 38 months since her operation. Conclusion It is only recently that the term "intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN," which is accepted as a distinct disease entity of the pancreas, has begun to be used for mucin-secreting bile duct tumor. This case also seemed to be intraductal papillary neoplasm with prominent cystic dilatation of the bile duct.

  5. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.;


    days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...... and in control eels. Otherwise no correlation was found between growth rate and gonadal sex. (C) 1996 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  6. Serum AMH in Physiology and Pathology of Male Gonads

    Ewa Matuszczak


    Full Text Available AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. AMH is also involved in testicular development and function. AMHs are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active SC proliferation. AMH rises rapidly in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at about 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood, falling to low levels in puberty. Basal and FSH-stimulated levels of AMH, might become a useful predictive marker of the spermatogenic response to gonadotropic treatment in young patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After puberty, AMH is released preferentially by the apical pole of the SC towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, resulting in higher concentrations in the seminal plasma than in the serum. Defects in AMH production and insensitivity to AMH due to receptor defects result in the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. A measurable value of AMH in a boy with bilateral cryptorchidism is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or ovaries, as would be the case in girls with female pseudohermaphroditism and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Lower serum AMH concentrations in otherwise healthy boys with cryptorchidism, who were compared with their age-matched counterparts with palpable testes, have been reported previously. AMH levels are higher in prepubertal patients with varicocele than in controls. This altered serum profile of AMH in boys with varicoceles may indicate an early abnormality in the regulation of the seminiferous epithelial function. Serum AMH is known to be valuable in assessing gonadal function. As compared to testing involving the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, the measurement of AMH is more sensitive and equally specific

  7. Pituitary-gonadal function in adult male rats subjected to chronic water restriction.

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Lopez-Calderon, A


    The effect of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis has been studied in adult male rats. Water restriction did not modify FSH, LH and testosterone levels. However, both LH and testosterone responses to acute noise stress were impaired by water restriction. It was unlikely that the inhibition of the pituitary-gonadal response to stress was due to an alteration of the circadian pattern of LH since no evidence for such a daily rhythm was found in either of the two experimental groups. The effects of water restriction on the pituitary-gonadal axis appear to be at least partially a consequence of the resulting reduction in food intake, so that the pituitary-gonadal response to stress would be a more sensitive index of abnormalities induced by protein-calorie deficit than basal concentrations of LH, FSH, or T.

  8. Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function

    I.T. Huhtaniemi; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)


    textabstractThe recent unraveling of structures of genes for the gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptors has provided reproductive endocrinologists with new tools to study normal and pathological functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rare inacti

  9. Mutations of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors: elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of pituitary-gonadal function

    I.T. Huhtaniemi; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)


    textabstractThe recent unraveling of structures of genes for the gonadotropin subunits and gonadotropin receptors has provided reproductive endocrinologists with new tools to study normal and pathological functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rare

  10. Studies on the Functional Relationship between Thyroid, Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    TOHEI, Atsushi


    In order to clarify the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of thiuoracil in adult male and female rats, and the effects...

  11. An increased total resected lymph node count benefits survival following pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms resection: an analysis using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result registry database.

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS and overall survival (OS rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery. STUDY DESIGN: The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize confounding variables between groups. RESULTS: In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result. CONCLUSION: Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement.

  12. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.


    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  13. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides.

    Mita, Masatoshi


    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation. Recently, chemical structures of RGP were identified in several species of starfish. Three kinds of RGP molecules are found in the class Asteroidea. The chemical structure of P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) is conserved among starfish of the order Valvatida beyond species. In contrast, the chemical structures of RGP identified in Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica of the order Forcipulatida are quite different from that of PpeRGP. The chemical structure of RGP in A. amurensis (AamRGP) is exactly the same as that in Asterias rubens (the order Forcipulatida), Astropecten scoparius (the order Paxillosida), Astropecten polyacanthus (the order Paxillosida), and Echinaster luzonicus (the order Spinulosida). The chemical structure of Coscinasterias acutispina RGP (the order Forcipulatida) is consistent with that of A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP). In cross-experiments using P. pectinifera, A. amurensis, and A. japonica ovaries, AamRGP and AjaRGP can induce each species of ovaries. Neither AamRGP nor AjaRGP induce oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary of P. pectinifera, although the PpeRGP is active in ovaries of A. amurensis and A. japonica. This suggests that the AamRGP and AjaRGP partly act species specificity.

  14. Luteinizing hormone promotes gonadal tumorigenesis in inhibin-deficient mice

    Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Agno, Julio E.; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Matzuk, Martin M.


    Summary The inhibins are secreted α:β heterodimers of the TGF-β superfamily that are mainly synthesized in Sertoli cells and granulosa cells, and are critical regulators of testicular and ovarian development and function. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of the inhibin α subunit gene (Inha-/-) develop sex cord-stromal tumors in a gonadotropin-dependent manner. Here, we determine the contribution of LH to gonadal tumorigenesis by generating mice deficient in both inhibins and LH. Inha-/-Lhb-/- mice have increased survival and delayed tumor progression, and these observations correlate with lower serum FSH and estradiol levels compared to Inha-/- controls. Double mutant testicular tumors demonstrate decreased expression of cyclin D2, while double mutant ovarian tumors have elevated expression of p15INK4b and trend toward higher levels of p27Kip1. We conclude that LH is not required for tumor formation in the absence of inhibins but promotes tumor progression, likely through alterations in serum hormone levels and cell cycle regulators. PMID:18657590

  15. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K


    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  16. P450 aromatase expression in the temperature-sensitive sexual differentiation of salamander (Hynobius retardatus) gonads.

    Sakata, Natsuko; Tamori, Yoichiro; Wakahara, Masami


    Sex differentiation of gonads in amphibians is believed to be controlled genetically, but altered epigenetically or environmentally. When larvae of the salamander Hynobius retardatus were reared at defined temperatures from hatching to metamorphic stages, a high temperature (28 degrees C) induced exclusively female gonads (ovaries), whereas intermediate (20 and 23 degrees C) or lower (16 degrees C) temperatures produced a 1:1 sex ratio of the morphological gonads. The thermosensitive period was determined to be restricted from 15 to 30 days after hatching, just before or when sexual differentiation occurred. Hynobius P450 aromatase (P450arom) cDNA was isolated from adult gonads and the partial nucleotide or deduced amino acid sequences were determined, showing a high level of identity with various vertebrate species. The P450arom gene was expressed predominantly in the adult ovary and brain, weakly in testis, but not in other somatic organs. A typical sexual dimorphism in P450arom expression was detected in normally developing larvae by a quantitative competitive RT-PCR; strong expression in the female gonads but very weak in male gonads. The dimorphism was detected much earlier than the morphological sexual differentiation of the gonads. When larvae were reared at the female-producing temperature (28 degrees C), strong expression was detected in all the temperature-treated larvae, suggesting that P450arom was up-regulated, even in genetic males. Our results confirm the importance of the P450arom regulation in the sexual differentiation of gonads and demonstrate that an up-regulation of P450arom is involved in the process of temperature-sensitive sex reversal in this species.

  17. Are sex steroids essential for gonadal differentiation of the ornate frog, Microhyla ornata?

    Mali, P V; Gramapurohit, N P


    Knowledge about sensitivities and responses of amphibian larvae to sex steroids and the chemicals alike is the first step towards understanding and assessing the effect of diverse chemicals that interfere with gonadal development and other endocrine functions. Herein, we used Microhyla ornata to determine the role of sex steroids on its gonad differentiation and sex ratio. Our results show that the exposure to increasing concentrations of estradiol-17β throughout larval development did not affect gonad differentiation resulting in 1:1 sex ratio at metamorphosis. But, females emerging from estradiol-17β treatment had larger ovaries with larger sized follicles. Further, testes of some males contained lumens, the number of which was dose dependent. Similarly, exposure to testosterone propionate had negligible effects on gonad differentiation. However, the mean diameter of the largest follicles was smaller in treated ovaries. Treatment of tadpoles with tamoxifen had no effect on gonad differentiation and ovary development while testicular development was accelerated at the highest concentration. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with cyproterone acetate had little effect on gonad differentiation as well as development, hence the sex ratios at the end of metamorphosis. Further, in tadpoles exposed to increasing concentrations of formestane, gonad differentiation was normal resulting in 1:1 sex ratio. Thus, in M. ornata, both estradiol and testosterone are essential for the development of ovaries and testes respectively but, they are not critical to gonadal differentiation. Hence, the effects of sex steroids and other endocrine disrupting chemicals could be species-specific; different species may have differential sensitivities to such chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and validation of SEER (Seeking, Engaging with and Evaluating Research): a measure of policymakers' capacity to engage with and use research.

    Brennan, Sue E; McKenzie, Joanne E; Turner, Tari; Redman, Sally; Makkar, Steve; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Green, Sally E


    Capacity building strategies are widely used to increase the use of research in policy development. However, a lack of well-validated measures for policy contexts has hampered efforts to identify priorities for capacity building and to evaluate the impact of strategies. We aimed to address this gap by developing SEER (Seeking, Engaging with and Evaluating Research), a self-report measure of individual policymakers' capacity to engage with and use research. We used the SPIRIT Action Framework to identify pertinent domains and guide development of items for measuring each domain. Scales covered (1) individual capacity to use research (confidence in using research, value placed on research, individual perceptions of the value their organisation places on research, supporting tools and systems), (2) actions taken to engage with research and researchers, and (3) use of research to inform policy (extent and type of research use). A sample of policymakers engaged in health policy development provided data to examine scale reliability (internal consistency, test-retest) and validity (relation to measures of similar concepts, relation to a measure of intention to use research, internal structure of the individual capacity scales). Response rates were 55% (150/272 people, 12 agencies) for the validity and internal consistency analyses, and 54% (57/105 people, 9 agencies) for test-retest reliability. The individual capacity scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability (alpha coefficients > 0.7, all four scales) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.7 for three scales and 0.59 for fourth scale). Scores on individual capacity scales converged as predicted with measures of similar concepts (moderate correlations of > 0.4), and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence that the scales measured related but distinct concepts. Items in each of these four scales related as predicted to concepts in the measurement model derived

  19. [Precursors of acute leukemia: myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms].

    Kreipe, H H


    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) represent neoplastic proliferations of hematopoietic stem cells, which may progress to loss of differentiation and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transitions between MDSs and MPNs as well as combinations between both disorders occur and MPNs may acquire dysplastic features combined with cytopenia. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms show dysplastic and myeloproliferative properties and have in common genetic aberrations at the stem cell level (TET2, ASXL 1, CBL, IDH 1, IDH 2, EZH2, p53, Runx1), which may be found in one cell or may affect different hematopoietic stem cells, expanding in parallel. Progress to AML follows a linear clonal evolution only in a subset of cases. Alternatively AML derives from secondary clones, devoid of any marker mutation or originates from a common aberrant progenitor cell which shares other but not the JAK2 ( V617F ) mutation.

  20. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    Woo, Sook-Bin


    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    Heller, Debra S


    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  2. Primary Intracranial Myoepithelial Neoplasm: A Potential Mimic of Meningioma.

    Choy, Bonnie; Pytel, Peter


    Myoepithelial neoplasms were originally described in the salivary glands but their spectrum has been expanding with reports in other locations, including soft tissue. Intracranial cases are exceptionally rare outside the sellar region where they are assumed to be arising from Rathke pouch rests. Two cases of pediatric intracranial myoepithelial neoplasm in the interhemispheric fissure and the right cerebral hemisphere are reported here. Imaging studies suggest that the second case was associated with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Both cases showed typical variation in morphology and immunophenotype between more epithelioid and more mesenchymal features. The differential diagnosis at this particular anatomic location includes meningioma, which can show some overlap in immunophenotype since both tumors express EMA as well as GLUT1. One case was positive for EWSR1 rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. One patient is disease free at last follow-up while the other succumbed to the disease within days illustrating the clinical spectrum of these tumors.

  3. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Jaworski JM


    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  4. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: Epidemiology and prognosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors


    Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence less than 1 per 100,000 persons per year in the general population. PETs that produce hormones resulting in symptoms are designated as functional. The majority of PETs are nonfunctional. Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common, followed by gastrinomas. The clinical course of patients with PETs is variable and depends on the extent of the disease and the treatment rendered. Patients with comple...



    Schwannomas are truly encapsulated neoplasms of the human body and are always solitary. Only 1-2% occur intraorally with tongue being the most common site. A 20yr old male presented with a painless, slow growing swelling on the left side of the tongue for the past 1 year. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done and a benign mesenchymal lesion, possibility of Schwannoma was given. Biopsy of the tumour was performed and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the diagnosis of Sc...

  6. Primary duodenal neoplasms: A retrospective clinico-pathological analysis

    Bal, Amanjit; Joshi, Kusum; Vaiphei, Kim; Wig, JD


    AIM: To analyze the clinico-pathological spectrum of primary duodenal neoplasms. METHODS: A total of 55 primary duodenal neoplasms reported in the last 10 years after excluding ampullary and periampullary tumors were included in the study. Clinical details were noted and routine hematoxylin and eosin stained paraffin sections were studied for histological subtyping of the tumors. RESULTS: On histopathological examination primary duodenal neoplasms were categorized as: epithelial tumor in 27 cases (49.0%) including 10 cases of adenoma, 15 cases of adenocarcinoma, and 2 cases of Brunner gland adenoma; mesenchymal tumor in 9 cases (16.3%) consisting of 4 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 4 cases of smooth muscle tumor and I case of neurofibroma; lymphoproliferative tumor in 12 cases (21.8%), and neuroendocrine tumor in 7 cases (12.7%). CONCLUSION: Although non-ampullary/periampullary duodenal adenocarcinomas are rare, they constitute the largest group. Histopathological examination of primary duodenal tumors is important for correct histological subtyping. PMID:17373748

  7. Primary duodenal neoplasms:A retrospective clinico-pathological analysis

    Amanjit Bal; Kusum Joshi; Kim Vaiphei; JD Wig


    AIM:To analyze the clinico-pathological spectrum of primary duodenal neoplasms.METHODS:A total of 55 primary duodenal neoplasms reported in the last 10 years after excluding ampullary and periampullary tumors were included in the study.Clinical details were noted and routine hematoxylin and eosin stained paraffin sections were studied for histological subtyping of the tumors.RESULTS:On histopathological examination primary duodenal neoplasms were categorized as:epithelial tumor in 27 cases(49.0%)including 10 cases of adenoma,15 cases of adenocarcinoma,and 2 cases of Brunner gland adenoma;mesenchymal tumor in 9 cases (16.3%)consisting of 4 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor,4 cases of smooth muscle tumor and I case of neurofibroma;lymphoproliferative tumor in 12 cases (21.8%),and neuroendocrine tumor in 7 cases(12.7%).CONCLUSION:Although non-ampullary/periampullary duodenal adenocarcinomas are rare,they constitute the largest group.Histopathological examination of primary duodenal tumors is important for correct histological subtyping.




    Full Text Available Thyroid neoplasms represent the most common malignancies of the endocrine system. They are known to occur in association with benign lesions of the thyroid, like multinodular goitre and Hashimoto thyroiditis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the neoplasms of thyroid and their peritumoral morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All thyroidectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, RRMCH over a period of three years from June 2011 to May 2014 were included in the study. Thyro idectomies for non - neoplastic lesions were also extensively sampled and morphologically studied, with focus on peritumoral morphology, in neoplasms. RESULTS : Of the one hundred and fifty four thyroidectomy specimens received over three years, one hundred a nd thirteen (73.4% were non - neoplastic, and forty one were neoplastic (26.6%. Colloid goitre and lymphocytic infiltrate were the most common features in the peritumoral thyroid tissue, followed by multinodular goitre . Hashimoto thyroiditis and Hurthle cell change were noted in 11.5% of cases. Tumors were multicentric in 11.5% of cases. Malignancy was detected in eight of the fifty nine thyroidectomies performed for multinodular goitre . Of the thirty four surgeries for Hashimoto thyroiditis, four were reported as malignant on histopathology. CONCLUSION : All thyroidectomies, including those operated for benign lesions, need to be extensively sampled and morphology studied due to the possibility of occult malignancy. Larger series need to be st udied to find a causal association between the two.

  9. Analysis of stage and clinical/prognostic factors for colon and rectal cancer from SEER registries: AJCC and collaborative stage data collection system.

    Chen, Vivien W; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Charlton, Mary E; Ruiz, Bernardo A; Karlitz, Jordan; Altekruse, Sean F; Ries, Lynn A G; Jessup, J Milburn


    The Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System enables multiple cancer registration programs to document anatomic and molecular pathology features that contribute to the Tumor (T), Node (N), Metastasis (M) - TNM - system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). This article highlights changes in CS for colon and rectal carcinomas as TNM moved from the AJCC 6th to the 7th editions. Data from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries were analyzed for the years 2004-2010, which included 191,361colon and 73,341 rectal carcinomas. Overall, the incidence of colon and rectal cancers declined, with the greatest decrease in stage 0. The AJCC's 7th edition introduction of changes in the subcategorization of T4, N1, and N2 caused shifting within stage groups in 25,577 colon and 10,150 rectal cancers diagnosed in 2010. Several site-specific factors (SSFs) introduced in the 7th edition had interesting findings: 1) approximately 10% of colon and rectal cancers had tumor deposits - about 30%-40% occurred without lymph node metastases, which resulted in 2.5% of colon and 3.3% of rectal cases becoming N1c (stage III A/B) in the AJCC 7th edition; 2) 10% of colon and 12% of rectal cases had circumferential radial margins Cancer Society.

  10. Another Life (1972, de Derek Walcott, ou les lettres du mal-voyant Derek Walcott’s Another Life (1972: Letters of the unfit seer

    Kerry-Jane Wallart


    Full Text Available Although it reads as a major poetical text about painting, Another Life unrelentingly pores over such phenomena as disappearance, blindness, visual fallacy or optical distorsions. The paintings that are presented are either out of focus or else steeped in waxing shadows. One may then have to conceive of poetry as superseding painting, as a genre more able to delineate the contours of this invisible world which is so much the concern of our abstract (postmodernity; the poets who are featured as visionary blind men throughout the text might then know how to withdraw from the world in order to better represent it. The purpose of this article is to show to what extent painting is not described by Derek Walcott as a failure but rather as the means of a poetical incarnation through a gesture of diversion from the visible universe. These verses of an unfit seer quickly veer towards a tribute paid to a genre, painting, which is not so much opposed to poetry as made to echo it through graphics which, in Rimbaldian fashion, take on colours.

  11. [Evaluation of gonadotropic and gonadal secretions in primary abnormalities of the gonads and male pseudohermaphrodism before and after the age of puberty].

    Job, J C; Garnier, P E; Chaussain, J L; Roger, M; Scholler, R; Toublanc, J E; Canlorbe, P


    Blood levels of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) and gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol) have been evaluated in 72 children and adolescents with primary gonadal defects (45 agonadal patients, 7 with asymetrical gonadal dysgenesis, 9 with Klinefelter syndrome, 4 with partial testicular dysgenesis and 7 with partial ovarian dysgenesis) and in 17 cases of male pseudohermaphrodism. A LH-RH test has been performed in most cases, and a testicular stimulation test with chorionic gonadotropin in patients with testicular tissue. Agonadal subjects had increased blood and pituitary releasable gonadotropins: very high in infants and young children, much less from 7 to 11 years, a high spurt being observed at 12 years. This diphasic pattern relates to the varying sensitivity of hypothalamic receptors and suggests that adrenal steroids may restrain gonadotropic secretion at 7-8 years. As a diagnostic tool, the increase of gonadotropins may be missing in the 7-11 years group. In the 1-12 years patients with partially defective gonads, blood and pituitary releasable gonadotropins and blood steroids are usually normal, but testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin may be already blunted. From 13 years the gonadotropic secretion is usually increased, even when testosterone secretion and reserve are within normal range. Most male pseudohermaphrodites showed normal gonadotropic and testicular secretions. But four patients had highly increased responses to LH-RH, suggesting a defect of testicular secretion or of receptors, and demonstrating some heterogeneity in the male pseudohermaphrodism group.

  12. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz


    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  13. Seasonal Variation of the Glycogen Enzyme Activity in Diploid and Triploid Pacific Oyster Gonad During Sexual Maturation


    The glycogen content and the activities of two key enzymes in glycogen metabolism, glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthetase, in the gonad of diploid and triploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were compared during maturation. The glycogen content in the gonad of diploids decreased with gametogenesis (by 85.7%), but the glycogen content in the gonad of triploids did not vary significantly. Activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in the gonad of diploids decreased with gametogenesis (by 55.5%), while GP activity of triploids did not vary significantly during maturation. Activity of glycogen synthetase (GS) in the gonad of diploids increased slightly with gametogenesis, reaching a peak in June. Activity of GS declined sharply from June to July, which might be due to gonad spawning. GS activity of triploid oysters in spawning time (July and August) was significantly higher than that

  14. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Utility of Gonad Shielding in Pediatrics Undergoing Pelvic X-Ray

    Vahid Karami


    Full Text Available Background: Gonad shielding has been recommended during pelvic x-rays since the 1950s. The popular method of gonad shielding is placement a lead shield in the midline of the pelvis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and utility of gonad shielding in pediatrics undergoing pelvic x-rays.Materials and MethodsFollowing study approval, we retrospectively retrieved data from the digital image library of ten radiology depertments of Khuzestan provience-Iran to identify pediatric patients who underwent pelvic x-ray (anteriorposterior [AP] view. All the images were reviewed for the probable evidence of gonad shield. If there was evidence of shielding, the accuracy positioning of the shield was also investigated by a single assistant radiologist.ResultsIn all 1745 pelvic x-rays (942 girls and 803 boys were identified of which the shield was present in 51 (5.41% radiographs of girls and 132 (16.43% radiographs of boys. When a shield was present; the shields has adequate positioning only in 8 (15.68% radiographs in girls and 59 radiographs in boys. Inaccurate placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than the boys. Due to the shield has concealed the anatomical criteria of the pelvis, retakes of the examination was required in 11 (21.56% radiographs of girls and 14 (10.6% radiographs of boys.ConclusionThe current methods of gonad shielding in girls pelvic x-ray was not effective nor is justifiable. We  no longer advocate of gonad shielding during girls pelvic x-ray. However in boys it is controversial and depends on the skill and effort of radiographers.

  15. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis: a syndrome of broad clinical, cytogenetic and histopathologic spectrum.

    Alvarez-Nava, F; Gonzalez, S; Soto, S; Pineda, L; Morales-Machin, A


    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is an abnormality of sexual differentiation (ASD), which encompasses an heterogeneous group of different gonadal and phenotypic abnormalities. This study describes the main clinical features found in 16 patients with MGD, relating the clinical presentation with cytogenetic evaluation and histopathological findings. For purpose of this study, MGD was considered in those patients who fulfilled the following diagnostic criteria: 1) müllerian and/or wolfflan derivatives; 2) any of the following gonadal characteristics: a) bilateral intrabdominal or scrotal immature testicular tissue; b) intrabdominal or scrotal immature testicular tissue with contralateral streak gonad. Patients were selected from an ASD study which was carried out in Medical Genetic Unit of University of Zulia (UGM-LUZ), Maracaibo, Venezuela, from 1980 to 1997. The following information was extracted from the medical history at UGM-LUZ: age, gender which patient was reared, clinical presentation, cytogenetic evaluation, laparoscopic findings and gonadal biopsy. Sixteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria and ranged in age from 1.2 to 39.4 years with an average of 12.65 years. Only 5 patients were reared as males. Twelve patients consulted for genital ambiguity. Chromosomal evaluation was as following: 8 patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: 5 had a 46,XY normal male karyotype and the remaining patients: 46,XX; 46,XX/46,XY and 45,X/46,Xi(Xq) karyotypes, respectively. All patients showed müllerian derivatives and occasionally wolffian derivatives. Gonadal tumors were present in 2 patients. Molecular studies of genes that govern gonadal development are necessary for a better understanding of the wide heterogeneity present in MGD.

  16. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy


    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  17. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia


    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads.

  18. Gonadoblastoma and selected other aspects of gonadal pathology in young patients with disorders of sex development.

    Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H


    Some patients with disorders of sex development (DSDs), previously known as intersex disorders, have abnormal gonadal development and an increased risk of germ cell tumors. Because of their relative rarity, however, many pathologists are unfamiliar with the morphological findings in the gonads of DSD patients and their clinical significance. This review concentrates on some of the most common DSDs where gonadal specimens may come to the attention of pathologists. It highlights the findings in gonadal dysgenesis, a DSD with a spectrum of clinical, pathologic, and molecular features but with the shared attributes of having both Y chromosomal material (even if in very limited amounts) in the gonad and also having mutations or deletions in genes necessary for normal gonadal development, mostly in those upstream of the SOX9 gene. This situation results in testicular tissue lacking normal Sertoli cells, which are now considered an essential element for the normal maturation of the primordial germ cells that migrate to the gonad from the embryonic yolk sac. Germ cells with delayed maturation mimic neoplastic germ cells, but there are both morphological and immunohistochemical differences. If the gonad having germ cells with delayed maturation also harbors the TSPY gene on the GBY locus of the Y chromosome, the cells may undergo neoplastic transformation and result in the distinctive gonadoblastoma, whose pathologic features are explored at length herein, including its potential for variant morphologies, such as a "dissecting" pattern. Another important DSD, the androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), is discussed at length, including the varied appearances of the testis and its distinctive lesions-hamartomas and Sertoli cell adenomas. The potential for germ cell neoplasia in the partial AIS is also discussed and contrasted with that of the complete AIS. A third major topic is ovotesticular DSD (true hermaphroditism). The clinical features and morphology of this condition

  19. Novel Heterozygous Genetic Variants in Patients with 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis.

    Chauhan, Vasundhera; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Jain, Vandana; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Dada, Rima


    46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD) constitutes a rare group of disorders characterized by the presence of dysfunctional testes in genotypic males. The molecular etiology is not known in about 2 thirds of instances. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause in patients with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Based on clinical, cytogenetic, and biochemical screening, 10 patients with 46,XY GD were recruited. Direct sequencing of SRY, NR5A1, SOX9, DAX1, DHH, DMRT1 genes was carried out for molecular analysis. Among 10 patients, 5 were diagnosed with complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD), 3 with partial gonadal dysgenesis (PGD), and 3 with testicular agenesis. Molecular analysis revealed 12 heterozygous genetic changes, 4 of which were novel. One (c.416T>A) was observed in evolutionary conserved region of DMRT1 gene in a patient with CGD and was found to be probably damaging on in silico analysis. Other 3 were identified in NR5A1 gene (c.990+22 C>A, c.1387+1403T>A and p.131P), but their association with gonadal dysgenesis is not evident from our study. These genetic changes were absent in parents and 50 healthy control samples, which were also studied. With targeted sequencing approach, a molecular diagnosis was made in only one patient with 46,XY GD. The application of new genomic technologies is required for the precise evaluation of these rare genetic defects.

  20. Studies on the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones.

    Tohei, Atsushi


    In order to clarify the functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of thiuoracil in adult male and female rats, and the effects of hypothyroidism on the adrenal and the gonadal axes were investigated in the present study. 1. The functional relationship between thyroid and adrenal hormones: Adrenal weights and corticosterone were lowered, whereas the secretion of ACTH, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) increased in hypothyroid rats compared to euthyroid rats. These results indicate that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of CRH and AVP from the hypothalamus. 2. The functional relationship between thyroid and gonadal hormones: The pituitary response to LHRH was lowered, whereas the testicular response to hCG was not changed in hypothyroid rats. Hypothyroidism suppressed copulatory behavior in male rats. These results suggest that hypothyroidism probably causes dysfunction in gonadal axis at the hypothalamic-pituitary level in male rats. In adult female rats, hypothyroidism inhibited the follicular development accompanied estradiol secretion, whereas plasma concentrations of progesterone and prolactin (PRL) increased in hypothyroid female rats. Hypothyroidism significantly increased the pituitary content of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) though it did not affect dopamine synthesis. These results suggest that hypothyroidism increases pituitary content of VIP and this increased level of VIP likely affects PRL secretion in a paracrine or autocrine manner. In female rats, inhibition of gonadal function in hypothyroid rats mediated by hyperprolactinemia in addition to hypersecretion of endogenous CRH.

  1. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

    Orff HJ


    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  2. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E


    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency...... findings. 55 patients underwent VCE as the third procedure after negative bidirectional endoscopy. The lesions were single in 89.5% of cases, and multiple in 10.5%. Retention of the capsule occurred in 9.8% of patients with small-bowel tumors. After VCE, 54/124 patients underwent 57 other examinations...

  3. [Celiac disease as a risk factor for digestive neoplasms].

    Maurano, A; Cirillo, L C; Noviello, A; Fabbrocini, P; Valente, T


    Coeliac disease is a primary malabsorption syndrome, whose gastrointestinal symptomatology regresses following a gluten-free diet. Several authors report an increased incidence of intestinal lymphoma in patients with longstanding coeliac disease; on the other hand the association of this malabsorption syndrome with malignant tumors of the esophagus, stomach or large bowel is not very common. The authors describe three cases of coeliac disease complicated after 5, 12 and 18 years by neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach and small bowel. It is stressed that in this disease patients must be monitored with periodic radiologic examinations, in the hope of detecting any malignancy at an early and perhaps treatable stage.

  4. Serum hyaluronic acid in patients with disseminated neoplasm.

    Manley, G.; Warren, C


    Hyaluronic acid concentrations were measured by a laser nephelometric assay in serum samples from 50 patients with advanced disseminated neoplasm and 50 healthy controls matched for age and sex. The identity of hyaluronic acid was confirmed by a combination of electrophoretic and enzymatic techniques. The mean serum hyaluronic acid concentration for the control group was 1.09 mg/l, with a range of 0-4 mg/l. The mean concentration for patients with neoplastic disease was 10.38 mg/l, with a ran...

  5. Cellular schwannoma: a benign neoplasm sometimes overdiagnosed as sarcoma

    Alberghini, M. [Dept. of Surgical Pathology, Rizzoli Institute, Bologna (Italy); Anatomia Patologica, Istituto Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Zanella, L.; Bacchini, P.; Bertoni, F. [Dept. of Surgical Pathology, Rizzoli Institute, Bologna (Italy)


    A case of cellular schwannoma originating in the left lumbar paraspinal region is described. The diagnosis was originally made on needle biopsy material. The histological examination is usually not sufficient to correctly diagnose this benign neoplasm. Bone erosion, neurological symptoms, caused by compression of the spinal roots, together with hypercellularity, pleomorphism and an occasional increase in mitotic activity, may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of malignancy. Immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural analysis are helpful in confirming the diagnosis. The recognition of this entity avoids unnecessary overtreatment of these patients. (orig.)

  6. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;


    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including....... An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine....

  7. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, IPMN].

    Sirén, Jukka


    With the development and increasing use of imaging techniques, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is being detected with increasing frequency. Two forms of the disease are distinguished, the rare main duct form and the common accessory pancreatic duct form. The former often progresses to malignancy, the latter only seldom. The mixed form of IPMN exhibits features of both forms. In main duct IPMN, mucin production obstructs the pancreatic duct causing its dilatation and often symptoms typical of chronic pancreatitis. Main duct IPMN is always an indication for surgery, whereas monitoring is often sufficient for side duct IPMN.

  8. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe


    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980...... and 2007. RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome (5-year survival rate, 18.1% ± 2.9%, 31.1% ± 6.2%, and 18.3% ± 3.8%, respectively). Five-year survival...

  9. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs. METHODS: We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance. RESULTS: S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal

  10. Unusual Presentation of Hypothyroidism in a Pregnant Woman, Mimicking Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Karisani, Narmin; Mazloomi, Maryam; Rahimi, Maryam


    .... We report a woman who experienced an incomplete abortion and undiagnosed hypothyroidism who was referred to the oncologist with the suspicion of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN...

  11. Mammaglobin-A immunohistochemistry in primary central nervous system neoplasms and intracranial metastatic breast carcinoma.

    Cimino, Patrick J; Perrin, Richard J


    Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishing primary CNS neoplasms from metastatic breast carcinoma is unknown; the reactivity of MGA in primary and metastatic CNS neoplasms has never been described. Here, we describe the frequency and patterns of IHC reactivity for MGA in metastatic and primary CNS neoplasms from patients with well-documented histories of breast carcinoma. Following a published protocol previously applied to non-CNS neoplasms, MGA staining of moderate to strong intensity within 5% or more of a neoplasm was considered positive. On the basis of these criteria, 3 of 12 (25.0%) glioblastomas, 1 of 10 (10.0%) meningiomas, and 47 of 95 (49.5%) metastases were positive. Importantly, the cytoarchitectural staining characteristics among all 4 MGA-positive primary CNS neoplasms (cytoplasmic and nuclear) differed from those of the metastases (cytoplasmic and membranous). These findings suggest that MGA IHC staining intensity and distribution can distinguish metastases from primary CNS neoplasms (P=0.0086) in women with a history of breast carcinoma but also indicate that cytologic staining patterns must be interpreted for more accurate tumor classification.

  12. Current perspectives on pancreatic serous cystic neoplasms: Diagnosis, management and beyond

    Xiao-Peng Zhang; Zhong-Xun Yu; Yu-Pei Zhao; Meng-Hua Dai


    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms have been increasingly recognized recently. Comprising about 16% of all resected pancreatic cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms are uncommon benign lesions that are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. Despite overall low risk of malignancy, these pancreatic cysts still generate anxiety, leading to intensive medical investigations with considerable financial cost to health care systems. This review discusses the general background of serous cystic neoplasms, including epidemiology and clinical characteristics, and provides an updated overview of diagnostic approaches based on clinical features, relevant imaging studies and new findings that are being discovered pertaining to diagnostic evaluation. We also concisely discuss and propose management strategies for better quality of life.

  13. Assessment of survival of patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma after radical cytoreductive nephrectomy versus no surgery: a SEER analysis

    Wen-Jun Xiao


    Full Text Available Purposes To examine the factors related to the choice of cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC, and compare the population-based survival rates of patients treated with or without surgery in the modern targeted therapy era. Materials and Methods From 2006 to 2009, patients with mCCRCC were identified from SEER database. The factors that affected patients to be submitted to CN were examined and propensity scores for each patient were calculated. Then patients were matched based upon propensity scores. Univariable and multivariable cox regression models were used to compare survival rates of patients treated with or without surgery. Finally, sensitivity analysis for the cox model on a hazard ratio scale was performed. Results Age, race, tumor size, T stage and N stage were associated with nephrectomy univariablely. After the match based upon propensity scores, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific survival rate estimates were 45.1%, 27.9%, and 21.7% for the no-surgery group vs 70.6%, 52.2%, and 41.7% for the surgery group, respectively (hazard ratio 0.42, 95%CI: 0.35-0.52, log-rank P<0.001. In multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model, race, T stage, N stage and median household income were significantly associated with survival. Sensitivity analysis on a hazard ratio scale indicated that the hazard ratio might be above 1.00 only when the unknown factor had an opposite effect on survival which was 3-fold than CN. Conclusion The results of our study showed that CN significantly improves the survival of patients with metastatic CCRCC even in the targeted therapy era.

  14. Does Breast Cancer Drive the Building of Survival Probability Models among States? An Assessment of Goodness of Fit for Patient Data from SEER Registries

    Khan, Hafiz; Saxena, Anshul; Perisetti, Abhilash; Rafiq, Aamrin; Gabbidon, Kemesha; Mende, Sarah; Lyuksyutova, Maria; Quesada, Kandi; Blakely, Summre; Torres, Tiffany; Afesse, Mahlet


    Background: Breast cancer is a worldwide public health concern and is the most prevalent type of cancer in women in the United States. This study concerned the best fit of statistical probability models on the basis of survival times for nine state cancer registries: California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Michigan, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. Materials and Methods: A probability random sampling method was applied to select and extract records of 2,000 breast cancer patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database for each of the nine state cancer registries used in this study. EasyFit software was utilized to identify the best probability models by using goodness of fit tests, and to estimate parameters for various statistical probability distributions that fit survival data. Results: Statistical analysis for the summary of statistics is reported for each of the states for the years 1973 to 2012. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi-squared goodness of fit test values were used for survival data, the highest values of goodness of fit statistics being considered indicative of the best fit survival model for each state. Conclusions: It was found that California, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, New Mexico, and Washington followed the Burr probability distribution, while the Dagum probability distribution gave the best fit for Michigan and Utah, and Hawaii followed the Gamma probability distribution. These findings highlight differences between states through selected sociodemographic variables and also demonstrate probability modeling differences in breast cancer survival times. The results of this study can be used to guide healthcare providers and researchers for further investigations into social and environmental factors in order to reduce the occurrence of and mortality due to breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  15. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N


    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility.

  16. The large Maf factor Traffic Jam controls gonad morphogenesis in Drosophila.

    Li, Michelle A; Alls, Jeffrey D; Avancini, Rita M; Koo, Karen; Godt, Dorothea


    Interactions between somatic and germline cells are critical for the normal development of egg and sperm. Here we show that the gene traffic jam (tj) produces a soma-specific factor that controls gonad morphogenesis and is required for female and male fertility. tj encodes the only large Maf factor in Drosophila melanogaster, an orthologue of the atypical basic Leu zipper transcription factors c-Maf and MafB/Kreisler in vertebrates. Expression of tj occurs in somatic gonadal cells that are in direct contact with germline cells throughout development. In tj mutant gonads, somatic cells fail to inter-mingle and properly envelop germline cells, causing an early block in germ cell differentiation. In addition, tj mutant somatic cells show an increase in the level of expression for several adhesion molecules. We propose that tj is a critical modulator of the adhesive properties of somatic cells, facilitating germline-soma interactions that are essential for germ cell differentiation.

  17. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis in 45,X Turner syndrome with SRY gene.

    Jung, Jae Yeop; Yang, Sohyoung; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Ho-Chang; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Heon-Seok; Yi, Kyung Hee


    Turner syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder in girls. Various phenotypic features show depending upon karyotype from normal female through ambiguous genitalia to male. Usually, Turner girls containing 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, or sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene may have mixed gonadal dysgenesis with various external sexual differentiation. We experienced a short statured 45,X Turner girl with normal external genitalia. Because SRY gene was positive, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. The dysgenetic gonads revealed bilateral ovotesticular tissues. The authors report a mixed gonadal dysgenesis case found in clinical 45,X Turner patient with positive SRY gene. Screening for SRY gene should be done even the karyotype is 45,X monosomy and external genitalia is normal.

  18. Natural background radiation and estimation of gonadal dose rate of population of Chittagong region

    Mostofa, M.N.; Ahmed, J.U. (Chittagong Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics); Ahmed, R.; Ishaque, A.M. (Nuclear Medicine Center, Chittagong (Bangladesh)); Ahmed, K. (Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dacca (Bangladesh))


    A survey was made on the background radiation to estimate the gonadal dose rate in the district of Chittagong from the year 1978 to 80. This was done with the help of a calibrated Nuclear Chicago transistorized survey meter. The measurements were made in different types of dwellings and occupational buildings constructed with wood, straw/bamboo, tin/bamboo, tin/brick and single and multistoried buildings of brick and concrete. For measurement of outdoor radiation the investigating areas taken were the roads, fields and the Karnafuly river. The variation in the population dose rate as well as gonadal dose rate were observed in different types of dwellings and occupational buildings including outdoors. The average population dose rate including cosmic ray intensity was found to be 172.41+-8.61 mrad/year. Thus, the annual gonadal dose rate due to gamma radiation was found to be 137.92+-6.89 mrad/year.

  19. Radiation dose reduction to the male gonads during MDCT: the effectiveness of a lead shield.

    Hohl, Christian; Mahnken, Andreas H; Klotz, Ernst; Das, Marco; Stargardt, Achim; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Schmidt, Thorsten; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E


    Our study was designed to quantify the effect of a standard gonad shield on the testicular radiation exposure due to scatter during routine abdominopelvic MDCT. Routine abdominopelvic MDCT was performed in 34 patients with gonadal lead shielding and 32 patients without this shielding; the testes were not exposed to the direct beam during the examination. We estimated the testicular dose administered with thermoluminescent dosimetry, taking into account each patient's body weight and body mass index (BMI). With a 1-mm lead shield, the mean testicular dose was reduced from 2.40 to 0.32 mSv, a reduction of 87%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p Shielding the male gonads reduces the testicular radiation dose during abdominopelvic MDCT significantly and can be recommended for routine use.

  20. Proteomic dataset of Paracentrotus lividus gonads of different sexes and at different maturation stages

    Stefania Ghisaura


    Full Text Available We report the proteomic dataset of gonads from wild Paracentrotus lividus related to the research article entitled “Proteomic changes occurring along gonad maturation in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus” [1]. Gonads of three individuals per sex in the recovery, pre-mature, mature, and spent stages were analyzed using a shotgun proteomics approach based on filter-aided sample preparation followed by tandem mass spectrometry, protein identification carried out using Sequest-HT as the search engine within the Proteome Discoverer informatics platform, and label-free differential analysis. The dataset has been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD004200.

  1. Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and pathological gonadal development

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Graem, N


    The ontogeny of expression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was examined by immunohistochemistry in 135 human gonadal tissue specimens of various developmental age, ranging from 6 weeks of fetal development to 38 yr of postnatal age. The series included specimens from normal testes and ovaries...... and from individuals either with pathological conditions affecting gonadal development or with idiopathic infertility manifested as azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. AMH expression was found only in Sertoli and granulosa cells. A 6-week-old fetal testis at the indifferent gonad stage did not yet...... express AMH. The protein was first visible at 8.5 weeks of development, when sex cords have not yet been formed. Afterward, a majority of testicular specimens, including those from pathological conditions, strongly expressed AMH through fetal development and childhood until puberty. Markedly prolonged...

  2. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er (Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  3. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P


    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  4. Isolation and characterization of sexual dimorphism genes expressed in chicken embryonic gonads

    Yanping Feng; Xiuli Peng; Shijun Li; Yanzhang Gong


    In chicken, the bipotential embryonic gonad differen-tiates into either a pair of testes or an ovary, but few genes that underlying the gonadal sex differentiation have been identified and the sex-determination gene is still unknown. To identify more genes involved in chicken sex differentiation, we employed suppression subtractive hybridization to isolate differentially expressed genes between sexes from chicken gonads during a period of E3.5-E6. A total of 152 cDNA clones corresponding to 88 genes (41 from F-M library and 47 from M-F library) were screened using dot-blot analysis. These genes are located mainly on the macro-chromosomes (1-5) with five in the sex chromosomes (one in W and four in Z), encoding four dominating molecular categories belonging to enzyme, DNA associ-ation, RNA association, and structural protein.Comparing the obtained cDNA sequences with those in chicken EST database, it showed that cDNAs of 32genes from F-M library and 16 from M-F library have homologs in two reported embryonic gonad cDNA libraries. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of eight genes involved in epigenetic and transcription regu-lation showed significantly different expression between sexes of CDK2API, SMARCEI, SAPIS, SUDS3, and PQBPI appeared at the early stage in gonad develop-ment (E4). Based on the functional comparison of sexual differentially expressed genes, the roles of some putatively important genes including ATP5AIW,CDK2AP1, mitochondrial transcripts, etc. have been analyzed. In conclusion, characterization of isolated genes would provide valuable clues to identify potential candidates involved in genetic mechanisms of chicken sex differentiation and gonad development.

  5. Emerging tumor entities and variants of CNS neoplasms.

    Cenacchi, Giovanna; Giangaspero, Felice


    Since the appearance in 2000 of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms, numerous descriptions of new entities or variants have appeared in the literature. In the group of neuronal and mixed glioneuronal neoplasms are lesions with distinctive morphological features that are still not included in a precise classification, including extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosette-forming glioneuronal of the fourth ventricle, glioneuronal with neuropil-like rosette, and DNT-like tumor of the septum pellucidum. The glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like rosette and oligodendroglioma with neurocytic differentiation represent morphological variants of genetically proven diffuse gliomas. The lipoastrocytoma and the pilomixoid astrocytoma enlarge the group of astrocytic lesions. Rare, low-grade gliomas of the spinal cord with extensive leptomeningeal dissemination associated with unusual neuroimaging are described. The chordoid glioma of the third ventricle and the papillary tumor of the pineal region seem to be correlated by a common histogenesis from the specialized ependyma of the subcommissural organ. An embryonal tumor with neuropil and true rosettes combining features of neuroblastoma and ependymoblastoma is discussed. These new, recently described lesions indicate that the complex morphologic spectrum of CNS tumors is far from being completely delineated.

  6. Frequency of heterozygous TET2 deletions in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Joseph Tripodi


    Full Text Available Joseph Tripodi1, Ronald Hoffman1, Vesna Najfeld2, Rona Weinberg31The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine and 2Department of Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Cellular Therapy Laboratory, The New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The Philadelphia chromosome (Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with overlapping clinical and cytogenetic features and a variable tendency to evolve into acute leukemia. These diseases not only share overlapping chromosomal abnormalities but also a number of acquired somatic mutations. Recently, mutations in a putative tumor suppressor gene, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2 on chromosome 4q24 have been identified in 12% of patients with MPN. Additionally 4q24 chromosomal rearrangements in MPN, including TET2 deletions, have also been observed using conventional cytogenetics. The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of genomic TET2 rearrangements in MPN using fluorescence in situ hybridization as a more sensitive method for screening and identifying genomic deletions. Among 146 MPN patients, we identified two patients (1.4% who showed a common 4q24 deletion, including TET2. Our observations also indicated that the frequency of TET2 deletion is increased in patients with an abnormal karyotype (5%.Keywords: TET2, myeloproliferative neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics

  7. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira


    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  8. [Contemporary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the female genital organs].

    Kuc-Rajca, Małgorzata; Dańska-Bidzińska, Anna


    Neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare and heterogeneous group of diseases that account for only 2% of all gynecologic malignancies. The most common types are ovarian carcinoid tumor and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix. The tumors are staged according to FIGO clinical staging system. The diagnosis is usually made retrospectively after obtaining the results of histopathological evaluation of the primary tumor They rarely cause syndromes related to hormone overexpression. Neuroendocrine neoplasms are characterized by aggressive behaviour Even at an early stage there is high incidence of nodal and distant metastases. Survival is poor regardless of stage at diagnosis. The most important is to diagnose the neuroendocrine tumor accurately and treat it in multimodal, aggressive approach to control the disease better and reduce the incidence of reccurences. Apart from typical therapeutic approach, treatment may encompass isotope therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. This method should be reserved for patients with expression of somatostatin receptors detected by the somatostatin receptor scyntygraphy. Data concerning the management of neuroendocrin tumors are based mainly on retrospective studies and clinical case series. Lack of randomized trials makes it impossible to select the best treatment option. Better understanding of the biology of neuroendocrine tumors, especially the molecular genetics, will in the future help to determine the optimal treatment strategies for these tumors.

  9. [Cytopathological alterations and risk factors for uterine cervical neoplasm].

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Prates, Letícia; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa


    The aim of the present study was to verify the occurrence of citopathological alterations and risk factors of Uterine Cervical Neoplasm in women attended by SUS--the Public Healthcare System--in a district situated in the North of Paraná State, Brazil from 2001 to 2006. It was a descriptive transversal observational study. The data collection consisted in collection of test results from medical records and interviews. It was achieved 6.356 tests and, 1.02% (65) of the women examined presented alterations. From the tests made 4.869 (70,8%) were from women aged between 25 and 59 years. And 38,5% of the tests presented Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasm (CIN) I, 32,3% CIN II, 18,5% CIN I and Human Papiloma Virus (HPV). It was interviewed 25 women from the total sample. Most of them presented a risk factor as: smoking habits, sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptive, number of sexual partners, early sexual intercourse. This study concludes that is required educative and more effective actions in order to reduce the alterations, meanly among teenagers.

  10. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal neoplasms: A review

    Sakamoto, Taku; Mori, Genki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kinjo, Yuzuru; So, Eriko; Abe, Seiichiro; Otake, Yosuke; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka


    The introduction of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has expanded the application of endoscopic treatment, which can be used for lesions with a low metastatic potential regardless of their size. ESD has the advantage of achieving en bloc resection with a lower local recurrence rate compared with that of piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection. Moreover, in the past, surgery was indicated in patients with large lesions spreading to almost the entire circumference of the rectum, regardless of the depth of invasion, as endoscopic resection of these lesions was technically difficult. Therefore, a prime benefit of ESD is significant improvement in the quality of life for patients who have large rectal lesions. On the other hand, ESD is not as widely applied in the treatment of colorectal neoplasms as it is in gastric cancers owing to the associated technical difficulty, longer procedural duration, and increased risk of perforation. To diversify the available endoscopic treatment strategies for superficial colorectal neoplasms, endoscopists performing ESD need to recognize its indications, the technical issues involved in its application, and the associated complications. This review outlines the methods and type of devices used for colorectal ESD, and the training required by endoscopists to perform this procedure. PMID:25473168



    This article reports a method for examining the intracellular structure of fish gonads using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The specimen preparation procedure is similar to that for transmission electron microscopy wherein samples cut into semi-thin sections are fixed and embedded in plastic. The embedment matrix was removed by solvents. Risen-free specimens could be observed by SEM. The morphology of matured sperms in the gonad was very clear, and the oocyte internal structures appeared in three-dimensional images. Spheroidal nucleoli and yolk vesicles and several bundles of filaments adhered on the nucleoli could be viewed by SEM for the first time.

  12. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis: A plus for assisted reproduction

    M Aziken


    Full Text Available Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  13. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A


    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  14. Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis:A plus for assisted reproduction

    Aziken M; Osaikhuwuomwan J; Osemwenkha A; Iribhogbe O; Orhue A


    Gonadal dysgenesis represents a congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system, with its main gynaecologic manifestations being amenorrhea and infertility. We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ‘about to be’ married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART) was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life.

  15. What does determine gonad weight in the wild kissing bug Mepraia spinolai

    Carezza Botto-Mahan


    Full Text Available Female fecundity increases with body size in a variety of insects, but it is unknown if this generalization applies for kissing bugs. In this study, we evaluate whether gonad weight in the bloodsucking insect Mepraia spinolai correlates with body size, or determined by nutrition or developmental time. We found that the investment on reproductive tissue correlates positively and significantly with body size and with the amount of ingested blood by female insects along their lifespan. Total molting time did not significantly affect gonad weight. We suggest that under optimal feeding conditions M. spinolai females could express their maximum reproductive potential.

  16. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil


    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset of xenoestro...

  17. Pathologic evaluation and reporting of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and other tumoral intraepithelial neoplasms of pancreatobiliary tract: Recommendations of verona consensus meeting

    V. Adsay (Volkan); M. Mino-Kenudson (Mari); T. Furukawa (Toru); O. Basturk (Olca); G. Zamboni (Giuseppe); G. Marchegiani (Giovanni); C. Bassi (Claudio); R. Salvia (Roberto); G. Malleo (Giuseppe); S. Paiella (Salvatore); C.L. Wolfgang (Christopher L.); H. Matthaei (Hanno); G.J.A. Offerhaus; I.M. Adham; M.J. Bruno (Marco); M.D. Reid (Michelle D.); A. Krasinskas (Alyssa); G. Kloppel (Günter); N. Ohike (Nobuyuki); T. Tajiri (Takuma); K.-T. Jang (Kee-Taek); J.C. Roa (Juan Carlos); P.J. Allen (Peter J.); C. Fernández-Del Castillo (Carlos); J.-Y. Jang (Jin-Young); D.S. Klimstra (David); R.H. Hruban (Ralph)


    textabstractBackground: There are no established guidelines for pathologic diagnosis/reporting of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Design: An international multidisciplinary group, brought together by the Verona Pancreas Group in Italy-2013, was tasked to devise recommendations. Res

  18. Pathologic evaluation and reporting of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and other tumoral intraepithelial neoplasms of pancreatobiliary tract : Recommendations of verona consensus meeting

    Adsay, Volkan; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Furukawa, Toru; Basturk, Olca; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Bassi, Claudio; Salvia, Roberto; Malleo, Giuseppe; Paiella, Salvatore; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Matthaei, Hanno; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Adham, Mustapha; Bruno, Marco J.; Reid, Michelle D.; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Klöppel, Günter; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Tajiri, Takuma; Jang, Kee Taek; Roa, Juan Carlos; Allen, Peter; Fernández-Del Castillo, Carlos; Jang, Jin Young; Klimstra, David S.; Hruban, Ralph H.


    Background: There are no established guidelines for pathologic diagnosis/reporting of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Design: An international multidisciplinary group, brought together by the Verona Pancreas Group in Italy-2013, was tasked to devise recommendations. Results: (1) Cr

  19. Revisiting the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Registry and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) Linked Data Resource for Patient-Reported Outcomes Research in Older Adults with Cancer.

    Kent, Erin E; Malinoff, Rochelle; Rozjabek, Heather M; Ambs, Anita; Clauser, Steven B; Topor, Marie A; Yuan, Gigi; Burroughs, James; Rodgers, Anne B; DeMichele, Kimberly


    Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the value of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data to better characterize people's health and experiences with illness and care. Considering the rising prevalence of cancer in adults aged 65 and older, PRO data are particularly relevant for older adults with cancer, who often require complex cancer care and have additional comorbid conditions. A data linkage between the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) was created through a partnership between the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that created the opportunity to examine PROs in Medicare Advantage enrollees with and without cancer. The December 2013 linkage of SEER-MHOS data included the linked data for 12 cohorts, bringing the number of individuals in the linked data set to 95,723 with cancer and 1,510,127 without. This article reviews the features of the resource and provides information on some descriptive characteristics of the individuals in the data set (health-related quality of life, body mass index, fall risk management, number of unhealthy days in the past month). Individuals without (n=258,108) and with (n=3,440) cancer (1,311 men with prostate cancer, 982 women with breast cancer, 689 with colorectal cancer, 458 with lung cancer) were included in the current descriptive analysis. Given increasing longevity, advances in effective therapies and earlier detection, and population growth, the number of individuals aged 65 and older with cancer is expected to reach more than 12 million by 2020. SEER-MHOS provides population-level, self-reported, cancer registry-linked data for person-centered surveillance research on this growing population.

  20. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch


    The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms encompass essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A major break-through in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms occurred in 2005 by the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mu...

  1. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms.

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao


    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.

  2. 78 FR 740 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of Gene Expression Signatures of Neoplasm...


    ... Gene Expression Signatures of Neoplasm Responsiveness to mTOR and HDAC Inhibitor Combination Therapy... entitled, ``Gene Expression Signatures of Neoplasm Responsiveness to Therapy'' , and all continuing... multiple myeloma, breast cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, and prostate cancer. DATES: Only written comments or...

  3. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    B. karakullukcu (Baris); K. Oudenaarde (Kim); M.P. Copper (Marcel); W.M.C. Klop; R. van Veen (Robert); M. Wildeman (Maarten); I. Bing Tan


    textabstractThe indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis

  4. [Heterogenous abnormality polymorphism of gene PDGFRB in myeloid neoplasms and its clinical characteristics].

    Wang, Quan-Shun; Gao, Li; Jing, Yu; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Yang, Hua; Yu, Li


    Myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRB gene are a new kind of myeloid disorders in the revised 2008 WHO classification. Out of detected 2000 cases of myeloid cell abnormalities in our hospital, 12 cases of myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRB were found. This study was purposed to summarize and analyze the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of the 12 cases with PDGFRB gene abnormalities. The results indicated that among 12 cases of myeloid neoplasms with PDGFRB abnormalities, 5 cases with TEL/PDGFRB fusion gene, 2 cases with HEPI/PDGFRB, 1 case with PDGFRB mutation, 1 case with RABAPTIN-5/PDGFRB, 1 case with GIT2/PDGFRB, 1 case with TP53/PDGFRB, 1 case with WDR43/PDGFRB fusion gene were detected, showing the polymorphism of PDGFRB gene abnormalities. Among this kind of myeloid neoplasm patients, almost all patients manifested monocytosis and eosinophilia in different degree, the thrombocytosis mainly was observed in atypical myeloid neoplasms, acute leukemia, chromic myelo-monocytic leukemia patients. The treatment with imatinib mesylate for this kind of patients was effective in some cases. It is concluded that the myeloid neoplasms with PDGFRB gene abnormalities are a kind of heterogenetic myeloid neoplasms, their gene abnormal types and clinical manifestations show polymorphism too. The monocytosis and eosinophilia appear in this kind myeloid neoplasms which may be treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate.

  5. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral. METHODS AND FINDING: The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined

  6. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A


    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3, but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.


    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular

  8. The Drosophila actin regulator ENABLED regulates cell shape and orientation during gonad morphogenesis.

    Hiroko Sano

    Full Text Available Organs develop distinctive morphologies to fulfill their unique functions. We used Drosophila embryonic gonads as a model to study how two different cell lineages, primordial germ cells (PGCs and somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs, combine to form one organ. We developed a membrane GFP marker to image SGP behaviors live. These studies show that a combination of SGP cell shape changes and inward movement of anterior and posterior SGPs leads to the compaction of the spherical gonad. This process is disrupted in mutants of the actin regulator, enabled (ena. We show that Ena coordinates these cell shape changes and the inward movement of the SGPs, and Ena affects the intracellular localization of DE-cadherin (DE-cad. Mathematical simulation based on these observations suggests that changes in DE-cad localization can generate the forces needed to compact an elongated structure into a sphere. We propose that Ena regulates force balance in the SGPs by sequestering DE-cad, leading to the morphogenetic movement required for gonad compaction.

  9. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    C. Orelio; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)


    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there

  10. Histological Description of Gonadal Development of Females and Males of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (Decapoda: Portunidae).

    Carvalho-Saucedo, Liliana; Ramírez-Santiago, Cecilia; Pérez, Carlos


    This paper describes the characteristics of male and female germ cells during gonadal development and the gonadal maturity scale of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. A total of 20 specimens were collected monthly from June to November 2012, in two areas off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico: the San Andrés Lagoon and Alvarado Lagoon. The gonads were removed and processed following the standard technique of hematoxylin and eosin staining. An important event in oogenesis (pre-vitellogenesis) was the appearance of a perinuclear vesicle in the cytoplasm and the accumulation of yolk granules. Later, vitellogenesis began and there was an accumulation of nutritive droplets and fragmentation of the perinuclear vesicle. During spermatogenesis, the accumulation of two fluids was observed that were involved in the formation of the spermatophore and the delay of spermiogenesis. Based on the histological features of gonad maturity, five stages were described (inactive, early gametogenesis, development, maturity, and resorption), in females and males. This proposal can be useful for the study of reproductive seasonality of this species.

  11. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.


    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  12. Correlation between endoscopic sex determination and gonad histology in pond sliders, Trachemys scripta (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae

    David Perpiñán


    Full Text Available Coelioscopy has been proven to be a valuable technique to determine the sex of juvenile chelonians. However, there is a disagreement regarding the proper way to identify testes and ovaries, which is a direct consequence of the lack of studies correlating the results of endoscopic examination with the histology of the gonad. In this blinded study we assessed two methods of sex determination in juvenile pond sliders (Trachemys scripta using endoscopy: via coelioscopy, with visualization of the gonads, and via cloacoscopy, with visualization of phallus/clitoris; we then compared the results of these procedures with the histology of the gonad. The results of gonad histology correlated 100% with the results from coelioscopic examination, but only 57.77% of the results obtained by cloacoscopy were accurate. Using cloacoscopy, 83.33% of males and 38.46% of females were misdiagnosed. Sex determination of juvenile pond sliders was considered accurate when coelioscopy was used, but inaccurate when cloacoscopy with identification of phallus/clitoris was attempted.

  13. Assessing gonadal hormone contributions to affective psychopathologies across humans and animal models.

    Mueller, S C; Grissom, E M; Dohanich, G P


    Despite increasing acknowledgement of hormonal contributions to mood and anxiety disorders, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones influence psychopathology-related behaviours remain unknown. This review focuses on recent research that examines the influence of gonadal steroid hormones, including androgens, oestrogens, and progesterone, on mood and anxiety-related behaviours in human health and disease. To this aim, the literature was surveyed for studies that assess conditions with suspected underlying hormonal imbalances in otherwise healthy participants (e.g., premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postmenopausal depression) as well as conditions linked to congenital endocrine abnormalities (e.g., Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, androgen insensitivity syndrome). Furthermore, to better inform clinical work and to create a translational bridge, a second goal was to set human psychopathologies and animal models of these conditions side-by-side. In the second part of the review, based on consistencies revealed in the existing literature across conditions, a new model for the impact of gonadal hormones on anxious and depressed behavioural states is proposed. Finally, we conclude by proposing directions for future research, including the development of specific tasks suitable for cross-species comparisons to increase our knowledge of the role of gonadal hormones in mood and anxiety.

  14. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function

    Antonio eBellastella


    Full Text Available Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animal and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favourable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, even if the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions is regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes present in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary -gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increased plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes.

  15. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B


    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion.

  16. Gonadal impact of target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) in male patients: an overview.

    Huyghe, Eric; Zairi, Anas; Nohra, Joe; Kamar, Nassim; Plante, Pierre; Rostaing, Lionel


    The immunosuppressive agents target of rapamycin inhibitors (TOR-I) (sirolimus, and everolimus) have been widely used in kidney transplantation for >10 years. Up to 40% of men receiving a kidney transplant are younger than 50, and fertility as well as erectile function are major concerns. In this review, we provide a synopsis of past studies focusing on gonadal function in men treated with TOR-I, mainly sirolimus, to establish what impact they have on male gonads, and which pathophysiological pathways are involved. A PubMed search for the years 1990-2006 selected articles that focused on the gonadal impact of TOR-I. Primary outcome measures were testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Secondary outcome measures were sexual function, fertility status and sperm parameters. Treatment with TOR-I results in a decrease in testosterone level, and an opposite increase in LH. Moreover, spermatogenesis seems to be disrupted by TOR-I and FSH levels are increased. Sirolimus and everolimus inhibit the activity of mammalian targets of rapamycin, a serine/threonine kinase involved in numerous cell-growth processes. Molecular mechanisms of action of TOR-I on the testis involve inhibition of a stem cell factor/c-kit-dependant process in spermatogonia. Preliminary results appear to show that TOR-I treatment has deleterious actions on the testis and impairs gonadal function after renal transplantation, but the impact of these effects are unknown.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in a fetus with asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis.

    Kirkilionis, A J; Rodney, P; Sergovich, F R; Armstrong, R


    An 18 week abortus had been prenatally diagnosed as a 45,X/46,XY mosaic. The fetus was a phenotypic male with glandular hypospadias, a horseshoe kidney and asymmetric gonadal dysgenesis. This case represents a rare instance of prenatally diagnosed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with an abnormal phenotype.

  18. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

    Manwani, Bharti; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Benashski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Xu, Yan; Arnold, Arthur P; McCullough, Louise D


    Epidemiologic studies have shown sex differences in ischemic stroke. The four core genotype (FCG) mouse model, in which the testes determining gene, Sry, has been moved from Y chromosome to an autosome, was used to dissociate the effects of sex hormones from sex chromosome in ischemic stroke outcome. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in gonad intact FCG mice revealed that gonadal males (XXM and XYM) had significantly higher infarct volumes as compared with gonadal females (XXF and XYF). Serum testosterone levels were equivalent in adult XXM and XYM, as was serum estrogen in XXF and XYF mice. To remove the effects of gonadal hormones, gonadectomized FCG mice were subjected to MCAO. Gonadectomy significantly increased infarct volumes in females, while no change was seen in gonadectomized males, indicating that estrogen loss increases ischemic sensitivity. Estradiol supplementation in gonadectomized FCG mice rescued this phenotype. Interestingly, FCG male mice were less sensitive to effects of hormones. This may be due to enhanced expression of the transgene Sry in brains of FCG male mice. Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity appear to be shaped by organizational and activational effects of sex hormones, rather than sex chromosomal complement.

  19. Expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in frog embryo and developing gonad.

    Kawano, K; Furusawa, S; Matsuda, H; Takase, M; Nakamura, M


    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), originally identified as an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates expression of genes encoding cytochrome P-450 steroid hydroxylases, is an essential transcriptional factor for adrenal and gonadal development in mammals. Since sex steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in the sex determination of frogs, it is of interest to know how SF-1 gene expression is regulated during the sexual development of this organism. A previous study isolated the cDNA of the frog Rana rugosa SF-1 (rrSF-1) and found sexual differences in its gene expression in adult frogs; positive in testis and negative in ovary (Kawano et al., 1998). This study examined rrSF-1 gene expression in frog embryos and developing and mature gonads by immunohistochemical staining using anti-rrSF-1 protein antibody for protein localization and by in situ hybridization analysis for mRNA transcription. The results obtained in this study indicated that cells expressing SF-1 that originate in the mesoderm and endoderm probably migrate into the developing gonad via the dorsal mesentery, genital ridge, and mesorchium or mesovarium. Thus, SF-1 may play an important role in gonadal development in amphibians.


    Angela Stoddart


    Full Text Available Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN is a distinctive clinical syndrome occurring after exposure to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.  t-MN arises in most cases from a multipotential hematopoietic stem cell or, less commonly, in a lineage committed progenitor cell.  The prognosis for patients with t-MN is poor, as current forms of therapy are largely ineffective.  Cytogenetic analysis, molecular analysis and gene expression profiling analysis of t-MN has revealed that there are distinct subtypes of the disease; however, our understanding of the genetic basis of t-MN is incomplete.  Elucidating the genetic pathways and molecular networks that are perturbed in t-MNs, may facilitate the identification of therapeutic targets that can be exploited for the development of urgently-needed targeted therapies.

  1. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu


    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  2. Imaging spectrum of primary malignant renal neoplasms in children

    Rama Anand


    Full Text Available Wilms′ tumor (WT is the most common abdominal tumor in children. Many pediatric renal tumors in the past were categorized as WT; however, in recent years, several specific renal tumors have been recognized as distinct pathological entities. The age and clinical presentation of the child and distinctive imaging features may help in reaching a specific diagnosis in most cases. This is important as it has implications on the pre-operative diagnostic work-up and prognosis of the child. However, it is often not possible to differentiate one from the other pediatric renal tumor on the basis of imaging alone, and the final diagnosis is often made at histological examination of the surgical specimen. This article reviews the imaging features of primary malignant renal neoplasms in children along with their clinical presentation and pathological features.

  3. Dermoscopy of benign and malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population.

    Haliasos, Helen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Lanschuetzer, Christoph; Hinter, Helmut; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph; Marghoob, Ashfaq A


    Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables visualization of subsurface colors and structures within the skin that are imperceptible to the naked eye. The dermatoscope allows the physician to examine both the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. Dermoscopic findings have been formulated into diagnostic criteria that assist experienced clinicians in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms. In this review, clinical morphology of melanocytic nevi and melanoma in the pediatric population is examined and the relevant dermoscopic findings and histopathologic correlates that aid in the diagnosis and management of these lesions are described.

  4. Myxoma of the temporal bone: A rare neoplasm

    Kapil Sikka


    Full Text Available Myxomas of the temporal bone are rare mesenchymal tumors. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with complaint of mass lesion protruding from the right ear canal and from behind the ear for last 2 years. Biopsy of the mass was suggestive of benign mesenchymal lesion with prominent myxoid changes. Radiology of the temporal bone showed soft tissue density involving right side external auditory canal, middle ear, mastoid antrum and both lobes of the parotid gland. Tumour excision along with total parotidectomy was performed. Postoperative histopatholgy was consistent with myxoma. The patient is on regular follow-up for last 5months with no recurrence till date. Temporal bone myxomas are rare neoplasms which are surgically treatable but have a strong tendency to recur, necessiating long-term follow-up.

  5. Large mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas associated with pregnancy


    Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas occur mostly in females and are potentially sex hormone-sensitive. However, a MCN occurring during pregnancy is quite rare. A 30-year-old woman in the tenth week of pregnancy was referred to us because of a rapid increase in lett hypochondrial distending pain. On ultrasound, the patient had a large intra-abdominal cystic lesion. She was thereafter diagnosed with missed abortion and a computed tomography scan showed that the lesion was a cystic tumor 18 cm in diameter originating from the pancreatic tail. The patient subsequently underwent tumor resection with distal pancreatectomy, sparing the spleen. Histopathological analysis of the specimen revealed a pancreatic MCN with moderate dysplasia. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pancreatic MCN with moderate zysplasia in association with pregnancy. Our case strongly indicates that pancreatic MCN is female-hormone dependent.




    Full Text Available DEFINITION: Hidradenoma is a form of benign adnexal neoplasm that is a close relative of poroma, but is characterized by cells with ample cytoplasm1-4. Here we present a very rare and interesting case of a 35 year old female patient who presented to surgical opd with the complaints of swelling in front of the middle of the neck since two years. Swelling was not associated with any other complaints like pain, difficulty in swallowing, difficulty in speaking and difficulty in pronunciation of words. With adequate pre-operative preparation and normal routine blood investigations, patient was posted for surgery under monitored anesthesia care {ie.MAC}. A wide local excision was performed and specimen was sent for histopathological examination. HPR revealed an eccrine clear cell hidradenoma of neck. On follow-up for 2 year there has been no recurrence

  7. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    David I Bruner


    Full Text Available While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:444–447.

  8. JAK2 GGCC haplotype in MPL mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Pietra, Daniela; Casetti, Ilaria; Da Vià, Matteo C; Elena, Chiara; Milanesi, Chiara; Rumi, Elisa


    JAK2 (V617F) is associated with a genetic predisposition to its acquisition,as it is preferentially found in subjects with a common constitutional JAK2 haplotype known as 46/1 or GGCC. A recent study suggests that a genetic predisposition to acquisition of MPL mutation may exist in sporadic patients, since an association was found with the JAK2 46/1 haplotype. We genotyped 509 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), 7% of which carrying a somatic mutation of MPL Exon 10. We found that the JAK2 GGCC haplotype was closely associated with JAK2 (V617F) (OR 1.84, P < 0.001) but not with MPL mutations (OR 0.98), suggesting a different genetic background for these molecular lesions.

  9. Lack of BRAF mutations in hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm

    Brose Marcia


    Full Text Available Abstract The hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm (HTN of the thyroid is an unusual and controversial lesion. Some consider it a peculiar type of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC because of its nuclear features and presence of psammoma bodies. Others consider it an adenoma. Molecular studies have found RET/PTC translocations in some examples, supporting HTN as a PTC; however mutations in BRAF (another marker for PTC have not been found. We report two cases of classic HTN and a case of trabecular PTC and show BRAF mutations in the latter and not in HTN. Trabecular growth pattern is insufficient for a diagnosis of HTN and lesions with such a pattern and nuclear features of PTC are cancers. Morphologically classic HTN are not associated with metastatic potential and should be considered adenomas.

  10. Mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms: JAK of all grades

    Juan Li


    Full Text Available In 2005, several groups identified a single gain-of-function point mutation in the JAK2 kinase that was present in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. Since this discovery, much effort has been dedicated to understanding the molecular consequences of the JAK2V617F mutation in the haematopoietic system. Three waves of mouse models have been produced recently (bone marrow transplantation, transgenic and targeted knock-in, which have facilitated the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of JAK2V617F-positive MPNs, providing potential platforms for designing and validating novel therapies in humans. This Commentary briefly summarises the first two types of mouse models and then focuses on the more recently generated knock-in models.

  11. Clinical significance of colonoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms: a meta-analysis.

    Zhen-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs were pooled using random-effects models. RESULTS: The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants. The principal findings included: (1 OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26 in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2 Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06-1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42-2.09], respectively of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3 Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64-4.11. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms.

  12. Subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer: a systematic review.

    Bowers, Daniel C; Nathan, Paul C; Constine, Louis; Woodman, Catherine; Bhatia, Smita; Keller, Karen; Bashore, Lisa


    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for development of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS. Better understanding of the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer could lead to more informed screening guidelines. Two investigators independently did a systematic search of Medline and Embase (from January, 1966, through March, 2012) for studies examining subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer. Articles were selected to answer three questions: what is the risk of CNS tumours after radiation to the cranium for a paediatric cancer, compared with the risk in the general population; what are the outcomes in children with subsequent neoplasms of the CNS who received CNS-directed radiation for a paediatric cancer; and, are outcomes of subsequent neoplasms different from primary neoplasms of the same histology? Our search identified 72 reports, of which 18 were included in this Review. These studies reported that childhood cancer survivors have an 8·1-52·3-times higher incidence of subsequent CNS neoplasms compared with the general population. Nearly all cancer survivors who developed a CNS neoplasm had been exposed to cranial radiation, and some studies showed a correlation between radiation dose and risk of subsequent CNS tumours. 5-year survival ranged from 0-19·5% for subsequent high-grade gliomas and 57·3-100% for meningiomas, which are similar rates to those observed in patients with primary gliomas or meningiomas. The quality of evidence was limited by variation in study design, heterogeneity of details regarding treatment and outcomes, limited follow-up, and small sample sizes. We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who received cranial radiation therapy have an increased risk for subsequent CNS neoplasms. The current literature is insufficient to comment about the potential harms and benefits of routine screening for subsequent CNS neoplasms.

  13. Preliminary study on MR colonography with air enema in detection of colorectal neoplasms

    LUO Ming-yue; LIU Li; YAN Fu-hua; SHEN Ji-zhang; YAO Li-qing; ZHOU Kang-rong


    Background The few studies on MR colonography with air enema involved feasibility of bowel distention and imaging quality and lacked detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with the three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema.Methods A total of 30 patients scheduled for optical colonoscopy due to rectal bleeding, positive fecal occult blood test results or altered bowel habits were recruited and successfully underwent entire colorectal examinations with three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography and subsequent optical colonoscopy on the same day. Detection sensitivity of colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography was statistically analyzed on a per-neoplasm size basis by using findings from optical colonoscopy and histopathological examinations as the reference standards.Results Seventy-six neoplasms were detected with optical colonoscopy, consisting of 1 mm-5 mm (n=11), 6 mm-9 mm (n=29) and >10 mm (n=36) in diameter. Detection sensitivities of 1 mm-5 mm, 6 mm-9 mm, ≥10 mm and >6 mm colorectal neoplasms with MR colonography were 9.1%, 75.9%, 100% and 89.2%, respectively; overall detection sensitivity for all sizes colorectal neoplasms was 77.6%.Conclusions Detection sensitivity of three-dimensional Fourier transform fast spoiled gradient-recalled MR colonography with air enema is low for 1 mm-5 mm colorectal neoplasms, but the detection sensitivity is 89.2% for ≥6 mm neoplasms, and all ≥10 mm neoplasms could be detected.

  14. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)


    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  15. Trends in use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy by racial/ethnic group and ER/PR status among patients with breast cancer: A SEER population-based study.

    Brown, Derek; Shao, Stephanie; Jatoi, Ismail; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin


    While differences in CPM use between White and Black patients are well known, it is not clear whether CPM use differs by estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status of tumors and whether racial/ethnic differences in the use are affected by ER/PR status, which varies between racial groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CPM usage differs by racial/ethnic group and ER/PR status among patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. The study subjects were women with histologically confirmed unilateral breast cancer who underwent breast surgery between 1998 and 2011. Age-adjusted CPM use as a proportion of all surgically treated patients or all patients who had mastectomy was analyzed by racial/ethnic group, tumor behavior, and ER/PR status. Temporal trends in age-adjusted CPM use were presented by ER/PR status and racial/ethnic group. The analyses stratified by ER/PR status showed significant racial/ethnic differences in age-adjusted CPM use with non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (API) patients having the most and least CPM use. Age-adjusted CPM use was significantly higher for ER+/PR+ tumors than ER-/PR- ones for each race/ethnicity group among patients with mastectomy. However, among patients with any breast surgeries, the only difference was a higher proportion of CPM use for ER-/PR- tumors (8.6%) than ER+/PR+ tumors (8.0%) in non-Hispanic Whites. CPM use has increased over time in all racial/ethnic groups despite ER/PR status. CPM usage was lower not only in non-Hispanic Blacks, but also in non-Hispanic API and Hispanic patients compared to non-Hispanic White patients. CPM usage tended to be higher for ER+/PR+ tumors, but the results varied when different denominators (all mastectomies vs. all breast surgeries) were used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)


    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  17. Hepatic neoplasms associated with contraceptive and anabolic steroids.

    Ishak, K G


    This paper evaluates the differences between HCA (hepatocellular adenoma) and FNH (focal nodular hyperplasia) and the association of HCA and FNH with OC (oral contraceptives). FNH occurs at least twice as frequent in females as in males. A study conducted by the author revealed that only 20% of patients with FNH had symptoms and signs related to their neoplasms; in the rest, FNH was accidentally discovered during surgery for diseases of the gallbladder or at necropsy. The highly characteristic gross appearance of FNH is discribed in detail. The etiologic relationship between FNH and OC was cited in the light of frequent findings of FNH in infants and children, and of suggestions by other authors that FNH could be a direct result on OC therapy or that contraceptive steroids or conjugated estrogens accelerate the growth of FNH, a very slow growing neoplasm. Simple excision is the treatment of choice for FNH; in some cases, hepatic artery ligation is indicated. In the case of HCA, statistics show that the incidence of HCA has been increasing since 1960. Majority of patients with HCA have normal tests of hepatic function. Radiographic studies and hepatic scans may reveal HCA, but the best diagnostic method so far is angiography. Although gross appearance of HCA is variable, the features are clearly distinguishable from that of FNH. Other topics discussed include the occasional occurence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients on OC or anabolic steroids (AS), and malignant liver tumors in patients using OC or AS. Further research should be done to clarify the etiologic relationship between androgenic-anabolic steroids and hepatocellular tumors and tumorlike lesions.

  18. [Spontaneous hemorrhage in liver neoplasms. Experience at an institution].

    González-Ojeda, A; Medina-Franco, H; Aldrete, J S


    Retrospective review of a single Institution experience with the management of hepatic neoplasms complicated with spontaneous bleeding. In a 11 years period from 1980 to 1990 we reviewed the medical charts of patients treated at our Institution with the diagnosis of hepatic neoplasms complicated with sudden bleeding. We recorded demographic information, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. A review of the world literature was done. We found six patients with the diagnosis of liver tumors complicated with sudden bleeding. Five patients were female with a age range from 30 to 67 years old. Four of them had an adenoma (three of them single and one multiple) and the fifth had a non-parasitic cyst. Seventy-five per cent of the patients with the diagnosis of adenoma had used in the past oral contraceptives for at least three years. The sixth patient was a male with a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma. Three patients were admitted in shock. Successful transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed in two patients; the third required operative hemostasis. Major hepatic resections were performed in three patients including a total hepatectomy and liver transplant. All patients recovered satisfactorily. The spontaneous rupture of benign and malignant tumors of the liver is not a common phenomenon, but is a serious complication. The experience of our Institution and the reports of literature favor CT scan and arteriogram as the most effective diagnostic methods in this group of patients, but arteriogram has the advantage of its therapeutic potential. The long term prognosis of this patients depends of their pathological diagnosis.

  19. Spectrum of Intestinal Neoplasms: A study of 400 cases

    Aminder Singh


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is a five-year analysis of all the tumors of small and large intestine received in the Pathology Department of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. Methods: All the cases were grossly and microscopically examined and were staged according to Astler Coller Staging and classified and subtyped according to WHO classification. The important differences between the small and large intestine tumors were also analyzed. Results: There were 400 cases out of which 356 were in large intestine while 44 were in the small intestine. There were only 56 benign neoplasms while 344 were malignant tumors. Adenomas were the most common benign tumors while majority of malignant tumors were adenocarcinomas. Lymphomas, mesenchymal tumors, and carcinoid tumors were much more common in a small intestine as compared to large intestine. Majority of adenocarcinomas were located in the large intestine with most of them being moderately differentiated having Astler Coller Stage B II. Mucinous carcinomas had the worst prognosis as compared to adenocarcinomas. Anal canal had mainly squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumors of large intestine were much commoner than of small intestine. There was a higher incidence of tumor in males with M:F ratio of 2.2:1. Mean age of presentation of benign tumor was younger, i.e., 32.6 years when compared to 54.5 years for malignant tumors. Tubular adenoma was the most common benign tumor and adenocarcinoma the commonest malignant neoplasm. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 19-23

  20. TRA-1/GLI controls development of somatic gonadal precursors in C. elegans.

    Mathies, Laura D; Schvarzstein, Mara; Morphy, Kristin M; Blelloch, Robert; Spence, Andrew M; Kimble, Judith


    TRA-1/GLI is best known as a master regulator of sex determination in the nematode C. elegans, but its fly and vertebrate homologs (e.g. Ci, GLI) regulate embryonic patterning and cell proliferation. In this paper, we show that TRA-1/GLI controls development of the two somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) in both XX and XO animals, in addition to its role in sex determination. Normally, SGPs reside at the poles of the gonadal primordium and divide according to intrinsic gonadal axes. In tra-1-null mutants, however, SGPs assume non-polar positions and the polarity of one SGP is reversed. Consistent with its SGP function, TRA-1 protein is present in SGPs during embryogenesis and early larval development. Previous studies have shown that the ehn-3 gene also affects SGP positions, and we report here that tra-1 and ehn-3 interact genetically. Whereas SGPs in tra-1 and ehn-3 single mutants are largely normal and generate many descendants, those in tra-1; ehn-3 double mutants do not mature or divide. Furthermore, tra-1 is a dominant enhancer of the ehn-3 gonadal defect, which includes the enhancement of a weak sexual transformation in the gonad. We cloned ehn-3, and found that it encodes a C2H2 zinc-finger protein. A rescuing EHN-3::GFP reporter is predominantly nuclear and expressed specifically in SGPs. The EHN-3 protein is therefore likely to regulate gene expression. We propose that TRA-1/GLI and EHN-3 have overlapping roles in regulation of multiple steps of SGP development. We speculate that regulation of SGP development may be an evolutionarily ancient role of TRA-1/GLI in nematode development.

  1. Leptin Genes in Blunt Snout Bream: Cloning, Phylogeny and Expression Correlated to Gonads Development

    Honghao Zhao


    Full Text Available To investigate the leptin related genes expression patterns and their possible function during the gonadal development in fish, the cDNA and genomic sequences of leptin, leptin receptor (leptinR, and leptin receptor overlapping transcript like-1 (leprotl1 were cloned and their expression levels were quantified in the different gonadal development stages of Megalobrama amblycephala. The results showed that the full length cDNA sequences of leptin, leptinR and leprotl1 were 953, 3432 and 1676 bp, coding 168, 1082, and 131 amino acid polypeptides, and the genomic sequences were 1836, 28,528 and 5480 bp, which respectively had 3, 15 and 4 exons, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that three genes were relatively conserved in fish species. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the three genes were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues during the different gonadal development stages. The leptin and leptinR took part in the onset of puberty, especially in female M. amblycephala, by increasing the expression levels in brain during the stage I to III of ovary. The expression levels of leptin and leptinR had significant differences between male and female in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis tissues (p < 0.05. The leptinR had the same variation tendency with leptin, but the opposite changes of expression levels were found in leprotl1, which may resist the expression of leptinR for inhibiting the function of leptin in target organ. These findings revealed details about the possible role of these genes in regulating gonadal maturation in fish species.

  2. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun


    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  3. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  4. VSELs may obviate cryobanking of gonadal tissue in cancer patients for fertility preservation.

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Anand, Sandhya; Parte, Seema


    Infertility is an undesirable side effect and gonadal tissue banking is advocated in young cancer patients who are unable to preserve embryos or gametes prior to oncotherapy to achieve biological parenthood later on. Banking gonadal tissue is challenging and protocols to mature gametes in vitro are not yet clinically established. Transplanting ovarian cortical tissue at hetero-or orthotopic sites in women and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in both men and women has resulted in spontaneous recovery of fertility, pregnancy and live births. Various studies in humans and mice suggest that genetic origin of offspring after BMT is similar to transplanted patient and not the donor. Thus the source of oocytes/sperm which result in spontaneous pregnancies still remains contentious. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in adult human testis and ovary, in azoospermic testicular biopsies from survivors of childhood cancer and also in women with premature ovarian failure and menopause. VSELs survive chemotherapy because of their quiescent nature and can be detected in chemoablated mice gonads at protein and mRNA level and also by flow cytometry. Surviving VSELs spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures and sperm when inhibitory factors are overcome in vitro. Transplantation of mesenchymal cells (isolated from different sources) has led to regeneration of chemoablated mouse gonads and also live births. Spermatogenesis is also restored from endogenous stem cells on inter-tubular transplantation of Sertoli cells in chemoablated mouse testis. Endogenous VSELs (which survive oncotherapy) can possibly regenerate non-functional gonads in cancer survivors when exposed to a healthy niche in vitro or in vivo (by way of transplanting mesenchymal cells which secrete trophic factors required for endogenous VSELs to differentiate into gametes). Presence of VSELs can also explain spontaneous pregnancies after BMT and cortical tissue transplantation

  5. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms ...

  6. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms ...

  7. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  8. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms ...

  9. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  10. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 Input control Neural Nerve Sheath Neopl...asms ...

  11. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  12. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms mm9 No description Neural Nerve Sheath Neop...lasms ...

  13. SEER Informational Guidebook Training Aids.

    Baylis, Paula

    This book includes topics on the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results reporting of human cancer. An anatomy section describes various systems of the human body, emphasizing those sites with high incidence of cancer. A general reference section describes weights and measures, pathology and histology, diagnostic techniques, and medical…

  14. [Gonadal disorder as a result of adverse reaction to antineoplastic drugs--diagnosis, symptoms, prevention and treatment].

    Kowalska, A

    The past three decades have shown the increasing success of chemotherapy as the treatment of malignancies. This therapeutic success has focused attention on the associated gonadal toxicity. Cytotoxic agents may induce infertility and endocrine disfunction. Data for analysis were provided by studies on gonadal function after chemotherapy for: Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer; renal disease, bone-marrow transplantation. The likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced damage depended on the chemotherapeutic regimen and prescribed dose, illness, sex and degree of gonadal activity at the time of treatment. Despite of the high frequency of chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage its prevention has received a little attention. LH-RHA and oral contraceptive therapy and testosterone have been tested to a limited extent of gonadal toxicity. Usually in male endocrine disfunction of testis does not need to be treated because it is moderate and does not cause any clinical symptoms. In female hormonal substitution seems to be necessary to decrease unpleasant feelings connected with menopause induced by chemotherapy. Further investigations should considered use of new cytotoxic agents without gonadal toxicity or use of new drugs which can better protect gonadal function.

  15. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    Erdi Yusuf E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. Methods The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. Results The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Conclusion Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans.

  16. Incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients after major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis

    Park, Hyeong Min; Cho, Chol Kyoon; Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Hee Joon; Park, Eun Kyu


    Backgrounds/Aims Despite hepatolithiasis being a risk factor for biliary neoplasm including cholangiocarcinoma, the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm is unknown in patients with preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. Methods Between March 2005 and December 2015, 73 patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis were enrolled in this study. The incidence and pathological differentiation of concomitant biliary neoplasm were retrospectively determined by review of medical records. Postoperative complications after major hepatectomy were evaluated. Results Concomitant biliary neoplasm was pathologically confirmed in 20 patients (27.4%). Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BIN) was detected in 12 patients (16.4%), and 1 patient (1.4%) had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), as the premalignant lesion. Cholangiocarcinoma was pathologically confirmed in 7 patients (9.6%). Preoperative imaging of the 73 patients revealed biliary stricture at the first branch of bile duct in 31 patients (42.5%), and at the second branch of bile duct in 39 patients (53.4%). Postoperative complications developed in 14 patients (19.1%). Almost all patients recovered from complications, including intra-abdominal abscess (9.6%), bile leakage (4.1%), pleural effusion (2.7%), and wound infection (1.4%). Only 1 patient (1.4%) died from aspiration pneumonia. Conclusions The incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm was not negligible in the patients with hepatolithiasis, despite meticulous preoperative evaluations. PMID:28261696


    Kohji, YOSHIDA; Takafumi, UTSUNOMIYA; Toru, KADOTA; Seishi, YAMAGUCHI; Department of Reproductive Physiology aud Endocrinology. Medical Institute of Broregulatioee. Kyushu University; Department of Obstetrics aud Qynecology. Oita National Hospital


    It has been established that the pathogenesis of a complete form of testicular feminization syndrome (TFM) is due to end organ unresponsiveness to androgens. In the present study, two sibling cases with TFM have been reported with special reference to the effect of danazol (a derivative of 17α-ethynyltestosterone) on gonadal estradiol 17β (E_2) secretion in vivo and in vitro. Both patients showed hypergonadotropic-hypergonadism with good response to LH RH. In one case, peripheral blood E_2 le...

  18. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    A. A. Vinokurov


    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  19. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    A. A. Vinokurov


    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  20. The burden of hospitalizations for anus and penis neoplasm in Spain (1997-2008).

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Ester, Pablo Viguera; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Rodríguez, María San Martín; De Miguel, Ángel Gil


    An epidemiological retrospective study has been performed to assess the burden of hospitalization by anus and penis neoplasm in the general population in Spain. All hospital discharges and deaths related to anal malign neoplasm and penile malign neoplasm from 1997 to 2008 in Spain were obtained. A total of 19,608 hospital admissions were recorded during the study period: 11,965 were related to anal malign neoplasm (4,992 in women and 6,973 in men) and 7,643 to penis malignant neoplasm. This corresponds to a hospitalization rate of 1.97 (CI 95%: 1.91-2.02) hospitalizations per 100,000 women/ year, 2.84 (CI 95%: 2.77-2.91) hospitalizations per 100,000 men/ year and 3.11 (CI 95%: 3.04- 3.18) hospitalizations per 100,000 men/ year, respectively during the study period.   The hospitalization rate increased significantly during the study period in all locations. It also increased significantly with age for all locations. Hospitalization and mortality rates in men were 50% higher than in women A total of 530 deaths related to penis malignant neoplasm and 738 deaths related to anus malignant neoplasm in men and 488 in women were reported during the 12-y study period. Although a decrease in smoking prevalence has led to a decrease in the incidence of cancers in the last decade, the hospitalizations due to anal and penile malign neoplasm have not declined in our study. This might be attributed to a high prevalence of HPV infection in these particular genital malign neoplasms.

  1. Synchronous Low-grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm and Primary Peritoneal Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A First Description of These 2 Neoplasms Presenting Together as Suspected Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid


    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is a neoplasm typically of appendiceal origin, which is characterized by diffuse peritoneal involvement by pools of mucin with mucinous epithelium lacking high-grade cytologic atypia, and clinically presents as suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. A similar clinical presentation can sometimes be seen with disseminated low-grade serous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tubes, or ovaries; however, this neoplasm is histologically characterized by tubal-type epithelium and invasive or confluent growth. In this case report, we describe a patient presenting with a clinical examination and radiologic features suggestive of peritoneal carcinomatosis and a prominent pelvic mass; however, after pathologic review, the patient was proven to have peritoneal involvement by both low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin and a low-grade peritoneal primary serous carcinoma. In short, we present the first description of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and serous carcinoma of the peritoneum presenting synchronously, providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis, and illustrating a rare instance in which 2 neoplastic processes are underlying clinically suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  2. Retroperitoneal neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation:A case report and review of literature

    Min Zhao; Jin Huang; Jin Wang


    The retroperitoneal neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cel differentiation (PEComa) is an extremely rare path-ological entity. In this article, we reported one case of a 45-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital (The Second People’s Hospital of Hefei, China) for retroperitoneal neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cel dif erentiation. The B ultra-sonic examination showed echopoor in the region of cavitas pelvis. The histologic characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotype both revealed the neoplasm with perivascular epithelioid cel differentiation.

  3. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  4. Danazol suppression of gonadal estradiol-17 beta secretion--report of two sibling cases with a complete form of testicular feminization on gonadal ultrastructure and endocrine status.

    Yoshida, K; Utsunomiya, T; Kadota, T; Yamaguchi, S


    It has been established that the pathogenesis of a complete form of testicular feminization syndrome (TFM) is due to end-organ unresponsiveness to androgens. In the present study, two sibling cases with TFM have been reported with special reference to the effect of danazol (a derivative of 17 alpha-ethynyltestosterone) on gonadal estradiol-17 beta (E2) secretion in vivo and in vitro. Both patients showed hypergonadotropic-hypergonadism with good response to LH-RH. In one case, peripheral blood E2 levels seemed to fall independently of gonadotropins during danazol administration in vivo. Administrations of danazol to the culture media also inhibited E2 secretion from the cultured monolayered cells of the testes. These results suggest a direct inhibitory effect of danazol on gonadal E2 secretion. However, the feedback mechanisms of hypothalamic-pituitary units to E2 were preserved in both cases. Spermatogeneses were almost undetectable as in immature embryonal testes when using either light or electron microscopies, though spermatogonia were differentiated from Sertoli cells by these techniques. Finally, plasma T and E2 levels in both patients were considerably lower after gonadectomy.

  5. Gene SRY and absence of testicular tissue in a woman 47XYY with gonadal dysgenesis

    John Jairo Rojas


    Full Text Available This paper reviews current concepts about sex determination and differentiation in males and females. We also present a 13 year old girl, who consulted for short stature and weight gain. She was a Tanner I for breast and pubic hair. There were no signs of androgen excess. Lab showed a high FSH and LH with normal growth hormone. Laparoscopy revealed streak gonads without testicular tissue. Karyotype was 47XYY, with the SRY gene present. Functional studies of the gene to detect mutations were not performed. Patient responded to a combination of estradiol and medroxyprogesterone with normal menses and breast development. This patient is an example of the importance of performing genetic studies in the evaluation of gonadal dysgenesis cases. It is possible that a de novo mutation of the gene, rather than a paternal meiotic nondysjunction was present in our patient.

  6. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa


    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  7. Detection of VHSV IVb within the gonads of Great Lakes fish using in situ hybridization.

    Al-Hussinee, L; Lumsden, J S


    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb was recently detected as the cause of numerous mortality events in Great Lakes fish. In situ hybridization was used to examine the gonads from 13 fish, including freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens and muskellunge Esox masquinongy that were infected naturally, as well as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and fathead minnows Pimphales promelas, which were experimentally infected. Although the ovaries and testes of fish infected by VHSV IVb had few lesions, viral RNA was present in the ovaries of the rainbow trout and fathead minnow and was abundant in the gonads of muskellunge and in the ovaries of freshwater drum. Viral RNA was present mainly surrounding yolk vacuoles/granules or adjacent to the germinal vesicle, with lesser amounts found within the germinal vesicle, in the mesovarium and/or tunica albuginea and blood vessels of the ovary. Viral RNA was also found in and surrounding primary and secondary spermatocytes of the muskellunge.

  8. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura


    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

  9. Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XX Associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: One Case Report

    N. Bousfiha


    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is very rare and appears to be coincidental, independent of chromosomal anomalies. Case Report. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented primary amenorrhea and impuberism. The endocrine study revealed hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. The karyotype was normal, 46XX. No chromosome Y was detected at the FISH analysis. Internal genitalia could not be identified on the pelvic ultrasound and pelvic MRI. Laparoscopy was undertaken and revealed concomitant ovarian dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. There were no other morphological malformations. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of the association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome is still mysterious. The treatment is based essentially on hormone substitution therapy. The fertility prognosis is unfortunately compromised.

  10. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

    Sriharibabu Manne


    Full Text Available 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3 of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases.

  11. Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XX Associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: One Case Report

    Bousfiha, N.; Errarhay, S.; Saadi, H.; Ouldim, K.; Bouchikhi, C.; Banani, A.


    Introduction. The association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome is very rare and appears to be coincidental, independent of chromosomal anomalies. Case Report. We report the case of a 19-year-old woman who presented primary amenorrhea and impuberism. The endocrine study revealed hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. The karyotype was normal, 46XX. No chromosome Y was detected at the FISH analysis. Internal genitalia could not be identified on the pelvic ultrasound and pelvic MRI. Laparoscopy was undertaken and revealed concomitant ovarian dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. There were no other morphological malformations. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of the association of gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer Rokitansky kuster hauser syndrome is still mysterious. The treatment is based essentially on hormone substitution therapy. The fertility prognosis is unfortunately compromised. PMID:21253547

  12. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.

    Manne, Sriharibabu; Veeraabhinav, C H; Jetti, Mounica; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Donthu, Kiranmai; Badireddy, Mutyalarayudu


    46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3) of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases.

  13. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in the developing gonads of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense


    The localization of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is dealed with in the developing gonads of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. It was found by NADPH-diaphorase staining that (1) NOS activity was present in the nuclear membranes of germinal vesicles during the entire period of oocyte development; (2) NOS was localized in both the nuclear membranes and the perinuclear region of cytoplasm in the vitellogenetic oocytes; (3) NOS was relocated in the cortical layer in the mature egg; (4) NOS activity was present in spermatocytes, but not in the spermatogonia in the middle of October; (5) NOS was detected in both spermatozoa and spermatids as well as spermatocytes during the breeding season. This is the first report on the distribution pattern of NOS in the developing gonads in protochordates. These results suggest a role for NOS in the functioning of the nuclear membranes and yolk synthesis during oogenesis and in cell division and differentiation during spermatogenesis.

  14. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Zhaofei Fan


    Full Text Available Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination.

  15. Exfoliative Cytology in the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasms.

    Kayat, Kim Vieira; Correa Dantas, Paulo Elias; Felberg, Sérgio; Galvão, Maria Antonieta; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj


    Surface tumors of the eye comprise an ample spectrum of diseases with various clinical manifestations. Diagnosis has been traditionally achieved through core biopsies, but cytology is an innovative, fast, and minimally invasive method. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of exfoliative cytology as an alternative method for the detection of ocular surface squamous neoplasm (OSSN). Exfoliative cytology of the lesions was performed by collecting smears using plastic brushes followed by smearing the cells onto slides and subsequently fixing them in 90% alcohol. Incisional biopsies were performed at the exact same location and sent for processing in 10% formaldehyde. Both the surgical pathologist and cytopathologist were masked to the clinical characteristics and to the corresponding cytological or histological result. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study (12 men and 10 women, median age 52.5 years). Final histological diagnoses comprised 7 cases of pterygium, 7 squamous-cell carcinomas, 4 squamous papillomas, and 4 chronic inflammatory processes. Cytohistological agreement was achieved in 19 (86.4%) of the samples. Cytology showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 85.7%, 86.7%, 75%, and 92.9%, respectively, in detecting OSSN. Exfoliative cytology of the conjunctival lesions is a simple procedure, with high agreement to the histological follow-up. Its broad use could augment the early diagnosis of OSSN, with improvement in patient prognosis.

  16. Possible risk for gestational trophoblastic neoplasm in perimenopause and menopause

    Nikolić Branka


    Full Text Available Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasms (GTN are group of diseases which are known as fertilization disorders and may appear as Complete hydatidiform mole, Mole partialis, Invasive mole, Placental site trophoblastic tumor, Choriocarcinoma. Malignant disease precedes in approxi mately 50% of patients. All cases of GTN must be registrated. The Followe up programme period may last 6 months to 2 years until three sequential beta hCG values are negative. The risk of repeated GTN is low but patient has to be informed that risk is 1 : 74. GTN can appear in perimenopausal or menopausal women. That is the reason why each rapid enlargement of uterus especially with uterine bleeding followed with multiple cystic formations (grape like cysts needs a serious examination on GTN. Patient can complain of nausea, vomiting, painful breasts or hiperthyoidism. Legal abortion can precede GTN in perimenopausal women. In the great number of women with GTN the last pregnancy was 5 or more than 5 years before GTN is diagnosed. During 5 year period from june 1999. till june 2004, 58 GTN cases were diagnosed on our Department. 7 women with confirmed GTN were in perimenopause or menopause. All cases were hystologicalu confirmed with clinical low clinical score. In 1999. (March-June unpowerishment Uranium was used during war in Former Yugoslavia. Potential effect on reproductive potential could be analyzed after collecting data from the whole territory of Serbia and Montenegro in next years. All GTN patients are clinically, laboratory and ultrasonographicaly examined and staged according to FIGO 2002. recommendations

  17. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    Balica Nicolae Constantin


    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  18. The spectrum of JAK2-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques


    The discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation triggered an unexpected flowering of basic and clinical studies in the field of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), resulting after just a few years in an exceptional amount of new information. One important consequence of those new findings was the modification of the World Health Organization classification and diagnostic algorithms for these diseases, which is still based on the original concept developed by William Dameshek in 1951 and keeps distinct entities under the umbrella of classical Philadelphia-negative MPNs. These MPNs are essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and primary myelofibrosis. Could a new molecular classification be a better tool to manage MPN patients? Several studies have shown that essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis can be divided into distinct subtypes based on the presence of the JAK2V617F mutation. Can we now define JAK2-positive diseases to depict a distinct entity from JAK2-negative MPNs? This chapter reviews the significance of JAK2 mutation positivity in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of MPNs.

  19. Defining the Thrombotic Risk in Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Fabrizio Vianello


    Full Text Available Polycythemia vera (PV and essential thrombocythemia (ET are two Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN associated with an acquired mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase gene. There is a rare incidence of progression to myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia in both disorders, which may or may not precede transformation to acute myeloid leukemia, but thrombosis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with MPN is complex. Traditionally, abnormalities of platelet number and function have been claimed as the main players, but increased dynamic interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and the endothelium do probably represent a fundamental interplay in generating a thrombophilic state. In addition, endothelial dysfunction, a well-known risk factor for vascular disease, may play a role in the thrombotic risk of patients with PV and ET. The identification of plasma markers translating the hemostatic imbalance in patients with PV and ET would be extremely helpful in order to define the subgroup of patients with a significant clinical risk of thrombosis.

  20. Pathogenesis of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Role and Mechanisms of Chronic Inflammation.

    Hermouet, Sylvie; Bigot-Corbel, Edith; Gardie, Betty


    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of clonal diseases characterized by the excessive and chronic production of mature cells from one or several of the myeloid lineages. Recent advances in the biology of MPNs have greatly facilitated their molecular diagnosis since most patients present with mutation(s) in the JAK2, MPL, or CALR genes. Yet the roles played by these mutations in the pathogenesis and main complications of the different subtypes of MPNs are not fully elucidated. Importantly, chronic inflammation has long been associated with MPN disease and some of the symptoms and complications can be linked to inflammation. Moreover, the JAK inhibitor clinical trials showed that the reduction of symptoms linked to inflammation was beneficial to patients even in the absence of significant decrease in the JAK2-V617F mutant load. These observations suggested that part of the inflammation observed in patients with JAK2-mutated MPNs may not be the consequence of JAK2 mutation. The aim of this paper is to review the different aspects of inflammation in MPNs, the molecular mechanisms involved, the role of specific genetic defects, and the evidence that increased production of certain cytokines depends or not on MPN-associated mutations, and to discuss possible nongenetic causes of inflammation.