WorldWideScience

Sample records for goal setting

  1. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  2. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...

  3. APPLICATION OF GOAL SETTING THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtkoru, E. Serra; Bozkurt, Tulay; Bekta, Fatos; Ahmed, Mahir Jibril; Kola, Vehap

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the goal theorymodel originally developed by Locke and Latham in organizational setting inTurkey, and explain its influence on job satisfaction and affective commitment.Also mediating role of task specific strategy and moderating role ofselfefficacy are examined. Locke and Latham’s goal setting measure is adaptedto Turkish. Survey method is employed to collect data from 222 respondents fromautomotive industry. Goal setting dimensions predicted affective co...

  4. Systemic consultation and goal setting

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Over two decades of empirical research conducted within a positivist framework has shown that goal setting is a particularly useful method for influencing task performance in occupational and industrial contexts. The conditions under which goal setting is maximally effective are now clearly established. These include situations where there is a high level of acceptance and commitment, where goals are specific and challenging, where the task is relatively simple rather than ...

  5. Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…

  6. Pengaruh Goal Setting terhadap Performance : Tinjauan Teoritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Surya Dharma; Ariani, D. Wahyu

    2004-01-01

    This article is the conceptual view of goal setting theory and effects of goal setting on individual performance. Goal setting is recognized, and is a major theory of work motivation. Difficult goals have consistently been shown to lead to higher levels of performance than easy goals. If there is no commitment, a goal can have no motivational effect. Goals are central to current treatments of work motivation, and goal commitment is a necessary condition for difficult goals to result in higher...

  7. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  8. Goal-setting in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E H; Bogardus, S T; Tinetti, M E; Inouye, S K

    1999-07-01

    The process of setting goals for medical care in the context of chronic disease has received little attention in the medical literature, despite the importance of goal-setting in the achievement of desired outcomes. Using qualitative research methods, this paper develops a theory of goal-setting in the care of patients with dementia. The theory posits several propositions. First, goals are generated from embedded values but are distinct from values. Goals vary based on specific circumstances and alternatives whereas values are person-specific and relatively stable in the face of changing circumstances. Second, goals are hierarchical in nature, with complex mappings between general and specific goals. Third, there are a number of factors that modify the goal-setting process, by affecting the generation of goals from values or the translation of general goals to specific goals. Modifying factors related to individuals include their degree of risk-taking, perceived self-efficacy, and acceptance of the disease. Disease factors that modify the goal-setting process include the urgency and irreversibility of the medical condition. Pertinent characteristics of the patient-family-clinician interaction include the level of participation, control, and trust among patients, family members, and clinicians. The research suggests that the goal-setting process in clinical medicine is complex, and the potential for disagreements regarding goals substantial. The nature of the goal-setting process suggests that explicit discussion of goals for care may be necessary to promote effective patient-family-clinician communication and adequate care planning.

  9. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  10. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits...... of self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful...

  11. Goal-Oriented Ethics: Framing the Goal-Setting Concretely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Illathuparampil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Selling, professor emeritus from KU Leuven, Belgium, recently made a significant contribution towards ethical methodology. It is in fact a continuation of the in-house conversations that have been in vogue about methods in moral reasoning since Vatican II in the discipline called theological ethics. What is specific about Selling’s attempt is that he re-orients or reframes the evaluation of the moral event to consider human intentionality or motivation before considering human behavior or human acts. He convincingly establishes his method by a meticulous reading of Thomas Aquinas. This paper is a response to the goal-oriented ethics that he has posited. As illustrated below, this paper evaluates the goal-oriented approach as solid and sufficient. While fully endorsing this approach, this paper argues that the process of ethical goal-setting is to be framed concretely. In a concrete historical context, so that a goal-oriented approach fully serves its purpose, this paper proposes that it is to be reinforced by four supportive pillars, which are in fact assumed by Selling in his work. They are openness to human sciences, conversation among various narratives, positing a theological frame for ethical reasoning, and recourse to non-discursive reasoning.

  12. Goal Setting to Promote a Health Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J; Taylor, Wendell C; Hudnall, Gina Evans; Christie, Juliette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this parallel-group study was to determine whether a feasibility study based on newsletters and telephone counseling would improve goal- setting constructs; physical activity (PA); and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in a sample of older adults. Forty-three older adults ( M age = 70 years, >70% Asian, 54% female) living in Honolulu, Hawaii were recruited and randomly assigned to either a PA or F & V intake condition. All participants completed measures of PA, F & V intake, and goal setting mechanisms (i.e., specificity, difficulty, effort, commitment, and persistence) at baseline and 8-weeks. Paired t -tests were used to evaluate changes across time. We found that F & V participants significantly increased F & V intake and mean scores of goal specificity, effort, commitment, and persistence (all p goal setting mechanisms were observed for participants in the PA condition. Overall, our results show that a short-term intervention using newsletters and motivational calls based on goal- setting theory was effective in improving F & V intake; however, more research is needed to determine whether these strategies are effective for improving PA among a multiethnic sample of older adults.

  13. Goal Setting to Increase Student Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years, the teachers and students in Carter County, Kentucky have been utilizing goal setting. As a result, the district has shown tremendous growth on not only state assessments, but also on local assessments. Additionally, the number of students meeting benchmarks for college and career readiness has increased significantly. The…

  14. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...... for self-regulation is too painful and the individual rather gives up....

  15. Goal setting in sport and exercise: research and practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg,Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to briefly review the major theoretical and empirical research in goal setting related to sport and develop applications for best practice. Different types of goals were discussed and Locke's theory of goal setting provided the foundation for future research. After briefly reviewing the goal setting literature in sport and organizational settings, principles for how to apply goal setting to enhance performance were developed. The development and implementations o...

  16. The contribution of goal specificity to goal achievement in collaborative goal setting for the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Alles, Chehani; Lemay, Kate; Reddel, Helen; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Goal setting was investigated as part of an implementation trial of an asthma management service (PAMS) conducted in 96 Australian community pharmacies. Patients and pharmacists identified asthma-related issues of concern to the patient and collaboratively set goals to address these. Although goal setting is commonly integrated into disease state management interventions, the nature of goals, and their contribution to goal attainment and health outcomes are not well understood. To identify and describe: 1) goals set collaboratively between adult patients with asthma and their pharmacist, 2) goal specificity and goal achievement, and 3) describe the relationships between specificity, achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Measures of goal specificity, and goal achievement were developed and applied to patient data records. Goals set were thematically analyzed into goal domains. Proportions of goals set, goals achieved and their specificity were calculated. Correlational and regression analyses were undertaken to determine the relationships between goal specificity, goal achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Data were drawn from 498 patient records. Findings showed that patients set a wide range and number of asthma-related goals (N = 1787) and the majority (93%) were either achieved or being working toward by the end of the study. Goal achievement was positively associated with specific and moderately specific goals, but not non-specific goals. However, on closer inspection, an inconsistent pattern of relationships emerged as a function of goal domain. Findings also showed that goal setting was associated with end-of-study asthma control but not to asthma-related quality of life. Pharmacists can help patients to set achievable and specific asthma management goals, and these have the potential to directly impact health outcomes such as asthma control. Goal specificity appears to be an important feature in the

  17. Goal setting: an integral component of effective diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K; Bauman, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    Goal setting is a widely used behavior change tool in diabetes education and training. Prior research found specific relatively difficult but attainable goals set within a specific timeframe improved performance in sports and at the workplace. However, the impact of goal setting in diabetes self-care has not received extensive attention. This review examined the mechanisms underlying behavioral change according to goal setting theory and evaluated the impact of goal setting in diabetes intervention studies. Eight studies were identified, which incorporated goal setting as the primary strategy to promote behavioral change in individual, group-based, and primary care settings among patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in diabetes-related self-efficacy, dietary intake, physical activity, and A1c were observed in some but not all studies. More systematic research is needed to determine the conditions and behaviors for which goal setting is most effective. Initial recommendations for using goal setting in diabetes patient encounters are offered.

  18. Motivating Readers: Helping Students Set and Attain Personal Reading Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Márquez, Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    The motivational, cognitive, and performance benefits associated with setting goals are presented in light of goal-setting theory. These theoretical principles provide a framework that teachers can use to guide students in setting and pursuing personal reading goals that are proximal, specific, and compatible with students' reading abilities…

  19. Elucidating a Goal-Setting Continuum in Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Anne W; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Trentham, Barry; Polatajko, Helene J; Dawson, Deirdre R

    2015-08-01

    For individuals with brain injury, active participation in goal setting is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes. However, clinicians report difficulty engaging these clients in goal setting due to perceived or real deficits (e.g., lack of awareness). We conducted a study using grounded theory methods to understand how clinicians from occupational therapy facilitate client engagement and manage challenges inherent in goal setting with this population. Through constant comparative analysis, a goal-setting continuum emerged. At one end of the continuum, therapists embrace client-determined goals and enable clients to decide their own goals. At the other, therapists accept preset organization-determined goals (e.g., "the goal is discharge") and pay little attention to client input. Although all participants aspired to embrace client-determined goal setting, most felt powerless to do so within perceived organizational constraints. Views of advocacy and empowerment help to explain our findings and inform more inclusive practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Setting Goals for Urban Scale Climate Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2007-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on temperate urban areas may include the increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potential adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Warmer average summertime temperatures are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities, such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities and populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. In the context of these trends, research at the city scale has sought to understand the social and economic impacts of climate change and variability and to evaluate strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. We review the goals and outcomes of several municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., neighborhood watch programs and cooling centers); improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect); and efforts to incentivize the use of non-fossil-fuel based energy sources. Urban initiatives in European and American cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our concern is to understand the active networked role of urban managers in climate policies and programs in relation to supranational objectives and non-state actors.

  1. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  2. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Global Goal Setting for Improving National Governance and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, F.; Stevens, C.; Bernstein, S.; Gupta, A.; Kanie, N.; Nilsson, M.; Scobie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Can better governance, in itself, be a subject for global goal setting? This question stands at the center of this chapter, which focuses on the inclusion of “governance goals” in global goal-setting mechanisms, especially the Sustainable Development Goals agreed upon by the UN General Assembly in

  4. Goal setting as an outcome measure: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurn, Jane; Kneebone, Ian; Cropley, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Goal achievement has been considered to be an important measure of outcome by clinicians working with patients in physical and neurological rehabilitation settings. This systematic review was undertaken to examine the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting and goal attainment scaling approaches when used with working age and older people. To review the reliability, validity and sensitivity of both goal setting and goal attainment scaling when employed as an outcome measure within a physical and neurological working age and older person rehabilitation environment, by examining the research literature covering the 36 years since goal-setting theory was proposed. Data sources included a computer-aided literature search of published studies examining the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting/goal attainment scaling, with further references sourced from articles obtained through this process. There is strong evidence for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal attainment scaling. Empirical support was found for the validity of goal setting but research demonstrating its reliability and sensitivity is limited. Goal attainment scaling appears to be a sound measure for use in physical rehabilitation settings with working age and older people. Further work needs to be carried out with goal setting to establish its reliability and sensitivity as a measurement tool.

  5. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  6. Motivation and Goal-Setting in College Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cash, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Motivation and goal-setting are important concepts in athletics and sport and exercise psychology. However, little research has compared motivation and goal-setting by gender. The self-determination theory was used and the purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between male and female athletes when looking at amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and goal-setting. One hundred and six student-athletes (fifty one males and f...

  7. Goal setting with mothers in child development services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsingdal, S; St John, W; Miller, V; Harvey, A; Wearne, P

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this grounded theory study was to explore mothers' perspectives of the processes of collaborative goal setting in multidisciplinary child development services involving follow-up home therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in South East Queensland, Australia with 14 mothers of children aged 3-6 years who were accessing multidisciplinary child development services. Interviews were focussed around the process of goal setting. A grounded theory of Maternal Roles in Goal Setting (The M-RIGS Model) was developed from analysis of data. Mothers assumed Dependent, Active Participator and Collaborator roles when engaging with the therapist in goal-setting processes. These roles were characterized by the mother's level of dependence on the therapist and insight into their child's needs and therapy processes. Goal Factors, Parent Factors and Therapist Factors influenced and added complexity to the goal-setting process. The M-RIGS Model highlights that mothers take on a range of roles in the goal-setting process. Although family-centred practice encourages negotiation and collaborative goal setting, parents may not always be ready to take on highly collaborative roles. Better understanding of parent roles, goal-setting processes and influencing factors will inform better engagement with families accessing multidisciplinary child development services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Influence of Goal Setting on Exercise Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Lawrence E.; Stone, William J.; Anonsen, Lori J.; Klein, Diane A.

    2000-01-01

    Assessed the influence of fitness- and health-related goal setting on exercise adherence. Students in a college fitness program participated in goal setting, reading, or control groups. No significant differences in exercise adherence were found. Students enrolled for letter grades had more fitness center visits and hours of activity than students…

  9. Goal-Setting Learning Principles: A Lesson From Practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Zainudin bin Abu Bakar; Lee Mei Yun; NG Siew Keow; Tan Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    One of the prominent theory was the goal-setting theory which was widely been used in educational setting. It is an approach than can enhance the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This is a report paper about a simple study of the implementation of the goal-setting principle in the classroom. A clinical data of the teaching and learning session was then analysed to address several issues highlighted. It is found that the goal-setting principles if understood clearly by the te...

  10. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  11. Goal setting in practice : the effects of personality and perceptions of the goal-setting process on job satisfaction and goal commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study was to investigate how individual perceptions by employees of a goal-setting program and personality traits influence job satisfaction and goal commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Using the German version of Locke and Latham’s goal-setting questionnaire, 97

  12. Goal-Setting Learning Principles: A Lesson From Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainudin bin Abu Bakar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the prominent theory was the goal-setting theory which was widely been used in educational setting. It is an approach than can enhance the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This is a report paper about a simple study of the implementation of the goal-setting principle in the classroom. A clinical data of the teaching and learning session was then analysed to address several issues highlighted. It is found that the goal-setting principles if understood clearly by the teachers can enhance the teaching and learning activities. Failed to see the needs of the session will revoke the students learning interest. It is suggested that goal-setting learning principles could become a powerful aid for the teachers in the classroom.

  13. Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Traci; de Ridder, Denise; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  15. Healthcare professional versus patient goal setting in intermittent allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J; Seeto, C; Saini, B; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Krass, I; Armour, C; Smith, L

    2008-01-01

    To examine the impact of healthcare professional versus patient goal setting for the self-management of intermittent allergic rhinitis (AR) on symptom severity and quality of life. This was a 6 week, parallel group study. Group A participants, with pharmacist facilitation, nominated personally relevant goals and strategies relating to their AR. Group B participants had their goals and strategies set by the pharmacist. The main outcome measures used included perceived symptom severity and quality of life. In addition, goals and strategies data from participants of both groups were collected and analysed. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in symptom severity and quality of life scores however Group B symptom severity scores improved more. Group B set a greater number of goals and strategies which were better structured and more task specific. This is the first study to investigate the impact of goal setting on patient behaviour in a chronic yet episodic illness. Our results suggest that self-management goals set by the healthcare professional which are clinically indicated but tailored to the patient's nominated symptoms yields better outcomes than goals nominated by the patient. A brief, structured intervention, tailored to patient symptoms, can enhance self-management of intermittent allergic rhinitis.

  16. Predicting race performance in triathlon: the role of perfectionism, achievement goals, and personal goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeber, Joachim; Uphill, Mark A; Hotham, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes' goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes' performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.

  17. Choosing the Future You Prefer. A Goal Setting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Edward B.; Lippitt, Ronald O.

    The guide, intended for group and organization leaders, presents activities and exercises to aid in personal and group goal-setting and planning for the future. The objective is to help groups choose goals which are sensitive to and oriented toward the evolving future with its rapid rate of change. The guide is presented in eight chapters.…

  18. Planning for Me! Setting Personal Goals. [Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Paul

    This book is designed to help the individual acquire skills in life planning. Part 1 focuses on achieving the most from use of the book. It discusses personal responsibility, personal goals, and possible uses of the book. Part 2 contains the procedures to follow. It begins by listing benefits from setting goals. Exercises that follow assess…

  19. Beyond SMART? A New Framework for Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Trevor; Tosey, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article extends currently reported theory and practice in the use of learning goals or targets with students in secondary and further education. Goal-setting and action-planning constructs are employed in personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) and are advocated as practice within the English national policy…

  20. Goal setting as a self-regulation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suvorov, A.; van de Ven, J.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theory of self-regulation based on goal setting for an agent with present-biased preferences. Preferences are assumed to be reference-dependent and exhibit loss aversion, as in prospect theory. The reference point is determined endogenously as an optimal self-sustaining goal. The

  1. Goal setting as a self-regulation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suvorov, A.; van de Ven, J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of self-regulation based on goal setting for an agent with present-biased preferences. Preferences are assumed to be reference-dependent and exhibit loss aversion, as in prospect theory. The reference point is determined endogenously as an optimal self-sustaining goal. The

  2. Managers' Goal-Setting Strategies : Focus on Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Fredrik; Purohit, Nisha

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Goals and goal-setting are two aspects that occur everyday in business life however little is known about the effect of strategic goal-setting. To a cer-tain extent, this affects all of us either directly or indirectly, everyday through strategic decisions that are made by business managers all around the world. A company’s performance of a company can be measured in many ways. A firm’s performance can be financially successful if the com-pany’s strategy is well planned. ...

  3. Specific features of goal setting in road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, V. I.; Danilov, O. F.; Petrov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic safety (RTS) management is inherently a branch of cybernetics and therefore requires clear formalization of the task. The paper aims at identification of the specific features of goal setting in RTS management under the system approach. The paper presents the results of cybernetic modeling of the cause-to-effect mechanism of a road traffic accident (RTA); in here, the mechanism itself is viewed as a complex system. A designed management goal function is focused on minimizing the difficulty in achieving the target goal. Optimization of the target goal has been performed using the Lagrange principle. The created working algorithms have passed the soft testing. The key role of the obtained solution in the tactical and strategic RTS management is considered. The dynamics of the management effectiveness indicator has been analyzed based on the ten-year statistics for Russia.

  4. Goal setting and action planning in the rehabilitation setting: development of a theoretically informed practice framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Dixon, Diane; Wyke, Sally

    2011-05-01

    Setting and achieving goals is fundamental to rehabilitation practice but has been criticized for being a-theoretical and the key components of replicable goal-setting interventions are not well established. To describe the development of a theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings and to detail its component parts. Causal modelling was used to map theories of behaviour change onto the process of setting and achieving rehabilitation goals, and to suggest the mechanisms through which patient outcomes are likely to be affected. A multidisciplinary task group developed the causal model into a practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings through iterative discussion and implementation with six patients. Four components of a goal-setting and action-planning practice framework were identified: (i) goal negotiation, (ii) goal identification, (iii) planning, and (iv) appraisal and feedback. The variables hypothesized to effect change in patient outcomes were self-efficacy and action plan attainment. A theory-based goal setting practice framework for use in rehabilitation settings is described. The framework requires further development and systematic evaluation in a range of rehabilitation settings.

  5. Enhancing Productivity Through Feedback and Goal Setting. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Robert D.; And Others

    A field test was conducted to research the effects of feedback and goal-setting techniques on increasing productivity. Subjects were regular employees of two autonomous clerical-type units in a credit card and payment processing center of a Southwestern oil company. The study desiqn had three phases--baseline period and two experimental conditions…

  6. Perceived Focus of Professional Mentoring for Goal Setting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore, perceives professional mentoring as one of the essential coaching services required by business education graduate employees to excel in this responsibility. The paper centred on the perceived focus of professional mentoring for goal setting and improved performance of business education graduate ...

  7. A qualitative study of gestational weight gain goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Shaniece; Oken, Emily; Guthrie, Lauren; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-10-20

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important predictor of short and long-term pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child, and women who set a GWG goal are more likely to gain within recommended ranges. Little information is available regarding potentially modifiable factors that underlie a woman's GWG goals. Our aims were to explore women's perceptions regarding factors that affect GWG, their understanding of appropriate GWG, their goal-setting experiences including patient-health care provider (HCP) conversations, and supportive interventions they would most like to help them achieve the recommended GWG. We conducted nine in-depth interviews and seven focus groups with a total of 33 Boston, Massachusetts (MA) area women who were pregnant and had delivered within the prior 6 months. We recorded and transcribed all interviews. Two investigators independently coded resulting transcripts. We managed data using MAXQDA2 and conducted a content analysis. Perceived factors that contributed to GWG goal-setting included the mother's weight control behaviors concerning exercise and diet-including a "new way of eating for two" and "semblance of control", experiences during prior pregnancies, conversations with HCPs, and influence from various information sources. Women focused on behaviors with consistent messaging across multiple sources of information, but mainly trusted their HCP, valued one-to-one conversations with them about GWG, preferred that the HCP initiate the conversation about GWG goals, and would be open to have the conversation started based on visual aid based on their own GWG progression. Pregnant women highly value discussions with their HCP to set GWG goals. Pregnant women view their clinicians as the most reliable source of information and believe that clinicians should open weight-related discussions throughout pregnancy.

  8. Ready for goal setting? Process evaluation of a patient-specific goal-setting method in physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Anita; Köke, Albère; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2017-08-31

    Patient participation and goal setting appear to be difficult in daily physiotherapy practice, and practical methods are lacking. An existing patient-specific instrument, Patient-Specific Complaints (PSC), was therefore optimized into a new Patient Specific Goal-setting method (PSG). The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of the PSG in daily physiotherapy practice, and to explore the potential impact of the new method. We conducted a process evaluation within a non-controlled intervention study. Community-based physiotherapists were instructed on how to work with the PSG in three group training sessions. The PSG is a six-step method embedded across the physiotherapy process, in which patients are stimulated to participate in the goal-setting process by: identifying problematic activities, prioritizing them, scoring their abilities, setting goals, planning and evaluating. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected among patients and physiotherapists by recording consultations and assessing patient files, questionnaires and written reflection reports. Data were collected from 51 physiotherapists and 218 patients, and 38 recordings and 219 patient files were analysed. The PSG steps were performed as intended, but the 'setting goals' and 'planning treatment' steps were not performed in detail. The patients and physiotherapists were positive about the method, and the physiotherapists perceived increased patient participation. They became aware of the importance of engaging patients in a dialogue, instead of focusing on gathering information. The lack of integration in the electronic patient system was a major barrier for optimal use in practice. Although the self-reported actual use of the PSG, i.e. informing and involving patients, and client-centred competences had improved, this was not completely confirmed by the objectively observed behaviour. The PSG is a feasible method and tends to have impact on increasing patient participation in the goal-setting

  9. Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Shyam; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Bali Swain, Ranjula; Sumpter, David J T

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  10. Goal setting education and counseling practices of diabetes educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malemute, Charlene L; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Ballejos, Miriam; Butkus, Sue; Early, Kathaleen Briggs

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify goal setting education practices used by diabetes educators working with type 2 diabetes patients. Data were collected by a mail questionnaire with 179 diabetes educators purposively selected from the 2008 American Association of Diabetes Educators membership listing. Many diabetes educators (52%) reported that more than 75% of their patients set goals for diabetes control. Independent factor patterns for the frequency of information collected from the patient for the first diabetes education session showed that educators either focused on patients' self-management practices (exercise and dietary practices, knowledge, and social impacts of diabetes) or issues with learning about self-management, such as understanding the patient's learning style and motivation for managing diabetes. Factor patterns overall showed diverse approaches to working with patients, including strategies used with patients struggling with dietary goals and the importance of tasks to complete during the first patient session. Although most educators reported practices that were largely patient centered as promoted by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and models of chronic disease management, patterns of practice suggest that diabetes educators vary considerably in how they apply education practices, especially with dietary self-management education.

  11. Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory, describing core findings of the theory, mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. Explains the external validity and practical significance of goal setting theory,…

  12. Goal-setting protocol in adherence to exercise by Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2002-04-01

    A goal-setting protocol, based on research in goal setting and performance and personal construct theory, was tested for its effect on adherence to a new exercise program. The Goal-setting group (n = 50) had significantly less dropout (30%) than the control group (n = 50) (74%). The Goal-setting group also had significantly better attendance (psettings were discussed.

  13. Dose Relations between Goal Setting, Theory-Based Correlates of Goal Setting and Increases in Physical Activity during a Workplace Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Wilson, Mark G.; DeJoy, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A…

  14. Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.

  15. Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    self - esteem showed greater performance improvement than individuals with low self - esteem ...There was no self - esteem effect when instrumentality was high. When self - esteem was low , typists who perceived high goal instrumentality showed greater...performance improvement than M. 49 those with low goal instrumentality; when self - esteem was high, there was no instrumentality effect.

  16. Goal Setting Theory: What It Implies for Strategic Human Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Among numerous motivational theories, goal setting theory particularly can serve strategic human resource development practices. The goal-setting theory suggests that organizational goals have to be communicated clearly and the goals need to be specific enough. Another feature of goal-setting is that they need not be too easy or perceived to be impossible to fulfill. SHRD personnel should keep in mind that some employees prefer to work individually toward fulfilling a goal, while others prefe...

  17. Can children identify and achieve goals for intervention? A randomized trial comparing two goal-setting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Jacobsson, Helén; Johansson, Ulla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of two different goal-setting approaches (children's self-identified goals and goals identified by parents) were compared on a goal-directed, task-oriented intervention. In this assessor-blinded parallel randomized trial, 34 children with disabilities (13 males, 21 females; mean age 9y, SD 1y 4mo) were randomized using concealed allocation to one of two 8-week, goal-directed, task-oriented intervention groups with different goal-setting approaches: (1) children's self-identified goals (n=18) using the Perceived Efficacy and Goal-Setting System, or (2) goals identified by parents (n=16) using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Participants were recruited through eight paediatric rehabilitation centres and randomized between October 2011 and May 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Goal Attainment Scaling and the secondary measure, the COPM performance scale (COPM-P). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention and at the 5-month follow-up. There was no evidence of a difference in mean characteristics at baseline between groups. There was evidence of an increase in mean goal attainment (mean T score) in both groups after intervention (child-goal group: estimated mean difference [EMD] 27.84, 95% CI 22.93-32.76; parent-goal group: EMD 21.42, 95% CI 16.16-26.67). There was no evidence of a difference in the mean T scores post-intervention between the two groups (EMD 6.42, 95% CI -0.80 to 13.65). These results were sustained at the 5-month follow-up. Children's self-identified goals are achievable to the same extent as parent-identified goals and remain stable over time. Thus children can be trusted to identify their own goals for intervention, thereby influencing their involvement in their intervention programmes. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edwin A; Latham, Gary P

    2002-09-01

    The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory's limitations.

  19. Principles of marketing: Setting goals and marketing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Presented material to the students: 6.1. The mission of the organization and corporate goals 6.2. Marketing goals 6.3. Classification of marketing strategies 6.4. Generic marketing strategies regarding the wanted competitive advantage. 6.5. Competitive strategies in relation to the competitors and in relation to the environment. 6.6. Growth strategies or investment (intensive growth and integration / diversification) and maintenance strategies or divest (maintenance, harvest...

  20. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  1. Goal-Setting in Youth Football. Are Coaches Missing an Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Alison; Gervis, Misia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Goal-setting is not always the simple motivational technique when used in an applied sport setting especially in relation to the meaning of achievement in competitive sport. Goal-setting needs to be examined in a broader context than goal-setting theory, such as provided by social cognitive theories of motivation. In football, the…

  2. Long-range goal setting in the nuclear utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's (INPO's) programs support the industry's efforts to improve performance in nuclear plant safety and reliability. The success of these programs can best be measured by the progress of the industry. As utilities focused their attention on nuclear plant performance, the Institute's goal was to make sure its programs and activities provided the best possible support for these efforts. INPO continues to coordinate an industry-wide plant performance indicator program to assist member utilities in assessing station performance. Closely related to this effort is the nuclear industry's establishment of long-range plant performance goals. The US nuclear utility industry currently sends INPO quarterly data on 28 key performance indicators. INPO analyzes these data and provides periodic reports to its members and participants. Selected highlights of INPO's Performance Indicators for the US Nuclear Utility, dated June 1986, are discussed. Throughout 1985, INPO interacted with members, participants, and three external ad hoc review groups to refine the overall performance indicators and to develop background for each unit. By April 1986, each utility had developed long-term goals for each unit. By April 1986, each utility had developed long-term goals for most of the overall indicators. These goals represent a commitment to achievement of excellence when applied to the day-to-day conduct of plant operations, and provide a framework for action

  3. Goal-oriëntation, goal-setting and goal-driven behavior in (minimalist) user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens with a summary of minimalist design strategies that aim to optimize user instructions. Next, it discusses three recent research efforts to further improve these strategies. The common focus in these efforts is the attention to people’s goal-related management and control of

  4. Preoperative learning goals set by surgical residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Breen, Elizabeth; Ashley, Stanley W; Peyre, Sarah E

    2011-09-01

    The operating room (OR) remains the main teaching venue for surgical trainees. The OR is considered a pure-discovery learning environment; the downsides of this can be putatively overcome when faculty and trainee arrive at a shared understanding of learning. This study aimed to better understand preoperative learning goals to identify areas of commonalities and potential barrier to intraoperative teaching. Brief, structured preoperative interviews were conducted outside the OR with the resident and faculty member who were scheduled to operate together. Answers were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory. Twenty-seven resident-faculty pairs were interviewed. Nine residents (33.3%) were junior (PGY 1 and 2) and 18 (66.7%) were senior (PGY 3 through 5). Learning goal categories that emerged from the response analysis were anatomy, basic and advanced surgical skills, general and specific procedural tasks, technical autonomy, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations. Residents articulated fewer learning goals than faculty (1.5 versus 2.4; P = 0.024). The most frequently identified learning goal by both groups was one classifiable under general procedural tasks; the greatest divergence was seen regarding perioperative considerations, which were identified frequently by faculty members but rarely by residents. Faculty articulate significantly more learning goals for the residents they will operate with than residents articulate for themselves. Our data suggest that residents and faculty align on some learning goals for the OR but residents tend to be more limited, focusing predominantly on technical aspects of the operation. Faculty members tend to hold a broader view of the learning potential of the OR. These discrepancies may present barriers to effective intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 436 - Goal Setting Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mission accomplishment. Finding viable opportunities for reducing energy use, increasing energy efficiency.... Included are the anticipated effects on consumption cause by improvements in energy efficiency and fuel... appropriate budget year. (b) For energy efficiencies—Energy efficiency baselines and goals for each fuel type...

  6. Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring for Students with Disabilities: Practical Tips and Ideas for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides teachers with practical tips and ideas about how self-monitoring works in conjunction with goal-setting strategies to support students to set and achieve different types of academic goals. In addition, specific examples of academic goals and self-monitoring forms are provided to give teachers an example of such goals. To…

  7. Patient-Centered Goal Setting in a Hospital-Based Outpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Danielle B; McIntyre, Amanda; Mirkowski, Magdalena; Janzen, Shannon; Viana, Ricardo; Britt, Eileen; Teasell, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Goal-setting can have a positive impact on stroke recovery during rehabilitation. Patient participation in goal formulation can ensure that personally relevant goals are set, and can result in greater satisfaction with the rehabilitation experience, along with improved recovery of stroke deficits. This, however, not yet been studied in a stroke outpatient rehabilitation setting. To assess patient satisfaction of meeting self-selected goals during outpatient rehabilitation following a stroke. Retrospective chart review. Stroke patients enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient rehabilitation program, who set at least 1 goal during rehabilitation. Patients recovering from a stroke received therapy through the outpatient rehabilitation program between January 2010 and December 2013. Upon admission and discharge from rehabilitation, patients rated their satisfaction with their ability to perform goals that they wanted to achieve. Researchers independently sorted and labeled recurrent themes of goals. Goals were further sorted into International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories. To compare the perception of patients' goal satisfaction, repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted across the 3 ICF goal categorizations. Goal satisfaction scores. A total of 286 patients were included in the analysis. Patient goals concentrated on themes of improving hand function, mobility, and cognition. Goals were also sorted into ICF categories in which impairment-based and activity limitation-based goals were predominant. Compared to activity-based and participation-based goals, patients with impairment-based goals perceived greater satisfaction with meeting their goals at admission and discharge (P rehabilitation program (P stroke rehabilitation setting, patients set heterogeneous goals that were predominantly impairment based. Satisfaction in achieving goals significantly improved after receiving therapy. The type of goals that patients

  8. Using Goal-Setting Strategies To Enrich the Practicum and Internship Experiences of Beginning Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell C.

    2000-01-01

    Goal setting can be an effective way to help beginning counselors focus on important developmental issues. This article argues that counselors and supervisors must consider issues related to goal-setting theory and understand the process by which goals are set so that optimal learning experiences are created. (Author/MKA)

  9. An empirical examination of negotiated goals and performance-to-goal following the introduction of an incentive bonus plan with participative goal setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.W.; Dekker, H.C.; Sedatole, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research documents performance improvements following the implementation of pay-for-performance (PFP) bonus plans. However, bonus plans typically pay for performance relative to a goal, and the manager whose performance is to be evaluated often participates in setting the goal. In these

  10. The impact of goal setting and goal orientation on performance during a clerkship surgical skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Diesen, Diana L; Hogg, Deborah; Huerta, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate relevant goal-setting theory and to identify if trainees' goal orientations have an impact on the assigned goals-performance relationship. Trainees attended 1 of the 3 goal-training activities (do your best, performance, or learning goals) for knot tying (KT) and camera navigation (CN) during the 3rd-year clerkship rotation. Questionnaires and pretests and/or post-tests were completed. One twenty-seven 3rd-year medical students (age: 25 ± 2.6; 54% women) participated in the training program. Pretraining to post-training performance changes were significant for all groups on both tasks (P goals group (do your best: KTΔ = 2.14, CNΔ = 1.69; performance: KTΔ = 2.49, CNΔ = 2.24; learning: KTΔ = 3.04 CNΔ = 2.76). Correlations between goal orientations and improvement were examined, revealing a unique role of goal orientation for performance improvement. These data indicate that consideration of goal type and trainee goal orientation must be considered during curriculum development to maximize educational value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of participatively set and assigned goals in the reduction of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Brian E; Stephens, Robert S

    2010-12-01

    The effects of setting goals on goal commitment, self-efficacy for goal achievement, and goal achievement in the context of an alcohol use intervention were examined using an experimental design in which participants were randomized to participatively set goals, assigned goals, and no goal conditions. One hundred and twenty-six heavy-drinking college students received a single cognitive-behavioral assessment/intervention session and completed measures of goal commitment, self-efficacy for goal achievement, and alcohol use. Results were consistent with, and expanded upon, previous research by demonstrating that having a goal for limiting alcohol consumption was predictive of lower quantity and frequency of alcohol use relative to not having a goal. Participation in goal setting yielded greater goal commitment and self-efficacy for goal achievement than assigned goals, but did not result in significantly greater reductions in alcohol use relative to assigned goals. Goal commitment and self-efficacy explained unique variance in the prediction of alcohol use at follow-up. Findings support the importance of goal setting in alcohol interventions and suggest areas for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Goal-setting in multidisciplinary team care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meesters, Jorit; Hagel, Sofia; Klokkerud, Mari

    2013-01-01

    %) to "Environmental Factors" (e-codes). Thirty-five of the 151 unique ICF codes (23%) were not in the comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA, whereas 23 of the ICF codes in this Core Set (24%) were not in the rehabilitation goals. Conclusion: The goals set in a team rehabilitation setting for patients with rheumatoid...

  13. Personal Goal Setting and Quality of Life: A Mixed Methods Study of Adult Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to examine the potential impactful relationship between personal goal setting and the quality of life satisfaction (built upon the Goal Setting Theory of motivation and performance). The study aimed to determine how influential the goal achievement process is (or is not) regarding personal fulfillment and…

  14. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Setting Certificate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  15. Goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation for children with motor disabilities: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Wiart, Lesley; Phelan, Shanon K

    2018-02-01

    The three objectives of this scoping review were to (1) identify key conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the extent to which they are used to inform goal setting related to rehabilitation goal setting with children with motor disabilities, (2) describe research that has evaluated goal setting processes and outcomes, and (3) summarize the purposes of goal setting described in paediatric rehabilitation literature. The scoping review process described by Arksey and O'Malley was used to guide article selection and data extraction. A total of 62 articles were included in the final review. While the concept of family-centered care was well represented, theoretical frameworks specific to goal setting (i.e. goal setting theory described by Locke and Latham, mastery motivation, social cognitive, personal construct, and self-determination theories) were rarely addressed. No articles reviewed addressed prominent behavior change theory. With the exception of the description of tools specifically designed for use with children, the role of the child in the goal setting process was generally absent or not well described. Few studies ( n = 6) discussed the linkage between goals and intervention strategies explicitly. Only two studies in the review evaluated outcomes associated with goal setting. The primary purpose for goal setting identified in the literature was to develop goals that are meaningful to families ( n = 49). The results highlight significant gaps in the literature explicating a sound theoretical basis for goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation and research evaluating the effects of goal qualities and goal setting processes on the achievement of meaningful outcomes.

  16. Goal setting in diabetes self-management: taking the baby steps to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, Darren A; Davis, Terry C; Wallace, Andrea S; Seligman, Hilary K; Bryant-Shilliday, Betsy; Arnold, Connie L; Freburger, Janet; Schillinger, Dean

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of a diabetes self-management guide and a brief counseling intervention in helping patients set and achieve their behavioral goals. We conducted a quasi-experimental study using a one group pretest posttest design to assess the effectiveness of a goal setting intervention along with a self-management guide. English- and Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes had one in-person session and two telephone follow-up calls with a non-clinical provider over a 12-16-week period. At each call and at the end of the study, we assessed success in achieving behavioral goals and problem solving toward those goals. Satisfaction with the self-management guide was assessed at the end of the study. We enrolled 250 patients across three sites and 229 patients completed the study. Most patients chose to set goals in diet and exercise domains. 93% of patients achieved at least one behavioral goal during the study and 73% achieved at least two behavioral goals. Many patients exhibited problem solving behavior to achieve their goals. We found no significant differences in reported achievement of behavior goals by literacy or language. Patients were very satisfied with the guide. A brief goal setting intervention along with a diabetes self-management guide helped patients set and achieve healthy behavioral goals. Non-clinical providers can successfully help a diverse range of patients with diabetes set and achieve behavioral goals.

  17. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness.

  18. Guided goal setting: effectiveness in a dietary and physical activity intervention with low-income adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of the guided goal setting strategy on changing adolescents' dietary and physical activity self-efficacy and behaviors. Adolescents were individually assigned to treatment (intervention with guided goal setting) or control conditions (intervention without guided goal setting) with data collected before and after the education intervention. Urban middle school in a low-income community in Central California. Ethnically diverse middle school students (n = 94, 55% male) who were participants of a USDA nutrition education program. Driven by the Social Cognitive Theory, the intervention targeted dietary and physical activity behaviors of adolescents. Dietary self-efficacy and behavior; physical activity self-efficacy and behavior; goal effort and spontaneous goal setting. ANCOVA and path analysis were performed using the full sample and a sub-sample informed by Locke's recommendations (accounting for goal effort and spontaneous goal setting). No significant differences were found between groups using the full sample. Using the sub-sample, greater gains in dietary behavior (p goal effort and spontaneous goal setting, this study provides some evidence that the use of guided goal setting with adolescents may be a viable strategy to promote dietary and physical activity behavior change.

  19. Identifying and applying psychological theory to setting and achieving rehabilitation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Wyke, Sally; Dixon, Diane

    2009-04-01

    Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories that that offer most potential to inform clinical practice. The rehabilitation and self-management literature was systematically searched to identify review papers or empirical studies that proposed a specific theory of behaviour change relevant to setting and/or achieving goals in a clinical context. Data from included papers were extracted under the headings of: key constructs, clinical application and empirical support. Twenty-four papers were included in the review which proposed a total of five theories: (i) social cognitive theory, (ii) goal setting theory, (iii) health action process approach, (iv) proactive coping theory, and (v) the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. The first three of these theories demonstrated most potential to inform clinical practice, on the basis of their capacity to inform interventions that resulted in improved patient outcomes. Social cognitive theory, goal setting theory and the health action process approach are theories of behaviour change that can inform clinicians in the process of setting and achieving goals in the rehabilitation setting. Overlapping constructs within these theories have been identified, and can be applied in clinical practice through the development and evaluation of a goal-setting practice framework.

  20. Using Goal-Setting in "P(paw)LANS" to Improve Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2009-01-01

    We taught a fifth grade student in resource room how to set goals and monitor his progress toward achieving them in the area of story writing by using the self-regulated strategy development model. The steps of this approach are included in the mnemonic PLANS (Pick goals, List ways to meet goals, And make Notes, Sequence notes). These steps were…

  1. 'Finding a balance' in involving patients in goal setting early after stroke: a physiotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A; Roberts, A R; Freeman, J A

    2014-09-01

    Collaborative goal setting (between patient and professional) confers benefits within stroke and neurological rehabilitation, and is recommended in clinical guidelines. However, evidence suggests that patient participation in rehabilitation goal setting is not maximized, particularly within the hospital setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate physiotherapists' perceptions about their experiences of collaborative goal setting with patients in the sub-acute stages after stroke, in the hospital setting. This qualitative study employed constructivist grounded theory methodology. Nine physiotherapists, of varying experience, were selected using purposive then theoretical sampling from three National Health Service hospital stroke units in England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory to find common themes. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) 'coming to terms with stroke' - the individual patient journey; 2) the evolution of goal setting skill - the individual physiotherapist journey; and 3) 'finding a balance' - managing expectations and negotiating interactions. A provisional grounded theory was constructed, which highlighted that, from the physiotherapists' perspective, collaboration with patients within goal setting early after stroke involved finding a balance between numerous different drivers, which have the potential to compete. Patient-directed and therapist-directed goal setting approaches could be viewed as opposite ends of a continuum, along which patient-centred goal setting is possible. Physiotherapists perceived that collaborating with patients in goal setting was important but challenging. Goal setting interactions with other professionals, patients and families were perceived as complex, difficult and requiring significant effort. The importance of individuality and temporality were recognized suggesting that

  2. Gender and Autonomy-Supportive Contexts: Theoretical Perspectives of Self-Determination and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shinyi; Chen, Yu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    In integrating theoretical perspectives of self-determination and goal-setting, this study proposes a conceptual model with moderating and mediating effects exploring gender issue in autonomy-supportive learning in higher education as research context. In the proposed model, goal-setting attributes, i.e., individual determinants, social…

  3. An Analysis of Training Focused on Improving SMART Goal Setting for Specific Employee Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Jeannie M.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the proficiency of employee SMART goal setting following the intervention of employee SMART goal setting training. Current challenges in higher education substantiate the need for employees to align their performance with the mission, vision, and strategic directions of the organization. A performance management…

  4. Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard; Melzer, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    recommendations was used as intervention. The goal-setting group (n = 33) attended 12 weekly, one-hour goal-setting sessions, while the control group (n = 16) did not. A Danish version of the short form of the Achievement Motives Scale-Sport was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and showed good fit...

  5. Patients' perceptions of their roles in goal setting in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaistra, Harriett; Singh, Mina D; Ireland, Sandra; Harper, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Goal setting is a common practice in rehabilitation, yet there is a paucity of literature exploring patients' perceptions of their roles in this process. This study was conducted using a qualitative descriptive methodology to explore patients' perceptions of their roles in setting goals in a spinal cord injury regional rehabilitation program. Imogene King's theory of goal attainment was used to frame the study. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed using a content analysis. The results revealed four themes: Visioning, Redefining, Brainstorming, and Rebuilding Participants (n = 13) envisioned their roles as setting an overarching priority goal, defining detailed rehabilitation goals, sharing knowledge with the team, and rebuilding skills to attain goals. Implications for nursing practice include the need to understand patients' experiences and perceptions, share knowledge, and support effective communication to promote collaborative goal setting. A need to enhance health professionals' education to fully understand factors influencing patients' abilities to set rehabilitation goals, and future research in methods to promote patients' engagement in goal setting was also clearly indicated.

  6. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  7. Goal setting in cancer rehabilitation and relation to quality of life among women with gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Kamila A; Mogensen, Ole; Jensen, Pernille T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation should be integrated in the routine cancer care of women treated for gynaecological cancers. Goal setting is expected to facilitate the process through patient involvement and motivation. Our knowledge about goal setting in cancer rehabilitation is, however, sparse...... and emotional categories were the second and third most frequent among patients with endometrial and ovarian cancer. Sexual issues were dominant among the cervical cancer patients. Regression analysis showed significant association between quality of life scores and goal setting within the social and emotional...

  8. Key components of effective collaborative goal setting in the chronic care encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative goal setting in patient-provider communication with chronic patients is the phase in which--after collecting the data regarding the patient's health--it is necessary to make a decision regarding the best therapy and behaviors the patient should adopt until the next encounter. Although it is considered a pivotal phase of shared decision making, there remain a few open questions regarding its components and its efficacy: What are the factors that improve or impede agreement on treatment goals and strategies?; What are the 'success conditions' of collaborative goal setting?; How can physicians effectively help patients make their preferences explicit and then co-construct with them informed preferences to help them reach their therapeutic goals? Using the theoretical framework of dialogue types, an approach developed in the field of Argumentation Theory, it will be possible to formulate hypotheses on the success conditions' and effects on patient commitment of collaborative goal setting.

  9. Development of a Goal Setting Process and Instrumentation for Teachers and Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minix, Nancy; And Others

    A pilot program, the Career Ladder Plan, was developed in Kentucky to evaluate a teacher's performance in terms of professional growth and development and professional leadership/initiative based on that teacher's performance on a setting/goal attainment process. Goals jointly selected by the teacher and his/her principal must contribute to school…

  10. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 1: Goal Setting and Clarification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-12

    This module will help attendees understand nuances between different types of renewable energy goals, the importance of terminology when setting and announcing goals, the value of formally clarifying priorities, and how priorities may impact procurement options. It is the first training in a series intended to help municipal staff procure solar PV for their land and buildings.

  11. Shining lights and bad apples : The effect of goal setting on group performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Janssen, S.E.A.; Meeus, M.T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Management education programs increasingly use group work as a tool for developing teamwork knowledge and skills. A critical factor identified in prior research to influence group performance in student groups is goal-setting. We test in a sample of 37 groups the effect of group goal configurations

  12. How Setting Goals Enhances Learners’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ballesteros Muñoz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a study that explores the relationship between SMART goal setting (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-based and learning English in Colombia concerning a foreign language learners’ self-efficacy beliefs in listening. The participants were seventh and ninth grade students of two schools in Bogotá, Colombia. The results revealed that self-efficacy was highly positive when related to goal setting as students were able to set SMART goals to improve their listening comprehension and learners showed improvement in self-efficacy beliefs and felt more motivated while completing listening tasks related to songs. Furthermore this study shows that goal setting training can be incorporated successfully into the English as a foreign language classroom.

  13. Setting Goals and Objectives for LD Children-Process and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Elizabeth R.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are problems and procedures in setting goals and objectives for learning disabled children in the implementation of Individualized Education Programs required by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. (Author/ DLS)

  14. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators.

  15. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators

  16. Effects of setting creative goals of different specificity on judged creativity of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Čorko, Irena; Vranić, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the effect of setting creative goals of different specificity on judged creativity of the product. Female psychology students (N=47) were divided in 3 groups. Experimental task was to make a collage. Groups differed in the level of specificity of the given goal. Collages were judged by 11 judges using the consensual assessment technique. Factor analysis of these judgments confirmed 2 orthogonal factors: creativity and technical goodness. Results show that setting a specific...

  17. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bronikowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2, 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4. An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities.

  18. Disentangling self-management goal setting and action planning: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anna Lenzen

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in the numbers of chronically ill people necessitates efforts for effective self-management. Goal setting and action planning are frequently used, as they are thought to support patients in changing their behavior. However, it remains unclear how goal setting and action planning in the context of self-management are defined in the scientific literature. This study aimed to achieve a better understanding of the various definitions used.A scoping review was conducted, searching PubMed, Cinahl, PsychINFO and Cochrane. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were formulated to ensure the focus on goal setting/action planning and self-management. The literature was updated to December 2015; data selection and charting was done by two reviewers. A qualitative content analysis approach was used.Out of 9115 retrieved articles, 58 met the inclusion criteria. We created an overview of goal setting phases that were applied (preparation, formulation of goals, formulation of action plan, coping planning and follow-up. Although the phases we found are in accordance with commonly known frameworks for goal setting, it was striking that the majority of studies (n = 39, 67% did not include all phases. We also prepared an overview of components and strategies for each goal setting phase. Interestingly, few strategies were found for the communication between patients and professionals about goals/action plans. Most studies (n = 35, 60% focused goal setting on one single disease and on a predefined lifestyle behavior; nearly half of the articles (n = 27, 47% reported a theoretical framework.The results might provide practical support for developers of interventions. Moreover, our results might encourage professionals to become more aware of the phases of the goal setting process and of strategies emphasizing on patient reflection. However, more research might be useful to examine strategies to facilitate communication about goals/action plans. It might

  19. Survival, momentum, and things that make me "me": patients' perceptions of goal setting after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melanie; Levack, William; McPherson, Kathryn M; Dean, Sarah G; Reed, Kirk; Weatherall, Mark; Taylor, William J

    2014-01-01

    Goal setting and patient-centredness are considered fundamental concepts in rehabilitation. However, the best way to involve patients in setting goals remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore patient experiences of goal setting in post-acute stroke rehabilitation to further understanding of its application to practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts from 10 stroke survivors, recruited from 4 rehabilitation units as part of a pilot study investigating the effects of a structured means of eliciting patient-centred goals in post-acute stroke rehabilitation. Three key themes emerged: (1) "A Day by Day Momentum", comprising subordinate themes of "Unpredictability" and "Natural Progression" in which daily progress forwards was seen as an integral part of rehabilitation; (2) "Battle versus Alliance" in which issues of struggle versus support influenced participants' advancement; and (3) "The Special Things", consisting of subordinate themes of "What Makes Me 'Me'" and "Symbolic Achievements" concerning issues defining individuals and their rehabilitation experiences. Patients' discourse around goal setting can differ from the discourse conventionally used by clinicians when describing "best practice" in rehabilitation goal setting. Understanding patients' non-conventional views of goals may assist in supporting and motivating them, thus providing drive for their rehabilitation. Stroke patients think about goals very differently from health professionals. Individual patients have diverse ideas about goals within the context of the uncertainty of stroke, their life as a whole and recovery after formal rehabilitation is completed. To meet these diverse needs, health professionals need to communicate fully with patients to gain an understanding of their experiences of stroke and wider views on goals.

  20. Implementing a framework for goal setting in community based stroke rehabilitation: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; McLean, Donald; Dixon, Diane; Duncan, Edward; Wyke, Sally

    2013-05-24

    Goal setting is considered 'best practice' in stroke rehabilitation; however, there is no consensus regarding the key components of goal setting interventions or how they should be optimally delivered in practice. We developed a theory-based goal setting and action planning framework (G-AP) to guide goal setting practice. G-AP has 4 stages: goal negotiation, goal setting, action planning & coping planning and appraisal & feedback. All stages are recorded in a patient-held record. In this study we examined the implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits of G-AP in one community rehabilitation team with people recovering from stroke. G-AP was implemented for 6 months with 23 stroke patients. In-depth interviews with 8 patients and 8 health professionals were analysed thematically to investigate views of its implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits. Case notes of interviewed patients were analysed descriptively to assess the fidelity of G-AP implementation. G-AP was mostly implemented according to protocol with deviations noted at the planning and appraisal and feedback stages. Each stage was felt to make a useful contribution to the overall process; however, in practice, goal negotiation and goal setting merged into one stage and the appraisal and feedback stage included an explicit decision making component. Only two issues were raised regarding G-APs acceptability: (i) health professionals were concerned about the impact of goal non-attainment on patient's well-being (patients did not share their concerns), and (ii) some patients and health professionals found the patient-held record unhelpful. G-AP was felt to have a positive impact on patient goal attainment and professional goal setting practice. Collaborative partnerships between health professionals and patients were apparent throughout the process. G-AP has been perceived as both beneficial and broadly acceptable in one community rehabilitation team; however, implementation of novel

  1. Implementing a framework for goal setting in community based stroke rehabilitation: a process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Goal setting is considered ‘best practice’ in stroke rehabilitation; however, there is no consensus regarding the key components of goal setting interventions or how they should be optimally delivered in practice. We developed a theory-based goal setting and action planning framework (G-AP) to guide goal setting practice. G-AP has 4 stages: goal negotiation, goal setting, action planning & coping planning and appraisal & feedback. All stages are recorded in a patient-held record. In this study we examined the implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits of G-AP in one community rehabilitation team with people recovering from stroke. Methods G-AP was implemented for 6 months with 23 stroke patients. In-depth interviews with 8 patients and 8 health professionals were analysed thematically to investigate views of its implementation, acceptability and perceived benefits. Case notes of interviewed patients were analysed descriptively to assess the fidelity of G-AP implementation. Results G-AP was mostly implemented according to protocol with deviations noted at the planning and appraisal and feedback stages. Each stage was felt to make a useful contribution to the overall process; however, in practice, goal negotiation and goal setting merged into one stage and the appraisal and feedback stage included an explicit decision making component. Only two issues were raised regarding G-APs acceptability: (i) health professionals were concerned about the impact of goal non-attainment on patient’s well-being (patients did not share their concerns), and (ii) some patients and health professionals found the patient-held record unhelpful. G-AP was felt to have a positive impact on patient goal attainment and professional goal setting practice. Collaborative partnerships between health professionals and patients were apparent throughout the process. Conclusions G-AP has been perceived as both beneficial and broadly acceptable in one community

  2. The Effects of Graphic Feedback, Goal-Setting, and Manager Praise on Customer Service Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Shannon; Bailey, Jon

    2007-01-01

    The current study used a multiple baseline design to investigate the effects of graphic feedback, goal setting, and manager praise on customer service behaviors in a large retail setting. Direct observation of customer greeting, eye contact, and smiling was used to collect data. After baseline data were collected feedback graphs were posted twice…

  3. Don't You Want to Do Better? Implementing a Goal-Setting Intervention in an Afterschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Amy; Fleming, David

    2011-01-01

    Goal setting is not an innate skill. Adults who are successful at reaching their goals have learned to set realistic goals and to plan to attain them. Afterschool programs, because they have latitude in their curricular offerings and program elements, can provide strong backdrops for goal-setting initiatives. While studies have shown that goal…

  4. Goal setting with type 2 diabetes: a hermeneutic analysis of the experiences of diabetes educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Boyd, Angela; Ballejos, Miriam; Kynast-Gales, Susan A; Malemute, Charlene L; Armstrong Shultz, Jill; Vandermause, Roxanne K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explicate and interpret common experiences of diabetes educators (DEs) with patient goal setting for patients with type 2 diabetes in diabetes education. Transcripts (n = 10) from semi-structured interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to more deeply explore the accounts of DEs' goal setting with patients with type 2 diabetes. The overarching pattern that emerged was "Striking a Balance," which subsumed 4 subthemes: Applying Theoretical-Practical Principles When Setting Goals, Identifying Idealistic-Realistic Expectations, Creating Patient-Educator-Centered Plans, and Readying-Living With Goal Setting. The pattern, "Striking a Balance," revealed a common meaning of DEs as experiences requiring balance and nuance in goal setting with patients. The results of this study combined with the tenets of the self-determination theory can provide the DEs with real-life exemplars and a theoretical framework to encourage their patients to self-manage, increase intrinsic motivation, and improve adherence related to their lifestyle changes and glycemic control. DEs, as facilitators of change, can implement these changes with flexible and reciprocal activities with their patients. The DEs owned these activities and they are: "building the bond," "sharing the session," "readying for change," "sending them home," and "bringing them back."

  5. Development and construct validation of the Client-Centredness of Goal Setting (C-COGS) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Emmah; Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Cornwell, Petrea; Kuipers, Pim

    2015-07-01

    Client-centred philosophy is integral to occupational therapy practice and client-centred goal planning is considered fundamental to rehabilitation. Evaluation of whether goal-planning practices are client-centred requires an understanding of the client's perspective about goal-planning processes and practices. The Client-Centredness of Goal Setting (C-COGS) was developed for use by practitioners who seek to be more client-centred and who require a scale to guide and evaluate individually orientated practice, especially with adults with cognitive impairment related to acquired brain injury. To describe development of the C-COGS scale and examine its construct validity. The C-COGS was administered to 42 participants with acquired brain injury after multidisciplinary goal planning. C-COGS scores were correlated with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) importance scores, and measures of therapeutic alliance, motivation, and global functioning to establish construct validity. The C-COGS scale has three subscales evaluating goal alignment, goal planning participation, and client-centredness of goals. The C-COGS subscale items demonstrated moderately significant correlations with scales measuring similar constructs. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the construct validity of the C-COGS scale, which is intended to be used to evaluate and reflect on client-centred goal planning in clinical practice, and to highlight factors contributing to best practice rehabilitation.

  6. Patient Expectations and Perceptions of Goal-setting Strategies for Disease Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Vibeke; Wright, Grace C; Bergman, Martin J; Tambiah, Jeyanesh; Taylor, Peter C

    2015-11-01

    To identify how patients perceive the broad effect of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on their daily lives and indicate how RA disease management could benefit from the inclusion of individual goal-setting strategies. Two multinational surveys were completed by patients with RA. The "Good Days Fast" survey was conducted to explore the effect of disease on the daily lives and relationships of women with RA. The "Getting to Your Destination Faster" survey examined RA patients' treatment expectations and goal-setting practices. Respondents from all countries agreed that RA had a substantial negative effect on many aspects of their lives (work productivity, daily routines, participation in social and leisure activities) and emotional well-being (loss of self-confidence, feelings of detachment, isolation). Daily pain was a paramount issue, and being pain- and fatigue-free was considered the main indicator of a "good day." Setting personal, social, and treatment goals, as well as monitoring disease progress to achieve these, was considered very beneficial by patients with RA, but discussion of treatment goals seldom appeared to be a part of medical appointments. Many patients with RA feel unable to communicate their disease burden and treatment goals, which are critically important to them, to their healthcare provider (HCP). Insights gained from these 2 surveys should help to guide patients and HCP to better focus upon mutually defined goals for continued improvement of management and achievement of optimal care in RA.

  7. The impact of behavioral and mental health risk assessments on goal setting in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Glasgow, Russell E; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Sabo, Roy T; Roby, Dylan H; Gorin, Sherri N Sheinfeld; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Kessler, Rodger; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Rohweder, Catherine L; Fernandez, Maria E

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered health risk assessments (HRAs) that screen for unhealthy behaviors, prioritize concerns, and provide feedback may improve counseling, goal setting, and health. To evaluate the effectiveness of routinely administering a patient-centered HRA, My Own Health Report, for diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep, 18 primary care practices were randomized to ask patients to complete My Own Health Report (MOHR) before an office visit (intervention) or continue usual care (control). Intervention practice patients were more likely than control practice patients to be asked about each of eight risks (range of differences 5.3-15.8 %, p set goals for six risks (range of differences 3.8-16.6 %, p goal setting.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01825746.

  8. Leading Teams of Higher Education Administrators: Integrating Goal Setting, Team Role, and Team Life Cycle Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma, Richard; Al-Riyami, Said

    2012-01-01

    Leaders of higher education institutions can create top management teams of academic administrators to guide and improve their organizations. This study illustrates how the leadership of top management teams can be accomplished successfully through a combination of goal setting (Doran, 1981; Locke & Latham, 1990), understanding of team roles…

  9. Neoliberalism, Audit Culture, and Teachers: Empowering Goal Setting within Audit Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss the concepts of neoliberalism and audit culture, and how they affect teaching culture. Moreover, I propose a form of goal setting that, if used properly, will hopefully work to combat some of the more onerous aspects of neoliberalism and audit clture in education.

  10. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  11. Individual Education Plan Goals and Services for Adolescents with Autism: Impact of Age and Educational Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer; Mastergeorge, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the educational programs for adolescents with autism (age 12-16 years) in inclusion and noninclusion settings as reflected in their Individual Education Plan (IEP) goals, services, and curricular adaptations. Students who were included in general education math and language arts instruction had fewer…

  12. The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

  13. The SEEK Mentoring Program: An Application of the Goal-Setting Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Diane M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a pilot academic mentoring program carried out over 1 semester in the SEEK Program at the College of Staten Island, CUNY. The program was utilized to provide a resource for students whose overall grade point average was below 2.5, placing them at risk for academic dismissal. A goal-setting approach was used to aid the…

  14. The ICF as a common language for rehabilitation goal-setting: comparing client and professional priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Aletia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint rehabilitation goals are an important component for effective teamwork in the rehabilitation field. The activities and participation domain of the ICF provides a common language for professionals when setting these goals. Involving clients in the formulation of rehabilitation goals is gaining momentum as part of a person-centred approach to rehabilitation. However, this is particularly difficult when clients have an acquired communication disability. The expressive communication difficulties negatively affect the consensus building process. As a result, obtaining information regarding rehabilitation goals from professionals and their clients warrants further investigation for this particular population. Methods This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program. Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats™ visual framework for goal setting. Each participant rated the importance of the nine activities and participation domains of the ICF for inclusion in their current rehabilitation program. Results The ICF domains which consistently appear as very important across these groups are mobility, self-care and communication. Domains which consistently appear in the lower third of the rankings include spare time, learning and thinking and domestic life. Results indicate however that no statistical significant differences exist in terms of the individual domains across each of the participant groups. Within group differences however indicated that amongst the speech-language therapists and physiotherapists there was a statistical significant difference between spare time activities and communication and mobility. Conclusions Findings indicate that

  15. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community colleges were recruited. Participants randomized into the intervention (n=224) enrolled in a course that taught strategies to help maintain or achieve a healthy weight. Participants were instructed in SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-based) and behavioral goal-setting practices. Throughout the course, participants set goals related to improving their sleep, stress-management, exercise, and nutrition." Intervention participants set four hundred eighteen goals. Each goal was carefully evaluated. The efforts to teach behavioral goal-setting strategies were largely successful; however efforts to convey the intricacies of SMART goal-setting were not as successful. Implications for effective teaching of skills in setting SMART behavioral goals were realized in this study. The insights gained from the goal-setting activities of this study could be used to guide educators who utilize goals to achieve health behavior change. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that very clear and directed instruction be provided in addition to multiple opportunities for goal-setting practice. Implications for future interventions involving education about goal-setting activities are discussed.

  16. Effects of Self-Esteem and Perceived Goal Difficulty on Goal Setting, Certainty, Task Performance, and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Reynolds, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-two subjects competed on a task against themselves, a difficult competitor, and an easy competitor. Certainty, ability attribution, and task satisfaction for those with low self-esteem were affected by perceived goal difficulty but not for those with high self-esteem. Low self-esteem groups had lower goals, certainty, and task performance.…

  17. A pilot cluster randomized controlled trial of structured goal-setting following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William J; Brown, Melanie; William, Levack; McPherson, Kathryn M; Reed, Kirk; Dean, Sarah G; Weatherall, Mark

    2012-04-01

    To determine the feasibility, the cluster design effect and the variance and minimal clinical importance difference in the primary outcome in a pilot study of a structured approach to goal-setting. A cluster randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. People who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation following stroke who had sufficient cognition to engage in structured goal-setting and complete the primary outcome measure. Structured goal elicitation using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Quality of life at 12 weeks using the Schedule for Individualised Quality of Life (SEIQOL-DW), Functional Independence Measure, Short Form 36 and Patient Perception of Rehabilitation (measuring satisfaction with rehabilitation). Assessors were blinded to the intervention. Four rehabilitation services and 41 patients were randomized. We found high values of the intraclass correlation for the outcome measures (ranging from 0.03 to 0.40) and high variance of the SEIQOL-DW (SD 19.6) in relation to the minimally importance difference of 2.1, leading to impractically large sample size requirements for a cluster randomized design. A cluster randomized design is not a practical means of avoiding contamination effects in studies of inpatient rehabilitation goal-setting. Other techniques for coping with contamination effects are necessary.

  18. Towards sustainable groundwater use: Setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T.; Alley, W.M.; Allen, D.M.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Zhou, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Vandersteen, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Goal-setting to Promote a Healthier Lifestyle in Later Life: Qualitative Evaluation of the AgeWell Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelis, Sharon M; Thom, Jeanette M; Jones, Ian Rees; Hindle, John V; Clare, Linda

    2017-12-15

    We report a mixed method evaluation of the feasibility and implementation of the AgeWell goal-setting intervention to promote healthy ageing later life. Researcher field notes, goal-setting interview content, and semi-structured interviews with participants were content analysed to review trial implementation and participants' perspective on the goal-setting and mentoring intervention. 75 people were recruited: 21 in the goal-setting and 22 in the goal-setting with mentoring arms of the intervention. Goal-setting was feasible in the main domains of interest. Adherence to the protocol was good and the mentoring schedule was adhered to. Participants reported satisfaction with their goal attainment, but barriers for non-achievement were also identified. Recommendations for small changes to the intervention included reducing the number of goals. Participants understood the goal-setting process, and were able to set realistic and achievable lifestyle goals. The intervention and the procedures were acceptable but changes in how goal-setting is both introduced and monitored are needed for wider implementation. Goal-setting can be a useful process to help people alter their lifestyle to allow them to age more successfully and reduce risk factors associated with dementia.

  20. Robust set-point regulation for ecological models with multiple management goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiver, Chris; Mueller, Markus; Hodgson, Dave; Townley, Stuart

    2016-05-01

    Population managers will often have to deal with problems of meeting multiple goals, for example, keeping at specific levels both the total population and population abundances in given stage-classes of a stratified population. In control engineering, such set-point regulation problems are commonly tackled using multi-input, multi-output proportional and integral (PI) feedback controllers. Building on our recent results for population management with single goals, we develop a PI control approach in a context of multi-objective population management. We show that robust set-point regulation is achieved by using a modified PI controller with saturation and anti-windup elements, both described in the paper, and illustrate the theory with examples. Our results apply more generally to linear control systems with positive state variables, including a class of infinite-dimensional systems, and thus have broader appeal.

  1. Home advantage in soccer--A matter of expectations, goal setting and tactical decisions of coaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Kathrin; Lobinger, Babett; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    In soccer, home teams win about 67% of decided games. The causes for this home advantage are still unresolved. There is a shortage of research on the psychological states of actors involved. In this study, we examined soccer coaches' expectations, goal setting and tactical decisions in relation to game location. Soccer coaches (N = 297) with different expertise levels participated in an experimental, online management game and were randomly assigned to one of two groups, "home game (HG)" or "away game." Participants received information on the game for which they were asked to make decisions in multiple points. The only differing information between groups was game location. Regardless of expertise, HG coaches had higher expectations to win, set more challenging goals and decided for more offensive and courageous playing tactics. Possible consequences of these findings concerning home advantage in soccer are discussed.

  2. External Goal Setting in Reward-Based Crowdfunding - Inventor, Marathoner, Sprinter and Extreme Sprinter

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Jonas; Haslum, Mikkel Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In recent years, crowdfunding has emerged as a popular method to finance entrepreneurial ventures. Entrepreneurs appeal directly to the general public, e.g. the crowd, for help getting their innovative ideas off the ground. Within the world of reward-based crowdfunding, the authors of how to -literature (practitioners) and the authors of theoretical reward-based crowdfunding literature (theoreticians) disagree on strategies for setting the external (i.e. public) funding goal. ...

  3. The development of a patient-specific method for physiotherapy goal setting: a user-centered design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Anita; Köke, Albère; van der Weijden, Trudy; Beurskens, Anna

    2018-08-01

    To deliver client-centered care, physiotherapists need to identify the patients' individual treatment goals. However, practical tools for involving patients in goal setting are lacking. The purpose of this study was to improve the frequently used Patient-Specific Complaints instrument in Dutch physiotherapy, and to develop it into a feasible method to improve physiotherapy goal setting. An iterative user-centered design was conducted in co-creation with the physiotherapists and patients, in three phases. Their needs and preferences were identified by means of group meetings and questionnaires. The new method was tested in several field tests in physiotherapy practices. Four main objectives for improvement were formulated: clear instructions for the administration procedure, targeted use across the physiotherapy process, client-activating communication skills, and a client-centered attitude of the physiotherapist. A theoretical goal-setting framework and elements of shared decision making were integrated into the new-called, Patient-Specific Goal-setting method, together with a practical training course. The user-centered approach resulted in a goal-setting method that is fully integrated in the physiotherapy process. The new goal-setting method contributes to a more structured approach to goal setting and enables patient participation and goal-oriented physiotherapy. Before large-scale implementation, its feasibility in physiotherapy practice needs to be investigated. Implications for rehabilitation Involving patients and physiotherapists in the development and testing of a goal-setting method, increases the likelihood of its feasibility in practice. The integration of a goal-setting method into the physiotherapy process offers the opportunity to focus more fully on the patient's goals. Patients should be informed about the aim of every step of the goal-setting process in order to increase their awareness and involvement. Training physiotherapists to use a patient

  4. The career goals of nurses in some health care settings in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jooste

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In nursing, purposeful career planning is essential if nurse practitioners want to make the right decisions about their work in order to strive towards and accomplish a meaningful quality of working life. Nurses should identify their career goals to be able to investigate their different career opportunities in their field of interest and direct their work according to a work strategy for years ahead. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the career goals of post-basic nursing students with the aim of describing management strategies to guide the future career of post-basic nursing students in climbing the career ladder effectively and obtaining their set career goals. An explorative, descriptive, qualitative design was selected where the researcher worked inductively to explore and describe the needs (goals and future planned actions of the participants regarding their career management as viewed for a period of five years. The researcher purposively and conveniently identified the sample as all the postbasic nursing students, namely 250 students, who were registered for the first, second and third year of nursing management courses in that period at a South African residential university. Two structured, open questions were developed. Each participant received the questions in writing and was asked to answer them. The QSR NUD*IST program was used for the qualitative management (categorization of data. The results of the research questions related to five categories, namely becoming empowered, being promoted, being educated and professionally developed, partaking in research and taking up new projects.

  5. The effects of goal involvement on moral behavior in an experimentally manipulated competitive setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Luke; Kavussanu, Maria

    2007-04-01

    In this experiment we examined the effects of task and ego involvement on three measures of moral behavior--prosocial choice, observed prosocial behavior, and observed antisocial behavior--in a competitive setting. We also investigated sex differences in moral behavior. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 48) college students were randomly assigned to a task-involving, an ego-involving, or a control condition. Participants played two 10-min games of table soccer and completed measures of prosocial choice, goal involvement, goal orientation, and demographics. The two games were recorded, and frequencies of prosocial and antisocial behavior were coded. Players assigned to the task-involving condition were higher in prosocial choice than those in the ego-involving or control conditions. Individuals in the ego-involving condition displayed more antisocial behaviors than those in the task-involving or control conditions. Finally, females displayed more prosocial behaviors than males.

  6. Goal setting practice in chronic low back pain. What is current practice and is it affected by beliefs and attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Tania; Refshauge, Kathryn; McAuley, James; Hübscher, Markus; Goodall, Stephen; Smith, Lorraine

    2018-01-18

    Goal setting, led by the patient, is promising as an effective treatment for the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, little is known about current practice. The aims of the study were to explore (1) current goal setting practice in CLBP among physiotherapists; (2) perceived barriers to goal setting in CLBP; and (3) relationship between clinician's attitudes and beliefs and goal setting practice. A cross-sectional observational survey. The majority of respondents used goal setting with the main aim of facilitating self-management. The greatest number of goals were set with 50% therapist/50% patient involvement. The most common perceived barriers to goal setting related to time constraints and lack of skill and confidence. A higher biomedical score for treatment orientation of the therapist was associated with a lower patient involvement score. Goal setting is common practice for CLBP and is perceived as a high priority. It is more often a collaboration between therapist and patient rather than patient-led with treatment orientation of the physiotherapist a predictor of patient involvement. Education of healthcare professionals needs to include better understanding of chronic pain to orient them away from a biomedical treatment approach, as well as to enhance skills in facilitating patient involvement in goal setting.

  7. The Efficacy of Goal Setting in Cardiac Rehabilitation-a Gender-Specific Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Brünger, Martin; Michel, Anne; Bongarth, Christa; Spyra, Karla

    2016-08-08

    Patients with coronary heart disease undergo cardiac rehabilitation in order to reduce their cardiovascular risk factors. Often, however, the benefit of rehabilitation is lost over time. It is unclear whether this happens in the same way to men and women. We studied whether the setting of gender-specific behavior goals with an agreement between the doctor and the patient at the end of rehabilitation can prolong its positive effects. This study was performed with a mixed-method design. It consisted of qualitative interviews and group discussions with patients, doctors and other treating personnel, and researchers, as well as a quantitative, randomized, controlled intervention trial in which data were acquired at four time points (the beginning and end of rehabilitation and then 6 and 12 months later). 545 patients, 262 of them women (48.1%), were included. The patients were assigned to a goal checking group (n = 132), a goal setting group (n = 143), and a control group (n = 270). The primary endpoints were health-related behavior (exercise, diet, tobacco consumption), subjective state of health, and medication adherence. The secondary endpoints included physiological protection and risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol (HDL, LDL, and total), blood sugar, HbA1c, and body-mass index. The intervention had no demonstrable effect on the primary or secondary endpoints. The percentage of smokers declined to a similar extent in all groups from the beginning of rehabilitation to 12 months after its end (overall figures: 12.4% to 8.6%, p exercise behavior, diet, and subjective state of health also improved over the entire course of the study. Women had a healthier diet than men. Subgroup analyses indicated a possible effect of the intervention on exercise behavior in women who were employed and in men who were not (pgoal setting was not demonstrated. Therefore, no indication for its routine provision can be derived from the study results.

  8. Goal-Setting Theory: Motivating Students Through the Use of Dharma Dolls

    OpenAIRE

    L'Shawn, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The question of what motivates students has been explored by many researchers and teachers over the years( Marandos and Randall, 2012; Irie, 2003; Lee, 2012). Goal-setting theory is one concept that many English language educators have applied to their classroom practices and have found effective (Rivers, 2012; Chang, 2012; Zhao et al., 2012; Koda-Dallow and Hobbs, 2005).This paper will report the results of action research done in Spring 2012 during the months of May to August. The study rev...

  9. Difficulties experienced in setting and achieving goals by participants of a falls prevention programme: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than

  10. Child Goal Setting of Dietary and Physical Activity in a Serious Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Abdelsamad, Dina; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX). One hundred three children, 10-12 years of age, played "Escape from Diab." During game play the children were presented with a menu of goals, values, and barriers from which they selected the ones most important to them. The children's selections were transmitted to a central server and stored in a database. Frequencies were calculated and reported. The most important diet-related values and reasons for children were getting good grades and being healthy and fit. The most often reported barrier for fruit intake was that it does not fill you up, and for vegetable intake it was that availability at home was limited. Also, limited availability of bottled water at home was an often chosen barrier. PA-related important values and reasons were not missing school and having energy to do homework. Children preferred to limit sedentary activities for only 30 minutes rather than for 60 minutes. The most frequently mentioned barrier for reducing inactivity was "feeling too tired to do anything else." These findings provide important input for future obesity prevention videogames attempting to motivate children to set healthy diet and PA goals.

  11. Horses for courses? A qualitative exploration of goals formulated in mental health settings by young people, parents, and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jenna; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Holley, Simone; Law, Duncan; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    This research sought to explore and categorise goals set by children and young people, parents/caregivers and jointly by a combination of children/young people, parents/caregivers and/or clinicians within mental health settings across the United Kingdom. Using a dataset of 441 goals formed at the outset of 180 treatment episodes (2007-2010) from UK child mental health services using the Goal-Based Outcomes tool, a grounded theory approach was taken, which built on previous research into child-rated goals to develop frameworks for parent and joint goal data which were then compared with the child goal data. A total of 19 subthemes and four overarching themes were identified for parent goals. A total of 19 subthemes in five overarching themes were identified for joint goals. These were compared with 25 subthemes and three overarching themes for child goals. A comparison of subthemes between parent, child and joint goals demonstrated many consistencies, but also differences. Most commonly rated goals from children focused on coping with specific difficulties, personal growth and independence. Parent goals focused mainly on managing specific difficulties, parent-specific goals and improving self or life. Jointly negotiated goals focused on parent-specific goals, self-confidence and understanding, hopes for the future and managing specific problems. The results suggest that goals may capture areas not captured by other normed outcome measures. In particular, goals may capture higher order, underlying factors, such as confidence, resilience, coping, and parenting factors that may not be explored by other measures. The differences across perspectives also link to existing literature suggesting a different focus on treatment based on perspectives and highlights the potential importance when jointly agreeing goals of ensuring the voice of the child/young person is heard and included in goal setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Influence of Goal Setting on Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Low-Income Children Enrolled in CSPAP Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fu, You

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school physical activity programming (CSPAP) has been shown to increase school day physical activity and health-related fitness. The use of goal setting may further enhance the outcomes of CSPAP. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of physical activity leader (PAL) goal setting on school day…

  13. How annotated visualizations in self-care technology supported a stroke survivor in goal setting and reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsø Hougaard, Bastian; Knoche, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Self-management in health contexts requires patients to manage their own goal setting. Time series visualizations improve understanding of time-oriented data. But how they and interactions with them can support reflection and goal setting in self- management is poorly understood. We compare findi...

  14. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  15. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  16. The effect of goal setting on fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity level in a Web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Stephanie; Greene, Geoffrey W; Blissmer, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between goal setting and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and physical activity (PA) in an intervention for college students. Secondary data analysis of intervention group participants from a 10-week online intervention with complete weekly data (n = 724). Outcomes (cups of FV per day and minutes of PA per week) and goals for both behaviors were reported online each week. Weekly differences between goals and behaviors were calculated, as well as the proportion meeting individual goals and meeting recommendations for behaviors. There were significant (P goal setting on both behaviors and of goal group (tertile of meeting weekly goals) on behavior, as well as meeting recommendations for both behaviors. There was an increase in FV consumption (P Goal setting as part of a Web-based intervention for college students was effective, but results differed for FV and PA. Goal setting for maintaining behavior may need to differ from goal setting for changing behavior. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rehabilitation goal setting with community dwelling adults with acquired brain injury: a theoretical framework derived from clinicians' reflections on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah

    2017-06-11

    The aim of this study was to explore clinicians' experiences of implementing goal setting with community dwelling clients with acquired brain injury, to develop a goal setting practice framework. Grounded theory methodology was employed. Clinicians, representing six disciplines across seven services, were recruited and interviewed until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 22 clinicians were interviewed. A theoretical framework was developed to explain how clinicians support clients to actively engage in goal setting in routine practice. The framework incorporates three phases: a needs identification phase, a goal operationalisation phase, and an intervention phase. Contextual factors, including personal and environmental influences, also affect how clinicians and clients engage in this process. Clinicians use additional strategies to support clients with impaired self-awareness. These include structured communication and metacognitive strategies to operationalise goals. For clients with emotional distress, clinicians provide additional time and intervention directed at new identity development. The goal setting practice framework may guide clinician's understanding of how to engage in client-centred goal setting in brain injury rehabilitation. There is a predilection towards a client-centred goal setting approach in the community setting, however, contextual factors can inhibit implementation of this approach. Implications for Rehabilitation The theoretical framework describes processes used to develop achievable client-centred goals with people with brain injury. Building rapport is a core strategy to engage clients with brain injury in goal setting. Clients with self-awareness impairment benefit from additional metacognitive strategies to participate in goal setting. Clients with emotional distress may need additional time for new identity development.

  18. Improving patient and carer communication, multidisciplinary team working and goal-setting in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, J; Channell, K; McDowell, D; Sharma, A K

    2005-03-01

    To determine the extent to which three forms of multidisciplinary team (MDT) care in stroke rehabilitation meet the standards set by the United Kingdom National Service Framework (NSF). Consecutive assessment of the three forms of care was completed. The study included three groups of 25 stroke inpatients on the stroke rehabilitation ward. (1) A standard weekly MDT meeting using a standard form for documentation; (2) a standard MDT meeting using a newly devised form; and (3) a novel MDT ward round using the new form, and attended by doctors. MDT ward rounds result in significantly better consideration of patients' needs (median 7 per patient compared with 0 and 5 in phases one and two), enhanced SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time framed) goal-setting (median 3 per patient compared to 1 in phases one and two); greater patient involvement (12 patients compared to 0 and 4 in phases one and two); and improved team working (measured using the team climate inventory) than do MDT meetings. In the present study, standard weekly MDT meetings did not meet the standards set for MDT care by the NSF. The use of a MDT ward round allows these standards to be achieved.

  19. Goal setting for health behavior change: evidence from an obesity intervention for rural low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, A V; Blackman, L T; Page, R A; Gizlice, Z; Benedict, S; Barnes, K; Kelsey, K; Carter-Edwards, L

    2014-01-01

    Rural, minority populations are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity and may benefit from lifestyle modification programs that are tailored to meet their unique needs. Obesity interventions commonly use goal setting as a behavior change strategy; however, few have investigated the specific contribution of goal setting to behavior change and/or identified the mechanisms by which goal setting may have an impact on behavior change. Furthermore, studies have not examined goal setting processes among racial/ethnic minorities. Using data from an obesity intervention for predominately minority women in rural North Carolina, this study sought to examine whether intervention participation resulted in working on goals and using goal setting strategies which in turn affected health behavior outcomes. It also examined racial/ethnic group differences in working on goals and use of goal setting strategies. Data came from a community-based participatory research project to address obesity among low-income, predominately minority women in rural North Carolina. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used. Participants included 485 women aged 18 years and over. Intervention participants (n=208) received health information and goal setting support through group meetings and tailored newsletters. Comparison participants (n = 277) received newsletters on topics unrelated to obesity. Surveys assessed physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, goal-related stage of change, and use of goal setting strategies. Chi squared statistics were used to assess intervention group differences in changes in goal-related stage of change and use of goal setting strategies as well as racial/ethnic group differences in stage of change and use of goal setting strategies at baseline. The causal steps approach of Baron and Kenny was used to assess mediation. Intervention compared to comparison participants were more likely to move from contemplation to action/maintenance for the

  20. Evidence of Social Comparison in Mastery Goals in Natural Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, Isabelle; Escribe, Christian; Dupeyrat, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of achievement goal theory typically posit social comparison to be associated with performance goals but not with mastery goals (C. Ames, 1992). Contrary to this postulate, there is some evidence that individuals who are experimentally induced to adopt mastery goals may also use social comparison (e.g., R. Butler, 1992). However, such…

  1. Goal setting practice in services delivering community-based stroke rehabilitation: a United Kingdom (UK) wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobbie, Lesley; Duncan, Edward A; Brady, Marian C; Wyke, Sally

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the nature of services providing community-based stroke rehabilitation across the UK, and goal setting practice used within them, to inform evaluation of a goal setting and action planning (G-AP) framework. We designed, piloted and electronically distributed a survey to health professionals working in community-based stroke rehabilitation settings across the UK. We optimised recruitment using a multi-faceted strategy. Responses were analysed from 437 services. Services size, composition and input was highly variable; however, most were multi-disciplinary (82%; n = 335/407) and provided input to a mixed diagnostic group of patients (71%; n = 312/437). Ninety one percent of services (n = 358/395) reported setting goals with "all" or "most" stroke survivors. Seventeen percent (n = 65/380) reported that no methods were used to guide goal setting practice; 47% (n = 148/315) reported use of informal methods only. Goal setting practice varied, e.g. 98% of services (n = 362/369) reported routinely asking patients about goal priorities; 39% (n = 141/360) reported routinely providing patients with a copy of their goals. Goal setting is embedded within community-based stroke rehabilitation; however, practice varies and is potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to inform optimal practice. Evaluation design will take account of the diverse service models that exist. Implications for Rehabilitation Community-based stroke rehabilitation services across the UK are diverse and tend to see a mixed diagnostic group of patients. Goal setting is implemented routinely within community-based stroke rehabilitation services; however, practice is variable and potentially sub-optimal. Further evaluation of the G-AP framework is warranted to assess its effectiveness in practice.

  2. Exercise Self-Efficacy as a Mediator between Goal-Setting and Physical Activity: Developing the Workplace as a Setting for Promoting Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Iwasaki

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that exercise SE mediates goal-setting and increases PA. The results suggest that the components of PA promotion programs should be tailored to enhance participants' confidence in performing PA.

  3. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Phalet, K.; Lens, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  4. Do Fitness Apps Need Text Reminders? An Experiment Testing Goal-Setting Text Message Reminders to Promote Self-Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Willoughby, Jessica F

    2018-01-01

    Fitness tracking apps have the potential to change unhealthy lifestyles, but users' lack of compliance is an issue. The current intervention examined the effectiveness of using goal-setting theory-based text message reminders to promote tracking activities on fitness apps. We conducted a 2-week experiment with pre- and post-tests with young adults (n = 50). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups-a goal-setting text message reminder group and a generic text message reminder group. Participants were asked to use a fitness tracking app to log physical activity and diet for the duration of the study. Participants who received goal-setting reminders logged significantly more physical activities than those who only received generic reminders. Further, participants who received goal-setting reminders liked the messages and showed significantly increased self-efficacy, awareness of personal goals, motivation, and intention to use the app. The study shows that incorporating goal-setting theory-based text message reminders can be useful to boost user compliance with self-monitoring fitness apps by reinforcing users' personal goals and enhancing cognitive factors associated with health behavior change.

  5. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labieniec, Paula Ann [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface.

  6. The risk implications of approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous waste contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labieniec, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    An integrated exposure and carcinogenic risk assessment model for organic contamination in soil, SoilRisk, was developed and used for evaluating the risk implications of both site-specific and uniform-concentration approaches to setting soil remediation goals at hazardous-waste-contaminated sites. SoilRisk was applied to evaluate the uncertainty in the risk estimate due to uncertainty in site conditions at a representative site. It was also used to evaluate the variability in risk across a region of sites that can occur due to differences in site characteristics that affect contaminant transport and fate when a uniform concentration approach is used. In evaluating regional variability, Ross County, Ohio and the State of Ohio were used as examples. All analyses performed considered four contaminants (benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), chlordane, and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP)) and four exposure scenarios (commercial, recreational and on- and offsite residential). Regardless of whether uncertainty in risk at a single site or variability in risk across sites was evaluated, the exposure scenario specified and the properties of the target contaminant had more influence than variance in site parameters on the resulting variance and magnitude of the risk estimate. In general, variance in risk was found to be greater for the relatively less degradable and more mobile of the chemicals studied (TCE and chlordane) than for benzene which is highly degradable and BAP which is very immobile in the subsurface

  7. Does personalized goal setting and study planning improve academic performance and perception of learning experience in a developing setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Yusuff, PhD

    2018-06-01

    .٢، والاختبارات النصفية ٢١.٩ (الانحراف المعياري = ٣.٧، والاختبارات النهائية ٤٢.٨ (الانحراف المعياري = ٥.٣، وكانت نسبة الإنجاز لأهداف المقرر أ (٧٧٪ و ب (٧٨٪ أعلى بكثير في مجموعة الدراسة. أظهرت التغذية الراجعة لنهاية المقرر اختلافات رئيسة في إدراك تجربة التعلم بين مجموعة الدراسة والمجموعة الضابطة. الاستنتاجات: يبدو أن تحديد الأهداف الشخصية والتخطيط للدراسة يؤدي إلى تحسن كبير في المشاركة المستمرة للتعلم، والتركيز على الأهداف الأكاديمية والأداء الأكاديمي. Abstract: Objective: The learning process for pharmacists must enable the skillful harnessing of metacognition, critical thinking, and effective application of specialized skills. This study assessed the impact of self-developed academic goals and study plans on pharmacy students' academic performance and perception of learning experience in a developing setting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, KSA, in a compulsory 4th year course (Pharmacy management. The study group was exposed to goal setting and study planning while the control group had only routine teaching and learning activities planned for the course. Academic performance was determined with quizzes, midterm, and final exams, and the percentage achievement for the course objectives. An end-of-course evaluation, with a pre-tested questionnaire, was used to assess the perception of learning experience. Results: The study group constituted 41.4% (29, while 58.6% (41 were in the control group, with a mean ± SD age of 22.9 (SD = 3.2 and 21.6 (SD = 6.1 years, respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes (8.4 (SD = 2

  8. Exercise Self-Efficacy as a Mediator between Goal-Setting and Physical Activity: Developing the Workplace as a Setting for Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Honda, Sumihisa; Kaneko, Shuji; Kurishima, Kazuhiro; Honda, Ayumi; Kakinuma, Ayumu; Jahng, Doosub

    2017-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) is ranked as a leading health indicator and the workplace is a key setting to promote PA. The purpose of this study was to examine how goal-setting and exercise self-efficacy (SE) during a health promotion program influenced PA level among Japanese workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 281 employees. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA level. Exercise SE was assessed using a partially modified version of Oka's exercise SE scale. Personal goals were assessed as the total numbers of "yes" responses to five items regarding "details of personal goals to perform PA". A mediational model was used to examine whether exercise SE mediates between the number of personal goals and PA level. The mean age of the participants was 46.3 years, 76.2% were men, and the most common occupational category was software engineer (30.6%). The average PA level per week exceeded the recommended level in 127 participants (45.2%). One hundred and eighty-four participants (65.5%) set some form of concrete personal goal to perform PA. The relationship between the number of personal goals and PA level was mediated by exercise SE. Our study showed that exercise SE mediates goal-setting and increases PA. The results suggest that the components of PA promotion programs should be tailored to enhance participants' confidence in performing PA.

  9. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  10. Goal Setting for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Mild to Moderate Parkinson's Disease Dementia and Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Hindle, John V; Roberts, Julie; Lawrence, Catherine L; Martyr, Anthony; Lloyd-Williams, Huw; Brand, Andrew; Gutting, Petra; Hoare, Zoe; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Clare, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Alongside the physical symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, health services must also address the cognitive impairments that accompany these conditions. There is growing interest in the use of nonpharmacological approaches to managing the consequences of cognitive disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-orientated behavioural intervention which aims to enhance functional independence through the use of strategies specific to the individual's needs and abilities. Fundamental to this therapy is a person's capacity to set goals for rehabilitation. To date, no studies have assessed goal setting in early-stage Parkinson's disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 29 participants from an ongoing trial of cognitive rehabilitation for people with these conditions. Here, we examined the goal statements provided by these participants using qualitative content analysis, exploring the types and nature of the goals set. Participants' goals reflected their motivations to learn new skills or improve performance in areas such as technology-use, self-management and orientation, medication management, and social and leisure activities. These results suggest that goal setting is achievable for these participants, provide insight into the everyday cognitive difficulties that they experience, and highlight possible domains as targets for intervention. The trial is registered with ISRCTN16584442 (DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN16584442 13/04/2015).

  11. Goal Setting for Cognitive Rehabilitation in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease Dementia and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn J. Watermeyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside the physical symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, health services must also address the cognitive impairments that accompany these conditions. There is growing interest in the use of nonpharmacological approaches to managing the consequences of cognitive disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation is a goal-orientated behavioural intervention which aims to enhance functional independence through the use of strategies specific to the individual’s needs and abilities. Fundamental to this therapy is a person’s capacity to set goals for rehabilitation. To date, no studies have assessed goal setting in early-stage Parkinson’s disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 29 participants from an ongoing trial of cognitive rehabilitation for people with these conditions. Here, we examined the goal statements provided by these participants using qualitative content analysis, exploring the types and nature of the goals set. Participants’ goals reflected their motivations to learn new skills or improve performance in areas such as technology-use, self-management and orientation, medication management, and social and leisure activities. These results suggest that goal setting is achievable for these participants, provide insight into the everyday cognitive difficulties that they experience, and highlight possible domains as targets for intervention. The trial is registered with ISRCTN16584442 (DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN16584442 13/04/2015.

  12. Using personal goal setting to promote the social inclusion of people with intellectual disability living in supported accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, R; Collins, S

    2010-02-01

    The social exclusion of persons with intellectual disability is more marked in congregated than in individualised supported accommodation. Goal setting was used as a means of increasing individuals' choices and engaging support staff in personalised planning. Method People living in four different housing and support options were invited to identify up to three 'social inclusion' goals they wanted to achieve in the coming months. Nine months later, a review was undertaken to see if their goals had been attained and also to identify what had helped or hindered individuals in doing this. The goal selection was then repeated and reviewed again after a further 9 months. Results The most commonly chosen goals were around social activities with other people and over half the participants were reported to have attained at least one of their goals within 9 months, particularly those in supported living arrangements that had greater hours of individual staff support. In the second 9-month period, fewer people chose goals, although the same proportion as before were successful. The main reason given for goal attainment was the information and support provided by staff. Conclusions Goal setting seems a suitable way of promoting social inclusion as it can be tailored to the needs and aspirations of individuals, although extra efforts may be needed to implement and sustain it with staff across all accommodation options.

  13. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.

  14. Goal Setting, Values of Binus, dan Pembelajaran Character Building di Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Suhardi Ruman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Character Building Education in this era has become concerning by so many institutions of education. Institution of education is not only preparing the student to have knowledge or become smart, cleaver, but also preparing them to become good person. Of course, there are so many definitions about good person. But in this paper, author means  that the good person is they who are not only having soft skill like communication skills, leadership skills, team work skills, initiative & enterprise skills, organization skills, problem solving and ethical decisions making skills. All these skills are very important for every people on this era. It is difficult to think about people will gain a success without mastering these skill. According to author, all the skills above, although important, they are not enough. All the skills must be built on certain values.  In this context both hard skills and soft skills should be based on certain values. As an institution of education, Binus University has certain values. They consist of trust in God, farsighted, freedom to innovate, embrace diversity and tenacious focus. The attitude and behavior of all binusian has to reveal these values. Character Building learning on this point is not only coaching the student in mastering the soft skill above, but also to internalize the values of Binus. So, Values of Binus will inspire all binusian. This paper explains the position of character building learning as a goal setting to internalize the values of binus. To describe the position of character building learning, author uses the concept social action of Talcott Parson. 

  15. Self-assessment and goal-setting is associated with an improvement in interviewing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Kathleen; Zabar, Sondra; Charap, Joseph; Nicholson, Joseph; Disney, Lindsey; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Describe the relationship between medical students' self-assessment and goal-setting (SAGS) skills and development of interviewing skills during the first-year doctoring course. 157 first-year medical students completed three two-case standardized patient (SP) interviews. After each of the first two, students viewed videotapes of their interview, completed a SAGS worksheet, and reviewed a selected tape segment in a seminar. SAGS was categorized into good and poor quality and interviewing skills were rated by trained raters. SAGS improved over time (37% good week 1 vs. 61% good week 10). Baseline SAGS and interviewing skills were not associated. Initial SAGS quality was associated with change in interviewing skills - those with poor-quality SAGS demonstrated a decrease and those with good-quality SAGS demonstrated an increase in scores by 17 weeks (ANOVA F=4.16, p=0.024). For students whose SAGS skills were good at both week 1 and 10, interviewing skills declined in weeks 1-10 and then increased significantly at week 17. For those whose SAGS remained 'poor' in weeks 1-10, interviewing skills declined in weeks 10-17. In general, the quality of students' SAGS improved over time. Poor baseline SAGS skills and failure to improve were associated with a decrease in interviewing skills at 17 weeks. For students with better SAGS, interviewing skills increased at week 17. Improvement in SAGS skills was not associated with improved interviewing skills. Understanding structured self-assessment skills helps identify student characteristics that influence progressive mastery of communication skills and therefore may inform curriculum and remediation tailoring.

  16. Self-assessment and goal-setting is associated with an improvement in interviewing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Describe the relationship between medical students’ self-assessment and goal-setting (SAGS skills and development of interviewing skills during the first-year doctoring course. Method: 157 first-year medical students completed three two-case standardized patient (SP interviews. After each of the first two, students viewed videotapes of their interview, completed a SAGS worksheet, and reviewed a selected tape segment in a seminar. SAGS was categorized into good and poor quality and interviewing skills were rated by trained raters. Results: SAGS improved over time (37% good week 1 vs. 61% good week 10. Baseline SAGS and interviewing skills were not associated. Initial SAGS quality was associated with change in interviewing skills – those with poor-quality SAGS demonstrated a decrease and those with good-quality SAGS demonstrated an increase in scores by 17 weeks (ANOVA F=4.16, p=0.024. For students whose SAGS skills were good at both week 1 and 10, interviewing skills declined in weeks 1–10 and then increased significantly at week 17. For those whose SAGS remained ‘poor’ in weeks 1–10, interviewing skills declined in weeks 10–17. Conclusions: In general, the quality of students’ SAGS improved over time. Poor baseline SAGS skills and failure to improve were associated with a decrease in interviewing skills at 17 weeks. For students with better SAGS, interviewing skills increased at week 17. Improvement in SAGS skills was not associated with improved interviewing skills. Understanding structured self-assessment skills helps identify student characteristics that influence progressive mastery of communication skills and therefore may inform curriculum and remediation tailoring.

  17. A systematic review investigating healthy lifestyle interventions incorporating goal setting strategies for preventing excess gestational weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excess gestational weight gain (GWG is an important risk factor for long term obesity in women. However, current interventions aimed at preventing excess GWG appear to have a limited effect. Several studies have highlighted the importance of linking theory with empirical evidence for producing effective interventions for behaviour change. Theorists have demonstrated that goals can be an important source of human motivation and goal setting has shown promise in promoting diet and physical activity behaviour change within non-pregnant individuals. The use of goal setting as a behaviour change strategy has been systematically evaluated within overweight and obese individuals, yet its use within pregnancy has not yet been systematically explored. AIM OF REVIEW: To explore the use of goal setting within healthy lifestyle interventions for the prevention of excess GWG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Searches were conducted in seven databases alongside hand searching of relevant journals and citation tracking. Studies were included if interventions used goal setting alongside modification of diet and/or physical activity with an aim to prevent excess GWG. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and a two-stage methodological approach was used. Stage one focused on systematically evaluating the methodological quality of included interventions. The second stage assessed intervention integrity and the implementation of key goal setting components. FINDINGS: From a total of 839 citations, 54 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among interventions reporting positive results a combination of individualised diet and physical activity goals, self-monitoring and performance feedback indicators were described as active components. CONCLUSION: Interventions based on goal setting appear to be useful for helping women achieve optimal weight gain during pregnancy. However, overweight and obese women may

  18. A systematic review investigating healthy lifestyle interventions incorporating goal setting strategies for preventing excess gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Jane; Sinclair, Marlene; Liddle, Dianne; Hill, Alyson J; Madden, Elaine; Stockdale, Janine

    2012-01-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important risk factor for long term obesity in women. However, current interventions aimed at preventing excess GWG appear to have a limited effect. Several studies have highlighted the importance of linking theory with empirical evidence for producing effective interventions for behaviour change. Theorists have demonstrated that goals can be an important source of human motivation and goal setting has shown promise in promoting diet and physical activity behaviour change within non-pregnant individuals. The use of goal setting as a behaviour change strategy has been systematically evaluated within overweight and obese individuals, yet its use within pregnancy has not yet been systematically explored. To explore the use of goal setting within healthy lifestyle interventions for the prevention of excess GWG. Searches were conducted in seven databases alongside hand searching of relevant journals and citation tracking. Studies were included if interventions used goal setting alongside modification of diet and/or physical activity with an aim to prevent excess GWG. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and a two-stage methodological approach was used. Stage one focused on systematically evaluating the methodological quality of included interventions. The second stage assessed intervention integrity and the implementation of key goal setting components. From a total of 839 citations, 54 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among interventions reporting positive results a combination of individualised diet and physical activity goals, self-monitoring and performance feedback indicators were described as active components. Interventions based on goal setting appear to be useful for helping women achieve optimal weight gain during pregnancy. However, overweight and obese women may require more theoretically-designed interventions. Further high quality, theoretically

  19. 49 CFR 26.45 - How do recipients set overall goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... discrimination. You cannot simply rely on either the 10 percent national goal, your previous overall goal or past... account for the continuing effects of past discrimination (often called the “but for” factor) or the...) Consultation with minority, women's and general contractor groups, community organizations, and other officials...

  20. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…

  1. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-10-01

    Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  2. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jiryaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1 goal-setting strategy and 2 group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05. BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  3. Evaluating the influence of goal setting on intravenous catheterization skill acquisition and transfer in a hybrid simulation training context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Ryan; Mallette, Claire; Pollex, Heather; Carnahan, Heather; Dubrowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Educators often simplify complex tasks by setting learning objectives that focus trainees on isolated skills rather than the holistic task. We designed 2 sets of learning objectives for intravenous catheterization using goal setting theory. We hypothesized that setting holistic goals related to technical, cognitive, and communication skills would result in superior holistic performance, whereas setting isolated goals related to technical skills would result in superior technical performance. We randomly assigned practicing health care professionals to set holistic (n = 14) or isolated (n = 15) goals. All watched an instructional video and studied a list of 9 goals specific to their group. Participants practiced independently in a hybrid simulation (standardized patient combined with an arm simulator). The first and the last practice trials were videotaped for analysis. One-week later, participants completed a transfer test in another hybrid simulation scenario. Blinded experts evaluated performance on all 3 trials using the Direct Observation of Procedural Skills tool. The holistic group scored higher than the isolated group on the holistic Direct Observation of Procedural Skills score for all 3 trials [mean (SD), 45.0 (9.16) vs. 38.4 (9.17); P = 0.01]. The isolated group did not perform better than the holistic group on the technical skills score [10.3 (2.73) vs. 11.6 (3.01); P = 0.11]. Our results suggest that asking learners to set holistic goals did not interfere with their attaining competent holistic and technical skills during hybrid simulation training. This exploratory trial provides preliminary evidence for how to consider integrating hybrid simulation into medical curricula and for the design of learning goals in simulation-based education.

  4. The career goals of nurses in some health care settings in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    K Jooste

    2005-01-01

    In nursing, purposeful career planning is essential if nurse practitioners want to make the right decisions about their work in order to strive towards and accomplish a meaningful quality of working life. Nurses should identify their career goals to be able to investigate their different career opportunities in their field of interest and direct their work according to a work strategy for years ahead. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the career goals of post-basic nursing...

  5. The Role of Feedback in the Bologna Process, According to Goal Setting Theory: An Exploratory Study of Students' Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Terrón, Miriam; Balagué i Canadell, Jordi; Solé Pla, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study has been carried out while The Bologna Process was implemented in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). One of the main features of TBP is Lifelong Learning (LLL), introduced to improve student learning, by emphasizing the role of feedback. The Goal Setting Theory of Motivation (GST) considers feedback as a mechanism to enhance performance. Starting from this theoretical framework, our objective is to analyse whether, for those students with specific and challenging goals, fee...

  6. Toward a cognitive-affective model of goal-setting in rehabilitation: is self-regulation theory a key step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Richard J; McPherson, Kathryn M; Taylor, William J

    2004-10-21

    The aim of this article is to argue that self-regulation theory might offer a useful model for clinical practice, theory-building and empirical research on goal-setting in rehabilitation. Relevant literature on goal-setting and motivation in rehabilitation is considered and some problematic issues for current practice and future research are highlighted. Carver and Scheier's self-regulation theory and its application to rehabilitation research is examined. It is argued that self-regulation theory offers a robust theoretical framework for goal-setting and one in which the salient concepts of motivation and emotion are prominent. Self-regulation theory offers a potentially useful heuristic framework for rehabilitation research.

  7. A Brief Mindfulness Exercise Promotes the Correspondence Between the Implicit Affiliation Motive and Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Papies, Esther K

    2017-05-01

    People often choose to pursue goals that are dissociated from their implicit motives, which jeopardizes their motivation and well-being. We hypothesized that mindfulness may attenuate this dissociation to the degree that it increases sensitivity to internal cues that signal one's implicit preferences. We tested this hypothesis with a longitudinal repeated measures experiment. In Session 1, participants' implicit affiliation motive was assessed. In Session 2, half of the participants completed a mindfulness exercise while the other half completed a control task before indicating their motivation toward pursuing affiliation and nonaffiliation goals. In Session 3, this procedure was repeated with reversed assignment to conditions. The results confirmed our hypothesis that, irrespective of the order of the conditions, the implicit affiliation motive predicted a preference to pursue affiliation goals immediately after the mindfulness exercise, but not after the control task. We discuss implications of these findings for satisfaction and well-being.

  8. A brief mindfulness exercise promotes the correspondence between the implicit affiliation motive and goal setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.; Papies, Esther

    2017-01-01

    People often choose to pursue goals that are dissociated from their implicit motives, which jeopardizes their motivation and well-being. We hypothesized that mindfulness may attenuate this dissociation to the degree that it increases sensitivity to internal cues that signal one’s implicit

  9. Networks and landscapes: a framework for setting goals and evaluating performance at the large landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Patrick Bixler; Shawn Johnson; Kirk Emerson; Tina Nabatchi; Melly Reuling; Charles Curtin; Michele Romolini; Morgan Grove

    2016-01-01

    The objective of large landscape conser vation is to mitigate complex ecological problems through interventions at multiple and overlapping scales. Implementation requires coordination among a diverse network of individuals and organizations to integrate local-scale conservation activities with broad-scale goals. This requires an understanding of the governance options...

  10. Child goal setting of dietary and physical activity in a serious videogame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Baranowski, J.; Thompson, D.; Buday, R.; Abdelsamad, D.; Baranowski, T.

    2013-01-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage Inc., Houston,

  11. Goal Setting as Motivational Tool in Student's Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    The concept of management by objectives has long been used in business in enhancing good staff performance. There has been growing interest among teaching researchers in exploring the influence of goals within the academic field. Much of the early work in this area of motivational research has been done with children, rather than with college…

  12. Exercise Self-Efficacy as a Mediator between Goal-Setting and Physical Activity: Developing the Workplace as a Setting for Promoting Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshie Iwasaki; Sumihisa Honda; Shuji Kaneko; Kazuhiro Kurishima; Ayumi Honda; Ayumu Kakinuma; Doosub Jahng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is ranked as a leading health indicator and the workplace is a key setting to promote PA. The purpose of this study was to examine how goal-setting and exercise self-efficacy (SE) during a health promotion program influenced PA level among Japanese workers. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 281 employees. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA level. Exercise SE was assessed us...

  13. A Brief Mindfulness Exercise Promotes the Correspondence Between the Implicit Affiliation Motive and Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Strick, Madelijn; Papies, Esther K.

    2017-01-01

    People often choose to pursue goals that are dissociated from their implicit motives, which jeopardizes their motivation\\ud and well-being. We hypothesized that mindfulness may attenuate this dissociation to the degree that it increases sensitivity\\ud to internal cues that signal one’s implicit preferences. We tested this hypothesis with a longitudinal repeated measures\\ud experiment. In Session 1, participants’ implicit affiliation motive was assessed. In Session 2, half of the participants ...

  14. The issues of goal setting, interest, and reward in self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Makiko; 岡崎, 万紀子

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the theory developed in the field of educational psychology. SRL is based on the idea that behaviours are regulated by the self-concept. This self-concept is the basis of the social cognitive theory which does not depend on students' innate motivation (intrinsic motivation) at the initial stage of learning. This study examines three motivation-related factors in the concept of SRL: goals, interest, and rewards followed by the suggestion of a students' learning...

  15. The Effects of Task Clarification, Feedback, and Goal Setting on Student Advisors' Office Behaviors and Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittelbach, Danielle; DeAngelis, Maureen; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feedback, task clarification and goal-setting on office behaviors and customer service of ten undergraduate participants that served as university advisors. A multiple baseline design was implemented across three target behaviors: client greeting, front-desk behaviors, and punctuality. During intervention the…

  16. A Daily-Adjusted Goal-Setting and Feedback Procedure for Improving Productivity in a University Admissions Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Leslie A.; Redmon, William K.

    1990-01-01

    Daily goals set by supervisors and feedback were used with three female application processors in a college admissions office. After 39 weeks, comparison with baseline data showed large increases in the amount of work done and decreases in overtime, use of temporaries, and absenteeism. (SK)

  17. Impact of Vicarious Learning Experiences and Goal Setting on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Technology Integration: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    This pilot study was designed to explore how vicarious learning experiences and goal setting influence preservice teachers' self-efficacy for integrating technology into the classroom. Twenty undergraduate students who were enrolled in an introductory educational technology course at a large midwestern university participated and were assigned…

  18. A season-long team-building intervention: examining the effect of team goal setting on cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senécal, Julie; Loughead, Todd M; Bloom, Gordon A

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal-setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai's trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal-setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.

  19. A Correlation Study among Achievement Motivation, Goal-Setting and L2 Learning Strategy in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Lu, Qingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation as one of the most important parts in learning motivation indicates a concern with success in competition with some standard of excellence. Learners who are highly motivated to learn a language are likely to use a variety of strategies. Besides achievement motivation, goal setting, a very important cognitive mediator between…

  20. Are family-centred principles, functional goal setting and transition planning evident in therapy services for children with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, J; Wiart, L; Magill-Evans, J; Ray, L; Andersen, J

    2012-01-01

    Family-centred service, functional goal setting and co-ordination of a child's move between programmes are important concepts of rehabilitation services for children with cerebral palsy identified in the literature. We examined whether these three concepts could be objectively identified in programmes providing services to children with cerebral palsy in Alberta, Canada. Programme managers (n= 37) and occupational and physical therapists (n= 54) representing 59 programmes participated in individual 1-h semi-structured interviews. Thirty-nine parents participated in eleven focus groups or two individual interviews. Evidence of family-centred values in mission statements and advisory boards was evaluated. Therapists were asked to identify three concepts of family-centred service and to complete the Measures of Process of Care for Service Providers. Therapists also identified therapy goals for children based on clinical case scenarios. The goals were coded using the components of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health. Programme managers and therapists discussed the processes in their programmes for goal setting and for preparing children and their families for their transition to other programmes. Parents reflected on their experiences with their child's rehabilitation related to family-centredness, goal setting and co-ordination between programmes. All respondents expressed commitment to the three concepts, but objective indicators of family-centred processes were lacking in many programmes. In most programmes, the processes to implement the three concepts were informal rather than standardized. Both families and therapists reported limited access to general information regarding community supports. Lack of formal processes for delivery of family-centred service, goal-setting and co-ordination between children's programmes may result in inequitable opportunities for families to participate in their children's rehabilitation despite

  1. First year university student engagement using digital curation and career goal setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The engagement of students is one of the most pressing issues facing higher education in the 21st century. Around the world, participation rates in tertiary education are on the rise and one of the key challenges facing educators is finding ways to engage these students. We present the results of a project that assesses the impact of an engagement strategy in which a cohort of students entering their first year of university (1 establish and maintain a clear goal of their ideal future career and (2 make use of a web-based digital curation tool to research and present their findings. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy, which could arguably be applied to a broad range of disciplines given that the majority of students today are technologically literate.

  2. Research on goal-setting method of rock drivage based on the balance among period, cost and quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ren-liang; CAI Wei-ling; WANG Yu-bao; LI Dong-gang; CHEN Xiang

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis on the disadvantages of the original goal-serting about rock drivage,this paper defined the "life cycle quality".With project management theory and the Cobb-Douglas finction,"quality-cost and quality-price curve model" and the "total cost-period prediction model" were built.Then the goal-setting method of the balance among quality,cost and period of rock drivage was constructed by finding "life cycle cost" through "life cycle quality" using "quality-cost andquality-price curve model" and ensuring period through "life cycle cost" using "total cost-period prediction model" (hereinafter referred to as the "three goals balance method")."Value contribution" which is the value of the contribution to a mine because of rock drivage,was found in the process of constructing the "quality-cost and quality-price curve model".An industrial test was done in coal mine A with the research results,staff footage efficiency improved by 24.24%,the period shortened by 14.3%,the "life cycle cost" dropped by 2.09%,the "life cycle quality price" improved by 3.29%,and value contribution increased by 25.3%.The result shows that the new goal method setting on the basis of coal mine profit maximization can ensure construction period.At the same time,it can realize cost and quality objectives and the optimization and balance of relationship among them; rewarding excavation teams by "value contribution" can combine organizational goal with personal goal,it significantly raise the employee's work efficiency.

  3. Experiences of participation in goal setting for people with stroke-induced aphasia in Norway. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Karianne; Askim, Torunn; Balandin, Susan; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Rise, Marit By

    2017-06-01

    The body of research into client participation in aphasia rehabilitation is increasing, but the evidence on how it is implemented into clinical practice is still scarce. Particularly, the importance of including the "insider's perspective" has been demanded. The aim of this study was to explore how people with aphasia experienced client participation during the process of goal setting and clinical decision making in language rehabilitation. Fifteen people with stroke-induced aphasia participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. A qualitative analysis using Systematic Text Condensation was undertaken. Analysis revealed four main themes: (1) pleased with services, (2) vagueness in language rehabilitation, (3) personal goals exist, and (4) desired level of participation. Even though people with stroke-induced aphasia overall are pleased with the language rehabilitation, there is a need for greater emphasis on making the framework of language rehabilitation less vague. Therapists should also spend more time on collaboration with people with stroke-induced aphasia and use available methods to support communication and collaboration. The findings underscore the need for further exploration of the potential outcomes of implementing client participation in goal setting and clinical decision making for persons with stroke-induced aphasia. Implications for rehabilitation All persons with stroke induced aphasia should be asked about their goals for rehabilitation not only once, but during the whole continuum of their rehabilitation journey. Rehabilitation professionals should place greater emphasis on client participation by asking people with stroke induced aphasia how they prefer to participate at different stages of rehabilitation. To ensure active participation for those who wants it, existing tools and techniques which promoted collaborative goal setting should be better incorporated.

  4. The motor system resonates to the distal goal of observed actions: testing the inverse pliers paradigm in an ecological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Maule, Francesca; Barchiesi, Guido; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    Does motor mirroring in humans reflect the observed movements or the goal of the observed motor acts? Tools that dissociate the agent/object dynamics from the movements of the body parts used to operate them provide a model for testing resonance to both movements and goals. Here, we describe the temporal relationship of the observer's motor excitability, assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with the observed goal-directed tool actions, in an ecological setting. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were recorded from the opponens pollicis (OP, thumb flexor) and the extensor indicis proprius (EIP, index extensor) muscles of participants while they observed a person moving several small objects with a pair of normal pliers (closed by finger flexion) or reverse pliers (opened by finger flexion). The MEPs were a significant predictor of the pliers' kinematics that occurred in a variable time interval between -400 and +300 ms from TMS. Whatever pliers' type was being observed, OP MEPs correlated positively and EIP MEPs correlated negatively with the velocity of pliers' tips closure. This datum was confirmed both at individual and at a group level. Motor simulation can be demonstrated in single observers in a "real-life" ecological setting. The relation of motor resonance to the tool type shows that the observer's motor system codes the distal goal of the observed acts (i.e., grasping and releasing objects) in terms of its own motor vocabulary, irrespective of the actual finger movements that were performed by the observed actor.

  5. Using Goal Achievement Training in juvenile justice settings to improve substance use services for youth on community supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jacqueline Horan; Becan, Jennifer E; Harris, Philip W; Nager, Alexis; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Hogue, Aaron; Bartkowski, John P; Wiley, Tisha

    2018-04-30

    The link between substance use and involvement in the juvenile justice system has been well established. Justice-involved youth tend to have higher rates of drug use than their non-offending peers. At the same time, continued use can contribute to an elevated risk of recidivism, which leads to further, and oftentimes more serious, involvement with the juvenile justice system. Because of these high rates of use, the juvenile justice system is well positioned to help identify youth with substance use problems and connect them to treatment. However, research has found that only about 60% of juvenile probation agencies screen all youth for substance involvement, and even fewer provide comprehensive assessment or help youth enroll in substance use treatment. This paper describes an integrated training curriculum that was developed to help juvenile justice agencies improve their continuum of care for youth probationers with substance use problems. Goal Achievement Training (GAT) provides a platform for continuous quality improvement via two sessions delivered onsite to small groups of staff from juvenile justice and behavioral health agencies. In the first session, participants are taught to identify goals and goal steps for addressing identified areas of unmet need (i.e., screening, assessment, and linkage to treatment services). In the second session, participants learn principles and strategies of data-driven decision-making for achieving these goals. This paper highlights GAT as a model for the effective implementation of cost-efficient training strategies designed to increase self-directed quality improvement activities that can be applied to any performance domain within juvenile justice settings. Efforts to monitor implementation fidelity of GAT within the specific context of the juvenile justice settings are highlighted. Challenges to setting the stage for process improvement generally, as well as specific hurdles within juvenile justice settings are discussed

  6. Use of a goal setting intervention to increase adherence to low back pain rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppack, Russell J; Kristensen, Jakob; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2012-11-01

    To examine the effects of a goal setting intervention on self-efficacy, treatment efficacy, adherence and treatment outcome in patients undergoing low back pain rehabilitation. A mixed-model 2 (time) × 3 (group) randomized controlled trial. A residential rehabilitation centre for military personnel. UK military personnel volunteers (N = 48); mean age was 32.9 (SD 7.9) with a diagnosis of non-specific low back pain. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a goal setting experimental group (Exp, n = 16), therapist-led exercise therapy group (C1, n = 16) or non-therapist-led exercise therapy group (C2, n = 16). Treatment duration for all groups was three weeks. Self-efficacy, treatment efficacy and treatment outcome were recorded before and after the treatment period. Adherence was rated during regularly scheduled treatment sessions using the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS). The Biering-Sørensen test was used as the primary measure of treatment outcome. ANCOVA results showed that adherence scores were significantly higher in the experimental group (13.70 ± 1.58) compared with C2 (11.74 ± 1.35), (P goal setting to enhance adherence in clinical rehabilitation.

  7. Effects of goal-setting skills on students’academic performance in english language in Enugu Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Iyabo Idowu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effectiveness of goal-setting skills among Senior Secondary II students’ academic performance in English language in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu state, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental pre-test, post- test control group design was adopted for the study. The initial sample was 147 participants (male and female Senior Secondary School II students drawn from two public schools in Enugu zone of Enugu Metropolis. The final sample for the intervention consisted of 80 participants. This sample satisfied the condition for selection from the baseline data. Two research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data generated were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation and t-test statistical method. The findings showed that performance in English language was enhanced among participants exposed to goal-setting intervention compared to those in the control group. The study also showed that there is a significant gender difference in students’ performance with female participants recording a higher mean score than males. Parental level of education was also found to be related to performance in English Language. Based on the findings, goal-setting intervention was recommended as a strategy to enhancing students’ academic performance particularly in English Language. 

  8. The role of perfectionism, dichotomous thinking, shape and weight overvaluation, and conditional goal setting in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, Jessica; Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Street, Helen; Nathan, Paula R

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the role of perfectionism (self-oriented and socially prescribed), shape and weight overvaluation, dichotomous thinking, and conditional goal setting in eating disorder psychopathology. Perfectionism and shape and weight overvaluation have had longstanding implication in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. A leading evidence-based theory of eating disorders (Fairburn, Cooper & Shafran, 2003) outlines perfectionism as a maintaining mechanism of eating disorder psychopathology and as a proximal risk factor for the development of shape and weight overvaluation. These constructs have been linked to other cognitive processes relevant to eating disorders, specifically, dichotomous thinking and conditional goal setting. Women with DSM-IV eating disorders (N=238) were compared to women in the general community (N=248) and, as hypothesised, scores on measures of these constructs were pronounced in the clinical sample. Hierarchical regression analyses predicting eating disorder psychopathology showed that for both groups, dichotomous thinking and conditional goal setting significantly improved model fit beyond perfectionism and shape and weight overvaluation alone. Self-oriented perfectionism, but not socially prescribed perfectionism, was relevant to eating disorder psychopathology. We discuss the implications for current treatment protocols and early intervention. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' fairness perceptions, discomfort feelings and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudine, Alice; Saks, Alan M; Dawe, Doreen; Beaton, Marilyn

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinal field experiment was conducted to test the effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' (1) fairness perceptions, (2) discomfort feelings and (3) absenteeism. Nurses' obstacles to reducing absenteeism were also explored. Absenteeism is a significant issue in health care and there is a need to avoid interventions that are seen to be negative, punitive or lead to sick nurses coming to work. Sixty-nine nurses working in a hospital in Eastern Canada received either: (1) absenteeism feedback with individual goal-setting, (2) absenteeism feedback with group goal-setting, or (3) no intervention, and were asked questions about how they could reduce their absenteeism. There was a significant decrease in the total number of days absent but no decrease in absent episodes, and a significant effect on fairness perceptions and discomfort feelings for the nurses in the absenteeism feedback conditions. Six categories of obstacles to reducing absenteeism were identified. The interventions made nurses feel their absence rate was less fair and to experience greater feelings of discomfort. The study's interventions may lead to a reduction in absence without the negative outcomes of a harsh absenteeism policy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Use of Motivational Interviewing by Nurse Leaders: Coaching for Performance, Professional Development, and Career Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Cynthia R; Kraft, Sarah J; Meiers, Sonja J

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a mentoring style used in various health care settings to guide patients toward health promotion and disease management. The aims of this project were (1) to identify evidence supporting the application of MI strategies and principles by nurse leaders to promote healthful leadership development among direct-report staff and (2) to report outcomes of an educational pilot project regarding MI use for new nurse leaders. Correlations between MI and the American Organization of Nurse Executives nurse executive competencies are reviewed and summarized. These competencies shape the roles, responsibilities, and skills required for nurse executives to function proficiently and successfully within health care organizations. Survey responses were gathered from new nurse supervisors and nurse managers following the MI educational session for nurse leaders. The results show acceptability for MI use in professional development of direct-report staff and in other aspects of nursing leadership roles.

  11. Initial validation of the prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and goal setting system for data-based coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, April D; Zucker, Tricia A; Williams, Jeffrey M; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H

    2013-12-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based coaching model. We examined psychometric characteristics of the COT and explored how coaches and teachers used the COT goal-setting system. The study included 193 coaches working with 3,909 pre-k teachers in a statewide professional development program. Classrooms served 3 and 4 year olds (n = 56,390) enrolled mostly in Title I, Head Start, and other need-based pre-k programs. Coaches used the COT during a 2-hr observation at the beginning of the academic year. Teachers collected progress-monitoring data on children's language, literacy, and math outcomes three times during the year. Results indicated a theoretically supported eight-factor structure of the COT across language, literacy, and math instructional domains. Overall interrater reliability among coaches was good (.75). Although correlations with an established teacher observation measure were small, significant positive relations between COT scores and children's literacy outcomes indicate promising predictive validity. Patterns of goal-setting behaviors indicate teachers and coaches set an average of 43.17 goals during the academic year, and coaches reported that 80.62% of goals were met. Both coaches and teachers reported the COT was a helpful measure for enhancing quality of Tier 1 instruction. Limitations of the current study and implications for research and data-based coaching efforts are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Making Choices, Setting Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes management and education is very important. The way information is provided influences people's behaviours and thus outcomes. The way information is presented can increase or reduce the individual's ability to make informed decisions about their treatment and influences whether they acti...

  13. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed.

  14. Reliability of the Client-Centeredness of Goal Setting (C-COGS) Scale in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Emmah; Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Cornwell, Petrea; Kuipers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    To examine the internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the Client-Centeredness of Goal Setting (C-COGS) scale. The C-COGS scale was administered to 42 participants with acquired brain injury after completion of multidisciplinary goal planning. Internal reliability of scale items was examined using item-partial total correlations and Cronbach's α coefficient. The scale was readministered within a 1-mo period to a subsample of 12 participants to examine test-retest reliability by calculating exact and close percentage agreement for each item. After examination of item-partial total correlations, test items were revised. The revised items demonstrated stronger internal consistency than the original items. Preliminary evaluation of test-retest reliability was fair, with an average exact percent agreement across all test items of 67%. Findings support the preliminary reliability of the C-COGS scale as a tool to evaluate and promote client-centered goal planning in brain injury rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. [Shared decision-making and individualized goal setting - a pilot trial using PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in psychiatric inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchi, S; Straub, S; Schwager, U

    2010-12-01

    Although there is much talk about shared decision making and individualized goal setting, there is a lack of knowledge and knowhow in their realization in daily clinical practice. There is a lack in tools for easy applicable tools to ameliorate person-centred individualized goal setting processes. In three selected psychiatric inpatients the semistructured, theory driven use of PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in patients with complex psychiatric problems is presented and discussed. PRISM sustains a person-centred individualized process of goal setting and treatment and reinforces the active participation of patients. The process of visualisation and synchronous documentation is validated positively by patients and clinicians. The visual goal setting requires 30 to 45 minutes. In patients with complex psychiatric illness PRISM was used successfully to ameliorate individual goal setting. Specific effects of PRISM-visualisation are actually evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  16. Simulation to aid in interpreting biological relevance and setting of population-level protection goals for risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Luttik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Specific protection goals (SPGs) comprise an explicit expression of the environmental components that need protection and the maximum impacts that can be tolerated. SPGs are set by risk managers and are typically based on protecting populations or functions. However, the measurable endpoints available to risk managers, at least for vertebrates, are typically laboratory tests. We demonstrate, using the example of eggshell thinning in skylarks, how simulation can be used to place laboratory endpoints in context of population-level effects as an aid to setting the SPGs. We develop explanatory scenarios investigating the impact of different assumptions of eggshell thinning on skylark population size, density and distribution in 10 Danish landscapes, chosen to represent the range of typical Danish agricultural conditions. Landscape and timing of application of the pesticide were found to be the most critical factors to consider in the impact assessment. Consequently, a regulatory scenario of monoculture spring barley with an early spray treatment eliciting the eggshell thinning effect was applied using concentrations eliciting effects of zero to 100% in steps of 5%. Setting the SPGs requires balancing scientific, social and political realities. However, the provision of clear and detailed options such as those from comprehensive simulation results can inform the decision process by improving transparency and by putting the more abstract testing data into the context of real-world impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of automated text messaging and goal setting on pedometer adherence and physical activity in patients with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Anthony, Christopher; Carr, Lucas; Simmering, Jacob E; Evans, Nicholas J; Foster, Eric D; Segre, Alberto M; Cremer, James F; Polgreen, Philip M

    2018-01-01

    Activity-monitoring devices may increase activity, but their effectiveness in sedentary, diseased, and less-motivated populations is unknown. Subjects with diabetes or pre-diabetes were given a Fitbit and randomized into three groups: Fitbit only, Fitbit with reminders, and Fitbit with both reminders and goal setting. Subjects in the reminders group were sent text-message reminders to wear their Fitbit. The goal-setting group was sent a daily text message asking for a step goal. All subjects had three in-person visits (baseline, 3 and 6 months). We modelled daily steps and goal setting using linear mixed-effects models. 138 subjects participated with 48 in the Fitbit-only, 44 in the reminders, and 46 in the goal-setting groups. Daily steps decreased for all groups during the study. Average daily steps were 7123, 6906, and 6854 for the Fitbit-only, the goal-setting, and the reminders groups, respectively. The reminders group was 17.2 percentage points more likely to wear their Fitbit than the Fitbit-only group. Setting a goal was associated with a significant increase of 791 daily steps, but setting more goals did not lead to step increases. In a population of patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes, individualized reminders to wear their Fitbit and elicit personal step goals did not lead to increases in daily steps, although daily steps were higher on days when goals were set. Our intervention improved engagement and data collection, important goals for activity surveillance. This study demonstrates that new, more-effective interventions for increasing activity in patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes are needed.

  18. Parkinson's patients' executive profile and goals they set for improvement: Why is cognitive rehabilitation not common practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlagsma, T T; Koerts, J; Fasotti, L; Tucha, O; van Laar, T; Dijkstra, H; Spikman, J M

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in executive functions (EF) are the core cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Surprisingly, cognitive rehabilitation is not routinely offered to patients with PD. However, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), cognitive rehabilitation, in particular strategic executive training, is common practice and has been shown to be effective. In this study, we determined whether PD patients have different needs and aims with regard to strategic executive training than ABI patients, and whether possible differences might be a reason for not offering this kind of cognitive rehabilitation programme to patients with PD. Patients' needs and aims were operationalised by individually set goals, which were classified into domains of EF and daily life. In addition, patients with PD and ABI were compared on their cognitive, in particular EF, profile. Overall, PD patients' goals and cognitive profile were similar to those of patients with ABI. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, there is no reason to assume that strategic executive training cannot be part of standard therapy in PD. However, when strategic executive training is applied in clinical practice, disease-specific characteristics need to be taken into account.

  19. Motivation in vigilance - A test of the goal-setting hypothesis of the effectiveness of knowledge of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm, J. S.; Riechmann, S. W.; Grasha, A. F.; Seibel, B.

    1973-01-01

    This study tested the prediction, derived from the goal-setting hypothesis, that the facilitating effects of knowledge of results (KR) in a simple vigilance task should be related directly to the level of the performance standard used to regulate KR. Two groups of Ss received dichotomous KR in terms of whether Ss response times (RTs) to signal detections exceeded a high or low standard of performance. The aperiodic offset of a visual signal was the critical event for detection. The vigil was divided into a training phase followed by testing, during which KR was withdrawn. Knowledge of results enhanced performance in both phases. However, the two standards used to regulate feedback contributed little to these effects.

  20. Facilitation of Goal-Setting and Follow-Up in an Internet Intervention for Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Mattila, Elina; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Korhonen, Ilkka

    Chronic work-related stress and insufficient recovery from workload can gradually lead to problems with mental and physical health. Resources in healthcare are limited especially for preventive treatment, but low-cost support can be provided by Internet-based behavior change interventions. This paper describes the design of an Internet intervention which supports working-age people in managing and preventing stress-related health and wellness problems. The intervention is designed for early prevention and aims to motivate individuals to take responsibility for their own well-being. It allows them to choose the approach to take to address personally significant issues, while guiding them through the process. The first iteration of the intervention was evaluated with three user groups and subsequently improved based on the user experiences to be more persuasive, motivating and better suited for independent use. Goal setting and follow-up were especially enhanced, tunneled structure improved, and the threshold of use lowered.

  1. Using shared goal setting to improve access and equity: a mixed methods study of the Good Goals intervention in children’s occupational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolehmainen Niina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access and equity in children’s therapy services may be improved by directing clinicians’ use of resources toward specific goals that are important to patients. A practice-change intervention (titled ‘Good Goals’ was designed to achieve this. This study investigated uptake, adoption, and possible effects of that intervention in children’s occupational therapy services. Methods Mixed methods case studies (n = 3 services, including 46 therapists and 558 children were conducted. The intervention was delivered over 25 weeks through face-to-face training, team workbooks, and ‘tools for change’. Data were collected before, during, and after the intervention on a range of factors using interviews, a focus group, case note analysis, routine data, document analysis, and researchers’ observations. Results Factors related to uptake and adoptions were: mode of intervention delivery, competing demands on therapists’ time, and leadership by service manager. Service managers and therapists reported that the intervention: helped therapists establish a shared rationale for clinical decisions; increased clarity in service provision; and improved interactions with families and schools. During the study period, therapists’ behaviours changed: identifying goals, odds ratio 2.4 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.8; agreeing goals, 3.5 (2.4 to 5.1; evaluating progress, 2.0 (1.1 to 3.5. Children’s LoT decreased by two months [95% CI −8 to +4 months] across the services. Cost per therapist trained ranged from £1,003 to £1,277, depending upon service size and therapists’ salary bands. Conclusions Good Goals is a promising quality improvement intervention that can be delivered and adopted in practice and may have benefits. Further research is required to evaluate its: (i impact on patient outcomes, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and (ii transferability to other clinical contexts.

  2. Goal setting using telemedicine in rural underserved older adults with diabetes: experiences from the informatics for diabetes education and telemedicine project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Susan P; Lagua, Carina; Trief, Paula M; Izquierdo, Roberto; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2010-05-01

    To describe the use of telemedicine for setting goals for behavior change and examine the success in achieving these goals in rural underserved older adults with diabetes. Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes living in rural upstate New York who were enrolled in the telemedicine intervention of the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) project (n = 610) participated in home televisits with nurse and dietitian educators every 4-6 weeks for 2-6 years. Behavior change goals related to nutrition, physical activity, monitoring, diabetes health maintenance, and/or use of the home telemedicine unit were established at the conclusion of each televisit and assessed at the next visit. Collaborative goal setting was employed during 18,355 televisits (mean of 33 goal-setting televisits/participant). The most common goals were related to monitoring, followed by diabetes health maintenance, nutrition, exercise, and use of the telemedicine equipment. Overall, 68% of behavioral goals were rated as "improved" or "met." The greatest success was achieved for goals related to proper insulin injection technique and daily foot care. These elderly participants had the most difficulty achieving goals related to use of the computer. No gender differences in goal achievement were observed. Televisits can be successfully used to collaboratively establish behavior change goals to help improve diabetes self-management in underserved elderly rural adults.

  3. Improvements in Health Behaviors, Eating Self-Efficacy, and Goal-Setting Skills Following Participation in Wellness Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew M; Bradley, Karleah L; Jenkins, Sarah M; Mettler, Emily A; Larson, Brent G; Preston, Heather R; Liesinger, Juliette T; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Harris, Ann M; Riley, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D; Vickers Douglas, Kristin S

    2016-07-01

    Purpose . This project examined potential changes in health behaviors following wellness coaching. Design . In a single cohort study design, wellness coaching participants were recruited in 2011, data were collected through July 2012, and were analyzed through December 2013. Items in the study questionnaire used requested information about 11 health behaviors, self-efficacy for eating, and goal-setting skills. Setting . Worksite wellness center. Participants . One-hundred employee wellness center members with an average age of 42 years; 90% were female and most were overweight or obese. Intervention . Twelve weeks of in-person, one-on-one wellness coaching. Method . Participants completed study questionnaires when they started wellness coaching (baseline), after 12 weeks of wellness coaching, and at a 3-month follow-up. Results . From baseline to week 12, these 100 wellness coaching participants improved their self-reported health behaviors (11 domains, 0- to 10-point scale) from an average of 6.4 to 7.7 (p coaching.

  4. Small Steps: Preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of an incremental goal-setting intervention to reduce sitting time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L K; Rowlands, A V; Gardiner, P A; Standage, M; English, C; Olds, T

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of a theory-informed program to reduce sitting time in older adults. Pre-experimental (pre-post) study. Thirty non-working adult (≥ 60 years) participants attended a one hour face-to-face intervention session and were guided through: a review of their sitting time; normative feedback on sitting time; and setting goals to reduce total sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting. Participants chose six goals and integrated one per week incrementally for six weeks. Participants received weekly phone calls. Sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting (≥ 30 min) were measured objectively for seven days (activPAL3c inclinometer) pre- and post-intervention. During these periods, a 24-h time recall instrument was administered by computer-assisted telephone interview. Participants completed a post-intervention project evaluation questionnaire. Paired t tests with sequential Bonferroni corrections and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all outcomes. Twenty-seven participants completed the assessments (71.7 ± 6.5 years). Post-intervention, objectively-measured total sitting time was significantly reduced by 51.5 min per day (p=0.006; d=-0.58) and number of bouts of prolonged sitting by 0.8 per day (p=0.002; d=-0.70). Objectively-measured standing increased by 39 min per day (p=0.006; d=0.58). Participants self-reported spending 96 min less per day sitting (p<0.001; d=-0.77) and 32 min less per day watching television (p=0.005; d=-0.59). Participants were highly satisfied with the program. The 'Small Steps' program is a feasible and promising avenue for behavioral modification to reduce sitting time in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Setting the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Meg E.; Balk, Deborah; Delamonica, Enrique; Storeygard, Adam; Sacks, Emma; Minujin, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This analysis seeks to set the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). METHODS: We use data from international household-level surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)) to demonstrate that establishing an equity baseline is necessary and feasible, even in low-income and data-poor countries. We assess data from six countries using 11 health indicators and six social stratifiers. Simple bivariate stratification is complemented by simultaneous stratification to expose the compound effect of multiple forms of vulnerability. FINDINGS: The data reveal that inequities are complex and interactive: inferences cannot be drawn about the nature or extent of inequities in health outcomes from a single stratifier or indicator. CONCLUSION: The MDGs and other development initiatives must become more comprehensive and explicit in their analysis and tracking of inequities. The design of policies to narrow health gaps must take into account country-specific inequities. PMID:16878225

  6. Financial Literacy; Strategies and Concepts in Understanding the Financial Planning With Self-EfficacyTheory and Goal SettingTheory of Motivation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mu’izzuddin, -; Taufik, -; Ghasarma, Reza; Putri, Leonita; Adam, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the strategies and concepts in understanding the financial literacy with the approach of self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of motivation. The discussion begins with the concept of behavioral finance that discusses links between financial concepts to the behavior, and then proceed with the concept and measurement of financial literacy of individuals altogether with some approaches and factors that may affect it. Self-efficacy theory and goal setting theory of ...

  7. [Effectiveness of a self-management program using goal setting based on a G-AP for patients after a stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Gyeong; Ha, Yeongmi

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to develop a self-management program using goal setting for patients after a stroke. The program was based on a theory-based Goal setting and Action Planning framework (G-AP), and the effectiveness of the program was examined. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The experimental group (n=30) received the self-management program using goal setting based on the G-AP over 7 weeks. The education was delivered individually with a specifically designed stroke workbook. The control group (n=30) received only patient information leaflets about stroke. There were significant differences between the two groups. Stroke knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behavior compliance were significantly higher (all pgoal setting based on a G-AP was found to be useful and beneficial for patients in stroke rehabilitation settings.

  8. Achieving Good Outcomes for Asthma Living (GOAL): mixed methods feasibility and pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a practical intervention for eliciting, setting and achieving goals for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Gaylor; Williams, Brian; Abhyankar, Purva; Donnan, Peter; Duncan, Edward; Pinnock, Hilary; van der Pol, Marjon; Rauchhaus, Petra; Taylor, Anne; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-12-08

    Despite being a core component of self-management, goal setting is rarely used in routine care. We piloted a primary care, nurse-led intervention called Achieving Good Outcomes for Asthma Living (GOAL) for adults with asthma. Patients were invited to identify and prioritise their goals in preparation for discussing and negotiating an action/coping plan with the nurse at a routine asthma review. The 18-month mixed methods feasibility cluster pilot trial stratified and then randomised practices to deliver usual care (UC) or a goal-setting intervention (GOAL). Practice asthma nurses and adult patients with active asthma were invited to participate. The primary outcome was asthma-specific quality of life. Semi-structured interviews with a purposive patient sample (n = 14) and 10 participating nurses explored GOAL perception. The constructs of normalisation process theory (NPT) were used to analyse and interpret data. Ten practices participated (five in each arm), exceeding our target of eight. However, only 48 patients (target 80) were recruited (18 in GOAL practices). At 6 months post-intervention, the difference in mean asthma-related quality of life (mAQLQ) between intervention and control was 0.1 (GOAL 6.20: SD 0.76 (CI 5.76-6.65) versus UC 6.1: SD 0.81 (CI 5.63-6.57)), less than the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 0.5. However, change from baseline was stronger in the intervention group: at 6 months the change in the emotions sub-score was 0.8 for intervention versus 0.2 for control. Costs were higher in the intervention group by £22.17. Routine review with goal setting was considered more holistic, enhancing rapport and enabling patients to become active rather than passive participants in healthcare. However, time was a major barrier for nurses, who admitted to screening out patient goals they believed were unrelated to asthma. The difference in AQLQ score from baseline is larger in the intervention arm than the control, indicating the

  9. Adaptive goal setting and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults’ physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Adams

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging interventions that rely on and harness variability in behavior to adapt to individual performance over time may outperform interventions that prescribe static goals (e.g., 10,000 steps/day. The purpose of this factorial trial was to compare adaptive vs. static goal setting and immediate vs. delayed, non-contingent financial rewards for increasing free-living physical activity (PA. Methods A 4-month 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial tested main effects for goal setting (adaptive vs. static goals and rewards (immediate vs. delayed and interactions between factors to increase steps/day as measured by a Fitbit Zip. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA minutes/day was examined as a secondary outcome. Results Participants (N = 96 were mainly female (77%, aged 41 ± 9.5 years, and all were insufficiently active and overweight/obese (mean BMI = 34.1 ± 6.2. Participants across all groups increased by 2389 steps/day on average from baseline to intervention phase (p < .001. Participants receiving static goals showed a stronger increase in steps per day from baseline phase to intervention phase (2630 steps/day than those receiving adaptive goals (2149 steps/day; difference = 482 steps/day, p = .095. Participants receiving immediate rewards showed stronger improvement (2762 step/day increase from baseline to intervention phase than those receiving delayed rewards (2016 steps/day increase; difference = 746 steps/day, p = .009. However, the adaptive goals group showed a slower decrease in steps/day from the beginning of the intervention phase to the end of the intervention phase (i.e. less than half the rate compared to the static goals group (−7.7 steps vs. -18.3 steps each day; difference = 10.7 steps/day, p < .001 resulting in better improvements for the adaptive goals group by study end. Rate of change over the intervention phase did not differ between reward groups. Significant goal phase x goal

  10. Impact of a goal setting and decision support telephone coaching intervention on diet, psychosocial, and decision outcomes among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine M; Miller, Carla K; Wills, Celia E

    2017-07-01

    Evaluate a 16-week decision support and goal-setting intervention to compare diet quality, decision, and diabetes-related outcomes to a control group. Adults with type 2 diabetes (n=54) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants completed one in-person motivational interviewing and decision support session followed by seven biweekly telephone coaching calls. Participants reported previous goal attempts and set diet- and/or physical activity-related goals during coaching calls. Control group participants received information about local health care resources on the same contact schedule. There was a significant difference between groups for diabetes empowerment (p=0.045). A significant increase in diet quality, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes empowerment, and a significant decrease in diabetes distress and depressive symptoms (all p≤0.05) occurred in the intervention group. Decision confidence to achieve diet-related goals significantly improved from baseline to week 8 but then declined at study end (both p≤0.05). Setting specific diet-related goals may promote dietary change, and telephone coaching can improve psychosocial outcomes related to diabetes self-management. Informed shared decision making can facilitate progressively challenging yet attainable goals tailored to individuals' lifestyle. Decision coaching may empower patients to improve self-management practices and reduce distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in a Real-Life Setting: Goal Management Training Applied to a Person with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the efficacy of a modified version of Goal Management Training (GMT in a person with schizophrenia who had difficulties in attaining the final goal for new and multitasking daily-life situations. GMT is designed to improve abilities in establishing goal-directed plans and carrying them out effectively. Beneficial effects of GMT were measured for several clinical questionnaires, laboratory tasks, and three real-life situations: meal preparation (trained, familiar; washing (nontrained, familiar; meeting preparation (nontrained, unfamiliar. The results revealed improvement in planning and on trained laboratory and meal preparation tasks and a generalization of GMT effects on nontrained laboratory and everyday tasks. Self-esteem also improved. Finally, a two-year followup indicated the durability of the beneficial effects.

  12. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  13. The Value of Adding Ambient Energy Feedback to Conservation Tips and Goal-Setting in a Dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Abigail; McCauley, Michelle; Byrne, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of research on energy feedback has been conducted in residential households; in this study, the authors aim to examine the effectiveness of similar initiatives in a college environment. The our goal was to see how much additional electricity savings could be induced using feedback beyond average savings achieved by…

  14. Implementation of a Goal-Directed Mechanical Ventilation Order Set Driven by Respiratory Therapists Improves Compliance With Best Practices for Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Misty A; Wanta, Brendan T; Meyer, Todd J; Weber, Verlin W; Brown, Daniel R; Smischney, Nathan J; Diedrich, Daniel A

    2017-01-01

    Data regarding best practices for ventilator management strategies that improve outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are readily available. However, little is known regarding processes to ensure compliance with these strategies. We developed a goal-directed mechanical ventilation order set that included physician-specified lung-protective ventilation and oxygenation goals to be implemented by respiratory therapists (RTs). We sought as a primary outcome to determine whether an RT-driven order set with predefined oxygenation and ventilation goals could be implemented and associated with improved adherence with best practice. We evaluated 1302 patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (1693 separate episodes of invasive mechanical ventilation) prior to and after institution of a standardized, goal-directed mechanical ventilation order set using a controlled before-and-after study design. Patient-specific goals for oxygenation partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (Pao 2 ), ARDS Network [Net] positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]/fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] table use) and ventilation (pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide) were selected by prescribers and implemented by RTs. Compliance with the new mechanical ventilation order set was high: 88.2% compliance versus 3.8% before implementation of the order set ( P mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and in-hospital or ICU mortality. A standardized best practice mechanical ventilation order set can be implemented by a multidisciplinary team and is associated with improved compliance to written orders and adherence to the ARDSNet PEEP/Fio 2 table.

  15. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  16. The Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS), part II: evaluation of test-retest reliability and differences between child and parental reports in the Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2012-11-01

    to evaluate the test-retest reliability of children's perceptions of their own competence in performing daily tasks and of their choice of goals for intervention using the Swedish version of the perceived efficacy and goal setting system (PEGS). A second aim was to evaluate agreement between children's and parents' perceptions of the child's competence and choices of intervention goals. Forty-four children with disabilities and their parents completed the Swedish version of the PEGS. Thirty-six of the children completed a retest session allocated into one of two groups: (A) for evaluation of perceived competence and (B) for evaluation of choice of goals. Cohen's kappa, weighted kappa and absolute agreement were calculated. Test-retest reliability for children's perceived competence showed good agreement for the dichotomized scale of competent/non-competent performance; however, using the four-point scale the agreement varied. The children's own goals were relatively stable over time; 78% had an absolute agreement ranging from 50% to 100%. There was poor agreement between the children's and their parents' ratings. Goals identified by the children differed from those identified by their parents, with 48% of the children having no goals identical to those chosen by their parents. These results indicate that the Swedish version of the PEGS produces reliable outcomes comparable to the original version.

  17. Increasing the Writing Performance of Urban Seniors Placed At-Risk through Goal-Setting in a Culturally Responsive and Creativity-Centered Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Brittany; Warren, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to support marginalized students require not only identifying systemic inequities, but providing a classroom infrastructure that supports the academic achievement of all students. This action research study examined the effects of implementing goal-setting strategies and emphasizing creativity in a culturally responsive classroom (CRC) on…

  18. Using Self-Monitoring with Guided Goal Setting to Increase Academic Engagement for a Student with Autism in an Inclusive Classroom in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Lee, Gabrielle T.; Luke, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using self-monitoring with guided goal setting was effective in increasing academic engagement for a student with autism who frequently displayed disruptive behaviors in an inclusive classroom in China. A 9-year-old male student with autism participated in this study. A changing criterion…

  19. The development of mentoring-relationship quality, future-planning style, and career goal setting among adolescents from a disadvantaged background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wendy S Y; Zhou, Xiao-Chun; Lai, Simon M K

    2017-03-01

    Our behaviors are regulated by our perception of the future based on past experiences and knowledge. Children from a disadvantaged background might encounter obstacles more frequently when they plan their future. It is possible that a good relationship with an adult volunteer who provides assistance and guidance in the disadvantaged youth's development may facilitate their future-planning style and career goal setting. The present study investigated the role of a good mentoring relationship in promoting a disadvantaged youth's future-planning style and goal-setting ability. It focused on children from a disadvantaged background who participated in the Child Development Fund (CDF) in Hong Kong. In the study, 187 CDF participants (93 with high mentoring-relationship quality [MRQ] and 94 with low MRQ) and 208 comparison group participants were able to complete all four times of the survey. Repeated-measures analyses of covariance showed that Group main effects were observed for both future-planning style, F(2, 374) = 5.92, p career goal-setting self-efficacy, F(2, 376) = 6.07, p planning style only, F(5.78, 1081.21) = 2.17, p planning style and career goal-setting self-efficacy. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mean MRQ score accounted for 3.9% (p planning style and 4.1% (p career goal-setting self-efficacy, supporting the role of a good mentoring relationship. Mentors have introduced new resources to the disadvantaged youths with high MRQ and have promoted the development of various skills through modeling. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Use of a risk-based hydrogeologic model to set remedial goals in a Puget Sound basin watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, G.; Gould, L.; Martin, J.; Riley, M.; Floyd, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Port of Seattle is redeveloping industrial land for a container terminal along the southwest Seattle waterfront. Concrete, asphalt, ballast, and a landfill geomembrane will cover the site and prevent direct contact with surface soils, so remedial goals focused on groundwater contamination from subsurface soils. Groundwater at the site flows along an old stormwater drain, in a filled estuary of a small creek, to Elliott Bay. Remedial goals for a variety of organic chemicals, metals, and TPH in subsurface soils were identified to protect marine receptors in the bay and their consumers. Washington State and federal marine water quality criteria were the starting points in the risk-based model, and corresponding concentrations of chemicals in groundwater were back-calculated through a hydrogeologic model. The hydrogeologic model included a mixing zone component in the bay and dilution/attenuation factors along the groundwater transport pathway that were determined from onsite groundwater and surface water chemical concentrations. A rearranged Summers equation was then applied in a second back-calculation to determine subsurface soil concentrations corresponding to the back calculated groundwater concentrations. The equation was based on calculated aquifer flow rates for the small creek watershed and rates of infiltration through surface materials calculated for each redevelopment soil cover type by the HELP model. Results of the risk-based hydrogeologic back-calculation model indicate that, depending on soil cover type at the site, concentrations in subsurface soils of PCBs from 2 to 1,000 mg/kg and of TPH up to free phase concentration would not result in risks to marine organisms or their consumers in Elliott Bay

  1. Goal Setting and Treatment Adherence Among Patients With Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms: Applying a Patient-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Tatum, Alexander K; Guy, Arryn; Mikrut, Cassandra; Yoder, Wren

    2015-10-26

    Poor treatment adherence is a major problem among individuals with chronic illness. Research indicates that adherence is worsened when accompanied by depressive symptoms. In this preliminary study, we aimed to describe how a patient-centered approach could be employed to aid patients with depressive symptoms in following their treatment regimens. The sample consisted of 14 patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV who reported clinically-significant depressive symptoms. Participant ratings of 23 treatment-related statements were examined using two assessment and analytic techniques. Interviews were conducted with participants to determine their views of information based on the technique. Results indicate that while participants with optimal adherence focused on views of treatment associated with side effects to a greater extent than participants with poor adherence, they tended to relate these side effects to sources of intrinsic motivation. The study provides examples of how practitioners could employ the assessment techniques outlined to better understand how patients think about treatment and aid them in effectively framing their health-related goals.

  2. Effectiveness of Goal-Setting Telephone Follow-Up on Health Behaviors of Patients with Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Pei; Mo, Miao-Miao; Xiong, Xiao-Ni; Ou, Cui-Ling; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Zhang, Min

    2016-09-01

    Adopting healthy behaviors is critical for secondary stroke prevention, but many patients fail to follow national guidelines regarding diet, exercise, and abstinence from risk factors. Compliance often decreases with time after hospital discharge, yet few studies have examined programs promoting long-term adherence to health behaviors. Goal setting and telephone follow-up have been proven to be effective in other areas of medicine, so this study evaluated the effectiveness of a guideline-based, goal-setting telephone follow-up program for patients with ischemic stroke. This was a multicenter, assessor-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Ninety-one stroke patients were randomized to either a control group or an intervention group. Intervention consisted of predischarge education and 3 goal-setting follow-up sessions conducted by phone. Data were collected at baseline and during the third and sixth months after hospital discharge. Six months after discharge, patients in the intervention group exhibited significantly higher medication adherence than patients in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in physical activity, nutrition, low-salt diet adherence, blood pressure monitoring, smoking abstinence, unhealthy use of alcohol, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores between the 2 groups. Goal-setting telephone follow-up intervention for ischemic stroke patients is feasible and leads to improved medication adherence. However, the lack of group differences in other health behavior subcategories and in themRS score indicates a need for more effective intervention strategies to help patients reach guideline-recommended targets. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Setting standards and monitoring quality in the NHS 1999–2013: a classic case of goal conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alec; Littlejohns, Anna; Poole, Tara‐Lynn; Kieslich, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 2013 saw the National Health Service (NHS) in England severely criticized for providing poor quality despite successive governments in the previous 15 years, establishing a range of new institutions to improve NHS quality. This study seeks to understand the contributions of political and organizational influences in enabling the NHS to deliver high‐quality care through exploring the experiences of two of the major new organizations established to set standards and monitor NHS quality. We used a mixed method approach: first a cross‐sectional, in‐depth qualitative interview study and then the application of principal agent modeling (Waterman and Meier broader framework). Ten themes were identified as influencing the functioning of the NHS regulatory institutions: socio‐political environment; governance and accountability; external relationships; clarity of purpose; organizational reputation; leadership and management; organizational stability; resources; organizational methods; and organizational performance. The organizations could be easily mapped onto the framework, and their transience between the different states could be monitored. We concluded that differing policy objectives for NHS quality monitoring resulted in central involvement and organizational change. This had a disruptive effect on the ability of the NHS to monitor quality. Constant professional leadership, both clinical and managerial, and basing decisions on best evidence, both technical and organizational, helped one institution to deliver on its remit, even within a changing political/policy environment. Application of the Waterman–Meier framework enabled an understanding and description of the dynamic relationship between central government and organizations in the NHS and may predict when tensions will arise in the future. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27435020

  4. Setting standards and monitoring quality in the NHS 1999-2013: a classic case of goal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Peter; Knight, Alec; Littlejohns, Anna; Poole, Tara-Lynn; Kieslich, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    2013 saw the National Health Service (NHS) in England severely criticized for providing poor quality despite successive governments in the previous 15 years, establishing a range of new institutions to improve NHS quality. This study seeks to understand the contributions of political and organizational influences in enabling the NHS to deliver high-quality care through exploring the experiences of two of the major new organizations established to set standards and monitor NHS quality. We used a mixed method approach: first a cross-sectional, in-depth qualitative interview study and then the application of principal agent modeling (Waterman and Meier broader framework). Ten themes were identified as influencing the functioning of the NHS regulatory institutions: socio-political environment; governance and accountability; external relationships; clarity of purpose; organizational reputation; leadership and management; organizational stability; resources; organizational methods; and organizational performance. The organizations could be easily mapped onto the framework, and their transience between the different states could be monitored. We concluded that differing policy objectives for NHS quality monitoring resulted in central involvement and organizational change. This had a disruptive effect on the ability of the NHS to monitor quality. Constant professional leadership, both clinical and managerial, and basing decisions on best evidence, both technical and organizational, helped one institution to deliver on its remit, even within a changing political/policy environment. Application of the Waterman-Meier framework enabled an understanding and description of the dynamic relationship between central government and organizations in the NHS and may predict when tensions will arise in the future. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health

  5. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings. In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts. The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well. The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1. It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child

  6. Feedback GAP: pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Noah M; Tu, Karen; Young, Jacqueline; Francis, Jill J; Barnsley, Jan; Shah, Baiju R; Upshur, Ross E; Moineddin, Rahim; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2013-12-17

    Audit and feedback to physicians is a commonly used quality improvement strategy, but its optimal design is unknown. This trial tested the effects of a theory-informed worksheet to facilitate goal setting and action planning, appended to feedback reports on chronic disease management, compared to feedback reports provided without these worksheets. A two-arm pragmatic cluster randomized trial was conducted, with allocation at the level of primary care clinics. Participants were family physicians who contributed data from their electronic medical records. The 'usual feedback' arm received feedback every six months for two years regarding the proportion of their patients meeting quality targets for diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. The intervention arm received these same reports plus a worksheet designed to facilitate goal setting and action plan development in response to the feedback reports. Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) values were compared after two years as the primary outcomes. Process outcomes measured the proportion of guideline-recommended actions (e.g., testing and prescribing) conducted within the appropriate timeframe. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Outcomes were similar across groups at baseline. Final analysis included 20 physicians from seven clinics and 1,832 patients in the intervention arm (15% loss to follow up) and 29 physicians from seven clinics and 2,223 patients in the usual feedback arm (10% loss to follow up). Ten of 20 physicians completed the worksheet at least once during the study. Mean BP was 128/72 in the feedback plus worksheet arm and 128/73 in the feedback alone arm, while LDL was 2.1 and 2.0, respectively. Thus, no significant differences were observed across groups in the primary outcomes, but mean haemoglobin A1c was lower in the feedback plus worksheet arm (7.2% versus 7.4%, ptheory-informed goal setting and action planning worksheet to an externally produced audit and

  7. Developing Content Knowledge in Students Through Explicit Teaching of the Nature of Science: Influences of Goal Setting and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Erin E.

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge about the nature of science has been advocated as an important component of science because it provides a framework on which the students can incorporate content knowledge. However, little empirical evidence has been provided that links nature of science knowledge with content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine if both nature of science knowledge and content knowledge could be increased with an explicit, reflective nature of science intervention utilizing self-regulation over an implicit group. Results showed that the explicit group significantly outperformed the implicit group on both nature of science and content knowledge assessments. Students in the explicit group also demonstrated a greater use of detail in their inquiry work and reported a higher respect for evidence in making conclusions than the implicit group. Implications suggest that science educators could enhance nature of science instruction using goal setting and self-monitoring of student work during inquiry lessons.

  8. The effects of a life goal-setting technique in a preventive care program for frail community-dwelling older people: a cluster nonrandomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri, Yoshimi; Takabatake, Shinichi; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Oka, Mari; Fujiwara, Taro

    2016-05-12

    Frailty among older people is associated with an increased risk of needing care. There have been many reports on preventive care programs for frail older people, but few have shown positive effects on disability prevention. Physical exercise programs for frail older people affect elements such as physical fitness and balance, but are less effective for disability outcomes and are not followed up in the longer term. We developed a life goal-setting technique (LGST). Our objective was to determine the effect of a LGST plus standard preventive care program for community-dwelling frail older people. We used a cluster nonrandomized controlled trial with seven intervention and nine matched control groups, with baseline assessment and follow-up at 3, 6, and 9 months. Participants were 176 frail older people, aged 65 years or over, living in the community in Izumi, Osaka, Japan. All participants attended regular 120 min preventive care exercise classes each week, over 3 months. They also received oral care and nutrition education. The intervention groups alone received life goal-setting support. We assessed outcomes longitudinally, comparing pre-intervention with follow-up. The primary outcome measure was health improvement according to the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's "Kihon Checklist" for assessment of frailty and quality of life (QOL), analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and post-test comparison. Secondary outcomes included physical functions and assessment of life goals. The improvement on the Kihon Checklist for the intervention group was approximately 60 % from baseline to 9-months follow-up; the control group improved by approximately 40 %. The difference between groups was significant at 3-month (p = 0.043) and 6-month (p = 0.015) follow-ups but not at 9-month (p = 0.098) follow-up. Analysis of QOL yielded a significant time × group interaction effect (p = 0.022). The effect was significant at 3 months in the intervention

  9. Effect of a Quality Improvement Intervention With Daily Round Checklists, Goal Setting, and Clinician Prompting on Mortality of Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Alexandre B; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Machado, Flavia R; Salluh, Jorge I F; Campagnucci, Valquiria Pelisser; Vendramim, Patricia; Guimaraes, Helio Penna; Normilio-Silva, Karina; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Romano, Edson; Carrara, Fernanda; Lubarino Diniz de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline Reis; Ramos, Grazielle Viana; Teixeira, Cassiano; Brandão da Silva, Nilton; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Angus, Derek C; Berwanger, Otavio

    2016-04-12

    The effectiveness of checklists, daily goal assessments, and clinician prompts as quality improvement interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) is uncertain. To determine whether a multifaceted quality improvement intervention reduces the mortality of critically ill adults. This study had 2 phases. Phase 1 was an observational study to assess baseline data on work climate, care processes, and clinical outcomes, conducted between August 2013 and March 2014 in 118 Brazilian ICUs. Phase 2 was a cluster randomized trial conducted between April and November 2014 with the same ICUs. The first 60 admissions of longer than 48 hours per ICU were enrolled in each phase. Intensive care units were randomized to a quality improvement intervention, including a daily checklist and goal setting during multidisciplinary rounds with follow-up clinician prompting for 11 care processes, or to routine care. In-hospital mortality truncated at 60 days (primary outcome) was analyzed using a random-effects logistic regression model, adjusted for patients' severity and the ICU's baseline standardized mortality ratio. Exploratory secondary outcomes included adherence to care processes, safety climate, and clinical events. A total of 6877 patients (mean age, 59.7 years; 3218 [46.8%] women) were enrolled in the baseline (observational) phase and 6761 (mean age, 59.6 years; 3098 [45.8%] women) in the randomized phase, with 3327 patients enrolled in ICUs (n = 59) assigned to the intervention group and 3434 patients in ICUs (n = 59) assigned to routine care. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the intervention group and the usual care group, with 1096 deaths (32.9%) and 1196 deaths (34.8%), respectively (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82-1.26; P = .88). Among 20 prespecified secondary outcomes not adjusted for multiple comparisons, 6 were significantly improved in the intervention group (use of low tidal volumes, avoidance of heavy sedation, use of

  10. A prospective interrupted time series study of interventions to improve the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal-setting in community-based brain injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Simpson, Grahame; Cotter, Rachel; Whiting, Diane; Hodgkinson, Adeline; Martin, Diane

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether the introduction of an electronic goals system followed by staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goals written by a community-based brain injury rehabilitation team. Interrupted time series design. Two interventions were introduced six months apart. The first intervention comprised the introduction of an electronic goals system. The second intervention comprised a staff goal training workshop. An audit protocol was devised to evaluate the goals. A random selection of goal statements from the 12 months prior to the interventions (Time 1 baseline) were compared with all goal statements written after the introduction of the electronic goals system (Time 2) and staff training (Time 3). All goals were de-identified for client and time-period, and randomly ordered. A total of 745 goals (Time 1 n = 242; Time 2 n = 283; Time 3 n = 220) were evaluated. Compared with baseline, the introduction of the electronic goals system alone significantly increased goal rating, framing and structure (χ(2) tests 144.7, 18.9, 48.1, respectively, p goal quality, which was only a trend at Time 2, was statistically significant at Time 3 (χ(2) 15.0, p ≤ 001). The training also led to a further significant increase in the framing and structuring of goals over the electronic goals system (χ(2) 11.5, 12.5, respectively, p ≤ 0.001). An electronic goals system combined with staff training improved the quality, rating, framing and structure of goal statements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Ha Noi Expert Statement: recognition of maternal mental health in resource-constrained settings is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane Rw; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Izutsu, Takashi; Tran, Tuan

    2011-01-07

    Mental health problems in women during pregnancy and after childbirth and their adverse consequences for child health and development have received sustained detailed attention in high-income countries. In contrast, evidence has only been generated more recently in resource-constrained settings.In June 2007 the United Nations Population Fund, the World Health Organization, the Key Centre for Women's Health in Society, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Women's Health and the Research and Training Centre for Community Development in Vietnam convened the first international expert meeting on maternal mental health and child health and development in resource-constrained settings. It aimed to appraise the evidence about the nature, prevalence and risks for common perinatal mental disorders in women; the consequences of these for child health and development and ameliorative strategies in these contexts.The substantial disparity in rates of perinatal mental disorders between women living in high- and low-income settings, suggests social rather than biological determinants. Risks in resource-constrained contexts include: poverty; crowded living situations; limited reproductive autonomy; unintended pregnancy; lack of empathy from the intimate partner; rigid gender stereotypes about responsibility for household work and infant care; family violence; poor physical health and discrimination. Development is adversely affected if infants lack day-to-day interactions with a caregiver who can interpret their cues, and respond effectively. Women with compromised mental health are less able to provide sensitive, responsive infant care. In resource-constrained settings infants whose mothers are depressed are less likely to thrive and to receive optimal care than those whose mothers are well.The meeting outcome is the Hanoi Expert Statement (Additional file 1). It argues that the Millennium Development Goals to improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality

  12. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  13. DOES CLINICAL INERTIA VARY BY PERSONALIZED A1C GOAL? A STUDY OF PREDICTORS AND PREVALENCE OF CLINICAL INERTIA IN A U.S. MANAGED-CARE SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jay; Zhou, Steve; Wei, Wenhui; Pan, Chunshen; Lingohr-Smith, Melissa; Levin, Philip

    2016-02-01

    Clinical inertia is defined as failure to initiate or intensify therapy despite an inadequate treatment response. We assessed the prevalence and identified the predictors of clinical inertia among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) based on personalized goals. Three hemoglobin A1c (A1C) targets (American Diabetes Association A1C inertia was defined as no intensification of treatment during the response period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed to identify predictors of treatment intensification. Irrespective of A1C target, the majority of patients with T2DM (70.4 to 72.8%) experienced clinical inertia in the 6 months following the index event, with 5.3 to 6.2% of patients intensifying treatment with insulin. Patients with a lower likelihood of intensification were older, used >1 oral antidiabetes drug during the baseline period, and had an above-target A1C more recently. Treatment intensification was associated with patients who had point-of-service insurance, mental illness, an endocrinologist visit in the baseline period, or higher index A1C. The prevalence of clinical inertia among patients with T2DM in a U.S. managed-care setting is high and has increased over more recent years. Factors predicting increased risk of clinical inertia may help identify "at-risk" populations and assist in developing strategies to improve their management.

  14. Development of an English-language version of a Japanese iPad application to facilitate collaborative goal setting in rehabilitation: a Delphi study and field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, William; Tomori, Kounosuke; Takahashi, Kayoko; Sherrington, Aidan J

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the content of an English-language version of a Japanese iPad application designed to facilitate shared decision-making around goal setting in rehabilitation: Aid for Decision-making in Occupational Choice-English (ADOC-E). Phase 1: Delphi methods to reach consensus with an international group of expert occupational therapists on the text and images in ADOC-E. Phase 2: Testing correct recognition (unprompted and prompted) of images in ADOC-E by health service users in inpatient rehabilitation and residential care. Phase 1: International, online. Phase 2: Three healthcare services in New Zealand-(1) a residential rehabilitation service for traumatic brain injury, (2) a nursing home for frail older adults and (3) an inpatient rehabilitation ward in a public hospital. Phase 1: Fourteen experienced occupational therapists from New Zealand (4), Australia (4), UK (2) and USA (4). Phase 2: Twenty-four rehabilitation and residential care service users (10 men, 14 women; 20-95 years; Mini-Mental State Exam scores 13-30). Four Delphi rounds were required to reach consensus with the experienced occupational therapists on the content of ADOC-E, ending with 100 items covering daily activities that people do and social roles they participate in. Ninety-five per cent (95/100) of ADOC-E items could each be correctly identified by over 80% of service user participants with either unprompted or prompted recognition. While a few of the more abstract concepts in ADOC-E (related to complex social roles) were less likely to be correctly recognised by all participants, the text and images ADOC-E were deemed to be fit for purpose overall and ready for future clinical testing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Feedback GAP: study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Noah M; Tu, Karen; Francis, Jill; Barnsley, Jan; Shah, Baiju; Upshur, Ross; Kiss, Alex; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2010-12-17

    Audit and feedback to physicians is commonly used alone or as part of multifaceted interventions. While it can play an important role in quality improvement, the optimal design of audit and feedback is unknown. This study explores how feedback can be improved to increase acceptability and usability in primary care. The trial seeks to determine whether a theory-informed worksheet appended to feedback reports can help family physicians improve quality of care for their patients with diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. Two-arm cluster trial was conducted with participating primary care practices allocated using minimization to simple feedback or enhanced feedback group. The simple feedback group receives performance feedback reports every six months for two years regarding the proportion of their patients with diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease who are meeting quality targets. The enhanced feedback group receives these same reports as well as a theory-informed worksheet designed to facilitate goal setting and action plan development in response to the feedback reports. Participants are family physicians from across Ontario who use electronic medical records; data for rostered patients are used to produce the feedback reports and for analysis. The primary disease outcomes are the blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels. The primary process measure is a composite score indicating the number of recommended activities (e.g., tests and prescriptions) conducted by the family physicians for their patients with diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease within the appropriate timeframe. Secondary outcomes are the proportion of patients whose results meet targets for glucose, LDL, and BP as well as the percent of patients receiving relevant prescriptions. A qualitative process evaluation using semi-structured interviews will explore perceived barriers to behaviour change in response to feedback reports and preferences with regard to

  16. Use of redundant sets of landmark information by humans (Homo sapiens) in a goal-searching task in an open field and on a computer screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Katsuo; Ushitani, Tomokazu; Sawa, Kosuke

    2018-05-01

    Landmark-based goal-searching tasks that were similar to those for pigeons (Ushitani & Jitsumori, 2011) were provided to human participants to investigate whether they could learn and use multiple sources of spatial information that redundantly indicate the position of a hidden target in both an open field (Experiment 1) and on a computer screen (Experiments 2 and 3). During the training in each experiment, participants learned to locate a target in 1 of 25 objects arranged in a 5 × 5 grid, using two differently colored, arrow-shaped (Experiments 1 and 2) or asymmetrically shaped (Experiment 3) landmarks placed adjacent to the goal and pointing to the goal location. The absolute location and directions of the landmarks varied across trials, but the constant configuration of the goal and the landmarks enabled participants to find the goal using both global configural information and local vector information (pointing to the goal by each individual landmark). On subsequent test trials, the direction was changed for one of the landmarks to conflict with the global configural information. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that participants used vector information from a single landmark but not configural information. Further examinations revealed that the use of global (metric) information was enhanced remarkably by goal searching with nonarrow-shaped landmarks on the computer monitor (Experiment 3) but much less so with arrow-shaped landmarks (Experiment 2). The General Discussion focuses on a comparison between humans in the current study and pigeons in the previous study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  18. Development and Use of a Goal Setting/Attainment Process Designed To Measure a Teacher's Ability To Engage in Professional Growth and Leadership Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minix, Nancy; And Others

    The process used to evaluate progress in identifying the goals to be used in evaluating teacher performance under the Kentucky Career Ladder Program is described. The process pertains to two areas of teacher development: (1) professional growth and development, and (2) professional leadership and initiative. A total of 1,650 individuals were asked…

  19. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  1. Motivational Goal Bracketing: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We study in an online, real-effort experiment how the bracketing of non-binding goals affects performance in a work-leisure self-control problem. We externally induce the goal bracket - daily goals or a weekly goal - and within that bracket let subjects set goals for how much they want to work over...... a one-week period. Our theoretical model predicts (i) that weekly goals create incentives to compensate for a lower than desired performance today with the promise to work harder tomorrow, whereas daily goals exclude such excuses; (ii) that subjects with daily goals set higher goals in aggregate...... and work harder than those with weekly goals. Our data support these predictions. Surprisingly, however, when goals are combined with an externally enforced commitment that requires subjects to spend less than a minute each day on the task to get started working, performance deteriorates because of high...

  2. The impact of duration on effectiveness of exercise, the implication for periodization of training and goal setting for individuals who are overfat, a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J E

    2016-12-01

    Given the assumption that all methods of exercise, e.g., endurance (ET), resistance (RT), or combination of both (E+R), can induce a beneficial effect size (ES) for changes in body composition and health status of individuals who are overfat. Thus the aim and purpose of this study is to evaluate the current body of knowledge to address the question as to the impact that the duration of exercise has on its relative effectiveness for inducing health and body compositional changes in individuals who are overfat to assist with developing periodized exercise protocols and establishing short and long term goals. A tiered meta-analysis of 92-studies and 200-exercise groupings were used for establishing pooled ES within and between groupings based on the increments of 4-week of duration and study designs of ≤8, 9-16, 17-23, 24-36, and ≥36 weeks. Analysis based on random-effect of response indicates a continuum of effectiveness within and between ET, RT and E+R based on duration. Where beneficial effectiveness is not indicated for any measures until after 8-weeks of continuous training with progressive effectiveness being noted in changes to cardiorespiratory fitness, inflammatory cytokines, and alteration of metabolic status from 12-weeks through 32-weeks of continuous training. Results indicate a greater ES for RT and E+R versus ET early in intervention that equalizes with longer durations. Supporting the use of RT and E+R within a periodized program. And secondarily, goals should be established first on performance gains and second body composition or health status modifications for the individual who is overfat.

  3. A Survey of Structural Design of Diagnostic X-ray Imaging Facilities and Compliance to Shielding Design Goals in a Limited Resource Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavious B. Nkubli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To survey structural designs of x-ray rooms and compliance to shielding design goals of three x-ray imaging facilities. Methods and Materials: The survey was conducted in three radiodiagnostic centers in South East Nigeria, labeled X, Y and Z for anonymity. A stretchable non-elastic meter rule was used to measure x-ray room dimensions. A Vernier caliper was used to measure lead thickness while a calibrated digital survey meter Radalert 100x was used for radiation survey of controlled and uncontrolled areas. Simple statistical tools such as mean and standard deviation were used for analysis with the aid of Microsoft Excel version 2007. Results: Center X had a room dimension of 2.4 m × 2.1 m, Center Y had an x-ray room dimension of 3.6 m × 3.3 m, and Center Z had two x-ray rooms with identical dimensions of 6.3 m × 3.6 m. Measured exit radiation doses for controlled areas in all the centers were: 0.00152 mSv/wk; 0.00496 mSv/wk; 0.00168 mSv/wk; 0.00224 mSv/wk respectively. Lead was the common shielding material used. Conclusion: Based on the parameters studied, Center Z had the ideal room size and layout. Relative distances from the x-ray tubes to the nearest walls were not optimized in all the centers except in Center Z. Measured exit doses were within recommended limits except in Center Y. The location of the control consoles and measured doses were appropriate and within recommended design goals.

  4. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  5. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  6. Portugal: setting new goals for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1987-11-01

    Portugal has entered a period of economic recovery spearheaded by Prime Minister Anibal Cavaco Silva. A slow but steady rise in the standard of living may finally offset the 0.9% annual growth in the country's population. Growth in the gross national product (GNP) reached 5% in 1987 and fixed capital investment increased 9.5% in 1986. Cavaco Silva's economic recovery program has included entry into the Common Market, foreign investment in industry, attention to the enormous public debt, and dismantling of the state-centered economy of the 1970s. Per capita GNP increased from US$743 in 1985 to $1970 in 1986 and unemployment had fallen to 8.5% by 1988. The prolongation of average life expectancy to 68 years for men and 75 years for women indicates a general improvement in the health and lifestyle of most Portuguese. By the year 2000, the population of Portugal is expected to reach 11.1 million, with the largest rates of growth occurring in the west and coastal areas. Half of the population falls into the 25-64-year age group, suggesting potential for economic growth and spending. A low rate of urbanization (30%) has complicated attempts to raise the level of technology in industry. Strong adherence to Catholicism is largely responsible for the exceptionally high marriage rate and low divorce rate in Portugal. The average birth rate was 14.5/1000 in 1987 and the average total fertility rate was 2.1. 34% of all births are to women 20-24 years old. The annual mortality rate is 9.6/1000, while infant mortality stands at 17.8/1000. A significant change occurring in Portugal in the current period is the rise of a new middle class.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of physical activity with individual goal-setting and volunteer mentors to overcome sedentary lifestyle in older adults at risk of cognitive decline: the INDIGO trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kay L; Cyarto, Elizabeth V; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Ellis, Kathryn A; Alfonso, Helman; Clare, Linda; Liew, Danny; Ames, David; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P; LoGiudice, Dina; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-09-13

    Increasing physical activity (PA) effectively in those who are inactive is challenging. For those who have subjective memory complaints (SMC) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) this is a greater challenge necessitating the need for more engaging and innovative approaches. The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether a home-based 6-month PA intervention with individual goal-setting and peer mentors (GM-PA) can significantly increase PA levels in insufficiently active older adults at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Community living 60-80 year olds with SMC or MCI who do not engage in more than 60 min per week of moderate intensity PA will be recruited from memory clinics and the community via media advertisements to participate in this randomized, single-blind controlled trial. All participants will receive an individually tailored home-based PA program of 150 min of moderate intensity walking/week for 6 months. The intervention group will undertake individual goal-setting and behavioral education workshops with mentor support via telephone (GM-PA). Those randomized to the control group will have standard education workshops and Physical Activity Liaison (PAL) contact via telephone (CO-PA). Increase in PA is the primary outcome, fitness, cognitive, personality, demographic and clinical parameters will be measured and a health economic analysis performed. A saliva sample will be collected for APOE e4 genotyping. All participants will have a goal-setting interview to determine their PA goals. Active volunteers aged 50-85 years will be recruited from the community randomized and trained to provide peer support as mentors (intervention group) or PALS (control group) for the 6-month intervention. Mentors and PALS will have PA, exercise self-efficacy and mentoring self-efficacy measured. Participants in both groups are asked to attend 3 workshops in 6 months. At the first workshop, they will meet their allocated Mentor or PAL who will

  8. Goal conflicts, attainment of new goals, and well-being among managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Hugo M

    2003-07-01

    Researchers widely understand that conflicts among goals inhibit the attainment of these goals. However, this notion comes close to tautological reasoning. To avert this problem, this study examined whether preexisting goal conflict also inhibits success in newly set goals. Using the context of management training, in which managers collectively set new goals, the study variables were assessed at 3 testing periods covering 5 months. Results indicate that goal conflicts that persevere over time were associated with inhibited attainment of new goals but not with decreased subjective well-being (SWB). Goal attainment, however, was positively related to SWB. Interactions of residual changes in goal conflict and goal attainment were associated with positive affect.

  9. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  10. Illegitimacy Improves Goal Pursuit in Powerless Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Willis , Guillermo B.; Guinote , Ana; Rodríguez-Bailón , Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The effects of power legitimacy on self-regulation during goal pursuit were examined. Study 1 focused on goal-setting and goal-striving. Specifically, it examined how much time legitimate and illegitimate powerless individuals needed to set goals, and how many means they generated to pursue these goals. Study 2 examined persistence in the face of difficulties. Consistently across these studies illegitimacy improved self-regulation in powerless individuals. Illegitimate pow...

  11. Achievement of metabolic control goals set by the American Diabetes Association and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Álvarez, Ma Ángeles; Yelmo, Rosa; Alonso, Milagros; Barrio, Raquel

    2015-02-01

    The "T1D Exchange Clinic Registry" of 13.316 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in U.S. recently revealed that most children have HbA1c values above target levels established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD). The aim of this study is to assess the proportion of youngsters with T1D who meet the internationally accepted targets for good metabolic control of diabetes at a single, referral Pediatric Diabetes Center in Spain. Cross-sectional study of 236 children and adolescents with T1D controlled at our Pediatric Diabetes Unit. We analyzed the compliance to metabolic goals set by ADA and ISPAD and the differences between patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections. SPSS™ version 21.0. Mean age: 12.6 ± 4.6 years old, mean age at diagnosis: 6.1 ± 4.3 years old and mean diabetes duration: 6.4 ± 4.3 years; 47% female. HbA1c average: 6.7 ± 0.7% (49.7 ± 7.6 mmol/mol). The age-specific ADA and ISPAD HbA1c targets were achieved by 93% and 91% of patients, respectively. Among pump users, 97%/97% met ADA/ISPAD HbA1c targets compared to 87%/88% of MDI users (p = 0.04/p = 0.03), without significant differences in the analysis by groups of age. Among participants, 95%, 62%, 95%, 98% and 89% met HDLc, LDLc, triglycerides, BP and BMI targets. Most patients in our children and adolescent cohort of T1D patients correctly achieve metabolic goals established by ADA and ISPAD with low incidence of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety goals for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1984-02-01

    The key policy question in managing hazardous technologies is often some variant of How safe is safe enough. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently broached this topic by adopting safety goals defining acceptable risk levels for nuclear power plants. These goals are analyzed here with a general theory of standard setting (Fischhoff, 1983) which asks: (1) Are standards an appropriate policy tool in this case. (2) Can the Commission's safety philosophy be defended. (3) Do the operational goals capture that philosophy. The anlaysis shows the safety goals proposal to be sophisticated in some respects, incomplete in others. More generally, it points to difficulties with the concept of acceptable risk and any attempt to build policy instruments around it. Although focused on the NRC's safety goals, the present analysis is a prototype of what can be learned by similarly detailed consideration of other standards, not only for nuclear power but also for other hazardous technologies, as well as for issues unrelated to safety

  13. 和谐社会的生命伦理诉求及高校教育目标设定%Bioethics Dimension about Harmonious Social and Its Higher Education Goal Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘科

    2011-01-01

    构建社会主义和谐社会的过程是一个不断诉求生命伦理的过程。尊重生命是生命伦理的基本要义,加强生命伦理教育有助于提升国民素质,有助于和谐社会建设,有助于青年人健康成长。在高等教育中,应设定生命伦理教育的目标:即通过生死教育来认识生命、敬畏生命;通过责任教育来发展生命;通过生命价值教育来完善生命。%It is a constant pursuit of the process of life ethics that the process of constructing a harmonious socialist society. Life must be respected, be reverenced, be treatment friendly, be developed, these are our basic concepts of social management. Respect life is the basic meaning of life ethics, strengthen life ethics education would help to improve civics quality, contribute to the construc- tion of a harmonious society, contribute to the healthy growth of young people. With the development of science and technology, social change and educational utilitarianism, contemporary college students' life ethics consciousness has already been stricken. We have to set the higher education of life ethics goals : through the life and death education to understand life, respect life; through the responsi- bility education to develop life; through the life value education to improve life.

  14. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  15. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  16. Goals are not selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  17. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  18. Get a taste of your goals: promoting motive-goal congruence through affect-focus goal fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Brandstätter, Veronika

    2009-10-01

    Studies show that motive-goal congruence is an important predictor of well-being (Baumann, Kaschel, & Kuhl, 2005; Brunstein, Schultheiss, & Grässmann, 1998). However, little is known about the factors that promote congruence between implicit motives and goals. Relying on McClelland's (1985) concept of implicit motives and the theory of fantasy realization (Oettingen, 1999), we postulated that goal fantasies focusing on motive-specific affective incentives promote motive-congruent goal setting. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experimental studies. In Study 1 (n=46) and Study 2 (n=48), participants were asked to select goals in a hypothetical scenario. In Study 3 (n=179), they rated their commitment to personal goals for their actual life situation. The results of all 3 studies supported our hypothesis that participants who focus on motive-specific affective incentives in their goal fantasies set their goals in line with their corresponding implicit motive dispositions.

  19. Academic goals in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian

    2013-12-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  20. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  1. Physics goals of future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    These lectures describe some of the physics goals that future colliders are designed to achieve. Emphasis is on the SSC, but its capabilities are compared to those of other machines, and set in a context of what will be measured before the SSC is ready. Physics associated with the Higgs sector is examined most thoroughly, with a survey of the opportunities to find evidence of extended gauge theories

  2. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  3. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  4. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  5. A Comparison of the Goals of Studio Professors Conducting Critiques and Art Education Goals for Teaching Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry

    1988-01-01

    Compares stated goals of studio art course professors for teaching of criticism and the goals stated in art education literature of art teacher taught criticism. States that these goals are in conflict, therefore, future art teachers are being guided by goals for criticism that are not in accord with the goals set forth in their study of art…

  6. Integrated learning through student goal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Deborah; Tschannen, Dana; Caylor, Shandra

    2013-09-01

    New strategies are emerging to promote structure and increase learning in the clinical setting. Nursing faculty designed a mechanism by which integrative learning and situated coaching could occur more readily in the clinical setting. The Clinical Goals Initiative was implemented for sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students in their clinical practicums. Students developed weekly goals reflecting three domains of professional nursing practice. Goals were shared with faculty and staff nurse mentors at the beginning of the clinical day to help guide students and mentors with planning for learning experiences. After 6 weeks, faculty and students were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. Faculty indicated that goal development facilitated clinical learning by providing more student engagement, direction, and focus. Students reported that goal development allowed them to optimize clinical learning opportunities and track their growth and progress. Faculty and students indicated the goals promoted student self-learning, autonomy, and student communication with nurse mentors and faculty. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Practical goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This book and its treatment of goal programming will help organizations meet targets and objectives. The book includes many worked-out examples and tutorial exercises, and is designed to demostrate and teach its readers good modeling practice.

  8. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  9. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  10. Management Matters: Planning Goals and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of setting and implementing goals that can help change and improve a library media program over time--goals that go beyond merely keeping the library media center running. Suggestions for developing an action plan and strategies for effective time management are also presented.

  11. New Goals of Sustainable Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Ursul

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the process of transition from the Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The authors have set an objective to demonstrate that SD as a future form of development of civilization from the very beginning had a “target orientation” and from the beginning and anticipated realization and staging of the whole hierarchy of objectives needed for the establishment of an effective global governance. In the future, global development in its “anthropogenic” aspect will be to implement the goals and principles of SD, which will be updated with each new stage of the implementation of this kind of socio-natural evolution. The paper argues the position that the concept of SD should be radically transformed into a “global dimension.” Attention is drawn to the fact that Russia recognized another distant, but very important in the conceptual and theoretical perspective, global goal of “sustainable transition” — formation of the noosphere.

  12. Safety goals for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    In its official policy statement on safety goals for the operation of nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) set two qualitative goals, supported by two quantitative objectives. These goals are that (1) individual members of the public should be provided a level of protection from the consequences of nuclear power plant operation such that individuals bear no significant additional risk to life and health; and (2) societal risks to life and health from nuclear power plant operation should be comparable to or less than the risks of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and should not be a significant addition to other societal risks. As an alternative, this study proposes four quantitative safety goals for nuclear power plants. It begins with an analysis of the NRC's safety-goal development process, a key portion of which was devoted to delineating criteria for evaluating goal-development methods. Based on this analysis, recommendations for revision of the NRC's basic benchmarks for goal development are proposed. Using the revised criteria, NRC safety goals are evaluated, and the alternative safety goals are proposed. To further support these recommendations, both the NRC's goals and the proposed goals are compared with the results of three major probabilistic risk assessment studies. Finally, the potential impact of these recommendations on nuclear safety is described

  13. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  14. Forcing your luck: Goal-striving behavior in chance situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, D.; van der Pligt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that desired end-states (i.e., goals) initiate a set of motivational processes supporting goal-attainment. For example, motivational intensity (e.g., effort investment) increases as distance to the goal decreases. The present studies investigate whether this goal-gradient

  15. Shopping the way to my goals: an analysis of purchase impact on perceived goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Albornoz Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines the impact of goal related purchases on goal progress perception, and whether this perception depends on the strength of association between product and goal. To test how consumers perceive the act of purchasing goal-related products, three experiments were conducted in an online setting. Participants exposed to purchasing situations perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to usage situation or a control group. In addition, studies show that this effect is a result of strength of association between product and goal, since participants exposed to more instrumental products perceived greater goal progress than participants exposed to less instrumental products. Therefore, these studies demonstrate how consumers interpret goal related purchases, and the mechanism that influences this interpretation.

  16. Cautiously utopian goals : Philosophical analyses of climate change objectives and sustainability targets

    OpenAIRE

    Baard, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the framework within which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved or approached is analyzed. Sustainable development and climate change are areas in which goals have tobe set despite uncertainties. The analysis is divided into the normative motivations for setting such goals, what forms of goals could be set given the empirical and normative uncertainties, and how tomanage doubts regarding achievability or values after a goal has been set. Paper I discusses a set of...

  17. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  18. Treatment goals of pulmonary hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V

    2013-12-24

    With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m, normalization of right ventricular size and function on echocardiograph, a decreasing or normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and hemodynamics with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 mg\\/kg\\/min(2). However, to more effectively prognosticate in the current era of complex treatments, it is becoming clear that the "bar" needs to be set higher, with more robust and clearer delineations aimed at parameters that correlate with long-term outcome; namely, exercise capacity and right heart function. Specifically, tests that accurately and noninvasively determine right ventricular function, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and BNP\\/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, are emerging as promising indicators to serve as baseline predictors and treatment targets. Furthermore, studies focusing on outcomes have shown that no single test can reliably serve as a long-term prognostic marker and that composite treatment goals are more predictive of long-term outcome. It has been proposed that treatment goals be revised to include the following: modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance ≥ 380 to 440 m, cardiopulmonary exercise test-measured peak oxygen consumption >15 ml\\/min\\/kg and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide <45 l\\/min\\/l\\/min, BNP level toward "normal," echocardiograph and\\/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating normal\\/near-normal right ventricular size and function, and hemodynamics showing normalization of right ventricular function with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 to 3.0 l\\/min\\/m(2).

  19. Achievement goals, self-handicapping, and performance: a 2 x 2 achievement goal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Smith, Alison L

    2009-11-01

    Elliot and colleagues (2006) examined the effects of experimentally induced achievement goals, proposed by the trichotomous model, on self-handicapping and performance in physical education. Our study replicated and extended the work of Elliot et al. by experimentally promoting all four goals proposed by the 2 x 2 model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), measuring the participants' own situational achievement goals, using a relatively novel task, and testing the participants in a group setting. We used a randomized experimental design with four conditions that aimed to induce one of the four goals advanced by the 2 x 2 model. The participants (n = 138) were undergraduates who engaged in a dart-throwing task. The results pertaining to self-handicapping partly replicated Elliot and colleagues' findings by showing that experimentally promoted performance-avoidance goals resulted in less practice. In contrast, the promotion of mastery-avoidance goals did not result in less practice compared with either of the approach goals. Dart-throwing performance did not differ among the four goal conditions. Personal achievement goals did not moderate the effects of experimentally induced goals on self-handicapping and performance. The extent to which mastery-avoidance goals are maladaptive is discussed, as well as the interplay between personal and experimentally induced goals.

  20. Goal planning: a retrospective audit of rehabilitation process and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Jane; Evans, Matthew J; Kennedy, Paul

    2004-05-01

    To consider the effectiveness of a goal planning programme for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and address some of the current evidence gaps in goal setting. Retrospective audit. Consecutive series of 65 newly injured SCI patients. The Needs Assessment Checklist (NAC) has been specifically developed for the SCI population, and is used to assess patient attainment in core rehabilitation areas. A 'Goal Planning Progress' form was also used to specifically detail the goal planning process. Across the 65 patients, 396 goal planning meetings were held with 6176 goals set in total. Seventy-two per cent of the goals set at the first goal planning meeting were achieved by the second meeting. The rate of achievement at subsequent meetings was 68%. Significant differences in the number of planned rehabilitation days, number of goal planning meetings, and goals set were identified between injury categories. Significant positive correlations were found between the number of goals set and achievement, as measured by the NAC, in certain rehabilitation domains. The findings of this study demonstrate that the Needs Assessment and Goal Planning framework is effective in planning SCI rehabilitation. The capacity of this goal planning system to reflect individual need has also been established. Further systematic analyses of this process could potentially lead to more efficient rehabilitation and the identification of care pathways within clinical areas.

  1. An Investigation of the Relationships between Goals and Software Project Escalation: Insights from Goal Setting and Goal Orientation Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    Escalation of commitment is manifested as a behavior in which an individual resists withdrawing from a failing course of action despite negative feedback, and it is an enduring problem that occurs in a variety of situations, including R&D investment decisions and software project overruns. To date, a variety of theoretical explanations have…

  2. Goal Setting and Decision Making by At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.; Gustafon, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Typically, adolescence is a time when individuals begin to make consequential, life-framing decisions. However, much of the decision-making literature focuses on high-risk decisions, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, while much less is known about how adolescents make positive decisions, for example, regarding their educational or career…

  3. First Year Engagement & Retention: A Goal-Setting Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffley, David; Antonio, Amy

    2013-01-01

    First year students face a daunting range of challenges as they make the transition to university life. Their experiences in the first months of university have a defining influence on their success or otherwise in their studies. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a case study that tests the efficacy of a student engagement…

  4. Goal oriented Mathematics Survey at Preparatory Level- Revised set ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross sectional study design on mathematical syllabi at preparatory levels of the high schools was to investigate the efficiency of the subject at preparatory level education serving as a basis for several streams, like Natural science, Technology, Computer Science, Health Science and Agriculture found at tertiary levels.

  5. Perceived Focus of Professional Mentoring for Goal Setting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    performance. Improved performance therefore, is the measure of how ... A mentor is a guide who helps the mentee to find the right direction and who can help to ... education graduate employees, thus, altering the way business education ...

  6. Increasing Free Throw Accuracy through Behavior Modeling and Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erffmeyer, Elizabeth S.

    A two-year behavior-modeling training program focusing on attention processes, retention processes, motor reproduction, and motivation processes was implemented to increase the accuracy of free throw shooting for a varsity intercollegiate women's basketball team. The training included specific learning keys, progressive relaxation, mental…

  7. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  8. Property company's sustainability goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Kim

    2014-11-01

    In a keynote presentation on the second morning of this year's Healthcare Estates conference, Kim Ormsby (pictured), national corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability manager at NHS Property Services, discussed how, as part of its broader goals of 'supporting the NHS in delivering clinical services', and 'helping to enhance the experience' of patients visiting its buildings, the organization would continue to pursue and embed in its activities sustainable policies wherever and whenever possible, encouraging both its staff and tenants to take a similar approach. In an informative address, she highlighted some of the key steps the property company had already taken to encourage a proactive approach. Echoing the sentiments of Day One keynote speaker, Julian Hartley (see pages 55-60), she argued that one of the fundamentals to success was wide-ranging staff engagement.

  9. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  10. DOE goals: Excellence, openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    The author feels that the benefit of the experience and programmatic resources it has developed since passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982 and of the sound and flexible policy framework provided by the amendments, DOE is confident that program objectives can be met on a schedule that balances the needs for technical excellence, institutional openness, and timely acceptance. As the program evolves, DOE will continue to assess how effectively policies are serving program objectives. The need for flexibility in developing a first-of-a-kind system is essential. But flexibility does not alter the need for program stability, which, in turn, requires a commonly shared commitment to realizing the program's goals. This commitment must rest upon a pragmatic understanding of the realities of waste-management system development

  11. Seismic analysis - what goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagart, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    The seismic analysis of nuclear components is characterized today by extensive engineering computer calculations in order to satisfy both the component standard codes such as ASME III as well as federal regulations and guides. The current nuclear siesmic design procedure has envolved in a fragmented fashion and continues to change its elements as improved technology leads to changing standards and guides. The dominant trend is a monotonic increase in the overall conservation with time causing a similar trend in costs of nuclear power plants. Ironically the improvements in the state of art are feeding a process which is eroding the very incentives that attracted us to nuclear power in the first place. This paper examines the cause of this process and suggests that what is needed is a realistic goal which appropriately addresses the overall uncertainty of the seismic design process. (Auth.)

  12. COMBINATION OF GOALS STRATEGY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Yu. Lapigin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the tools to identify strategicallyimportant objectives of regional development is not enough to build a developmentperspective, relying on something special,what distinguishes each region from therest. The article discusses approaches to the formation of the regional developmentstrategy, which is based on goals set by the results of the analysis of the main factors inthe development of the region. The study is based on the methodology of systems theoryand methods of strategic management. The most important results should include tools tobuild the tree of strategic objectives resultingfrom the implementation of the algorithm forconstructing planes of analysis and development of the region. The results can be used to develop a strategy for the developmentof socio-economic systems of various typesand forms.

  13. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  15. Motivational Function of Plans and Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Alispahić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The academic literature shows that by helping tune out distractions, goals can get individuals' to try harder, work longer, and achieve more. Goals that people set for themselves and that are devoted to attaining mastery are usually healthy. But goals imposed by others—sales targets, quarterly returns, standardized test scores—can sometimes have dangerous side effects (Pink, 2009. Because understanding action demands understanding intention, the idea of motivation is natural and readily expressed in everyday language. Cognitive mental events like goals and expectancies can function as a “spring to action”, a moving force that energizes and directs action in purposive ways (Reeve, 2005. Cognitive studies of motivation are dealing with relationship between cognition and action. Literature is indicating a few cognitive elements that can have motivational significance. The article presents the overview of theory and research about the motivational function of plans and goals, according to Goal setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990 and Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000. Suggestions for additional research are also indicated.

  16. An integrated framework for sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Griggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN Rio+20 summit committed nations to develop a set of universal sustainable development goals (SDGs to build on the millennium development goals (MDGs set to expire in 2015. Research now indicates that humanity's impact on Earth's life support system is so great that further global environmental change risks undermining long-term prosperity and poverty eradication goals. Socioeconomic development and global sustainability are often posed as being in conflict because of trade-offs between a growing world population, as well as higher standards of living, and managing the effects of production and consumption on the global environment. We have established a framework for an evidence-based architecture for new goals and targets. Building on six SDGs, which integrate development and environmental considerations, we developed a comprehensive framework of goals and associated targets, which demonstrate that it is possible, and necessary, to develop integrated targets relating to food, energy, water, and ecosystem services goals; thus providing a neutral evidence-based approach to support SDG target discussions. Global analyses, using an integrated global target equation, are close to providing indicators for these targets. Alongside development-only targets and environment-only targets, these integrated targets would ensure that synergies are maximized and trade-offs are managed in the implementation of SDGs.

  17. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  19. Achievement Goals of Medical Students and Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana; Daniels, Lia M.; White, Jonathan; Oswald, Anna; Ross, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    In achievement settings, the types of motivation individuals develop are crucial to their success and to the ways in which they respond to challenges. Considering the competitive nature of medical education and the high stakes of medical practice, it is important to know what types of motivation (conceptualized here as achievement goals) medical…

  20. Goal difficulty and openness to interpersonal goal support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.; Campbell, S.

    2014-01-01

    When people pursue important goals, they are often surrounded by close others who could provide help and support for the achievement of these goals. The present work investigated whether people are more likely to be open to such interpersonal goal support from a romantic partner when they perceive

  1. Goal striving, goal attainment, and well-being: adapting and testing the self-concordance model in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan

    2007-12-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.

  2. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gaudreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  3. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  4. Teachers' goal orientations: Effects on classroom goal structures and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However, empirical research evaluating possible causal ordering and mediation effects involving these variables in teachers is presently lacking. The present 6-month longitudinal study investigated the relations between varied motivational, behavioural, and emotional variables in practising teachers. More specifically, this study examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relations between teachers' achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and teaching-related emotions, as well as cumulative mediational models in which observed causal relations were evaluated. Participants were 495 practising teachers from Canada (86% female, M = 42 years). Teachers completed a web-based questionnaire at two time points assessing their instructional goals, perceived classroom goal structures, achievement emotions, and demographic items. Results from cross-lagged analyses and structural equation modelling showed teachers' achievement goals to predict their perceived classroom goal structures that, in turn, predicted their teaching-related emotions. The present results inform both Butler's (2012, Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 726) theory on teachers' achievement goals and Frenzel's (2014, International handbook of emotions in education, Routledge, New York, NY) model of teachers' emotions in showing teachers' instructional goals to both directly predict their teaching-related emotions, as well as indirectly through the mediating effects of classroom goal structures. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  6. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, Marc; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  7. Archaeological predictive model set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is the documentation for Task 7 of the Statewide Archaeological Predictive Model Set. The goal of this project is to : develop a set of statewide predictive models to assist the planning of transportation projects. PennDOT is developing t...

  8. Probabilistic safety assessment goals in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    CANDU safety philosphy, both in design and in licensing, has always had a strong bias towards quantitative probabilistically-based goals derived from comparative safety. Formal probabilistic safety assessment began in Canada as a design tool. The influence of this carried over later on into the definition of the deterministic safety guidelines used in CANDU licensing. Design goals were further developed which extended the consequence/frequency spectrum of 'acceptable' events, from the two points defined by the deterministic single/dual failure analysis, to a line passing through lower and higher frequencies. Since these were design tools, a complete risk summation was not necessary, allowing a cutoff at low event frequencies while preserving the identification of the most significant safety-related events. These goals gave a logical framework for making decisions on implementing design changes proposed as a result of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis. Performing this analysis became a regulatory requirement, and the design goals remained the framework under which this was submitted. Recently, there have been initiatives to incorporate more detailed probabilistic safety goals into the regulatory process in Canada. These range from far-reaching safety optimization across society, to initiatives aimed at the nuclear industry only. The effectiveness of the latter is minor at very low and very high event frequencies; at medium frequencies, a justification against expenditures per life saved in other industries should be part of the goal setting

  9. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.

    1977-04-01

    Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management

  10. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  11. (Goal Number 8) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) made a Millennium Declaration that commits governments across the globe to develop the lives of the people by 2015. This declaration is known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper will examine the role that every government has to play in achieving the goals by focusing ...

  12. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  13. Goal-Prioritization for Teachers, Coaches, and Students: A Developmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Matthew L.; Tapps, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide background on types of goals, a system for writing goals, and a framework for goal-prioritization that can be implemented in classroom and/or sport settings. Goal-setting is the process of developing a desired outcome to serve as the purpose of one's actions.

  14. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  15. Efeitos do estabelecimento de metas para a aquisição de uma habilidade motora Efectos de la fijación de metas para la adquisición de habilidades motoras Effects of goal setting for the acquisition of motor skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silva de Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou os efeitos do estabelecimento de metas de curto e de longo prazo na aprendizagem do arremesso de dardo de salão. O experimento foi conduzido em três etapas: pré-teste (10 tentativas; aquisição (60 tentativas, com manipulação da temporalidade da meta; e pós-teste (10 tentativas. Os 33 universitários destros foram divididos em três grupos: meta específica de curto prazo (GEC, meta específica de longo prazo (GEL e o não meta (GNM. Na análise da precisão e da consistência, a ANOVA two way identificou diferença entre pré-teste e pós-teste e entre os blocos da aquisição. Apesar de todos os grupos terem aprendido a tarefa, não houve diferença entre eles. Sugere-se a realização de novos estudos sobre o tema.El presente estudio investigó los efectos de la meta a corto y largo plazo de puesta enel aprendizaje del salón de lanzar dardos. El experimento se llevó a cabo en tres etapas: pre-test (10 ensayos, la adquisición (60 ensayos, con la manipulación de la temporalidad de la meta, y después de la prueba (10 ensayos. Los 33 estudiantes universitarios de la mano derecha se dividieron en tres grupos: objetivo concreto a corto plazo (GEC, el objetivo específico a largo plazo (GEL y no se meta (GNM. En el análisis de la exactitud y la consistencia de dos vías ANOVA identificó un efecto significativo entre la pre y post-test y entre bloques de adquisición así. A pesar de todos los grupos han aprendido la tarea, no hubo diferencias entre ellos.The present study investigated the effects of short and long-term goal setting in the learning of saloon dart throwing. The experiment was conducted in three stages: pretest (10 trials, acquisition (60 trials, with manipulation of the temporality of the goal, and post-test (10 trials. The 33 right-handed university students were divided into three groups: specific short-term goal (GEC, specific long-term goal (GEL and no-goal (GNM. In the analysis of

  16. Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.; Hayns, M.R.

    1984-08-01

    We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x 0 , for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station

  17. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Mohammadi; Kamran Feizi; Ali Khatami Firouz Abadi

    2013-01-01

    Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate oper...

  18. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  19. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  20. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  1. Effects of Goal Relations on Self-Regulated Learning in Multiple Goal Pursuits: Performance, the Self-Regulatory Process, and Task Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of goal relations on self-regulation in the pursuit of multiple goals, focusing on self-regulated performance, the self-regulatory process, and task enjoyment. The effect of multiple goal relations on self-regulation was explored in a set of three studies. Goal relations were divided into…

  2. How the adoption of impression management goals alters impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan; Poposki, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Five experiments (N = 390) tested the hypothesis that adopting an impression management goal leads the impression manager to view an interaction partner as having less of the trait he or she is attempting to express. This hypothesis was confirmed for the impression management goals of appearing introverted, extraverted, smart, confident, and happy. Experiment 2 shows that adoption of the impression goal could alter judgments even when participants could not act on the goal. Experiment 3 provides evidence that adopting an impression management goal prompted a comparison mind-set and that this comparison mind-set activation mediated target judgments. Experiment 4 rules out a potential alternative explanation and provides more direct evidence that comparison of the impression manager's self-concept mediates the impression of the target. Experiment 5 eliminates a potential confound and extends the effect to another impression goal. These experiments highlight the dynamic interplay between impression management and impression formation.

  3. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  4. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  5. An analysis of budgetary goals impacting organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheok MUI YEE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a conceptual review of how budgetary goals impact organizational performance. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the direct and indirect relationship between the organization’s decision-making process and operational performances. Setting the budget particularly influences subordinates’ budget goal levels and motivations (i.e., budget goal acceptance and budget goal commitment, which ultimately enhances the organization’s performance. To test these relationships, data were collected using the three perspectives approach: budgetary goal, budgetary participation and budgetary evaluation. The study provided evidence that perception of fairness mediates the relation between the levels of budget participation and goal commitment, whereas goal commitment mediates the relation between fairness perceptions and performance. At the end of the article, there are some implications for SMEs industries and some suggestions for future studies.

  6. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nederveen Pieterse (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important

  7. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the

  8. A Commentary on Education and Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are viewed in the context of Johan Rockström's work on planetary boundaries at the Stockholm Resilience Centre. This work sets a double challenge to educational policy and practice: to embrace and help achieve the Goals, but also to work towards a deeper change in consciousness which can reconcile people…

  9. Deans in German Universities: Goal Acceptance and Task Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study which explored how deans at German universities accept their new role as manager, and which factors influence the acceptance of this role. Within a framework referring to Locke and Latham's goal setting theory, the acceptance of operative goals implemented in the faculties served as an indicator of how well…

  10. Post Surgery Milestones: Managing Your Mood, Expectations and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help yourself by: Practicing habits for emotional health Setting positive goals Maintaining realistic expectations Celebrating progress Healthy Habits: Move Into A Routine Exercise. One of the most reliable ways to keep ...

  11. Does family structure matter? Comparing the life goals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacobs, 2011) stipulates that goal-setting, decision-making and career ... role in the socialisation of children, offering support and 'nutriments' towards ... in a low socio-economic environment, being socially isolated, having lower emotional.

  12. Sets in Coq, Coq in Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is about formalizing models of various type theories of the Calculus of Constructions family. Here we focus on set theoretical models. The long-term goal is to build a formal set theoretical model of the Calculus of Inductive Constructions, so we can be sure that Coq is consistent with the language used by most mathematicians.One aspect of this work is to axiomatize several set theories: ZF possibly with inaccessible cardinals, and HF, the theory of hereditarily finite sets. On top of these theories we have developped a piece of the usual set theoretical construction of functions, ordinals and fixpoint theory. We then proved sound several models of the Calculus of Constructions, its extension with an infinite hierarchy of universes, and its extension with the inductive type of natural numbers where recursion follows the type-based termination approach.The other aspect is to try and discharge (most of these assumptions. The goal here is rather to compare the theoretical strengths of all these formalisms. As already noticed by Werner, the replacement axiom of ZF in its general form seems to require a type-theoretical axiom of choice (TTAC.

  13. Overarching goals: a strategy for improving healthcare quality and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Ferris, Timothy G; Torchiana, David F; Meyer, Gregg S

    2013-03-01

    The management literature reveals that many successful organisations have strategic plans that include a bold 'stretch-goal' to stimulate progress over a ten-to-thirty-year period. A stretch goal is clear, compelling and easily understood. It serves as a unifying focal point for organisational efforts. The ambitiousness of such goals has been emphasised with the phrase Big Hairy Audacious Goal ('BHAG'). President Kennedy's proclamation in 1961 that 'this Nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth' provides a famous example. This goal energised the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and it captured the attention of the American public and resulted in one of the largest accomplishments of any organisation. The goal set by Sony, a small, cash-strapped electronics company in the 1950s, to change the poor image of Japanese products around the world represents a classic BHAG. Few examples of quality goals that conform to the BHAG definition exist in the healthcare literature. However, the concept may provide a useful framework for organisations seeking to transform the quality of care they deliver. This review examines the merits and cautions of setting overarching quality goals to catalyse quality improvement efforts, and assists healthcare organisations with determining whether to adopt these goals.

  14. Generalized rough sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, E.A.; Kozae, A.M.; Abd El-Monsef, M.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The process of analyzing data under uncertainty is a main goal for many real life problems. Statistical analysis for such data is an interested area for research. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new method concerning the generalization and modification of the rough set theory introduced early by Pawlak [Int. J. Comput. Inform. Sci. 11 (1982) 314

  15. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10 -6 or 10 -7 /yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4 /yr (health detriment), 2x10 -6 /yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10 -7 /yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD 50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent

  16. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  17. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  18. Performance improvement program: goals and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, F. [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Maces Bay, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Following long 54 month refurbishment outage at Point Lepreau Generating Station, operational performance had fallen below industry standards in a number of areas. Leadership development and succession planning had stalled. Operational focus was low primarily due to the construction focus during refurbishment. Condition of balance of plant was poor including several long standing deficiencies. In order to improve performance, the site implemented a framework based on INPO 12-011: Focus on Improving Behaviours; Set common goals and demonstrate results; Align and engage the organization; Drive to achieve high levels of performance and sustain performance.

  19. Performance improvement program: goals and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Following long 54 month refurbishment outage at Point Lepreau Generating Station, operational performance had fallen below industry standards in a number of areas. Leadership development and succession planning had stalled. Operational focus was low primarily due to the construction focus during refurbishment. Condition of balance of plant was poor including several long standing deficiencies. In order to improve performance, the site implemented a framework based on INPO 12-011: Focus on Improving Behaviours; Set common goals and demonstrate results; Align and engage the organization; Drive to achieve high levels of performance and sustain performance.

  20. Goals for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Establishing a publicly, politically, economically, and technologically acceptable waste management system for the fuel cycle is a necessary condition for accepting the nuclear program as a national energy option. Findings are given on the technology, politics, economics, morality, aesthetics, and societal impact of waste management. Proposed goals are outlined for the regulation of waste management

  1. A Goal for Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiw, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    Culturally competent nurses enable clients to feel respected, valued, and motivated to achieve health goals. A model for nursing education should develop cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills; provide cultural immersion experiences; and foster the desire to work with diverse clients. (Contains 48 references.) (SK)

  2. Examining the Role of Social Goals in School: A Study in Two Collectivist Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Watkins, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theorists have mostly focused on the role of mastery and performance goals in the school setting with little attention being paid to social goals. The aim of this study was to explore the role of social goals in influencing educational outcomes in two collectivist cultures: Hong Kong and the Philippines. Results showed that social…

  3. Neurology clerkship goals and their effect on learning and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Salas, Rachel Marie E; Cruz, Tiana E; Gamaldo, Charlene E

    2016-02-16

    To define medical student goals in the neurology clerkship and explore the association between goal setting and student performance, clerkship satisfaction, self-directed learning (SDL), and interest in neurology. A 4-year prospective study of consecutive second- to fourth-year medical students rotating through a required 4-week neurology clerkship was conducted. A goal-generating cohort (first 2 years) was enrolled to describe the breadth of student-derived goals. A goal-evaluating cohort (second 2 years) was used to evaluate the frequency of goal achievement and assess associations with performance (e.g., National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME], examination), satisfaction, and SDL behaviors (both based on 5-point Likert scale). Of 440 evaluable students, 201 were goal-generating and 239 goal-evaluating. The top 3 goals were (1) improvement in neurologic examination, (2) understanding neurologic disease, and (3) deriving a differential diagnosis. More than 90% (n = 216/239) of students reported achieving goals. Achievers reported significantly higher clerkship satisfaction (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.0, p neurology (71% vs. 35%, p = 0.001), and higher observed tendency toward SDL (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 4.1 ± 0.8, p neurology clerkship. Goal achievers had better adjusted standardized test scores, higher satisfaction, and greater tendency toward SDL. This student-generated, goal-setting program may be particularly appealing to clinicians, educators, and researchers seeking resource-lean mechanisms to improve student experience and performance in the clinical clerkships. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Urban Latino children's physical activity levels and performance in interactive dance video games: effects of goal difficulty and goal specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Podlog, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of different levels of goal specificity and difficulty on Latino children's performance and physical activity (PA) levels in an after-school program incorporating an interactive dance program (Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]; Konami Corporation). Comparison study. Rose Park Elementary School, Salt Lake City, Utah. Ninety-eight Latino children in the first through sixth grades, aged 7 to 13 years. After the pretest, the participants were randomly assigned into 1 of the following 3 goal-setting conditions: (1) easy, (2) difficult, and (3) best effort (hereinafter referred to as do-your-best goal). Participants' PA levels were measured using piezoelectric pedometers, and steps per minute were used as the outcome variable. Participants' total points for their dance on television screens were retrieved as their performance scores. These outcome variables were assessed again 8 weeks later (posttest score). The multivariate analysis of covariance yielded a significant main effect for the goal-setting condition. Follow-up tests revealed that children who set specific (easy or difficult) goals had significantly greater increased PA levels (mean scores, 10.34 for easy and 22.45 for difficult) and DDR performance (0.011 for easy and 0.67 for difficult) than those in the do-your-best group (0.83 for PA and 0.17 for performance). In addition, children's increased PA levels in the difficult-goal group were significantly higher than those in the easy-goal group. The easy- and difficult-goal groups show a significant improvement on DDR performance. The difficult- goal group also displays the highest improvement on PA levels. Strategies to enhance children's DDR performance and PA levels are discussed in relation to the extant goal-setting literature.

  5. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  6. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  7. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  8. Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have used a variety of ways to represent such constraints (e.g., as a constraint satisfaction problem ( Scala , to appear), in PDDL (Vaquro...lifecycle to recent models of replanning (Talamadupala et al., 2013) and continual planning ( Scala , to appear). We described goal reasoning in...F., & Barreiro, J. (2013). Towards deliberative control in marine robotics. In Marine Robot Autonomy (pp. 91–175). Springer. Scala , E. (to appear

  9. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) - Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    goals and/or targets that can be seen to be clearly related to the higher level ones and set consistent requirements for different technologies. MDEP has, therefore, established a sub-committee to carry out this work. This paper is a review of the work of this sub-committee over the last eighteen months or so in attempting to outline a framework within which potential goals can be included, as a move towards harmonization. If the work is successful, and leads to an agreed MDEP approach, it will greatly assist in the process of harmonisation. It is important to emphasise that this work has not as yet attempted to derive specific safety goals per se, but to derive a framework, which can be used to understand how the deterministic and the probabilistic elements can be integrated in establishing reference level of safety

  10. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  11. Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.

  12. The Relationship Between Client-Established Goals and Outcome in Counseling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwenn, Heidi

    2002-01-01

    Use of goals as outcome measures has received some attention in the counseling literature, but little attention has been paid to the role of goal setting as a potential catalyst for change to enhance counseling outcome...

  13. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance management : A prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vijfeijken, H.; Kleingeld, A.; van Tuijl, H.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, Hk.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  14. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance : a prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijken, van H.T.G.A.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, H.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  15. The interaction between dietary and life goals: using goal systems theory to explore healthy diet and life goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wright, Julie A; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Quintiliani, Lisa; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To examine the types of life and dietary goals individuals report and how these goal domains interact as framed by goal systems theory. Methods : This work is a cross-sectional survey study. Measures included the incidence of common life and dietary goals and how these goals interact with and facilitate each other. Results : The results of a quantitative survey ( n  = 46 participants), which was informed by two focus groups ( n  = 17 participants), showed that participants are trying to achieve several different life (e.g. achieving financial success) and dietary goals (e.g. eating more fruits and vegetables, drinking more water, and losing weight) and that these two types of goals interact to both facilitate and conflict with each other. Having a life goal of exercising was significantly associated with healthy eating goals when compared with other life goals ( p 's goals may be linked and help to facilitate one another. Being in the maintenance phase with the goal of healthy eating was associated with participants feeling like they were more successful in their other non-diet-related health goals ( p  goals can facilitate success in achieving other goals. Conclusions : Life goals can have an impact on a person's ability to achieve and maintain dietary and other health goals. Health educators may help to facilitate long-term behavior change by examining a person's life goals as well as dietary goals.

  16. Mathematics Education: Student Terminal Goals, Program Goals, and Behavioral Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    Behavioral objectives are listed for the primary, intermediate and junior high mathematics curriculum in the Mesa Public Schools (Arizona). Lists of specific objectives are given by level for sets, symbol recognition, number operations, mathematical structures, measurement and problem solving skills. (JP)

  17. Dynamics of multiple-goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, Maria J; Pieters, Rik; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2007-08-01

    The authors propose and test a model of multiple-goal pursuit that specifies how individuals allocate effort among multiple goals over time. The model predicts that whether individuals decide to step up effort, coast, abandon the current goal, or switch to pursue another goal is determined jointly by the emotions that flow from prior goal progress and the proximity to future goal attainment, and proximally determined by changes in expectancies about goal attainment. Results from a longitudinal diary study and 2 experiments show that positive and negative goal-related emotions can have diametrically opposing effects on goal-directed behavior, depending on the individual's proximity to goal attainment. The findings resolve contrasting predictions about the influence of positive and negative emotions in volitional behavior, critically amend the goal gradient hypothesis, and provide new insights into the dynamics and determinants of multiple-goal pursuit.

  18. The sustainable development goals and the financial services industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Hillier, David; Comfort, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed at a United Nations General Assembly in 2015 embrace an ambitious and wide ranging set of global environmental, social and economic issues designed to effect a transition to a more sustainable future. The United Nations called on all governments to pursue these ambitious goals but also acknowledged the important role of the business community in addressing the SDGs. This paper provides an outline of the SDGs and of the efforts being made to enco...

  19. A Multi-Criteria Goal Programming Model to Analyze the Sustainable Goals of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikant Gupta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an ever-growing demand for sustainable development (SD plans, in order to foster a country’s economic growth by implementing suitable policies and initiative programs for the development of the primary, the secondary and the tertiary sectors. We present a multi-criteria modeling approach using the linear programming problem (LPP framework for a simultaneous optimization of these three sectors. Furthermore, we develop a fuzzy goal programming (FGP model that provides an optimal allocation of resources by achieving future goals on the gross domestic product (GDP, the electricity consumption (EC and the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Furthermore, a weighted model of FGP is presented to obtain varying solutions according to the priorities set by the decision-maker for achieving future goals of GDP growth, EC and GHG emissions. The presented models provide useful insight for decision-makers when implementing strategies across different sectors. As a model country, we chose India by the year 2030. A study of economic policies and sustainable development goals (SDGs for India is finally carried out.

  20. The 'factor 4' goal: what are we talking about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Since the demonstration by scientists of the role of human activity in global warming, completed by the Stern report condemning the cost of inaction, France has set itself the goal of dividing by four its greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 with respect to its 1990 emissions volume. This goal, even if higher than the international goals, is justified by the common but differentiated liability principle enshrined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Some countries have to show the way, considering their volume of past emissions and their high level of development

  1. Goal Development Practices of Physical Therapists Working in Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynarczuk, Kimberly D; Chiarello, Lisa A; Gohrband, Catherine L

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) describe the practices that school-based physical therapists use in developing student goals, and (2) identify facilitators and barriers to development of goals that are specific to participation in the context of the school setting. 46 school-based physical therapists who participated in a previous study on school-based physical therapy practice (PT COUNTS) completed a questionnaire on goal development. Frequencies and cross tabulations were generated for quantitative data. Open-ended questions were analyzed using an iterative qualitative analysis process. A majority of therapists reported that they frequently develop goals collaboratively with other educational team members. Input from teachers, related services personnel, and parents has the most influence on goal development. Qualitative analysis identified five themes that influence development of participation-based goals: (1) school-based philosophy and practice; (2) the educational environment, settings, and routines; (3) student strengths, needs, and personal characteristics; (4) support from and collaboration with members of the educational team; and (5) therapist practice and motivation. Goal development is a complex process that involves multiple members of the educational team and is influenced by many different aspects of practice, the school environment, and student characteristics.

  2. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  3. Aiming for a healthier life: a qualitative content analysis of rehabilitation goals in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdal, Gunnhild; Sand-Svartrud, Anne-Lene; Bø, Ingvild; Dager, Turid N; Dingsør, Anne; Eppeland, Siv G; Hagfors, Jon; Hamnes, Bente; Nielsen, Merete; Slungaard, Bente; Wigers, Sigrid H; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Dagfinrud, Hanne S; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2018-04-01

    To explore and describe rehabilitation goals of patients with rheumatic diseases during rehabilitation stays, and examine whether goal content changed from admission to discharge. Fifty-two participants were recruited from six rehabilitation centers in Norway. Goals were formulated by the participants during semi-structured goal-setting conversations with health professionals trained in motivational interviewing. An inductive qualitative content analysis was conducted to classify and quantify the expressed goals. Changes in goal content from admission to discharge were calculated as percentage differences. Goal content was explored across demographic and contextual characteristics. A total of 779 rehabilitation goals were classified into 35 categories, within nine overarching dimensions. These goals varied and covered a wide range of topics. Most common at admission were goals concerning healthy lifestyle, followed by goals concerning symptoms, managing everyday life, adaptation, disease management, social life, and knowledge. At discharge, goals about knowledge and symptoms decreased considerably, and goals about healthy lifestyle and adaptation increased. The health profession involved and patient gender influenced goal content. The rehabilitation goals of the patients with rheumatic diseases were found to be wide-ranging, with healthy lifestyle as the most prominent focus. Goal content changed between admission to, and discharge from, rehabilitation stays. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation goals set by patients with rheumatic diseases most frequently concern healthy lifestyle changes, yet span a wide range of topics. Patient goals vary by gender and are influenced by the profession of the health care worker involved in the goal-setting process. To meet the diversity of patient needs, health professionals need to be aware of their potential influence on the actual goal-setting task, which may limit the range of topics patients present when they are

  4. Goals? What goals? Europeans to hear more about the world's millennium development goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.

    2005-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is quickly becoming the front-runner of development aid to regions in Africa and other developing countries. However, over three-quarters of EU citizens are unaware of development efforts being made on the part of the Union to Third World countries, according to a public opinion poll released by Eurobarometer. In light of the low awareness of the EU's development agenda and the United Nations's Millennium Development Goals, the EU Humanitarian Aid and Development Commission has employed a campaign to raise the level of awareness among the EU's 460 million citizens

  5. Goal motives and multiple-goal striving in sport and academia: A person-centered investigation of goal motives and inter-goal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L

    2016-12-01

    This investigation extended the goal striving literature by examining motives for two goals being pursued simultaneously. Grounded in self-determination theory, we examined how student-athletes' motives for their sporting and academic goals were associated with inter-goal facilitation and interference. Cross-sectional survey. UK university student-athletes (n=204) identified their most important sporting and academic goals. They then rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified and intrinsic motives for these goals and completed questionnaires assessing inter-goal facilitation and interference. Using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis, we identified three distinct profiles of goal motives. Auxiliary analyses showed that the profile with high identified motives for both goals reported greater inter-goal facilitation. Extending the previous literature, the findings demonstrate the benefits of autonomous motives when simultaneously pursing goals in sport and academia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Quantitative safety goals for the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; O'Donnell, L.F.

    1981-01-01

    The paper offers a brief summary of the current regulatory background in the USA, emphasizing nuclear, related to the establishment of quantitative safety goals as a way to respond to the key issue of 'how safe is safe enough'. General Atomic has taken a leading role in advocating the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the regulatory process. This has led to understanding of the importance of quantitative safety goals. The approach developed by GA is discussed in the paper. It is centred around definition of quantitative safety regions. The regions were termed: design basis, safety margin or design capability and safety research. The design basis region is bounded by the frequency of 10 -4 /reactor-year and consequences of no identifiable public injury. 10 -4 /reactor-year is associated with the total projected lifetime of a commercial US nuclear power programme. Events which have a 50% chance of happening are included in the design basis region. In the safety margin region, which extends below the design basis region, protection is provided against some events whose probability of not happening during the expected course of the US nuclear power programme is within the range of 50 to 90%. Setting the lower mean frequency to this region of 10 -5 /reactor-year is equivalent to offering 90% assurance that an accident of given severity will not happen. Rare events with a mean frequency below 10 -5 can be predicted to occur. However, accidents predicted to have a probability of less than 10 -6 are 99% certain not to happen at all, and are thus not anticipated to affect public health and safety. The area between 10 -5 and 10 -6 defines the frequency portion of the safety research region. Safety goals associated with individual risk to a maximum-exposed member of public, general societal risk and property risk are proposed in the paper

  7. The goal of ape pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halina, Marta; Liebal, Katja; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their interactions with humans. However, the precise function of this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We investigated these two possibilities here by examining how the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Upon pointing to food, subjects were faced with a recipient who either looked at the indicated object (successful-look) or failed to look at the indicated object (failed-look). We predicted that, if apes point primarily to direct attention, subjects would spend more time pointing in the failed-look condition because the goal of their gesture had not been met. Alternatively, we expected that, if apes point primarily to request an object, subjects would not differ in their pointing behavior between the successful-look and failed-look conditions because these conditions differed only in the looking behavior of the recipient. We found that subjects did differ in their pointing behavior across the successful-look and failed-look conditions, but contrary to our prediction subjects spent more time pointing in the successful-look condition. These results suggest that apes are sensitive to the attentional states of gestural recipients, but their adjustments are aimed at multiple goals. We also found a greater number of individuals with a strong right-hand than left-hand preference for pointing.

  8. Some predictors of life goals in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Poljšak Škraban

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal goals and interests play an important role in human development because they orient people's life planning, decision-making and also, therefore, their future life course. The article presents the findings of a research which explores the eventual differences between Slovenian and Croatian sample in agency-oriented and communion-oriented life goals and the analysis of significant predictors of above mentioned life goals on both samples. The research included 924 adults of both genders, aged between 21 and 70 years from Slovenia and Croatia. In the study we used the scale of Goals (Pohlman and Brunstein, 1997 and a set of questions regarding various participant's life domains and their perceived importance. The results show significant differences on agency- oriented and communion-oriented life goals between the Slovenian and Croatian sample; in both cases croatian participants reach higher results than those from slovenina sample. As significant predictors in both samples were identified (a age and importance of effective use of free time for agency-oriented goals, and (b and gender, parenthood, importance of parenthood and importance of effective use of free time for communion-oriented life goals. The differences in results are explained by respective levels of social modernisation and social welfare, given the fact the Slovenian respondents are embedded in the social environment that offers more possibilities for fullfilment of their life goals, and are closer to postmaterialism and individualism.a

  9. Goal-based dictator game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Ibrahim, Adyda; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2014-12-01

    A considerable number of studies have been conducted to study fairness issues using two-player game. Dictator Game is one of the two-player games that receive much attention. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary approach to the Dictator Game by using Goal programming to build a model of human decision-making for cooperation. The model is formulated based on the theories of cognitive neuroscience that is capable in capturing a more realistic fairness concerns between players in the games. We show that fairness will evolve by taking into account players' aspirations and preferences explicitly in terms of profit and fairness concerns. The model is then simulated to investigate any possible effective strategy for people in economics to deal with fairness coalition. Parallels are drawn between the approach and concepts of human decision making from the field of cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The proposed model is also able to help decision makers to plan or enhance the effective strategies for business purposes.

  10. Articulating nurse practitioner practice using King's theory of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon-Demare, Kathleen; MacDonald, Jane; Gregory, David M; Katz, Alan; Halas, Gayle

    2015-11-01

    To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King's nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting. Six dyads of NPs and their patients were video- and audio-taped over three consecutive clinic visits. For the purposes of this arm of the study, the audio-taped interactions were transcribed and then coded using King's concepts in her theory of goal attainment. King's theory was applicable to describe NP practice. King's concepts and processes of nurse-patient interactions, such as disturbances, mutual goal setting, and transactions, were observed in NP-patient interactions. Disturbances during clinical encounters were essential in the progression toward goal attainment. Elements, such as social exchange, symptom reporting, role explanation, and information around clinical processes facilitated relationship building. NPs as practitioners need to be reflective of their own practice, embrace disturbances in the clinical encounter, and attend to these as opportunities for mutual goal setting. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  12. Self-Chosen Goals : Incentives and Gender Differences (revision of 2015-021)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Gonzalez Jimenez, V.H.; Noussair, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To boost employees’ performance, firms often offer monetary bonuses when production goals are reached. However, the available evidence indicates that the particular level at which a goal is set is critical to the effectiveness of this practice. Goals must be challenging yet achievable. Computing

  13. The Influence of Open Goals on the Acquisition of Problem-Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jarrod; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of recent findings indicating that unsolved problems, or open goals more generally, influence cognition even when the current task has no relation to the task in which the goal was originally set. It was hypothesized that open goals would influence what information entered the problem-solving process. Three studies were…

  14. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  15. Goal Clarity and Financial Planning Activities as Determinants of Retirement Savings Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.

    2007-01-01

    Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities…

  16. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  17. Sustainable Development Goals for Monitoring Action to Improve Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2016-01-01

    Women and children compose the largest segment of the more than 1 billion people worldwide who are unable to access needed health care services. To address this and other global health issues, the United Nations brought together world leaders to address growing health inequities, first by establishing the Millennium Development Goals in 2000 and more recently establishing Sustainable Development Goals, which are an intergovernmental set of 17 goals consisting of 169 targets with 304 indicators to measure compliance; they were designed to be applicable to all countries. Goal number 3, "Good Health and Well-Being: Ensure Heathy Lives and Promote Well-Being for All at All Ages," includes targets to improve the health of women and newborns. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Trees, poverty and targets: Forests and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, James

    2007-04-15

    Where are the forests in the MDGs? When players in the forestry world get together they are good at setting goals. They are a good match for the political leaders that gave us the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since the 1980s there has been a proliferation of international dialogues dealing with forests and, a bit like the football World Cup, every four years or so they come up with a feast of goals. If forestry goals were all we needed to make progress, then sustainable and pro-poor forestry would have long since become a worldwide reality. Of course, implementation still lags well behind aspiration, but at least there is now a considerable body of international knowledge and agreement on how forests can contribute to development.

  19. Pro-Social Goals in Achievement Situations: Amity Goal Orientation Enhances the Positive Effects of Mastery Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levontin, Liat; Bardi, Anat

    2018-04-01

    Research has neglected the utility of pro-social goals within achievement situations. In this article, four studies demonstrate that amity goal orientation, promoting mutual success of oneself together with others, enhances the utility of mastery goal orientation. We demonstrate this in longitudinally predicting performance (Studies 1 and 2) and in maintaining motivation after a disappointing performance (Studies 3 and 4). The studies demonstrate the same interaction effect in academic and in work achievement contexts. Specifically, whereas amity goal orientation did not predict achievement on its own, it enhanced the positive effect of mastery goal orientation. Together, these studies establish the importance of amity goal orientation while also advancing our understanding of the effects of other achievement goal orientations. We suggest future directions in examining the utility of amity goals in other contexts.

  20. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-03-01

    Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.

  1. College Students' Perspectives, Goals, and Strategies in Sport Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the perspective, goals, and strategies of students enrolled in collegiate physical education courses. Our aim was to determine the extent to which a model developed by Allen (1986) describing student-social systems in high schools would approximate those in a collegiate setting. Forty-six students from two elective volleyball classes…

  2. Managing Conflicting Goals in the Social Services in Danish Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Anne Kirstine

    This paper explores how middle managers in public sector organisations within the social services use management control systems (MCS) in order to create balance between potentially conflicting goals. By employing a case study setting, the paper investigates the tension between the necessity...

  3. Wildlife preservation and recreational use: Conflicting goals of wildland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Richard L. Knight

    1991-01-01

    Large tracts of wildland in North America have been set aside as wilderness areas and national parks. More than 200 million acres (88 million ha) of such lands have been formally designated in Canada and the United States (Eidsvik 1989). The primary goal of these designations is the preservation of undisturbed natural conditions and processes.

  4. Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    must respond within five seconds” [ EPF 2010]. A major source of architecturally significant requirements is the set of business goals that led to the...Projects for Competitive Advantage, Center for Business Practices, 1999. [ EPF 2010] Eclipse Process Framework Project. Concept: Architecturally

  5. Development and application of nuclear safety goals in Japan. Lessons learnt from the case of 2003 draft safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu; Inamura, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission in Japan offered a detailed draft of nuclear safety goals to the public in 2003, though its position was ambiguous in nuclear safety regulation. This report shows the circumstances behind the development and application of 2003 draft safety goals based on our interviews with the experts who had been involved in making the draft. According to our interviews, they had intention to utilize safety goals for improving risk management of regulatory authority and nuclear energy industry, such as ameliorating deterministic regulations, accumulating experience of risk assessment and management, promoting related research, and communicating risks with general public. In practice, however, safety goals had functioned as a tool for emphasizing an assertion that 'nuclear power plants had already been safe enough'. We identified the following four major impediments to utilizing safety goals; 1) lack of sharing overall recognition of the importance of establishing safety goals among nuclear community, 2) excessive emphasis of internal event risks which leads to an inferior priority to tackle with the issue of external events risks, 3) adverse effect of 'tunnel-visioned incrementalism', that is, nuclear energy industrial entities are attracted their foci too much on what they have been told to do by regulators or local governments, and, 4) negative attitude to disclose the outcomes of risk assessment for fear of societal reactions. To encourage upcoming safety goals and risk management, this report provides the following points for overcoming these problems; 1) sharing insights on the reasons why nuclear community set up safety goals, 2) introducing the concept of adaptive risk management for maintaining questioning attitude, 3) conducting a periodic review of goal attainment level and also safety goals themselves from the eyes of a detached observer, and, 4) rebuilding relationship with society beginning with arguments with local stakeholders over

  6. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...... related to goals were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-goal related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Interestingly, depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of goal related memories, thereby......The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...

  7. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  8. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  9. Setting oral health goals that include oral health-related quality of life measures: a study carried out among adolescents in Thailand Incorporação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em metas de saúde bucal: estudo conduzido em adolescentes tailandeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaduang Krisdapong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral diseases and condition-specific oral health-related quality of life (CS-OHRQoL as a basis for proposing OHRQoL-based goals for the population of 15-year-olds in Thailand. Oral examinations and OHRQoL interviews were conducted with 871 15-year-olds as part of the Sixth Thailand National Oral Health Survey. The severity of oral impacts was categorized using "intensity". Associations between oral diseases and CS-OHRQoL were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression. Thirty-nine percent of 15-year-olds experienced moderate/higher levels oral impacts on quality of life. Compared to those individuals with no tooth decay, adolescents with one or four or more decaying teeth were three and seven times more likely to experience moderate/higher impacts, respectively. Adolescents with extensive gingivitis in 3 or more mouth sextants were twice as likely to experience moderate/higher CS-impacts. Based on these findings, it is proposed that goals should focus on untreated decaying teeth and extensive gingivitis. Oral health goals for 15-year-olds should include specific OHRQoL measures.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a associação entre doença bucal e a condição específica de qualidade de vida associada à saúde bucal (CS-OHRQoL, como base para propor OHRQoL metas para adolescentes tailandeses. Exame clínico bucal e entrevista foram realizados em 871 adolescentes na faixa etária de 15 anos, como parte da 6ª Pesquisa Nacional Tailandesa de Saúde Bucal. A severidade do impacto bucal foi categorizada usando-se a "intensidade". A associação entre doença bucal e CS-OHRQoL foi investigada usando-se o teste qui-quadrado e regressão lógica. Trinta e nove por cento da amostra reportaram impactos bucais de grau moderado/elevado. A probabilidade de reportar um impacto bucal de grau moderado/elevado dos adolescentes com um dente cariado e aqueles com 4 ou mais foi 3 e 7 vezes

  10. The actual goals of geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  11. National Education Goals: Can We Afford Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Financial estimates for achieving the six national education goals proposed at the Charlottesville Education Summit are provided in this paper. Specific objectives under each goal, as outlined by the National Goals Panel, are assessed. A conclusion is that although the cost estimates have involved huge assumptions and sometimes wide variations,…

  12. The selfish goal meets the selfish gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberg, Steven L; Schaller, Mark

    2014-04-01

    The connection between selfish genes and selfish goals is not merely metaphorical. Many goals that shape contemporary cognition and behavior are psychological products of evolutionarily fundamental motivational systems and thus are phenotypic manifestations of genes. An evolutionary perspective can add depth and nuance to our understanding of "selfish goals" and their implications for human cognition and behavior.

  13. From Desires, Obligations and Norms to Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Kinny, D.; Sonenberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models of agents based on Beliefs, Desires and Intentions usually only include either desires or goals. Therefore the process whereby goals arise from desires is given scant attention. In this paper we argue that the inclusion of both desires and goals in the same model can be

  14. Goal Expectations as Predictors of Retirement Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…

  15. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS--A SYSTEMS APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHM, ROBERT E.

    CONTEMPORARY SYSTEMS THEORISTS HAVE PROVIDED A HELPFUL VIEW OF THE WAY GOAL-STRUCTURE MAY SHAPE ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. THE "TRADITIONALIST" VIEW ASSIGNED ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS THE FUNCTIONS OF FORECASTING AND PLANNING. THE "EMERGING MODEL" VIEWED GOALS AS UNDEFINED ELEMENTS REQUIRING LITTLE SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT IN A…

  16. Cookery demonstrations in GOAL supported clinics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stunting are high, and various micronutrient deficiencies, including those of ... the household are the underlying causes seen in GOAL- assisted areas. ... feeding. Thus, the nutrition cookery demonstration activity has come to play an important role in mother and child health activities in GOAL-supported clinics and GOAL's.

  17. Maximizing the probability of satisfying the clinical goals in radiation therapy treatment planning under setup uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Hårdemark, Björn; Forsgren, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces a method that maximizes the probability of satisfying the clinical goals in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatments subject to setup uncertainty. Methods: The authors perform robust optimization in which the clinical goals are constrained to be satisfied whenever the setup error falls within an uncertainty set. The shape of the uncertainty set is included as a variable in the optimization. The goal of the optimization is to modify the shape of the uncertainty set in order to maximize the probability that the setup error will fall within the modified set. Because the constraints enforce the clinical goals to be satisfied under all setup errors within the uncertainty set, this is equivalent to maximizing the probability of satisfying the clinical goals. This type of robust optimization is studied with respect to photon and proton therapy applied to a prostate case and compared to robust optimization using an a priori defined uncertainty set. Results: Slight reductions of the uncertainty sets resulted in plans that satisfied a larger number of clinical goals than optimization with respect to a priori defined uncertainty sets, both within the reduced uncertainty sets and within the a priori, nonreduced, uncertainty sets. For the prostate case, the plans taking reduced uncertainty sets into account satisfied 1.4 (photons) and 1.5 (protons) times as many clinical goals over the scenarios as the method taking a priori uncertainty sets into account. Conclusions: Reducing the uncertainty sets enabled the optimization to find better solutions with respect to the errors within the reduced as well as the nonreduced uncertainty sets and thereby achieve higher probability of satisfying the clinical goals. This shows that asking for a little less in the optimization sometimes leads to better overall plan quality

  18. Quantitative HTGR safety and forced outage goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, W.J.; Parme, L.L.; Silady, F.A.

    1985-05-01

    A key step in the successful implementation of the integrated approach is the definition of the overall plant-level goals. To be effective, the goals should provide clear statements of what is to be achieved by the plant. This can be contrasted to the current practice of providing design-prescriptive criteria which implicitly address some higher-level objective but restrict the designer's flexibility. Furthermore, the goals should be quantifiable in such a way that satisfaction of the goal can be measured. In the discussion presented, two such plant-level goals adopted for the HTGR and addressing the impact of unscheduled occurrences are described. 1 fig

  19. Goals of measurement systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Montmollin, J.M.; Weinstock, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    The safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency are based on technical performance goals and criteria that have been developed, but not officially adopted by the Agency. The goals derive in part from the external consequences that safeguards are intended to prevent and in some cases on internal considerations of feasibility. To the extent that these goals may not be attainable, as may be the case with large-throughput bulk reprocessing plants, the Agency is placed in a difficult position. In this paper safeguards goals and criteria and their underlying rationales are critically examined. Suggestions for a more rational and workable structure of performance goals are offered

  20. Self-regulation of unattainable goals in suicide attempters: the relationship between goal disengagement, goal reengagement and suicidal ideation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Rory C

    2009-02-01

    There is growing interest in models of adaptive self-regulation. Recent research suggests that goal disengagement and goal reengagement (i.e., goal adjustment) are implicated in the self-regulation of emotion. This study extends the self-regulation research to investigate the utility of goal adjustment in understanding suicidal risk. To this end, two hundred adults hospitalised following a suicidal episode completed a range of clinical and psychological measures in hospital and were followed up approximately 2.5 months after discharge (Time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal reengagement predicted suicidal ideation at Time 2. In addition, the lack of goal reengagement was especially pernicious when reported concomitantly with high disengagement. These predictive effects were independent of baseline mood, attempt status and suicidal intent. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Goal-directedness and personal identity as correlates of life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Barry M; Masterson, Suzanne S; Locke, Edwin A; Groth, Markus; Jensen, David G

    2002-08-01

    Although much research has been conducted on goal setting, researchers have not examined goal-directedness or propensity to set goals as a stable human characteristic in adults. In this study, a survey was developed and distributed to 104 adult participants to assess their goal-directedness, personal identity, and various life outcomes. A theoretical model was developed and tested using structural equation modeling that proposed that both goal-directedness and personal identity should positivcly influence important life outcomes. Analysis showed that goal-directedness and personal identity are positively related to personal well-being, salary, and marital satisfaction. Further, personal identity was positively related to job satisfaction but, contrary to related research, goal-directedness did not predict job satisfaction.

  2. Development goals in the post-2015 world: whither Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-05-29

    A new set of post-2015 development goals for the world is being negotiated. Several potential goals relating to sustainable development, poverty, the economy and health have been identified. Many of them have potential public health gains, although there are inadequacies in how several of them have been defined. In participating in finalization of these goals, Canada should strengthen its commitments to maternal/child health; promote its publicly funded health system as an important model for universal health coverage; incorporate stronger protections for public health in trade and investment treaties; use its foreign aid to help low- and middle-income countries build the transparent and progressive tax systems to mobilize domestic revenues for health; and promote global systems of taxation to prevent tax evasion and illicit capital flight.

  3. Occupational Needs and Goals of Survivors of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherian-Dysinger, Heather; Krpalek, Dragana; Huecker, Esther; Hewitt, Liane; Cabrera, Michelle; Brown, Canique; Francis, Jason; Rogers, Katie; Server, Sage

    2016-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe the occupational needs and goals of women residing in a domestic violence shelter and their self-perceived changes in satisfaction and occupational performance. Using a retrospective design, data from 68 occupational therapy evaluations from two domestic violence shelter settings were examined. Data were analyzed by coding problem areas and occupational goals and calculating frequencies for these variables. Where data were available, we also analyzed changes in pre- and postscores for self-perceived satisfaction and occupational performance (n = 25). The most common problem areas were leisure, education, work, child rearing, and health management. The most common goals were in the areas of education, work, health management, child rearing, and home management. Retrospective pre- and postchange scores in performance and satisfaction for 25 women were statistically significant. Findings provide direction for, and highlight the importance of occupational therapy services within domestic violence shelters as women regain their life skills.

  4. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results

  5. The Formalization of the Business Process Modeling Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Bušinska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In business process modeling the de facto standard BPMN has emerged. However, the applications of this notation have many subsets of elements and various extensions. Also, BPMN still coincides with many other modeling languages, forming a large set of available options for business process modeling languages and dialects. While, in general, the goal of modelers is a central notion in the choice of modeling languages and notations, in most researches that propose guidelines, techniques, and methods for business process modeling language evaluation and/or selection, the business process modeling goal is not formalized and not transparently taken into account. To overcome this gap, and to explicate and help to handle business process modeling complexity, the approach to formalize the business process modeling goal, and the supporting three dimensional business process modeling framework, are proposed.

  6. Safety goals for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    This talk presents technology goals developed for Generation IV nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier. These goals are defined in the broad areas of sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Sustainability goals focus on fuel utilization, waste management, and proliferation resistance. Safety and reliability goals focus on safe and reliable operation, investment protection, and essentially eliminating the need for emergency response. Economics goals focus on competitive life cycle and energy production costs and financial risk. Future reactors fall in three categories - those which are: Certified or derivatives; Designed to a reasonable extent and based on available technology; In conceptual form only with potential to most fully satisfy the GENIV goals

  7. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...

  8. Achievement goals and interpersonal behaviour: How mastery and performance goals shape information exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further

  9. Performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals and the adoption of personal achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). This paper considered the relationship between students' perceptions of classroom goals and their endorsement of personal achievement goals. We proposed that three (instead of only two) classroom goals need to be distinguished. We aimed to provide evidence for this hypothesis by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also by divergent associations between the respective classroom goal and students' personal goal endorsement. A total of 871 (474 female) 10th grade students from several German high schools participated in this study. Students responded to items assessing their perception of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in the classroom. Additionally, the students reported how much they personally pursue mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. All items referred to German as a specific school subject. RESULTS.A CFA yielded empirical support for the proposed distinction of three (instead of only two) different kinds of classroom goals. Moreover, in hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) analyses all three classroom goals showed unique associations with students' personal goal adoption. The findings emphasized the need to distinguish performance-approach and PAVCG. Furthermore, our results suggest that multiple classroom goals have interactive effects on students' personal achievement strivings. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Perception in the service of goal pursuit : Motivation to attain goals enhances the perceived size of goal instrumental objects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, M.; Aarts, H.; Custers, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested the functional perception hypothesis (Bruner, 1957) according to which objects that are instrumental in attaining ones' goals are perceived to be bigger if one is motivated to attain these goals. Study 1 demonstrated that participants perceived a glass of water to be bigger

  11. Goals and everyday problem solving: manipulating goal preferences in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.

  12. The GOAL-to-HAL/S translator specification. [for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanten, S. F.; Flanders, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    The specification sets forth a technical framework within which to deal with the transfer of specific GOAL features to HAL/S. Key technical features of the translator are described which communicate with the data bank, handle repeat statements, and deal with software interrupts. GOAL programs, databank information, and GOAL system subroutines are integrated into one GOAL in HAL/S. This output is fully compatible HAL/S source ready for insertion into the HAL/S compiler. The Translator uses a PASS1 to establish all the global data needed for the HAL/S output program. Individual GOAL statements are translated in PASS2. The specification document makes extensive use of flowcharts to specify exactly how each variation of each GOAL statement is to be translated. The specification also deals with definitions and assumptions, executive support structure and implementation. An appendix, entitled GOAL-to-HAL Mapping, provides examples of translated GOAL statements.

  13. A Systematic Study of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Costa, Luís.; Rybski, Diego; Lucht, Wolfgang; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development goals (SDGs) have set the 2030 agenda to transform our world by tackling multiple challenges humankind is facing to ensure well-being, economic prosperity, and environmental protection. In contrast to conventional development agendas focusing on a restricted set of dimensions, the SDGs provide a holistic and multidimensional view on development. Hence, interactions among the SDGs may cause diverging results. To analyze the SDG interactions we systematize the identification of synergies and trade-offs using official SDG indicator data for 227 countries. A significant positive correlation between a pair of SDG indicators is classified as a synergy while a significant negative correlation is classified as a trade-off. We rank synergies and trade-offs between SDGs pairs on global and country scales in order to identify the most frequent SDG interactions. For a given SDG, positive correlations between indicator pairs were found to outweigh the negative ones in most countries. Among SDGs the positive and negative correlations between indicator pairs allowed for the identification of particular global patterns. SDG 1 (No poverty) has synergetic relationship with most of the other goals, whereas SDG 12 (Responsible consumption and production) is the goal most commonly associated with trade-offs. The attainment of the SDG agenda will greatly depend on whether the identified synergies among the goals can be leveraged. In addition, the highlighted trade-offs, which constitute obstacles in achieving the SDGs, need to be negotiated and made structurally nonobstructive by deeper changes in the current strategies.

  14. Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabanach, Ramón G; Núnez, José C; González-Pienda, Julio; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel

    2003-03-01

    The type of academic goals pursued by students is one of the most important variables in motivational research in educational contexts. Although motivational theory and research have emphasised the somewhat exclusive nature of two types of goal orientation (learning goals versus performance goals), some studies (Meece, 1994; Seifert, 1995, 1996) have shown that the two kinds of goals are relatively complementary and that it is possible for students to have multiple goals simultaneously, which guarantees some flexibility to adapt more efficaciously to various contexts and learning situations. The principal aim of this study is to determine the academic goals pursued by university students and to analyse the differences in several very significant variables related to motivation and academic learning. Participants were 609 university students (74% women and 26% men) who filled in several questionnaires about the variables under study. We used cluster analysis ('quick cluster analysis' method) to establish the different groups or clusters of individuals as a function of the three types of goals (learning goals, performance goals, and social reinforcement goals). By means of MANOVA, we determined whether the groups or clusters identified were significantly different in the variables that are relevant to motivation and academic learning. Lastly, we performed ANOVA on the variables that revealed significant effects in the previous analysis. Using cluster analysis, three groups of students with different motivational orientations were identified: a group with predominance of performance goals (Group PG: n = 230), a group with predominance of multiple goals (Group MG: n = 238), and a group with predominance of learning goals (Group LG: n = 141). Groups MG and LG attributed their success more to ability, they had higher perceived ability, they took task characteristics into account when planning which strategies to use in the learning process, they showed higher persistence

  15. Getting to Zero: Goal Commitment to Reduce Blood Stream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs) can save lives and reduce health care costs, efforts designed to eliminate HAIs have had mixed results. Variability in contextual factors such as work culture and management practices has been suggested as a potential explanation for inconsistent results across organizations and interventions. We examine goal-setting as a factor contributing to program outcomes in eight hospitals focused on preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). We conducted qualitative case studies to compare higher- and lower-performing hospitals, and explored differences in contextual factors that might contribute to performance variation. We present a goal commitment framework that characterizes factors associated with successful CLABSI program outcomes. Across 194 key informant interviews, internal and external moderators and characteristics of the goal itself differentiated actors' goal commitment at higher- versus lower-performing hospitals. Our findings have implications for organizations struggling to prevent HAIs, as well as informing the broader goal commitment literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Meeting performance goals by the use of experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    DOE Order 5480.28 requires that structures, systems and components (SSCs) be designed and constructed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena hazards. For SSCs to be acceptable, it must be demonstrated that there is a sufficiently low probability of failure of those SSCs consistent with established performance goals. For new design, NPH loads are taken from probabilistic hazard assessments and coupled with response and evaluation methods to control the levels of conservatism required to achieve performance goals. For components qualified by test, performance goals are achieved by specifying a test response spectrum that envelops a required response spectrum coupled with minimal acceptance standards. DOE Standard 1020-92 adapts both of these approaches to ensure that the required performance goals are met for new installations. For existing installations these approaches are generally not applicable. There is a need for a simple approach for use in verifying the performance of existing equipment subject to seismic hazards. The USNRC has adapted such an approach for the resolution of USI A-46 in the Generic Implementation Procedure (GIP). A simple set of screening rules, keyed to a generic bounding spectrum forms the basis of the USNRC approach. A similar approach is being adapted for use in the DOE. The DOE approach, however, must also ensure that appropriate performance goals are met when the general screens are met. This paper summarizes research to date on the topic of meeting performance goals by the use of experience data. The paper presents a review of the background material, a summary of the requirements for existing components, a summary of the approach used in establishing the performance goals associated with experience data approaches, and a summary of results to date. Simplified criteria are proposed

  17. The Formalization of the Business Process Modeling Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Bušinska, Ligita; Kirikova, Mārīte

    2016-01-01

    In business process modeling the de facto standard BPMN has emerged. However, the applications of this notation have many subsets of elements and various extensions. Also, BPMN still coincides with many other modeling languages, forming a large set of available options for business process modeling languages and dialects. While, in general, the goal of modelers is a central notion in the choice of modeling languages and notations, in most researches that propose guidelines, techniques, and me...

  18. Essential variables help to focus sustainable development goals monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reyers, B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available indicators [1], each one of which relies on existing and new multiple data streams for its development (Figure 1a). Under this current proliferation logic, the process of developing an SDG monitoring system inexorably results in an ever-expanding set....sciencedirect.com Essential Sustainable Development Goal Variables Reyers et al. 99abstraction provides a degree of independence from observations, thus accommodating multiple diverse pri- mary data streams across regions and sections, as well as the flexibility to meet...

  19. Controlled, Constrained, or Flexible? How Self-Management Goals Are Shaped By Patient-Provider Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Marika; Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Rogers, Anne; Venville, Annie; Smith, Lorraine

    2018-06-01

    A person-centered approach to goal-setting, involving collaboration between patients and health professionals, is advocated in policy to support self-management. However, this is difficult to achieve in practice, reducing the potential effectiveness of self-management support. Drawing on observations of consultations between patients and health professionals, we examined how goal-setting is shaped in patient-provider interactions. Analysis revealed three distinct interactional styles. In controlled interactions, health professionals determine patients' goals based on biomedical reference points and present these goals as something patients should do. In constrained interactions, patients are invited to present goals, yet health professionals' language and questions orientate goals toward biomedical issues. In flexible interactions, patients and professionals both contribute to goal-setting, as health professionals use less directive language, create openings, and allow patients to decide on their goals. Findings suggest that interactional style of health professionals could be the focus of interventions when aiming to increase the effectiveness of goal-setting.

  20. Consumer Buying Goals and Communication Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Four hundred eight female users of cosmetics in Madison, Wisconsin, responded to questionnaires which sought to discover correlations among the goal of the purchaser and the type and source of information sought in the buying decision. Two goals were identified: rational (cost, functional benefits of product, or possible undesirable consequences…

  1. 33 CFR 385.38 - Interim goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monitoring and assessment; (ii) Be provided to the independent scientific review panel established in.... The interim goals shall be developed through the use of appropriate models and tools and shall provide... to be required to meet long-term hydrological and ecological restoration goals, based on best...

  2. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...

  3. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics learners with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... in recognising methods to direct learners' goals for better engagement with and improved results in mathematics, which could support learners to develop to their full potential in the subject.

  4. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  5. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative, exploratory research design was used. ... Goals affect how learners approach mathematics learning activities, which could ... research on academic success and ADHD has focused on reading ... from the data analysis process. ... Achievement goal orientation is based on a ...... Research design: Qualitative,.

  6. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E

    2011-09-01

    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  7. GOAL-to-HAL translation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  8. Constellation Stretch Goals: Review of Industry Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, John

    2006-01-01

    Many good ideas received based on industry experience: a) Shuttle operations; b) Commercial aircraft production; c) NASA's historical way of doing business; d) Military and commercial programs. Aerospace performed preliminary analysis: a) Potential savings; b) Cost of implementation; c) Performance or other impact/penalties; d) Roadblocks; e) Unintended consequences; f) Bottom line. Significant work ahead for a "Stretch Goal"to become a good, documented requirement: 1) As a group, the relative "value" of goals are uneven; 2) Focused analysis on each goal is required: a) Need to ensure that a new requirement produces the desired consequence; b) It is not certain that some goals will not create problems elsewhere. 3) Individual implementation path needs to be studied: a) Best place to insert requirement (what level, which document); b) Appropriate wording for the requirement. Many goals reflect "best practices" based on lessons learned and may have value beyond near-term CxP requirements process.

  9. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis.

  10. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  11. Content and characteristics of goals created during a self-management intervention for people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger; Wexler, Bethany; Dilorio, Colleen; Escoffery, Cam; McCarty, Frances; Yeager, Katherine A

    2009-12-01

    Goals are presented in the chronic illness literature as effective strategies to help people adopt self-management behaviors; however, not much is known about the types and characteristics of individuals' goals. The purpose of this study was to examine goal setting among people with epilepsy who participated in the WebEase program. WebEase is an Internet-based, theory-driven, self-management program with modules on medication adherence, stress management, and sleep habits. Participants had the opportunity to create and evaluate goals over the course of 6 weeks, with 2 weeks for each module. The goals were analyzed using three dimensions: content, specificity, and proximity. Most participants in the sample wrote goals for each week of the program. Several main content areas emerged within the modules. Goal quality, measured by specificity and proximity, did not differ according to readiness for behavior change. Readiness to change did not differ between those who wrote a goal and those who did not. The diversity of goal content and quality indicates that individuals should be supported in goal development and encouraged to set their own self-management goals, regardless of their readiness for behavior change.

  12. Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.

  13. Mean-Variance stochastic goal programming for sustainable mutual funds' portfolio selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bernabeu, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mean-Variance Stochastic Goal Programming models (MV-SGP provide satisficing investment solutions in uncertain contexts. In this work, an MV-SGP model is proposed for portfolio selection which includes goals with regards to traditional and sustainable assets. The proposed approach is based on a two-step procedure. In the first step, sustainability and/or financial screens are applied to a set of assets (mutual funds previously evaluated with TOPSIS to determine the opportunity set. In a second step, satisficing portfolios of assets are obtained using a Goal Programming approach. Two different goals are considered. The first goal reflects only the purely financial side of the target while the second goal is referred to the sustainable side. Aversion to Risk Absolute (ARA coefficients are estimated and incorporated in our investment decision making approach using two different approaches.

  14. A Holistic Quality Evaluation, Selection and Improvement Approach driven by Multilevel Goals and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Rivera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizations should establish business goals and check for their achievement in a systematic and disciplined way. In order to know if a business goal is achieved, it should be necessary to consider information need goals that also can require satisfying measurement and evaluation goals at operational level. Furthermore, if measurement and evaluation goals are not aligned with top-level business goals such as tactical or strategic level goals, the organization could waste its effort and resources. Usually, the different goals established in an organization are operationalized through projects. For a given project, strategies should be used in order to help in the goal achievement. A strategy defines a set of activities and methods to be followed for a specific goal purpose. Ultimately, to engineering all these issues in a systematic way, organizations should adopt a holistic evaluation approach supported by a set of integrated strategies. By means of a systematic literature review as research method, we have observed that very few approaches support integrated strategies and multilevel goals. To bridge this gap, we have developed a holistic quality multilevel and multipurpose evaluation approach that ties together multilevel goals, projects and integrated strategies. As contributions, this paper discusses an enhanced conceptual base (specified by ontologies for linking business and information need goal concepts with project, strategy and nonfunctional requirements concepts. Then, it defines the step by step of our holistic quality evaluation approach, by listing the necessary activities to establish goals and projects at different organizational levels. Lastly, it specifies and illustrates evaluation scenarios for business/information need goal purposes such as understanding, improving, monitoring and controlling, comparing and selecting entities, which are supported by strategies and strategy patterns.

  15. Functional Goals and Predictors of Their Attainment in Low-Income Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldersen, Brian W; Wolff, Jennifer L; Roberts, Laken; Bridges, Allysin E; Gitlin, Laura N; Szanton, Sarah L

    2017-05-01

    To describe functional goals and factors associated with goal attainment among low-income older adults with disabilities living in the community. Secondary analysis. Participants' homes. Older adults (N=226) with disability who participated in the Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders trial. A 5-month, home-based, person-directed, structured program delivered by an interprofessional team: occupational therapist, registered nurse, and handyman. Process of occupational therapist goal setting and attainment at the final occupational therapist visit. Participants identified 728 functional goals (mean of 3.2 goals per participant), most commonly related to transferring (22.0%; n=160 goals), changing or maintaining body position (21.4%; n=156 goals), and stair climbing (13.0%; n=95 goals). Participants attained 73.5% (n=535) of goals. Goal attainment was highest for stair climbing (86.3%), transferring (85.6%), and self-care (84.6%); walking goals were less likely attained (54.0%). Goal attainment was not associated with age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, function, or health-related quality of life but was less likely among participants who had severe pain compared with those without pain (adjusted odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.86). When participant readiness to change score increases by 1 point on the 4-point scale, goal attainment was 62% more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.29). Home-based collaborative goal setting between older adults and occupational therapists is feasible and particularly effective when individuals are ready or willing to adopt new strategies to achieve identified goals. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Structure and Application of High Level Safety Goals. A Review by the MDEP Sub-committee on Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the aims of MDEP is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are for a specific technology. Therefore MDEP set up a sub-committee to investigate a different approach. This approach was to start with the top level goals and to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier goals that can be seen to be clearly related to the higher level ones. This approach has the potential to greatly assist in the process of harmonisation of regulatory requirements. The paper reviews the high level goals used in MDEP countries and the relevant work of international groups. From these it draws broad conclusions that the form of the framework should be an Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals, incorporating an extended Defense-in-Depth approach. The basis concept is that the higher level safety goals can then developed, in a coherent and consistent manner, into lower level safety goals and targets that can be applied within the design and operation of reactors, with a clear connection between the different levels. This structured approach is technology-neutral and is sufficiently flexible that it can be

  17. Cultural Sensitiveness of School Goals and Students’ Failure in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Education is the means by which society provides for the transmission or advancement of its culture and it is formally done at schools that are the arena of human interaction aimed at producing learning. But some people in that interaction aimed at producing learning cannot achieve as much as the others due to some social or individual factors especially when the society is not homogeneous in terms of culture, language, etc.All cultures do not require the same kinds of knowledge and all may have distinct goals and expectations in education. This study aims at presenting the consensus and conflict in perspectives of students of different ethnic origins on general goals of education and expectations from schools in East and Southeast Turkey. The results will be used to generate a rationale to assume that the failure of students in East and Southeast Turkey where majority of population is ethnically diverse, may be because of the lack of divergent goals and expectations set for school curriculum or that the failure of students is dependent on some other factors except the unique school curriculum unresponsive to cultural or ethnic diversity. For this purpose, the goals of general education (1973, Law number 1739, Item number 2, and school expectations developed by House (1973 were prepared as questionnaire items, piloted, validated and administered to 9373 secondary school students in east and southeast Turkey. The findings of this study were that the students of different ethnic origins value the goals and expectations set for school curriculum in Turkey in significantly different ways.

  18. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A retrospective analysis of real-world use of the eaTracker® My Goals website by adults from Ontario and Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Haresign, Helen; Mehling, Christine; Hanning, Rhona M

    2016-09-15

    Little is known about use of goal setting and tracking tools within online programs to support nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. In 2011, Dietitians of Canada added "My Goals," a nutrition and physical activity behaviour goal setting and tracking tool to their free publicly available self-monitoring website (eaTracker® ( http://www.eaTracker.ca/ )). My Goals allows users to: a) set "ready-made" SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-related) goals (choice of n = 87 goals from n = 13 categories) or "write your own" goals, and b) track progress using the "My Goals Tracker." The purpose of this study was to characterize: a) My Goals user demographics, b) types of goals set, and c) My Goals Tracker use. Anonymous data on all goals set using the My Goals feature from December 6/2012-April 28/2014 by users ≥19y from Ontario and Alberta, Canada were obtained. This dataset contained: anonymous self-reported user demographic data, user set goals, and My Goals Tracker use data. Write your own goals were categorized by topic and specificity. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between user demographics and a) goal topic areas and b) My Goals Tracker use. Overall, n = 16,511 goal statements (75.4 % ready-made; 24.6 % write your own) set by n = 8,067 adult users 19-85y (83.3 % female; mean age 41.1 ± 15.0y, mean BMI 28.8 ± 7.6kg/m(2)) were included for analysis. Overall, 33.1 % of ready-made goals were from the "Managing your Weight" category. Of write your own goal entries, 42.3 % were solely distal goals (most related to weight management); 38.6 % addressed nutrition behaviour change (16.6 % had unspecific general eating goals); 18.1 % addressed physical activity behaviour change (47.3 % had goals without information on exercise amount and type). Many write your own goals were poor quality (e.g., non-specific (e.g., missing

  20. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  1. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Leadership and Turnover Among Managers ," Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10(1973), pp. 184-200; R. J. House, "A Path-Goal Theory of...of Leadership ." 6R. J. House and G. Dessler, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " R. M. Stqg- dill. Managers , Employees, Organization (Ohio State...of Control." 23 R. J. House, "Notes on the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " (University of Toronto, Faculty of Management Studies, May 1974). 24 R

  2. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    As our experience grows, space missions and systems are expected to address ever more complex and demanding requirements with fewer resources (e.g., mass, power, budget). One approach to accommodating these higher expectations is to increase the level of autonomy to improve the capabilities and robustness of on- board systems and to simplify operations. The goal decomposition hierarchies described here provide a simple but powerful form of goal-directed behavior that is relatively easy to implement for space systems. A goal corresponds to a state or condition that an operator of the space system would like to bring about. In the system described here goals are decomposed into simpler subgoals until the subgoals are simple enough to execute directly. For each goal there is an activation condition and a set of decompositions. The decompositions correspond to different ways of achieving the higher level goal. Each decomposition contains a gating condition and a set of subgoals to be "executed" sequentially or in parallel. The gating conditions are evaluated in order and for the first one that is true, the corresponding decomposition is executed in order to achieve the higher level goal. The activation condition specifies global conditions (i.e., for all decompositions of the goal) that need to hold in order for the goal to be achieved. In real-time, parameters and state information are passed between goals and subgoals in the decomposition; a termination indication (success, failure, degree) is passed up when a decomposition finishes executing. The lowest level decompositions include servo control loops and finite state machines for generating control signals and sequencing i/o. Semaphores and shared memory are used to synchronize and coordinate decompositions that execute in parallel. The goal decomposition hierarchy is reactive in that the generated behavior is sensitive to the real-time state of the system and the environment. That is, the system is able to react

  3. Undergraduate students' goals for chemistry laboratory coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.

    Chemistry laboratory coursework has the potential to offer many benefits to students, yet few of these learning goals are realized in practice. Therefore, this study seeks to characterize undergraduate students' learning goals for their chemistry laboratory coursework. Data were collected by recording video of students completing laboratory experiments and conducting interviews with the students about their experiences that were analyzed utilizing the frameworks of Human Constructivism and Self-Regulated Learning. A cross-sectional sampling of students allowed comparisons to be made among students with varying levels of chemistry experience and interest in chemistry. The student goals identified by this study were compared to previously described laboratory learning goals of the faculty who instruct these courses in an effort to identify potential avenues to improve laboratory learning.

  4. Integration of Millennium Development Goals into Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integration of Millennium Development Goals into Physical Education programme: ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... the UN in terms of sustainable human development and how graduates of physical education and ...

  5. Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public health ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The conference focused on transforming public health education and practice in the context of South Africa.

  6. Regoaling: a conceptual model of how parents of children with serious illness change medical care goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents of seriously ill children participate in making difficult medical decisions for their child. In some cases, parents face situations where their initial goals, such as curing the condition, may have become exceedingly unlikely. While some parents continue to pursue these goals, others relinquish their initial goals and generate new goals such as maintaining the child’s quality of life. We call this process of transitioning from one set of goals to another regoaling. Discussion Regoaling involves factors that either promote or inhibit the regoaling process, including disengagement from goals, reengagement in new goals, positive and negative affect, and hopeful thinking. We examine these factors in the context of parental decision making for a seriously ill child, presenting a dynamic conceptual model of regoaling. This model highlights four research questions that will be empirically tested in an ongoing longitudinal study of medical decision making among parents of children with serious illness. Additionally, we consider potential clinical implications of regoaling for the practice of pediatric palliative care. Summary The psychosocial model of regoaling by parents of children with a serious illness predicts that parents who experience both positive and negative affect and hopeful patterns of thought will be more likely to relinquish one set of goals and pursue a new set of goals. A greater understanding of how parents undergo this transition may enable clinicians to better support them through this difficult process. PMID:24625345

  7. Link Data to Learning Goals: Common District Assessments Connect Teaching Effectiveness to Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…

  8. Storm after the Quiet : How Marketplace Interactions Shape Consumer Resources in Collective Goal Pursuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Alexander; Bögershausen, Johannes; Ciuchita, Robert; Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    Raising a child is a life project that involves setting goals, making plans, and acquiring the means to execute the plans. This article examines how families modify their goals, plans, and means after learning a child is disabled. An inductive investigation of nine families who have a child with

  9. The Aethereal Network on Chip after Ten Years: Goals, Evolution, Lessons, and Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; Hansson, A.

    2010-01-01

    The goals for the Æthereal network on silicon, as it was then called, were set in 2000 and its concepts were defined early 2001. Ten years on, what has been achieved? Did we meet the goals, and what is left of the concepts? In this paper we answer those questions, and evaluate different

  10. The aethereal network on chip after ten years: Goals, evolution, lessons and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, K.G.W.; Hansson, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The goals for the Æthereal network on silicon, as it was then called, were set in 2000 and its concepts were defined early 2001. Ten years on, what has been achieved? Did we meet the goals, and what is left of the concepts? In this paper we answer those questions, and evaluate different

  11. Student Perceptions of Classroom Achievement Goals as Predictors of Belonging and Content Instrumentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher O.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the predictive relationships among a set of cognitive-motivational variables that have been found in previous studies to support academic achievement. Student perception of a classroom's achievement goal structure (classroom mastery, classroom performance-approach, classroom performance-avoidance) was…

  12. To Win, or Not to Lose, At Any Cost : The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hamstra, M.R.W.; van der Klauw, Marloes

    We examined the relations between achievement goals and cheating in two studies. The findings from Study 1 show that the extent to which people intend to behave unethically in the areas of work, sport and education is a function of their dominant achievement goals in these particular settings. An

  13. Performance management and goal ambiguity: managerial implications in a single payer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, Stefano; Cantù, Elena; Fattore, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Goal ambiguity influences the effectiveness of performance management systems to drive organizations toward enhanced results. The literature analyzes the antecedents of goal ambiguity and shows the influence of goal ambiguity on the performance of U.S. federal agencies. However, no study has analyzed goal ambiguity in other countries or in health care systems. This study has three aims: to test the validity of a measurement instrument for goal ambiguity, to investigate its main antecedents, and to explore the relationship between goal ambiguity and organizational performance in a large, public, Beveridge-type health care system. A nationwide survey of general managers of the Italian national health system was performed. A factor analysis was used to validate the mono-dimensionality of an instrument that measured goal ambiguity. Structural equation modeling was used to test both the antecedents and the influence of goal ambiguity on organizational performance. Data from 135 health care organizations (53% response rate) were available for analysis. The results confirm the mono-dimensionality of the instrument, the existence of two environmental sources of ambiguity (political endorsement and governance commitment), and the negative relationship between goal ambiguity and organizational performance. Goal ambiguity matters because it may hamper organizational performance. Therefore, performance should be fostered by reducing goal ambiguity (e.g., goal-setting model, funding arrangements, and political support). Mutatis mutandis, our results may apply to public health care systems of other countries or other "public interest" sectors, such as social care and education.

  14. Goal-Directed Visual Attention Drives Health Goal Priming: An Eye-Tracking Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Laura N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects

  15. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  16. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  17. Goal Conflict and Goal Commitment among Campus Parking Administrators in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which campus parking administrators in public higher education perceive they are experiencing goal conflict and the degree to which they differ in commitment to goals related to generating revenue and goals related to academics and service. The study also sought to determine the relationship…

  18. Different Goals for Different Folks: A Cross-Cultural Study of Achievement Goals across Nine Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi

    2017-01-01

    Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…

  19. Goal Orientations of General Chemistry Students via the Achievement Goal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2018-01-01

    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students' goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success…

  20. Self-reflection, growth goals, and academic outcomes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Cheryl J; Morisano, Dominique; Locke, Edwin A

    2015-06-01

    Goal-setting theory continues to be among the most popular and influential theories of motivation and performance, although there have been limited academic applications relative to applications in other domains, such as organizational psychology. This paper summarizes existing quantitative research and then employs a qualitative approach to exploring academic growth via an in-depth reflective growth goal-setting methodology. The study focuses on 92 UK final-year students enrolled in an elective advanced interpersonal skills and personal development module, with self-reflection and growth goal setting at its core. Qualitative data in the form of regular reflective written diary entries and qualitative questionnaires were collected from students during, on completion of, and 6 months following the personal growth goal-setting programme. About 20% of students' self-set growth goals directly related to academic growth and performance; students reported that these had a strong impact on their achievement both during and following the reflective programme. Growth goals that were indirectly related to achievement (e.g., stress management) appeared to positively impact academic growth and other outcomes (e.g., well-being). A follow-up survey revealed that growth goal setting continued to impact academic growth factors (e.g., self-efficacy, academic performance) beyond the reflective programme itself. Academic growth can result from both academically direct and indirect growth goals, and growth goal setting appears to be aided by the process of simultaneous growth reflection. The implications for promoting academic growth via this unique learning and development approach are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Goals, Methods, and Progress in Neuroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Colin F. Camerer

    2013-01-01

    Neuroeconomics shares the main goals of microeconomics: to understand what causes choices, and the welfare properties of choice. The novel goal is linking mathematical constructs and observable behavior to mechanistic details of neural circuitry. Several complementary methods are used. An initial insight from neuroscience is that distinct systems guide choice: Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning (learning) of state-value and response-value associations, overlearned habits, and model- (or ...

  2. Responding to the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    , disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination of women. These goals are now placed at the heart of the global agenda. The Summit’s Millennium Declaration also outlined a wide range of commitments in human rights, good governance, and democracy. This paper presents the Millennium Goals......-agencies and especially the World Bank to develop a FIG strategy and advise the FIG council on necessary actions....

  3. Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    discuss the political agreement.90 The Defence Chief of Staff is interviewed in the same paper along the same lines, where he provides an in- depth ...DRIVING DANISH DEFENCE TOWARDS POLITICAL GOALS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Orienting Oneself for Leadership: The Role of Goal Orientation in Leader Developmental Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Satoris S; Jackson, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which individuals approach achievement situations influence their use of self-management activities such as goal setting, feedback seeking, and developmental strategies, and ultimately impact success in leader development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  6. The millennium development goals and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Neil E

    2010-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals were proposed by the UN Secretary-General in 2001. They are goals with measurable targets to be achieved by 2015 or earlier. The Goals were distilled from the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, a sweeping statement of development values, principles, objectives and proposed actions. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a demonstrable translation of some of the ideas in the Millennium Declaration into reality. With 165(i) Parties, the FCTC does more than just improve global tobacco control: * The FCTC contributes to achievement of many of the Millennium Development Goals, and benefits from success in implementation of the Goals in other sectors. * The treaty itself is a demonstration of strengthened international and national rule of law, central tenets of the Millennium Declaration. * The FCTC expands international law into the health sector and provides better balance of international law among economic, environmental, social and health sectors. The Millennium Declaration calls for a more equitable distribution of the benefits of globalization, and the FCTC delivers this result. * The FCTC provides a model for addressing other unsolved global problems through greater use of international law. Alcohol control and dietary improvements including greater control of empty calories in manufactured foods are examples of problems that may benefit from greater governance by international law. Were that to come to pass, those new treaties would also improve implementation of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals.

  7. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Establishing a greenhouse gas inventory and reduction goal: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carli, G.A.; Richardson, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Since 1976, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) has grown from a small, regional engineering company, to one of the world's most sought-after, multi-disciplinary engineering and consulting firms with over 90 offices and more than 2,700 people working on projects worldwide. CRA is committed to helping its clients meet or exceed their environmental performance goals while achieving its own sustainability objectives. CRA is continuously striving to implement social and environmental performance improvements in each and every work place where CRA conducts business. CRA's Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility, and Environmental Policy reflects this commitment. CRA is working to reduce its environmental footprint and invest in the communities in which we live and conduct business. CRA undertook a corporate-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and set aggressive GHG reduction goals. This presentation provides an overview of the steps CRA has taken to quantify corporate GHG emissions, including establishing boundary conditions, data collection activities, calculation of GHG emissions, and development of and inventory management plant consistent with the U.S. EPA Climate Leaders program. The presentation discusses the primary challenges addressed in developing a GHG inventory for multiple facilities located throughout North America, including obtaining verifiable data, addressing corporate travel, and communicating climate change goals within the organization. The presentation concludes with an overview of the key considerations necessary to establish a credible reduction goal. (author)

  9. Academic Goals and Self-Handicapping Strategies in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradás, María del Mar; Freire, Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José Carlos

    2016-05-23

    In highly competitive settings like university, the fear of failure leads some students to protect their self-worth using self-handicapping strategies. The present investigation examines to what extent academic goals are related to those tactics in university students. Specifically, MANCOVA was applied to estimate statistical differences linked to behavioral and claimed self-handicapping strategies according to the level (high/medium/low) of four types of academic goal (achievement approach, achievement avoidance, mastery approach, and work avoidance). Degree, year in school, and gender were entered as covariates. 940 students (86.5% women) from University of A Coruña (M = 20.44; SD = 1.73) participated. Results show that: (a) both behavioral and claimed self-handicapping are promoted by ego-oriented goals (achievement avoidance, F(2, 937) = 23.56, p self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 9.09, p self-handicapping; and (c) mastery approach goals are significantly, negatively related to both types of self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 20.09, p < .001, η p 2 = .041). Psychological and educational implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  11. A Randomized Trial of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing after Simulation to Promote Educational Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amish Aghera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Goal setting is used in education to promote learning and performance. Debriefing after clinical scenario-based simulation is a well-established practice that provides learners a defined structure to review and improve performance. Our objective was to integrate formal learning goal generation, using the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound, into standard debriefing processes (i.e., “SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing” and subsequently measure the impact on the development of learning goals and execution of educational actions. Methods This was a prospective multicenter randomized controlled study of 80 emergency medicine residents at three academic hospitals comparing the effectiveness of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing to a standard debriefing. Residents were block randomized on a rolling basis following a simulation case. SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing included five minutes of formal instruction on the development of SMART learning goals during the summary/application phase of the debrief. Outcome measures included the number of recalled learning goals, self-reported executed educational actions, and quality of each learning goal and educational action after a two-week follow-up period. Results The mean number of reported learning goals was similar in the standard debriefing group (mean 2.05 goals, SD 1.13, n=37 residents, and in the SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing group (mean 1.93, SD 0.96, n=43, with no difference in learning goal quality. Residents receiving SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing completed more educational actions on average (Control group actions completed 0.97 (SD 0.87, SMART debrief group 1.44 (SD 1.03 p=0.03. Conclusion The number and quality of learning goals reported by residents was not improved as a result of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing. Residents did, however, execute more educational actions, which is consistent with the overarching intent of any educational

  12. Health transformation plan: Goals achievement in Nemazee hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of

  13. Goal conflict and goal facilitation as predictors of daily accelerometer-assessed physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Tait, Richard I; Johnston, Derek W; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-12-01

    To test whether perceptions of conflicting and facilitating personal goals, and actual daily time spent in their pursuit, predict accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). A prospective multilevel design with a daily accelerometer-based assessment of PA over 1 week was used (N = 106). Participants' personal goals were elicited using personal projects analysis. Participants then rated their personal goals in terms of how they were perceived to facilitate and conflict with their regular PA. Items assessing PA-specific intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were also embedded within the baseline measures. For the subsequent 7 consecutive days, participants completed a daily diary based on the day reconstruction method, indicating the time spent in daily episodes involving each of their personal goals, and wore an RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. The main outcome was accelerometer-assessed daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Random intercept multilevel models indicated that perceived goal facilitation, but not perceived goal conflict, predicted MVPA over and above intention and PBC. Daily time pursuing conflicting goals negatively predicted MVPA when subsequently added to the model and in so doing, attenuated the association between perceived goal facilitation and MVPA. Perceived goal facilitation predicts objectively measured PA over and above intention and PBC, but daily time spent in pursuit of conflicting personal goals provides a better account of how alternative goals relate to engaging in regular PA.

  14. Changes in cancer patients' personal goals in the first 6 months after diagnosis : the role of illness variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Moniek; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Smink, Ans; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Fleer, Joke

    Setting and pursuing personal goals is a vital aspect of our identity and purpose in life. Cancer can put pressure on these goals and may be a reason for people to adjust them. Therefore, this paper investigates (1) changes in cancer patients' goals over time and (2) the extent to which illness

  15. Changes in cancer patients' personal goals in the first 6 months after diagnosis: the role of illness variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Moniek; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Smink, Ans; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Fleer, Joke

    2015-01-01

    Setting and pursuing personal goals is a vital aspect of our identity and purpose in life. Cancer can put pressure on these goals and may be a reason for people to adjust them. Therefore, this paper investigates (1) changes in cancer patients' goals over time and (2) the extent to which illness

  16. Treatment goals in psoriasis routine care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, M A; Reich, K; Spehr, C; Augustin, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The treatment goal algorithm for psoriasis, first originated in 2007, has ever since been adopted into treatment guidelines. It remained unclear how many patients have experienced the use of treatment goals in routine care and how these are perceived. The aim of the pilot study was to get first insight in the use and impact of therapeutic goals in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis in routine care. This study is a multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional health care study in n = 213 dermatology centers across Germany. A standardized physician and patient questionnaire was used, including demographics, disease and treatment characteristics. To evaluate patient treatment perception and satisfaction, a questionnaire (PsoSat) addressing 8 specific items was designed. Consistency and validity of the questionnaire were controlled by factor analyses and reliability tests. In total n = 1,883 patients were included for analysis (54.2% male). Mean age was 52 years, mean disease duration 19 years. In total 45.5% (n = 856) stated an improvement of psoriatic symptoms in the last 4 weeks. In patients including treatment goals, the course of psoriasis in the last 4 weeks was rated significantly better and predicted significantly higher patient satisfaction. Patients reporting periodic outcomes measurement of psoriasis treatment, also had significantly better course of disease, higher satisfaction and a lower psoriasis severity. A majority of patients experienced the use of treatment goals in practice. The association of using treatment goals with clinical outcomes and treatment satisfaction was markedly positive. These findings indicate that the use of treatment goals and outcome measurements in fact improve psoriasis management.

  17. Metastrategies in large-scale bargaining settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennes, D.; Jong, S. de; Tuyls, K.; Gal, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents novel methods for representing and analyzing a special class of multiagent bargaining settings that feature multiple players, large action spaces, and a relationship among players' goals, tasks, and resources. We show how to reduce these interactions to a set of bilateral

  18. Ontology-based geographic data set integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, H.T.J.A.; Uitermark, Harry T.; Oosterom, Peter J.M.; Mars, Nicolaas; Molenaar, Martien; Molenaar, M.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a system to propagate updates we investigate the semantic and spatial relationships between independently produced geographic data sets of the same region (data set integration). The goal of this system is to reduce operator intervention in update operations between corresponding

  19. Assessment of patient knowledge of diabetic goals, self-reported medication adherence, and goal attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitley HP

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication adherence is an integral aspect of disease state management for patients with chronic illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. It has been hypothesized that patients with diabetes who have poor medication adherence may have less knowledge of overall therapeutic goals and may be less likely to attain these goals. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals (hemoglobin A1C [A1C], low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and blood pressure [BP], and goal attainment in adult patients with diabetes. Methods: A survey was created to assess medication adherence, knowledge of therapeutic goals, and goal attainment for adult patients with diabetes followed at an internal medicine or a family medicine clinic. Surveys were self-administered prior to office visits. Additional data were collected from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: A total of 149 patients were enrolled. Knowledge of therapeutic goals was reported by 14%, 34%, and 18% of survived patients for LDL-C, BP, and A1C, respectively. Forty-six percent, 37%, and 40% of patients achieved LDL-C, BP, and A1C goals, respectively. Low prescribing of cholesterol-lowering medications was an interesting secondary finding; 36% of patients not at LDL-C goal had not been prescribed a medication targeted to lower cholesterol. Forty-eight percent of patients were medication non-adherent; most frequently reported reasons for non-adherence were forgot (34% and too expensive (14%. Patients at A1C goal were more adherent than patients not at goal (p=0.025. Conclusion: The majority did not reach goals and were unknowledgeable of goals; however, most were provided prescriptions to treat these parameters. Goal parameters should be revisited often amongst multidisciplinary team members with frequent and open communications. Additionally, it is imperative that practitioners discuss

  20. Fulfill Your Digital Preservation Goals with a Budget Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill digital preservation goals, many institutions use high-end scanners for in-house scanning of historical print and oversize materials. However, high-end scanners’ prices do not fit in many small institutions’ budget. As digital single-lens reflex (DSLR camera technologies advance and camera prices drop quickly, a budget photography studio can help to achieve institutions’ preservation goals.  This paper compares images delivered by a high-end overhead scanner and a consumer level DSLR camera, discusses pros and cons of using each method, demonstrates how to set up a cost efficient shooting studio, and presents a budget estimate for a studio.

  1. Goals for a waste management system: a task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.

    1976-01-01

    This task force set out in a holistic way to study societal concerns regarding nuclear waste management, and to seek places where the technology interacts with our social system. The procedures involved in the goals for safe waste management are outlined and the organizations needed to carry them out are considered. The task force concluded that the needs for disposing of the present waste should not dictate the nature of the systems to be designed for the future wastes, and that budgetary considerations should not slow down the waste management in the second time frame (wastes no longer being produced). Other desirable goals, such as independence of waste management system regarding the stability of social institutions, are also discussed

  2. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.

    1978-05-01

    A special, seven member, interdisciplinary task group of consultants was established in January 1976 to propose goals for the national waste management program. This is the report of that group. The proposed goals are intended as a basis for the NRC to establish a policy by which to guide and coordinate the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations and analysis by the authors who examined selected primary literature and interviewed many individuals concerned with waste management. The authors extended the scope of their inquiry and proposed goals to cover 'all technical and societal aspects necessary to an operating waste management system, rather than dealing with the regulatory process alone.' The waste management goals as developed are simple statements of principles which appear to the authors to be important conditions to insure the proper establishment and operation of a system to manage radioactive wastes.' In brief, the goals are designed to protect people and things of value in an equitable manner

  3. Criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to discuss various criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals, the goals for actinide reduction must be defined themselves. In this context the term actinides is interpreted to mean plutonium and the so called ''minor actinides'' neptunium, americium and curium, but also protactinium. Some possible goals and the reasons behind these will be presented. On the basis of the suggested goals it is possible to analyze various types of devices for production of nuclear energy from uranium or thorium, such as thermal or fast reactors and accelerator driven system, with their associated fuel cycles with regard to their ability to reach the actinide reduction goals. The relation between necessary single cycle burn-up values, fuel cycle processing losses and losses to waste will be defined and discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to arrange the possible systems on order of performance with regard to their potential to reduce the actinide inventory and the actinide losses to wastes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. The Impact of Goal Setting and Empowerment on Governmental Matrix Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    shared. In a study of matrix management, Eduardo Vasconcellos further describes various matrix structures in the Galbraith model. In a functional...Technology/LAR, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992. Vasconcellos , Eduardo . "A Model For a Better Understanding of the Matrix Structure," IEEE Transactions on...project matrix, the project manager maintains more influence and the structure lies to the right-of center ( Vasconcellos , 1979:58). Different Types of

  5. Goal setting in sport and exercise: results, methodological issues and future directions for research

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es proporcionar una visión general respecto a la investigación en el campo del establecimiento de objetivos y el rendimiento en situaciones deportivas y de ejercicio físico. La mayor parte de las primeras investigaciones en este campo pertenecían al área de la organización y la industria, y únicamente en los últimos diez años los investigadores se han centrado en las situaciones deportivas y en el ejercicio físico. Se han dado a menudo hallazgos controvertidos, d...

  6. Mars Express - ESA sets ambitious goals for the first European mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Mars has always fascinated human beings. No other planet has been visited so many times by spacecraft. And still, it has not been easy to unveil its secrets. Martian mysteries seem to have increased in quantity and complexity with every mission. When the first spacecraft were sent - the Mariner series in 1960s - the public was expecting an Earth ‘twin’, a green, inhabited planet full of oceans. Mariner shattered this dream by showing a barren surface. This was followed by the Viking probes which searched for life unsuccessfully in 1976. Mars appeared dry, cold and uninhabited: the Earth’s opposite. Now, two decades later, modern spacecraft have changed that view, but they have also returned more questions. Current data show that Mars was probably much warmer in the past. Scientists now think that Mars had oceans, so it could have been a suitable place for life in the past. “We do not know what happened to the planet in the past. Which process turned Mars into the dry, cold world we see today?” says Agustin Chicarro, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist. “With Mars Express, we will find out. Above all, we aim to obtain a complete global view of the planet - its history, its geology, how it has evolved. Real planetology!” Mars Express will reach the Red Planet by the end of December 2003, after a trip of just over six months. Six days before injection into its final orbit, Mars Express will eject the lander, Beagle 2, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin found inspiration to formulate his theory of evolution. The Mars Express orbiter will observe the planet and its atmosphere from a near-polar orbit, and will remain in operation for at least a whole Martian year (687 Earth days). Beagle 2 will land in an equatorial region that was probably flooded in the past, and where traces of life may have been preserved. The Mars Express orbiter carries seven advanced experiments, in addition to the Beagle 2 lander. The orbiter’s instruments have been built by group of scientific institutes from all over Europe, plus Russia, the United States, Japan and China. These instruments are a subsurface sounding radar; a high-resolution camera, several surface and atmospheric spectrometers, a plasma analyzer and a radio science experiment. The high-resolution camera will image the entire planet in full colour, in 3D, at a resolution of up to 2 metres in selected areas. One of the spectrometers will map the mineral composition of the surface with great accuracy. The missing water Data from some of the instruments will be key to finding out what happened with the water which was apparently so abundant in the past. For instance, the radar altimeter will search for subsurface water and ice, down to a depth of a few kilometres. Scientists expect to find a layer of ice or permafrost, and to measure its thickness. Other observations with the spectrometers will determine the amount of water remaining in the atmosphere. They will also tell whether there is a still a full ‘water cycle’ on Mars, for example how water is deposited in the poles and how it evaporates, depending on the seasons. "These data will determine how much water there is left. We have clear evidence for the presence of water in the past, we have seen dry river beds and sedimentary layers, and there is also evidence for water on present-day Mars. But we do not know how much water there is. Mars Express will tell us,” says Chicarro. The search for life The instruments on board Beagle 2 will investigate the geology and the climate of the landing site. But, above all, it will look for signs of life. Contrary to the Viking missions, Mars Express will search for evidence for both present and past life. Scientists are now more aware that a few biological experiments are not enough to search for life - they will combine many different types of tests to help discard contradictory results. To ‘sniff’ out direct evidence of past or present biological activity, Beagle 2’s ‘nose’ is a gas analysis package. This will determine whether carbonate minerals, if they exist on Mars, have been involved in biological processes. Beagle’s nose will also detect gases such as methane, which scientists believe can only be produced by living organisms. Beagle 2 will also be able to collect samples from below the surface, whether under large boulders or within the interiors of rocks - places that the life-killing ultraviolet radiation from the Sun cannot reach. These samples will be collected with a probe called the ‘mole’, which is able to crawl short distances across the surface, at about 1 centimetre every six seconds, and to dig down to 2 metres deep. Mars Express will add substantial information to the international effort to explore Mars. “Mars Express is crucial for providing the framework within which all further Mars observations will be understood,” says Chicarro. The Mars Express spacecraft is now in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, being prepared for its launch in early June 2003.

  7. Goal-Setting and Self-Reflection to Enhance Learners' Interaction in an ESP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Velandia, Sergio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative action research study explored the interactions of young-adult learners carrying out self-reflection on their learning processes in an ESP (English for special purposes) course at an airline training-center in Bogotá, Colombia. Needs analysis revealed that learners had poor knowledge of technical English, and lacked strong…

  8. Parkinson's Disease Is Associated with Goal Setting Deficits during Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Friedman, Gilad; Yehene, Eynat

    2004-01-01

    Ten Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients and 10 control participants were tested using a task-switching paradigm in which there was a random task sequence, and the task was cued in every trial. Five PD patients showed a unique error profile. Their performance approximated guessing when accuracy was dependent on correct task identification, and was…

  9. Project Hero: A Goal-Setting and Healthy Decision-Making Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Mira Jane

    2009-01-01

    Unhealthy coping mechanisms become more widely available to young people during their teenage years. Students frequently choose these unhealthy activities as avenues for dealing with the stress of physical and social changes that confront them during adolescence. For these reasons, a need exists for intervention programs that teach adolescents to…

  10. Developing a free and easy to use digital goal setting tool for busy mums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babs Evans

    2015-09-01

    Using data, research and the expertise of commercial and charity partners was an effective way to design a digital product to support behavioural change. By understanding the target audience from the beginning and involving them in the planning stages, the organisations were able to develop a tool the users want with a strong focus on user experience.

  11. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  12. Can Personal Goal Setting Tap the Potential of the Gifted Underachiever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisano, Dominique; Shore, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Although underachieving gifted students have been largely ignored in empirical research, there has been a modest surge of interest in describing and "treating" this population in recent years. It is estimated that nearly half of gifted youth achieve significantly below their potential. In the realm of school psychology, gifted children have…

  13. Setting and measuring team goals and objectives for improved management of forestry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott J. Josiah

    1999-01-01

    As our world becomes more complex and diverse, many forestry research organizations are responding by adopting more interdisciplinary and collaborative research programs. Our rapidly increasing knowledge of the ecological, social, and economic factors affecting forestry and natural resource management makes it simply untenable to expect that complex problems can be...

  14. Connecting Schoolwork to Life Work: Students Practice Setting Their Own Educational Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theresa; Serrano, John A.; Veit, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    As educators working with high school students, the author's face questions such as: (1)" How can students become better self-advocates?" (2) "Are students sufficiently prepared for life after graduation?" (3) "How can students become more motivated in planning their future?" (4) "What can be done to encourage…

  15. Goal-setting and players' perception of their effectiveness in mini-basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un programa de intervención basado en establecimiento de objetivos mediante el informe escrito como retroalimentación y el control de la percepción de los jugadores durante la temporada competitiva de un equipo de mini-basket. El programa de intervención se llevó a cabo en un equipo de minibasket masculino. La variable independiente fue la aplicación del programa de intervención basado en establecimiento de objetivos. Las variables dependientes fueron la percepción de éxito de los jugadores, y el nivel real de logro de los objetivos. Después de cada partido, los jugadores indicaban en una escala de 0 a 10, su percepción sobre el nivel de éxito de los objetivos. El primer día tras el partido se le mostraba su valoración subjetiva, y la eficacia real. Los resultados muestran que: a tras la aplicación del programa de establecimiento de objetivos se apreció una reducción entre las diferencias existentes entre la percepción de los jugadores y la eficacia real, y b un aumento significativo en los objetivos deportivos. El estudio puede ser una referencia para ayudar a los entrenadores para poner en práctica la fijación de objetivos en categorías inferiores.

  16. Risk management for existing energy facilities. A global approach to numerical safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate-Cornell, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a structured set of numerical safety goals for risk management of existing energy facilities. The rationale behind these safety goals is based on principles of equity and economic efficiency. Some of the issues involved when using probabilistic risk analyses results for safety decisions are discussed. A brief review of existing safety targets and open-quotes floating numbersclose quotes is presented, and a set of safety goals for industrial risk management is proposed. Relaxation of these standards for existing facilities, the relevance of the lifetime of the plant, the treatment of uncertainties, and problems of failure dependencies are discussed briefly. 17 refs., 1 fig

  17. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN SUDANESE UNIVERSITIES: GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahim Hamid Mugaddam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The goals and means of language study continue in the very center of debates among specialists in language teaching/learning. Different views relating to language and its functions are reflected in two main approaches to language teaching/learning. On the one hand, language is considered to be principally instrumental, a means of communicating thought and information. One the other hand, language is viewed as an important element of human being’s thought processes, perceptions, and self-expressions; and as such, it is placed at the core of translingual and transcultural competence. This paper investigates the current situation of teaching/learning foreign languages in the Sudanese universities with special focus on the goals of teaching these languages and their role in students’ future. Goals of language teaching and students’ attitudes towards the process will be related to the job opportunities available for the students on graduation. Data for the paper have been collected using questionnaires and interviews administered to students and teachers from five language departments at Khartoum University: English, French, German, Russian, and Chinese. Questionnaires and interviews on language attitude will be administered among Four-year language majors representing the four departments. The central question the paper tries to answer is whether there is a realistic match between the goals of language teaching/learning set by policy makers and students’ interests and expectations. Results are expected to contribute to the efforts made to restructure language-in-education curriculum at university level in a way that addresses the expectations of both policy makers and students. Keywords: Foreign language teaching and learning, goals, attitude.

  19. Detrimental Effects of “Stretch” Goals in Specialty Substance Use Disorder Treatment Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, G. James; Blum, Terry C.; Roman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “Stretch” goals, a rarely examined concept that represents seemingly impossible, highly ambitious organizational goals ostensibly established to fill performance gaps and motivate employees, are examined within a sample of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers in the United States in terms of their prevalence and effects on organizational behavior. Stretch goals are defined as “seemingly impossible” goals intended to motivate employees to achieve high performance. In light of the high level of environmental change and unpredictability faced by SUD treatment centers in recent decades, we theorize that stretch goals would be both common and often detrimental (in terms of capacity utilization rate and efficiency) in these settings. Methods In a longitudinal analysis of data from leaders of a representative U. S. national sample of 219 SUD treatment centers characterized by entrepreneurial management structures, we examined the prevalence of stretch goals and their impact on key outcome variables of capacity utilization rate and efficiency. Results Widespread adoption of stretch goals was found, with 43% of our sample falling within the stretch category. Stretch goals had a negative main effect on capacity utilization rate as compared to less ambitious challenging goals. Stretch and prior performance interacted to further predict capacity utilization rate, whereas stretch and slack resource availability interacted to predict center efficiency. Discussion Although stretch goals are frequently used in the SUD treatment industry, we find them mostly detrimental to performance. Stretch goals may enhance the efficiency of treatment centers with prior limited resource availability, but they are negatively associated with capacity utilization, especially in centers with a record of already strong performance. Despite the high prevalence of such goals and positive values centered on aspirational behavior, these results strongly suggest caution in

  20. Goals and plans in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Krantz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a constructed-choice model for general decision making. The model departs from utility theory and prospect theory in its treatment of multiple goals and it suggests several different ways in which context can affect choice. It is particularly instructive to apply this model to protective decisions, which are often puzzling. Among other anomalies, people insure against non-catastrophic events, underinsure against catastrophic risks, and allow extraneous factors to influence insurance purchases and other protective decisions. Neither expected-utility theory nor prospect theory can explain these anomalies satisfactorily. To apply this model to the above anomalies, we consider many different insurance-related goals, organized in a taxonomy, and we consider the effects of context on goals, resources, plans and decision rules. The paper concludes by suggesting some prescriptions for improving individual decision making with respect to protective measures.