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Sample records for goal orientations beliefs

  1. Goal orientation and beliefs about causes of sport success among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate goal orientations (task and ego) and beliefs (effort, external factors, ability, and illegal advantage) and how these relate to success in sports competition for both National and International level athletes in Malaysia. The sample consisted of 100 male and female Malaysian athletes ...

  2. Developing instruments concerning scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate two survey instruments to evaluate high school students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The initial relationships between the sampled students' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science were also investigated. A final valid sample of 600 volunteer Taiwanese high school students participated in this survey by responding to the Scientific Epistemic Beliefs Instrument (SEBI) and the Goal Orientations in Learning Science Instrument (GOLSI). Through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the SEBI and GOLSI were proven to be valid and reliable for assessing the participants' scientific epistemic beliefs and goal orientations in learning science. The path analysis results indicated that, by and large, the students with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs in various dimensions such as Development of Knowledge, Justification for Knowing, and Purpose of Knowing tended to adopt both Mastery-approach and Mastery-avoidance goals. Some interesting results were also found. For example, the students tended to set a learning goal to outperform others or merely demonstrate competence (Performance-approach) if they had more informed epistemic beliefs in the dimensions of Multiplicity of Knowledge, Uncertainty of Knowledge, and Purpose of Knowing.

  3. Goal orientations, beliefs about success, and performance improvement among young elite Dutch soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Extending past work testing goal perspective theory in sport, one purpose of this study was to examine, via a longitudinal design, the relationship of goal orientations to the beliefs about the causes of success in the case of elite male Dutch soccer players. A second purpose was to determine the

  4. Goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation among engineering students: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahcene, Abderrahim; Lashari, Sana Anwar; Lashari, Tahira Anwar

    2017-08-01

    An aspect that has been exhaustively researched in the motivation of the higher education discipline is the engineering students’ process of goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation. However, the focus of those researchers as commonly the influence of goal orientations and epistemological beliefs on intrinsic motivation; they have not combined the two factors and examined relationships among goal orientation, epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, although there is a plethora of research on the matter in related disciplines, the researchers commonly do not have consensus on a term that could be used to discuss how engineering students are motivation. This paper identifies literature whose characteristics have focused on the concept of motivation. Attempts were made to retrieve related lietarure empirically examined motivation, extrinsic motivation, Goal orientation, Epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation to gain insight information. It is believed that the present study may help educators in organizing content, preparing curriculum, and evaluate student tasks, so that students can begin to develop more mature and effective epistemological beliefs and design their proper goals for their learning process.

  5. The Roles of Competence Beliefs and Goal Orientations for Change in Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinath, Birgit; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated 3 theoretically plausible explanations for changes in school-related intrinsic motivation. A sample of 348 German 11th-grade students was followed for 1 year. At 2 measurement occasions, students completed self-reports regarding their school-related intrinsic motivation, goal orientations, and competence beliefs. In…

  6. Is the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety Influenced by Goal Orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Daniels, Rachel Anne

    2010-01-01

    The study described here aimed to examine the relations between test anxiety, competence beliefs and achievement goals, and in particular if the relations between competence beliefs and test anxiety were moderated by achievement goals. Pupils in their first year of secondary schooling completed self-report questionnaires for test anxiety,…

  7. Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Goal Orientations, and Participations in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Hasan; Yazici Bozkaya, Mujgan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the pre-service EFL teachers' self-efficacy beliefs, goal orientations, and participations in an online learning environment. Embedded mixed design was used in the study. In the quantitative part of the study, the participants were 186 senior pre-service EFL teachers and data were collected on two scales and a questionnaire.…

  8. The Effects of a Growth Mindset Intervention on the Beliefs about Intelligence, Effort Beliefs, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Academic Self-Efficacy of LD Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Mary Caufield

    2010-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…

  9. Greek pre-service physical education teachers’ beliefs about curricular orientations: Instrument validation and examination of four important goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis Adamakis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The way people interpret reality is influenced by their mental constructions, their cognitive abilities and their beliefs. Physical Education (PE students have a wide range of formed beliefs concerning the purposes of PE, which cannot be easily modified, even during undergraduate studies. OBJECTIVE: This study validated the scores from a previously constructed questionnaire and investigated the Physical Education students’ belief systems toward the Greek curricular outcome goals. METHODS: Students (N = 483; males = 259, females = 224 from a Greek Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science shared their beliefs about curricular outcomes. They completed the Greek version of the four factor instrument “Attitudes/beliefs toward curriculum in physical education”. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for the validation of the instrument and MANOVAs followed in order to control for group differences. Finally, a profile analysis was run in order to determine if PE students considered each goal to be equally important. RESULTS: The validation of the instrument confirmed the proposed four factors dependant model. Both internal consistency and the confirmatory factor analysis fit indices produced valid and reliable scores. The profile analysis was significant, indicating that students did not view the outcome goals as equally important. The leading goal was physical activity and fitness, followed by self-actualization, social development and motor skill development. MANOVA results for comparisons between sub-groups revealed significant differences only between genders. CONCLUSIONS: Between groups similarities and differences are discussed, focusing on the classification of the four important outcome goals. Currently, Greek Physical Education students consider physical activity and fitness outcome goal as the most important, while motor skill development is considered the least important one.

  10. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  11. Perceived parental beliefs about the causes of success in sport: relationship to athletes' achievement goals and personal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sally A; Kavussanu, Maria; Tank, Kari M; Wingate, Jason M

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parental beliefs and young athletes' achievement goal orientations and personal beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Participants were 183 male and female athletes, 11-18 years old, involved in team sports. Athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Beliefs about the Causes of Sport Success Questionnaire, and two modified versions of the latter inventory to assess their perceptions of their parents' beliefs. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental beliefs were related to goal orientations and personal beliefs in a conceptually coherent fashion. Thus, the perceived parental belief that effort leads to success in sport was related to athletes' task orientation and personal belief that effort causes sport success. In contrast, the perceived parental beliefs that superior ability, external factors, and using deceptive tactics are precursors to success in sport corresponded to athletes' ego orientation and the same personal beliefs. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the socialization experiences of young athletes.

  12. Teachers' goal orientations: Effects on classroom goal structures and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hall, Nathan C; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C

    2017-03-01

    Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However, empirical research evaluating possible causal ordering and mediation effects involving these variables in teachers is presently lacking. The present 6-month longitudinal study investigated the relations between varied motivational, behavioural, and emotional variables in practising teachers. More specifically, this study examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relations between teachers' achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and teaching-related emotions, as well as cumulative mediational models in which observed causal relations were evaluated. Participants were 495 practising teachers from Canada (86% female, M = 42 years). Teachers completed a web-based questionnaire at two time points assessing their instructional goals, perceived classroom goal structures, achievement emotions, and demographic items. Results from cross-lagged analyses and structural equation modelling showed teachers' achievement goals to predict their perceived classroom goal structures that, in turn, predicted their teaching-related emotions. The present results inform both Butler's (2012, Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 726) theory on teachers' achievement goals and Frenzel's (2014, International handbook of emotions in education, Routledge, New York, NY) model of teachers' emotions in showing teachers' instructional goals to both directly predict their teaching-related emotions, as well as indirectly through the mediating effects of classroom goal structures. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics learners with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... in recognising methods to direct learners' goals for better engagement with and improved results in mathematics, which could support learners to develop to their full potential in the subject.

  14. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative, exploratory research design was used. ... Goals affect how learners approach mathematics learning activities, which could ... research on academic success and ADHD has focused on reading ... from the data analysis process. ... Achievement goal orientation is based on a ...... Research design: Qualitative,.

  15. Goal-Oriented Ethics: Framing the Goal-Setting Concretely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Illathuparampil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Selling, professor emeritus from KU Leuven, Belgium, recently made a significant contribution towards ethical methodology. It is in fact a continuation of the in-house conversations that have been in vogue about methods in moral reasoning since Vatican II in the discipline called theological ethics. What is specific about Selling’s attempt is that he re-orients or reframes the evaluation of the moral event to consider human intentionality or motivation before considering human behavior or human acts. He convincingly establishes his method by a meticulous reading of Thomas Aquinas. This paper is a response to the goal-oriented ethics that he has posited. As illustrated below, this paper evaluates the goal-oriented approach as solid and sufficient. While fully endorsing this approach, this paper argues that the process of ethical goal-setting is to be framed concretely. In a concrete historical context, so that a goal-oriented approach fully serves its purpose, this paper proposes that it is to be reinforced by four supportive pillars, which are in fact assumed by Selling in his work. They are openness to human sciences, conversation among various narratives, positing a theological frame for ethical reasoning, and recourse to non-discursive reasoning.

  16. Pro-Social Goals in Achievement Situations: Amity Goal Orientation Enhances the Positive Effects of Mastery Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levontin, Liat; Bardi, Anat

    2018-04-01

    Research has neglected the utility of pro-social goals within achievement situations. In this article, four studies demonstrate that amity goal orientation, promoting mutual success of oneself together with others, enhances the utility of mastery goal orientation. We demonstrate this in longitudinally predicting performance (Studies 1 and 2) and in maintaining motivation after a disappointing performance (Studies 3 and 4). The studies demonstrate the same interaction effect in academic and in work achievement contexts. Specifically, whereas amity goal orientation did not predict achievement on its own, it enhanced the positive effect of mastery goal orientation. Together, these studies establish the importance of amity goal orientation while also advancing our understanding of the effects of other achievement goal orientations. We suggest future directions in examining the utility of amity goals in other contexts.

  17. Promotion of students' mastery goal orientations : does TARGET work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.

  18. Belief Revision in the GOAL Agent Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurkeland, Johannes Svante; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Agents in a multiagent system may in many cases find themselves in situations where inconsistencies arise. In order to properly deal with these, a good belief revision procedure is required. This paper illustrates the usefulness of such a procedure: a certain belief revision algorithm is consider...... in order to deal with inconsistencies and, particularly, the issue of inconsistencies, and belief revision is examined in relation to the GOAL agent programming language....

  19. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  20. Preparatory Training, States of Goal Orientation, and Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scielzo, Shannon; Neeper, Michael; Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    We used an online academic-advising program to examine the effects of preparatory training designed to elicit high states of learning-goal orientation and low states of avoid goal orientation. Results indicate that training was effective in some cases for manipulating states of goal orientation. The training did not directly affect behaviors as…

  1. Implicit Beliefs, Achievement Goals, and Procrastination: A Mediational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…

  2. Relations between Classroom Goal Structures and Students' Goal Orientations in Mathematics Classes: When Is a Mastery Goal Structure Adaptive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…

  3. Diversity in goal orientation, team reflexivity, and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Anne Nederveen; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy P.

    Although recent research highlights the role of team member goal orientation in team functioning, research has neglected the effects of diversity in goal orientation. In a laboratory study with groups working on a problem-solving task, we show that diversity in learning and performance orientation

  4. Beyond "born this way?" reconsidering sexual orientation beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Zeiders, Katharine H; Miles, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) has been limited in that it has generally examined heterosexuals' beliefs from an essentialist perspective. The recently developed Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS; Arseneau, Grzanka, Miles, & Fassinger, 2013) assesses multifarious "lay beliefs" about SO from essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist perspectives. This study used the SOBS to explore latent group-based patterns in endorsement of these beliefs in 2 samples of undergraduate students: a mixed-gender sample (n = 379) and an all-women sample (n = 266). While previous research has posited that essentialist beliefs about the innateness of SO predict positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, our research contributes to a growing body of scholarship that suggests that biological essentialism should be considered in the context of other beliefs. Using a person-centered analytic strategy, we found that that college students fell into distinct patterns of SO beliefs that are more different on beliefs about the homogeneity, discreteness, and informativeness of SO categories than on beliefs about the naturalness of SO. Individuals with higher levels of endorsement on all 4 SOBS subscales (a group we named multidimensional essentialism) and those who were highest in discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness beliefs (i.e., high-DHI) reported higher levels of homonegativity when compared with those who were high only in naturalness beliefs. We discuss the implications of these findings for counseling and psychotherapy about SO, as well educational and social interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Who takes more sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions? The role of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander; Bhattacharjee, Amitab

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role o...... of sustainable entrepreneurship, by providing answers for recent calls for better understanding which entrepreneurial ventures engage more in sustainability-oriented actions.......We examine the relationships between entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations with their firms' engagement in sustainability-oriented entrepreneurial actions, using a sample of 352 newly established businesses from two Asian countries (Bangladesh and Iran). Our results reveal a dual role...... of entrepreneurs' values, beliefs and orientations when taking sustainability-oriented actions. We confirm that individual differences in the set of values, beliefs and orientations can foster or hinder the sustainability-oriented actions across organizations. Our paper contributes to the growing literature...

  6. Goal Orientations of General Chemistry Students via the Achievement Goal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2018-01-01

    The Achievement Goal Framework describes students' goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success…

  7. How Epistemological Beliefs Relate to Values and Gender Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In response to the current literature on possible systematic differences in the epistemological beliefs of men and women and between members of different cultures, this paper examines the way psychological constructs associated with gender (i.e. gender orientation) and culture (i.e. values) are related to individual's epistemological beliefs.…

  8. EFL Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Their Assessment Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological beliefs—beliefs about the nature of knowledge, where it resides, and how knowledge is constructed and evaluated—have been the target of increased research interest lately. Heretofore, emphasis has been directed to language teaching/learning aspects and strategies. Language assessment practices have not yet received due attention in epistemic research literature. The current study examined the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their assessment orientations. Dimensions of epistemological beliefs were assessed via a questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher based on Schommer’s work. Two assessment orientations were examined including: (a transmissive surface- processing orientation and (b constructive deep-processing orientation. The study involved 114 preservice EFL teachers enrolled in the Professional Diploma in Teaching Program in the Abu Dhabi University, the United Arab Emirates. Results of the study showed that EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a direct bearing on their assessment orientations and practices. EFL teachers with naive epistemological beliefs tended more to adopt surface-level assessment orientations whereas those with sophisticated epistemological beliefs showed more tendency to adopt deeper level approaches to assessment in language settings. Results are discussed in terms of backwash effects on foreign language instruction, curriculum development, and teacher education. Suggestions for further research are also discussed.

  9. Goal orientations predict academic performance beyond intelligence and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmayr, R.; Bipp, T.; Spinath, B.

    2011-01-01

    Goal orientations are thought to be an important predictor of scholastic achievement. The present paper investigated the joint influence of goal orientations, intelligence, and personality on school performance in a sample of N = 520 11th and 12th graders (303 female; mean age M = 16.94 years).

  10. Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Todd A; Chow, Graig M; Ewing, Martha E

    2008-07-01

    Despite the importance that today's athletics place on strength training, research exploring the motivation of athletes in this arena is sparse. It is known that not all athletes will use the same motivational cognitions as inspiration, and these differences can be explored through achievement goal orientations. Through questionnaire data and semistructured interviews, the present study investigated how collegiate athletes maintain high levels of motivation over a period of time during strength training and explored relationships among five goal orientations: task-orientation, self-enhancing ego-orientation, self-defeating ego-orientation, social-approval orientation, and work-avoidance orientation. Subjects (N = 133), comprising 90 men and 43 women, were current varsity collegiate athletes from 15 different sports at a major Midwestern university. In addition, using a screener survey to assess achievement goal orientations, 15 subjects from the sample group who demonstrated a stronger inclination to only one achievement goal orientation were interviewed to gain a more in-depth understanding of their motivation cognitions in strength training. Results showed that the strongest achievement goal orientations reported from all athletes were task-orientation and social-approval. Additionally, five higher-order themes (significant others, improvement, competitive demands, being stronger than others, and miscellaneous) were consistent among the interviewed athletes when describing how they stay motivated during strength training. Whereas all athletes were able to describe at least one motivational strategy they employed during strength training, the dominant achievement goal orientation of some athletes influenced their motivational strategy. By employing the T.A.R.G.E.T. model (), strength coaches can foster adaptive achievement goal orientations and thereby enhance intrinsic motivation for athletes engaging in strength training.

  11. Preservice Science Teachers' Science Teaching Orientations and Beliefs about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers clarification of science teacher orientations as a potential component of pedagogical content knowledge. Science teaching orientations and beliefs about science held by 237 preservice science teachers were gathered via content-specific vignettes and questionnaire, respectively, prior to participation in a UK-based teacher…

  12. [Perceptions of classroom goal structures, personal achievement goal orientations, and learning strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu

    2005-08-01

    We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.

  13. Test anxiety, perfectionism, goal orientation, and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, KoUn; Rice, Kenneth G

    2011-03-01

    Dimensions of perfectionism and goal orientation have been reported to have differential relationships with test anxiety. However, the degree of inter-relationship between different dimensions of perfectionism, the 2 × 2 model of goal orientations proposed by Elliot and McGregor, cognitive test anxiety, and academic performance indicators is not known. Based on data from 134 university students, we conducted correlation and regression analyses to test associations between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, four types of goal orientations, cognitive test anxiety, and two indicators of academic performance: proximal cognitive performance on a word list recall test and distal academic performance in terms of grade point average. Cognitive test anxiety was inversely associated with both performance indicators, and positively associated with maladaptive perfectionism and avoidance goal orientations. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism accounted for significant variance in cognitive test anxiety after controlling for approach and avoidance goal orientations. Overall, nearly 50% of the variance in cognitive test anxiety could be attributed to gender, goal orientations, and perfectionism. Results suggested that students who are highly test anxious are likely to be women who endorse avoidance goal orientations and are maladaptively perfectionistic.

  14. Teachers’ goal orientation profiles and participation in professional development activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, E.M.; van Woerkom, M.; Poell, R.F.

    2018-01-01

    Participation in professional development activities is important for teachers to continuously improve their knowledge and skills. However, teachers differ in their attitude towards learning activities. This paper examined how different goal orientation profiles are related to participation in

  15. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes’ self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13–18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p motivation (r = 0.30, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation. PMID:23486244

  16. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes? self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13?18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrin...

  17. Goal Orientation in Teams: The Role of Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nederveen Pieterse (Anne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations make increasingly use of teams as their basic structure, making it more and more important to determine what enables optimal team functioning. Over the past decades, the goals people focus on in achievement settings (i.e. goal orientation) is shown to be highly important

  18. Self-determination and goal orientation in track and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes' self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13-18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p amotivation (r = 0.10, p amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation.

  19. The Relationship between Future Goals and Achievement Goal Orientations: An Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie Qi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ortiga, Yasmin P.

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to study the relationships between students' future goals (FGs) and their immediate achievement goal orientations (AGOs) among 5733 Singaporean secondary school students (M age = 14.18, SD = 1.26; 53% boys). To this end, we hypothesized that the relationships between like valenced FGs and AGOs (both intrinsic or both extrinsic)…

  20. Core Self-Evaluation and Goal Orientation: Understanding Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Messal, Carrie B.; Meriac, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the dispositional factors related to work stress. Specifically, previous research has demonstrated a relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and general life stress. This article extends past research by examining the relationship between CSE and work stress, and includes goal orientation as a potential mediator of…

  1. Analysing Lecturer Practice: The Role of Orientations and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This article continues a fairly recent trend of research examining the teaching practice of university mathematics lecturers. A lecturer's pedagogical practices in a course in linear algebra were discussed via a supportive community of inquiry. We use Schoenfeld's framework describing the relationship of resources, orientations and goals to…

  2. Predicting Undergraduate Leadership Student Goal Orientation Using Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Sheikh, Emana; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2017-01-01

    Finding strategies to increase the motivation of students, their connection with the material, and retention of the content, has been very important within leadership education. Previous research studies have shown that personality traits can predict desired outcomes, including goal orientation or motivational disposition. However, there have not…

  3. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; van der Vaart, T.

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  4. Chinese Parenting in Hong Kong: Links among Goals, Beliefs and Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…

  5. Pharmacists' beliefs and values about advertising patient oriented services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R; Smith, D P

    1986-03-01

    Pharmacists' beliefs about the utility of advertising sources and values for advertising outcomes were studied to learn about the decision-making process for advertising patient oriented pharmacy services in the ambulatory setting. The data suggest that pharmacists in the sample believe advertising through word-of-mouth communication is more likely to result in positive outcomes than either yellow pages or local newspaper advertising.

  6. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V

    2009-09-01

    A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.

  7. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  8. Malleability in communal goals and beliefs influences attraction to stem careers: evidence for a goal congruity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Clark, Emily K; Johnston, Amanda M; Brown, Elizabeth R; Steinberg, Mia

    2011-11-01

    The goal congruity perspective posits that 2 distinct social cognitions predict attraction to science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields. First, individuals may particularly value communal goals (e.g., working with or helping others), due to either chronic individual differences or the salience of these goals in particular contexts. Second, individuals hold beliefs about the activities that facilitate or impede these goals, or goal affordance stereotypes. Women's tendency to endorse communal goals more highly than do men, along with consensual stereotypes that STEM careers impede communal goals, intersect to produce disinterest in STEM careers. We provide evidence for the foundational predictions that gender differences emerge primarily on communal rather than agentic goals (Studies 1a and 3) and that goal affordance stereotypes reflect beliefs that STEM careers are relatively dissociated from communal goals (Studies 1b and 1c). Most critically, we provide causal evidence that activated communal goals decrease interest in STEM fields (Study 2) and that the potential for a STEM career to afford communal goals elicits greater positivity (Study 3). These studies thus provide a novel demonstration that understanding communal goals and goal affordance stereotypes can lend insight into attitudes toward STEM pursuits.

  9. Goal setting practice in chronic low back pain. What is current practice and is it affected by beliefs and attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Tania; Refshauge, Kathryn; McAuley, James; Hübscher, Markus; Goodall, Stephen; Smith, Lorraine

    2018-01-18

    Goal setting, led by the patient, is promising as an effective treatment for the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, little is known about current practice. The aims of the study were to explore (1) current goal setting practice in CLBP among physiotherapists; (2) perceived barriers to goal setting in CLBP; and (3) relationship between clinician's attitudes and beliefs and goal setting practice. A cross-sectional observational survey. The majority of respondents used goal setting with the main aim of facilitating self-management. The greatest number of goals were set with 50% therapist/50% patient involvement. The most common perceived barriers to goal setting related to time constraints and lack of skill and confidence. A higher biomedical score for treatment orientation of the therapist was associated with a lower patient involvement score. Goal setting is common practice for CLBP and is perceived as a high priority. It is more often a collaboration between therapist and patient rather than patient-led with treatment orientation of the physiotherapist a predictor of patient involvement. Education of healthcare professionals needs to include better understanding of chronic pain to orient them away from a biomedical treatment approach, as well as to enhance skills in facilitating patient involvement in goal setting.

  10. A structural model of goal orientation in sports: personal and contextual variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Navas Martínez, Leandro; López Núñez, Manuela; García Calvo, Tomás

    2010-05-01

    The following paper first introduces, and then goes on to test a structural model for goal orientation in sports that involves both personal and contextual variables. 511 subjects participated in this study, male and female athletes who play a variety of sports (352 men and 159 women). They ranged in age from 16 to 45-years old and completed the TEOSQ (Balaguer, Tomás & Castillo's version, 1995), the POSQ (Treasure & Roberts, 1994), the PMCSQ-II (Newton & Duda, 1993), the Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sports Questionnaire, and the Participation Motivation Inventory (Gill, Goss & Huddleston, 1983). The results of this sample show that success attribution and motivational climate are involved in determining goal orientation in sports. However, the model does present certain differences according to the type of sport practiced (individual versus team sport).

  11. Goal-oriented Site Characterization in Hydrogeological Applications: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we address the importance of goal-oriented site characterization. Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in hydrogeological applications, information needs of modeling, prediction and decision support should be satisfied with efficient and rational field campaigns. In this work, we provide an overview of an optimal sampling design framework based on Bayesian decision theory, statistical parameter inference and Bayesian model averaging. It optimizes the field sampling campaign around decisions on environmental performance metrics (e.g., risk, arrival times, etc.) while accounting for parametric and model uncertainty in the geostatistical characterization, in forcing terms, and measurement error. The appealing aspects of the framework lie on its goal-oriented character and that it is directly linked to the confidence in a specified decision. We illustrate how these concepts could be applied in a human health risk problem where uncertainty from both hydrogeological and health parameters are accounted.

  12. Promoting Enjoyment in Girls' Physical Education: The Impact of Goals, Beliefs, and Self-Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. K. John; Liu, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the network of relationships between sport ability beliefs, achievement goals, self-determination and female students' enjoyment in school physical education (PE). Female secondary students (n = 343) from a single-sex secondary school in Singapore participated in the survey. They were assessed on sport ability beliefs, goal…

  13. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  14. Multisensory guidance of goal-oriented behaviour of legged robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Manoonpong, Poramate; Tuxworth, Gervase

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems often combine cues from two different sensory modalities to execute goal-oriented sensorimotor tasks, which otherwise cannot be accurately executed with either sensory stream in isolation. When auditory cues alone are not sufficient to accurately localise an audio-visual target...... is tasked with localising an audio-visual target by turning towards it. The architecture extracts sound direction information with a model of the peripheral auditory system of lizards to modulate locomotion control parameters driving the turning behaviour. The visual information adaptively changes...... the strength of the acoustomotor coupling to adjust turning speed of the robot. Our experiments demonstrate improved orientation towards the audio-visual target emitting a tone of frequency 2.2kHz located at an angular offset of 45 degrees from the robot....

  15. Children's theories of intelligence: beliefs, goals, and motivation in the elementary years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlaw, C Ryan; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2007-07-01

    The authors tested a developmental model of children's theories about intelligence in kindergarten, second grade, and fourth grade children by using paper-and-pencil maze tasks. Older children were more likely than younger children to espouse learning goals (e.g., that they preferred difficult mazes to improve their skill), and less likely to espouse performance goals (e.g., that they preferred easy mazes to be successful). Children in all 3 age groups reported stronger beliefs in the malleability of intelligence than the stability of intelligence. In general, the results supported the authors' hypotheses about developmental change in children's theory-like conceptions of intelligence: Beliefs, goals, and motivation were related in expected ways for second and fourth graders more than for kindergartners. The authors discussed contextual influences on children's beliefs and the development of children's conceptualizations of intelligence.

  16. Goals, beliefs, and concerns of urban caregivers of middle and older adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Krouse, Helene J

    2013-04-01

    Caregiver goals, an integral part of a partnership for asthma management, have been found to influence asthma outcomes in children. These goals are likely to change during the transitional period of adolescence to address the needs of teenagers as they mature and assume greater responsibilities for their own care. Little is known about the goals, beliefs, and concerns of caregivers as they begin to shift responsibilities for asthma management to teens. This study sought to identify the asthma management goals, beliefs, and concerns of primarily African American caregivers of urban middle and older adolescents. Fourteen caregivers of urban African American adolescents aged 14-18 years with asthma participated in a focus group session. An iterative process was used to identify themes from the session related to asthma management goals, concerns, and beliefs of caregivers. Caregivers identified goals that related to supporting their teens' progress toward independent asthma self-management. They described significant concerns related to the teens' ability to implement asthma self-management, especially in school settings. Caregivers also revealed beliefs that represented knowledge deficits related to asthma medications and factors that improved or worsened asthma. Most caregivers identified grave concerns about school policies regarding asthma medication administration and the lack of knowledge and support provided by teachers and staff for their teen. Caregivers are an invaluable resource in the care of adolescents with asthma. An opportunity exists to improve caregiver understanding of asthma medications and to provide support through improvements in asthma care for adolescents in school-based settings.

  17. Value orientations and environmental beliefs in five countries - Validity of an instrument to measure egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    Various scholars argue that egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations are important for understanding environmental beliefs and behavior. However, little empirical evidence has been provided for the distinction between altruistic and biospheric values. This study examines whether this

  18. Teachers' Influence on Goal Orientation: Exploring the Relationship between Eighth Graders' Goal Orientation, Their Emotional Development, Their Perceptions of Learning, and Their Teachers' Instructional Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William Dee; Jones, Jeanneine P.; Hancock, Dawson R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how students' perceived learning relates to emotions, motivation, and goal orientation. Finds that students significantly reported more negative emotions than positive emotions, thus indicating that the emotions of the learner were more negative, the motivation was more extrinsic and the goal orientation of the learners could be…

  19. Goal-oriented rectification of camera-based document images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nikolaos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis; Perantonis, Stavros J

    2011-04-01

    Document digitization with either flatbed scanners or camera-based systems results in document images which often suffer from warping and perspective distortions that deteriorate the performance of current OCR approaches. In this paper, we present a goal-oriented rectification methodology to compensate for undesirable document image distortions aiming to improve the OCR result. Our approach relies upon a coarse-to-fine strategy. First, a coarse rectification is accomplished with the aid of a computationally low cost transformation which addresses the projection of a curved surface to a 2-D rectangular area. The projection of the curved surface on the plane is guided only by the textual content's appearance in the document image while incorporating a transformation which does not depend on specific model primitives or camera setup parameters. Second, pose normalization is applied on the word level aiming to restore all the local distortions of the document image. Experimental results on various document images with a variety of distortions demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed rectification methodology using a consistent evaluation methodology that encounters OCR accuracy and a newly introduced measure using a semi-automatic procedure.

  20. How Setting Goals Enhances Learners’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ballesteros Muñoz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a study that explores the relationship between SMART goal setting (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-based and learning English in Colombia concerning a foreign language learners’ self-efficacy beliefs in listening. The participants were seventh and ninth grade students of two schools in Bogotá, Colombia. The results revealed that self-efficacy was highly positive when related to goal setting as students were able to set SMART goals to improve their listening comprehension and learners showed improvement in self-efficacy beliefs and felt more motivated while completing listening tasks related to songs. Furthermore this study shows that goal setting training can be incorporated successfully into the English as a foreign language classroom.

  1. Attributional Beliefs of Singapore Students: Relations to Self-Construal, Competence and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Sheng, Yee Zher; Aye, Khin Maung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attributional beliefs of Singapore secondary students in their English study and how they can be predicted by self-construal, competence and achievement goals. A total of 1,496 students were administered surveys on seven attributions, independent and interdependent self-construals, previous achievement, self-efficacy,…

  2. Systems of Goals, Attitudes, and Self-Related Beliefs in Second-Language-Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…

  3. The impact of goal setting and goal orientation on performance during a clerkship surgical skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Diesen, Diana L; Hogg, Deborah; Huerta, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate relevant goal-setting theory and to identify if trainees' goal orientations have an impact on the assigned goals-performance relationship. Trainees attended 1 of the 3 goal-training activities (do your best, performance, or learning goals) for knot tying (KT) and camera navigation (CN) during the 3rd-year clerkship rotation. Questionnaires and pretests and/or post-tests were completed. One twenty-seven 3rd-year medical students (age: 25 ± 2.6; 54% women) participated in the training program. Pretraining to post-training performance changes were significant for all groups on both tasks (P goals group (do your best: KTΔ = 2.14, CNΔ = 1.69; performance: KTΔ = 2.49, CNΔ = 2.24; learning: KTΔ = 3.04 CNΔ = 2.76). Correlations between goal orientations and improvement were examined, revealing a unique role of goal orientation for performance improvement. These data indicate that consideration of goal type and trainee goal orientation must be considered during curriculum development to maximize educational value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of playing rugby union for professional and amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T

    2000-08-01

    The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.

  5. The Functional Role of Resignation Orientation on Goal Engagement, Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Kodama, Masahiro

    2014-11-06

    Several studies in Europe and North America have highlighted the importance of resignation or giving up. Research has shown that resignation is as important as goal attainment. Hence, this study examines, using path analysis, the effect of resignation orientation on goal disengagement and reengagement. Furthermore, this study attempts to clarify the implication of resignation orientation for elements of mental well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 261 Japanese college students. Results showed that proactive resignation orientation promotes reestablishment of alternative goals while negative resignation orientation encourages disengagement of the unattainable goals. The findings help explain the functional role of resignation orientation and can inform the development of treatment for resignation-related depression.

  6. Involved and Focused? Students' Perceptions of Institutional Identity, Personal Goal Orientation and Levels of Campus Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; McCarthy, Brendan J.; Milner, Lauren A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between students' perception of their institution's mission identity, personal goal orientation tendencies, and the extent to which they engage in mission-driven activities. Goal orientation research categorizes student motivations in three ways: mastery orientation (MO), performance-approach (PAp)…

  7. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  8. Goal Orientation, Deep Learning, and Sustainable Feedback in Higher Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitz, Gerry; Brinke, Desirée Joosten-ten; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Relations between and changeability of goal orientation and learning behavior have been studied in several domains and contexts. To alter the adopted goal orientation into a mastery orientation and increase a concomitant deep learning in international business students, a sustainable feedback intervention study was carried out. Sustainable…

  9. Achievement Goals as Mediators of the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…

  10. Validation of a performance model on entrepreneurship based on self-efficacy, personal goal orientation and environment goal orientation using Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Three are the main contributions that I pretend to provide through this research. First, I will combine four theoretical constructs that, to my knowledge, have not been worked through this way before. I mean that this research is attempting to validate and estimate the existing relationships between Self-efficacy, Perceived Personal Goal Orientation, Perceived Environment Goal Orientation and Perceived Personal Performance. T...

  11. Sexual orientation beliefs: their relationship to anti-gay attitudes and biological determinist arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, P; Pratto, F

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies which have measured beliefs about sexual orientation with either a single item, or a one-dimensional scale are discussed. In the present study beliefs were observed to vary along two dimensions: the "immutability" of sexual orientation and the "fundamentality" of a categorization of persons as heterosexuals and homosexuals. While conceptually related, these two dimensions were empirically distinct on several counts. They were negatively correlated with each other. Condemning attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were correlated positively with fundamentality but negatively with immutability. Immutability, but not fundamentality, affected the assimilation of a biological determinist argument. The relationship between sexual orientation beliefs and anti-gay prejudice is discussed and suggestions for empirical studies of sexual orientation beliefs are presented.

  12. How Does Students’ Sense of Self-Worth Influence Their Goal Orientation in Mathematics Achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In learning mathematics, students are naturally motivated to protect their self-worth by maintaining a belief that they are competent in this area. However, there is an important question which educators have to answer: “Why do students often confuse ability with worth?” The most important reason is that in our society students are widely considered to be worthy according to their ability to achieve in the given tasks in mathematics. Irrespective the contributions of the Multiple Intelligence Theory of intelligence in education, unfortunately mathematics is still regarded as predicting students’ overall ability to learn. Educators should realize that the need in order to protect self-worth arises primarily from fear of failure. Therefore, if this fear of failure is strong, some students will not try and gradually they will produce failure- avoiding strategies to avoid certain tasks in order not to look bad or receive negative assessments from others to protect his/her self-worth. It is important to make sure that the performance goals do not promote failure-avoidance (performance-avoidance-oriented behavior, such as avoiding unfavorable judgments of capabilities and looking incompetent when the student encounters greater challenges. The main purpose of this qualitative study, therefore, is to explore students’ achievement goal motivation, their self-worth and how these motivational factors impact their learning goals in mathematics. This study hypothesizes that self- worth protection in math has also been considered from a performance-avoidance goal viewpoint.This study emphasizes that educators, who consider true self-worth as the student’s inherent value, should avoid comparing their students’ ability, capability relative to others as well as students’ academic performance and outcomes with others in class context.

  13. Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H

    2018-05-01

    Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.

  14. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  15. Academic Identity Status and the Relationship to Achievement Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…

  16. Adolescents' Religiousness and Substance Use Are Linked via Afterlife Beliefs and Future Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-10-01

    Although religiousness has been identified as a protective factor against adolescent substance use, processes through which these effects may operate are unclear. The current longitudinal study examined sequential mediation of afterlife beliefs and future orientation in the relation between adolescent religiousness and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Participants included 131 adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 12 years) at three time points with approximately two year time intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that higher religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher afterlife beliefs at Time 2. Higher afterlife beliefs at Time 2 were associated with higher future orientation at Time 2, which in turn was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana at Time 3. Our findings highlight the roles of afterlife beliefs and future orientation in explaining the beneficial effects of religiousness against adolescent substance use.

  17. Teachers' Professional Goal Orientations: Importance for Further Training and Sick Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Sebastian; Dickhauser, Oliver; Fasching, Michaela S.; Dresel, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of teachers' individual goal orientations for the attendance of further training and sick leave in the teaching profession. Regression analysis indicated a positive effect of learning goal orientation (i.e., the desire to improve one's teaching skills and knowledge) along with a negative effect of work…

  18. Investigation the Relationship between Goal Orientation and Parenting Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…

  19. Sex and Age Differences in Achievement Goal Orientations in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel; Kürkçü, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in the achievement goal orientations of students, which may vary as they progress through their lifespan. However, research examining achievement goal orientations in the Turkish cultural context is scarce. Based on contextual and developmental theories, the aim of this study was to examine sex and age differences…

  20. Role Ambiguity and Self-Efficacy: The Moderating Effects of Goal Orientation and Procedural Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated variables that moderated the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Results of a field study found support for the moderating role of learning goal orientation, such that the relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy was weaker when learning goal orientation was high. In addition, we found…

  1. Chinese Students' Goal Orientation in English Learning: A Study Based on Autonomous Inquiry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Goal orientation is a kind of theory of learning motivation, which helps learners to develop their capability by emphasis on new techniques acquiring and environment adapting. In this study, based on the autonomous inquiry model, the construction of Chinese students' goal orientations in English learning are summarized according to the data…

  2. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  3. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  4. Association of goal orientation with work engagement and burnout in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Jef; De Gucht, Veronique; Maes, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Goal orientation is a mindset towards the achievement of work-related goals, and it has been found to be related to occupational well-being. This study explored to what extent the 4-dimensional model of goal orientation adds additional variance to the explanation of burnout and work engagement in emergency nurses, after controlling for demographics, job characteristics and organizational variables. Self-report questionnaires including the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Goal Orientation Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were completed by 170 out of 274 emergency nurses from 13 secondary Belgian hospitals (response rate 62%). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. Goal orientation explained 14 and 13% of the variance in burnout and work engagement respectively. Job control was predictive of both outcomes. Job demands was a predictor of burnout, and social support predicted work engagement. Reward was related to work engagement. The mastery-approach goal orientation was strongly related to an increase in work engagement and to a decrease in burnout. The performance-avoidance goal orientation was strongly related to a decrease in work engagement and to an increase in burnout. The performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goal orientations were not predictive for the two outcome variables. Goal orientation explains additional variance in burnout and work engagement over and above work characteristics and organizational variables. A mastery-approach goal orientation appears to be beneficial while a performance-avoidance goal orientation is not. Hospital management should therefore invest in personal involvement and growth of ER-nurses and in a rewarding organizational culture.

  5. The problem of the psychological construct of the personality’s goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylova Nina Ihorivna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the concept of the personality’s goal orientation through a certain hierarchy of human goals and motivational content that reflects a personal position. The influence of this position on the achievement of long-term goals is shown mainly in future time situations. The components and forms of expression of the personality’s goal orientation are defined. Four positions are singled out: rationalistic, altruistic, rational and egocentric. The terminological apparatus for qualitative comprehension of the investigated concept is made. A psychological construct of the personality’s target orientation has been developed in the article.

  6. A Digital Tool Supporting Goal-Oriented Teaching in Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2015-01-01

    and objectives for their teaching; these form a challenge and a basis for developing a digital tool for mediating between curriculum and pedagogical practice. The motivation for revising the national curriculum and developing digital tools that support teaching is partly based on evidence that the previous...... national curriculum was not used to any particular extent by teachers (Danish Evaluation Institute 2012). Hence, the curriculum has been rebuilt based on recent trends in school development and curriculum research suggesting the importance of a competence framework, learning goals, and the aggregation...... of classroom data for efficient teaching (Earl and Fullan 2003). Learning goals are supposed to support the students’ pace and sense of progression, inform classroom decisions, structure teachers’ planning, and support the dialogue between teachers, students, and parents (Hattie 2009). Based on these concerns...

  7. Goal-oriented path planning for ground and aerial vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Signifredi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays autonomous robots are used in everyday life more than ever. The idea that motivate the develop of new autonomous application is to lessen the fatigue of repetitive works and to make safer the work that are difficult if done by humans alone. Another goal of autonomous robots is to improve precision and repetitiveness in the actuation of actions. Car makers are now showing to consider autonomous driving a ground braking functionality and one of the most important additions to their ass...

  8. The functional role of resignation orientation on goal engagement, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Asano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in Europe and North America have highlighted the importance of resignation or giving up. Research has shown that resignation is as important as goal attainment. Hence, this study examines, using path analysis, the effect of resignation orientation on goal disengagement and reengagement. Furthermore, this study attempts to clarify the implication of resignation orientation for elements of mental well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 261 Japanese college students. Results showed that proactive resignation orientation promotes reestablishment of alternative goals while negative resignation orientation encourages disengagement of the unattainable goals. The findings help explain the functional role of resignation orientation and can inform the development of treatment for resignation-related depression.

  9. Relationship among achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C

    2002-03-01

    Contemporary research suggests that task and ego achievement goal orientations affect students' intrinsic motivation in physical education. This research has assessed intrinsic motivation as a unidimensional contruct, however, which is inconsistent with the more contemporary postulates of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) which states that intrinsic motivation is only one type of motivation. To date, research has not addressed whether different types of motivation at the situational level are influenced by the proneness to adopt task or ego involvement. To examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in PE. Middle school children (182 male, 136 female; M age = 13.2 years). Responded to questionnaires assessing their dispositional goal orientation (POSQ; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998) and situational motivation (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) in PE. Task orientation was found to be positively associated with more self-determined types of situational motivation. Ego orientation was weakly related to less self-determined motivation. An extreme group split was conducted to create four goal groups and goal profile analyses conducted. A significant MANOVA was followed by univariate analyses, post hoc comparisons, and calculated effect sizes, which revealed that groups high in task orientation reported more motivationally adaptive responses than groups low in task orientation. The results suggest that a high level of task orientation singularly or in combination with ego orientation fosters self-determined situational motivation in the context of PE.

  10. On the nature of motivational orientations: implications of assessed goals and gender differences for motivational goal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Huertas, Juan A; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    In a historical revision of the achievement goal construct, Elliot (2005) recognized that there is little consensus on whether the term "goal" in "achievement goal orientations" (GO) is best represented as an "aim", as an overarching orientation encompassing several "aims", or as a combination of aims and other processes -self-regulation, etc.-. Elliot pointed also that goal theory research provides evidence for different models of GO. As there were no consensus on these issues, we decided to get evidence about the nature and structure of GO, about the role of gender differences in the configuration of such structure, and about relations between GO, expectancies, volitional processes and achievement. A total of 382 university students from different faculties of two public universities of Madrid (Spain) that voluntarily accepted to fill in a questionnaire that assessed different goals, expectancies and self-regulatory processes participated in the study. Scales reliability, confirmatory factor analyses, multiple-group analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Results support the trichotomous model of GO, the consideration of GO as a combination of aims and other psychological processes, showed some gender differences and favour the adoption of a multiple goal perspective for explaining students' motivation.

  11. The relationship between clients' depression etiological beliefs and psychotherapy orientation preferences, expectations, and credibility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Kelley A; Swift, Joshua K; Rousmaniere, Tony G; Whipple, Jason L

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between clients' etiological beliefs for depression and treatment preferences, credibility beliefs, and outcome expectations for five different depression treatments-behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Adult psychotherapy clients (N = 98) were asked to complete an online survey that included the Reasons for Depression Questionnaire, a brief description of each of the five treatment options, and credibility, expectancy, and preference questions for each option. On average, the participating clients rated pharmacotherapy as significantly less credible, having a lower likelihood of success, and being less preferred than the four types of psychotherapy. In general, interpersonal psychotherapy was also rated more negatively than the other types of psychotherapy. However, these findings depended somewhat on whether the participating client was personally experiencing depression. Credibility beliefs, outcome expectations, and preferences for pharmacotherapy were positively associated with biological beliefs for depression; however, the other hypothesized relationships between etiological beliefs and treatment attitudes were not supported. Although the study is limited based on the specific sample and treatment descriptions that were used, the results may still have implications for psychotherapy research, training, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Goal-Oriented Data Collection Framework in Configuration Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Kristjansdottir, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    project. The framework consists of five steps, which are; establishing a goal and the methods for stakeholder analysis, categorize and group the data collection, prioritizing of products and functionalities, collection and validation of the data by domain experts and finally analysis, documentation......This article proposes a systematic framework for data collection when executing Product Configuration System (PCS) projects. Since the data collection in PCS is one of the most time consuming tasks, a systematic framework to handle and manage the large amount of complex data in the early stages...... of the PCS project is needed. The framework was developed based on the current literature in the field and revised during testing at a case company. The framework has proven to provide a structural approach for data collection, which saved the company both time and money in the initial phases of the PCS...

  13. Stochastic goal-oriented error estimation with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackmann, Jan; Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2017-11-01

    We propose a stochastic dual-weighted error estimator for the viscous shallow-water equation with boundaries. For this purpose, previous work on memory-less stochastic dual-weighted error estimation is extended by incorporating memory effects. The memory is introduced by describing the local truncation error as a sum of time-correlated random variables. The random variables itself represent the temporal fluctuations in local truncation errors and are estimated from high-resolution information at near-initial times. The resulting error estimator is evaluated experimentally in two classical ocean-type experiments, the Munk gyre and the flow around an island. In these experiments, the stochastic process is adapted locally to the respective dynamical flow regime. Our stochastic dual-weighted error estimator is shown to provide meaningful error bounds for a range of physically relevant goals. We prove, as well as show numerically, that our approach can be interpreted as a linearized stochastic-physics ensemble.

  14. Relationships between cooperation and goal orientation among male professional and semi-professional team athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, João; Almeida, Pedro L; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In team sports, athletes' goals may focus on the task (enhancing performance, developing better skills, etc.) or on ego (being better than the others, achieving superiority, etc.). This study investigated the relationships between athletes' goal orientation and their tendency to cooperate with teammates and coaches. 158 professional men (M age = 24.1 yr., SD = 4.6) who played on various sport teams participated in this study. Goal orientation was measured with the Portuguese version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and cooperation was measured with the Questionário de Cooperação Desportiva. Cooperation was positively correlated with task orientation, and negatively correlated with ego orientation. Overall, the findings support that in sports, directing the players' focus on task may promote prosocial behavior.

  15. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As

  16. The Functional Role of Resignation Orientation on Goal Engagement, Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Kodama, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Several studies in Europe and North America have highlighted the importance of resignation or giving up. Research has shown that resignation is as important as goal attainment. Hence, this study examines, using path analysis, the effect of resignation orientation on goal disengagement and reengagement. Furthermore, this study attempts to clarify the implication of resignation orientation for elements of mental well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 261 Japanese college students. Results...

  17. Combining goal-oriented and model-driven approaches to solve the Payment Problem Scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asuncion, C.H.; Quartel, Dick; Pokraev, S.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the objective to provide an improved participation of business domain experts in the design of service-oriented integration solutions, we extend our previous work on using the COSMO methodology for service mediation by introducing a goal-oriented approach to requirements engineering.

  18. Relating beliefs in writing skill malleability to writing performance: The mediating role of achievement goals and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Limpo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that students’ beliefs in skill malleability influence their academic performance. Specifically, thinking of ability as an incremental (vs. fixed trait is associated with better outcomes. Though this was shown across many domains, little research exists into these beliefs in the writing domain and into the mechanisms underlying their effects on writing performance. The aim of this study was twofold: to gather evidence on the validity and reliability of instruments to measure beliefs in skill malleability, achievement goals, and self-efficacy in writing; and to test a path-analytic model specifying beliefs in writing skill malleability to influence writing performance, via goals and self-efficacy. For that, 196 Portuguese students in Grades 7-8 filled in the instruments and wrote an opinion essay that was assessed for writing performance. Confirmatory factor analyses supported instruments’ validity and reliability. Path analysis revealed direct effects from beliefs in writing skill malleability to mastery goals (ß = .45; from mastery goals to self-efficacy for conventions, ideation, and self-regulation (ß = .27, .42, and .42, respectively; and from self-efficacy for self-regulation to writing performance (ß = .16; along with indirect effects from beliefs in writing skill malleability to self-efficacy for self-regulation via mastery goals (ß = .19, and from mastery goals to writing performance via self-efficacy for self-regulation (ß = .07. Overall, students’ mastery goals and self-efficacy for self-regulation seem to be key factors underlying the link between beliefs in writing skill malleability and writing performance. These findings highlight the importance of attending to motivation-related components in the teaching of writing.

  19. Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation of high school students was studied and their relationship with school majoring, GPA and gender. To estimate epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation Schommer’s Epistemological Questionnaire (EQ and Work Preference Inventory (WPI were used. Through factor analysis of EQ 5 factors were extracted, that differ from those Schommer singled out. Negative correlation between naive epistemological beliefs on one side, and intrinsic (-0.327, p<0.01 and general motivation (-0.247, p<0.01 on the other, was determined. Students majoring in social sciences have more mature epistemological beliefs (F=11.278, df=1, p<0.01. Boys have more mature epistemological beliefs than girls only on factor Avoiding relating, ambiguity and dependence on authority (F=16.899, df=1, p<0.01. Correlation between epistemological beliefs and GPA was not determined. Students majoring in social sciences have higher level of motivation (F=6.626, df=1, p<0.05. Girls are more motivated by enjoying in what they are doing (F=6.261, df=1, p<0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  20. On the Relationship between "Belief" and "Acceptance" of Evolution as Goals of Evolution Education: Twelve Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Siegel, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    The issue of the proper goals of science education and science teacher education have been a focus of the science education and philosophy of science communities in recent years. More particularly, the issue of whether belief/acceptance of evolution and/or understanding are the appropriate goals for evolution educators and the issue of the precise…

  1. Goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and motivational outcomes in football: A comparison between training and competition contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Ring, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we examined (a) variability and (b) differences in football players’ goal orientations and perceptions of the motivational climate across training and competition contexts, and (c) whether the context moderates the relationships between goal orientations, motivational

  2. A functional look at goal orientations : their role for self-estimates of intelligence and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipp, T.; Steinmayr, R.; Spinath, B.

    2012-01-01

    Building on the notion that motivation energizes and directs resources in achievement situations, we argue that goal orientations affect perceptions of own intelligence and that the effect of goals on performance is partly mediated by self-estimates of intelligence. Studies 1 (n = 89) and 2 (n =

  3. Goal Orientation Profiles, Academic Achievement and Well-Being of Adolescents in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrotheodoros, S.; Talias, Michael A.; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents differ in the way they motivate themselves, and the way they choose, perceive, and approach their goals. Goal orientations have been proposed to be a significant aspect of individual differences. In general, some students aim at gaining a higher level of skills, whereas other students

  4. Enhancing Entrepreneurship: The Role of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Satoris S.; Smith, Michael R.; Leiva, Pedro I.

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has become increasingly important in the workplace. Research suggests motivational traits are important in pursuing entrepreneurial activities. Yet, the extent to which factors influencing entrepreneurial versus managerial goals differ remains unclear. This study assessed the influence of goal orientation and self-efficacy in…

  5. The Effects of Goal-Oriented Instructions in Digital Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhel, Séverine; Jamet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of the instructions provided in educational computer games on cognitive processing and learning outcomes. In our experiment, we sought to compare the effects on learning outcomes of two different types of goal-oriented instructions: "mastery-goal" instructions, which prompt learners to develop…

  6. Dominant Goal Orientations Predict Differences in Academic Achievement during Adolescence through Metacognitive Self-Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement was predicted by the goal which generally drives a student’s learning behaviour. Secondly, the role of metacognitive self-regulation was examined. The dominant goal orientation was assessed using a new method. 735 adolescents aged 10-19 years read

  7. Upcycling Secondary Physical Education: The Journey to Creating Goal-Oriented Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Susan; Williams, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of a quality physical education program is to develop physically literate individuals who demonstrate skill competencies, apply knowledge, demonstrate health-enhancing behaviors, exhibit prosocial behaviors, and recognize the value of physical activity for a lifetime. The development and implementation of goal-oriented physical…

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  9. Demographic influences on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Daniel R. Williams; Sandra Jonker

    2001-01-01

    Using the cognitive hierarchy as the theoretical foundation, this article examines the predictive influence of individuals' demographic characteristics on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of Colorado residents (n = 960). As predicted by theory, a...

  10. Adolescents' Religiousness and Substance Use Are Linked via Afterlife Beliefs and Future Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-01-01

    Although religiousness has been identified as a protective factor against adolescent substance use, processes through which these effects may operate are unclear. The current longitudinal study examined sequential mediation of afterlife beliefs and future orientation in the relation between adolescent religiousness and cigarette, alcohol, and…

  11. Identifying and Formulating Teachers' Beliefs and Motivational Orientations for Computer Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Elena; Schaper, Niclas; Caspersen, Michael E.; Margaritis, Melanie; Hubwieser, Peter

    2016-01-01

    How teachers are able to adapt to a changing environment is essentially dependent on their beliefs and motivational orientations. The development of these aspects in the context of professional competence takes place during teachers' educational phase and professional practice. The overall understanding of professional competence for teaching…

  12. Negative feedback, beliefs and personal goals in prediction of dysfunctional emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Boris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT demonstrates good results in evaluation therapy researches. However, some of its basic concepts, as well as theory as a whole itself, did not receive satisfactory empirical support so far, in comparison to other cognitive models (Beck, Lazarus etc.. Quasiexperimental study was designed to test the role that (1 negative feedback (A and (2 irrational beliefs (B both play in formation of dysfunctional negative emotions, in the context of significant personal goals (in our case value of potential award - G. ABC theoretical model received limited support: statistically significant three-times interaction A x B x G was found in predicting general negative emotional state, as well as anger. In contrast with that, ANOVA showed only main effect of irrational beliefs (as continuous variable to be significant in predicting emotions of anxiety and depression. Findings are discussed in the context of REBT theory of emotions, as well as their possible practical applications. Limitations of the study were also mentioned. .

  13. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  14. Motivational climate, goal orientation and exercise adherence in fitness centers and personal training contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingi Petitemberte Klain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships hypothesized by the Achievement Goal Theory in predicting adherence to exercise. The study participants were 405 individuals exercising in fitness centers with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 17 and 183 individuals exercising with personal trainers with a mean age of 43 years (SD = 16, that answered the Portuguese versions of the Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure and Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire. The hypothesized structural equation model showed that the mastery motivational climate had a positive impact on task orientation goals, which in turn had a positive impact on exercise adherence. However, performance motivational climate had a positive impact on ego orientation goals, which in turn had a negative impact on exercise adherence.

  15. Stability and change in teachers' goal orientation profiles over time : Managerial coaching behavior as a predictor of profile change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, E.M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Kollenburg, G.H.; Poell, R.F.

    2018-01-01

    Goal orientation is an important predictor of motivation at work. This study introduces goal orientation profiles in the work domain, evaluates their stability over time and assesses the impact of managerial coaching behavior on change in employees' goal orientation profiles. We hypothesize that

  16. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Orienting Oneself for Leadership: The Role of Goal Orientation in Leader Developmental Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Satoris S; Jackson, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which individuals approach achievement situations influence their use of self-management activities such as goal setting, feedback seeking, and developmental strategies, and ultimately impact success in leader development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. "Personal mission statement": An analysis of medical students' and general practitioners' reflections on personal beliefs, values and goals in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, B H; Lee, P Y; Ismail, I Z

    2014-01-01

    Personal mission in life can determine the motivation, happiness, career advancement and fulfilment in life of the medical students (MSs) along with improvement in professional/clinical performance of the family physicians. This study explored the personal beliefs, values and goals in the lives of MSs and general practitioners (GPs). Fourth-year MSs at the Universiti Putra Malaysia and GPs who participated in a 2-hour session on 'Ethics in Family Medicine' in 2012 were invited. All the participants submitted the post-session written reflections about their personal missions in life. The written reflections were analysed using thematic analysis. A total of 87 MSs and 31 GPs submitted their written reflections. The authors identified 17 categories from the reflections contained by four themes-good vs. smart doctor, professional improvement vs. self-improvement, self-fulfilment and expressed motivation. The most common categories were "to be a good doctor" (97/330) and "professional improvement" (65/330). Many MSs had expressed motivation and wanted to be a smart doctor as compared to the GPs, whereas a larger number of GPs wished to have a fulfilled life and be a good doctor through professional improvement. The difference between the two student groups might indicate different levels of maturity and life experiences. Medical teachers should engage students more effectively in orientating them towards the essential values needed in medical practice.

  19. Relationships among goal orientations, motivational climate and flow in adolescent athletes: differences by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; González-Cutre Coll, David

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships among perceived motivational climate, individuals' goal orientations, and dispositional flow, with attention to possible gender differences. A sample of 413 young athletes, ages 12 to 16 years, completed the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2) and Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), as well as the Dispositional Flow Scale. Task orientation was positively and significantly related to a perceived task-involving motivational climate and to the disposition to experience flow in the sport. Ego orientation was positively and significantly associated with a perceived ego-involving motivational climate and with dispositional flow. The perceptions of task-involving and ego-involving motivational climates were positively and significantly linked to general dispositional flow. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both task and ego goal orientations and perceived task- and ego-oriented climates predicted dispositional flow. Males displayed a stronger ego orientation, and were more likely to report that they participated in an ego-oriented climate, than did females. To the contrary, the females were more likely to perceive a task-oriented climate than did the males. No meaningful differences were found between males and females in general dispositional flow.

  20. A conceptual model of nurses' goal orientation, service behavior, and service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chun-Cheng; Chou, Hsin-Kai; Hung, Shuo-Tsung

    2008-01-01

    Based on the conceptual framework known as the "service triangle," the authors constructed a model of nurses' goal orientation, service behavior, and service performance to investigate the antecedents and consequences of the medical service behavior provided by nurses. This cross-sectional study collected data from 127 nurses in six hospitals using a mail-in questionnaire. Analysis of the model revealed that the customer-oriented behavior of nurses had a positive influence on organizational citizenship behavior; and both of these behaviors had a significant positive influence on service performance. The results also indicate that a higher learning goal orientation among nurses was associated with the performance of both observable customer-oriented behavior and organizational-citizenship behavior.

  1. An autoethnographic exploration of the use of goal oriented feedback to enhance brief clinical teaching encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Laura; Bourgeois-Law, Gisele; Ajjawi, Rola; Regehr, Glenn

    2017-03-01

    Supervision in the outpatient context is increasingly in the form of single day interactions between students and preceptors. This creates difficulties for effective feedback, which often depends on a strong relationship of trust between preceptor and student. Building on feedback theories focusing on the relational and dialogic aspects of feedback, this study explored the use of goal-oriented feedback in brief encounters with learners. This study used autoethnography to explore one preceptor's feedback interactions over an eight-month period both in the ambulatory setting and on the wards. Data included written narrative reflections on feedback interactions with twenty-three learners informed by discussions with colleagues and repeated reading of feedback literature. Thematic and narrative analyses of data were performed iteratively. Data analysis emphasized four recurrent themes. (1) Goal discussions were most effective when initiated early and integrated throughout the learning experience. (2) Both learner and preceptor goals were multiple and varied, and feedback needed to reflect this complexity. (3) Negotiation or co-construction of goals was important when considering the focus of feedback discussions in order to create safer, more effective interactions. (4) Goal oriented interactions offer potential benefits to the learner and preceptor. Goal oriented feedback promotes dialogue as it requires both preceptor and learner to acknowledge and negotiate learning goals throughout their interaction. In doing so, feedback becomes an explicit component of the preceptor-learner relationship. This enhances feedback interactions even in relatively brief encounters, and may begin an early educational alliance that can be elaborated with longer interactions.

  2. Political ideologies and health-oriented beliefs and behaviors: an empirical examination of strategic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, J J; Coulter, R L; Coulter, M K

    2000-01-01

    The area of health care has been called the most important political issue of the 1990s. Attitudes toward health care reform, increasing health costs, and defensive medical practices have been examined in the public press and by academicians. In addition, a substantial amount of research has been directed toward the improvement of individual personal health due to changes in personal health-related habits and behaviors. To date, there are relatively few studies which have attempted to examine the political tendencies of a nationwide sample of respondents as they relate to personal health-related beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the consumer's views on critical questions relating to health orientations and political tendencies. The results indicate a divergence between the political orientations of respondents and their beliefs and behaviors associated with health and wellness. Implications for policy-makers are discussed.

  3. Student goal orientation in learning inquiry skills with modifiable software advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Todd Adrian

    A computer support environment (SCI-WISE) for learning and doing inquiry was designed. The system incorporates software advisors that give task completion advice (eg., forming hypotheses), general purpose advice (e.g., brainstorming), or system modification advice. Advisors' knowledge includes concepts, strategies, examples, referrals to other advisors, and criteria for evaluating good products and skills. Students using SCI-WISE can select the advisors' advice type (specific, general, or hints), and when advisors give advice (anytime, alert, or ask). Students can also modify the advisors' knowledge. The system is designed partly on a theoretical framework that assumes giving students higher levels of agency will facilitate higher-level goal orientation (such as knowledge-building) and produce higher levels of competence. In two studies of sixth graders, science students took a pretest of an open-ended inquiry question and a questionnaire that measured their goal orientations. The students worked in pairs on an inquiry project about memory, using one of two versions of SCI-WISE, one modifiable and one not modifiable. After finishing the project, the students took a posttest similar to the pretest, and evaluated the system. The main hypotheses predicted that knowledge-oriented students using the modifiable version would rate the system higher, use it more effectively, and do better on the inquiry posttest than task-oriented students. The results supported many of the hypotheses generated from the theoretical framework. Knowledge-oriented students tended to rate SCI-WISE higher, use more general purpose and system development advisors, and select more general advice and hints than task-oriented students. On the posttest inquiry test, students with higher goal orientations scored higher on average, particularly when paired with another knowledge oriented student. The studies also showed that goal orientation was not correlated with grade point average. Finally, the

  4. Influence of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and Health Beliefs on Sexual Orientation Disparities in Papanicolaou Test Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosario, Margaret; Kahn, Jessica A.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Reproductive health screenings are a necessary part of quality health care. However, sexual minorities underutilize Papanicolaou (Pap) tests more than heterosexuals do, and the reasons are not known. Our objective was to examine if less hormonal contraceptive use or less positive health beliefs about Pap tests explain sexual orientation disparities in Pap test intention and utilization. Methods. We used multivariable regression with prospective data gathered from 3821 females aged 18 to 25 years in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Results. Among lesbians, less hormonal contraceptive use explained 8.6% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 36.1% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Less positive health beliefs associated with Pap testing explained 19.1% of the disparities in Pap test intention. Together, less hormonal contraceptive use and less positive health beliefs explained 29.3% of the disparities in Pap test intention and 42.2% of the disparities in Pap test utilization. Conclusions. Hormonal contraceptive use and health beliefs, to a lesser extent, help to explain sexual orientation disparities in intention and receipt of a Pap test, especially among lesbians. PMID:23763393

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOAL-ORIENTATIONS AND SPORT COMMITMENT AMONG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Benar.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was exploring of relationship between goal-orientations and sport commitment among athletes and comparison of goal-orientations and sport commitment and their constructs based on gender and type of sports. Participants were 108 Iranian athlete (40 female and 68 male, who responded to Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q and Sport Commitment Model (SCM questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, Independent-Samples t-test, and One-way ANOVA at P=0.05. The findings indicated that there were positively and significantly association between constructs, including sport enjoyment, personal investment, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and social support, whereas, involvement alternatives and task-orientation had negatively and significantly association with sport commitment. Also, team and open-skilled sport athletes had sport commitment and ego-orientation more than individual and closed-skilled sport athletes. As well as, female's athletes had sport enjoyment and social support more than male's athletes. It is possible that task-oriented players are elite and expert athletes, because extend and develop their fundamental skills in one's sport by their task-orientate characteristic, and probably these players with these characteristics tendency to turnover until experience more situations. Thus, these players had a less sport commitment than amateur athletes. Also, gender and type of sport differences can be results of individual differences and nature of sports skills. Implications for goal-orientations and sport commitment and their impacts on athletes as well as future research directions are further discussed.

  6. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  7. The Role of Motivating Tasks and Personal Goal Orientations in Students' Coping Strategies in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Münevver; Tas, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate coping strategies of middle school students in science classes in relation to students' goal orientations and motivating tasks conducted in the classroom environment. The study was conducted in spring semester of 2015-2016 academic year. Sample of the study consists of 316 middle school students receiving education…

  8. The Influence of Personality, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism on Performance Goal Orientation in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…

  9. The Impact of Group Design Projects in Engineering on Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Balgopal, Meena

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of incorporating group design projects into a second-year engineering class on achievement goal orientations and two academic outcomes: concept inventory and final exam scores. In this study, two sections were taught using lecture format, but one section also completed three group design projects as part of their…

  10. Student Self-Assessment Practices: The Role of Gender, School Level and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the key demographic variables of gender, school level and goal orientation on students' self-assessment practices, including self-directed feedback seeking (SDFS) and self-reflection (SR). A total of 8843 Hong Kong students were surveyed, ranging from Primary 4 to Secondary 6. The results…

  11. Relationships between Psychological Wellbeing of Thai College Students, Goal Orientations, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…

  12. Teachers' Goal Orientation Profiles and Participation in Professional Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Eva M.; van Woerkom, Marianne; Poell, Rob F.

    2018-01-01

    Participation in professional development activities is important for teachers to continuously improve their knowledge and skills. However, teachers differ in their attitude towards learning activities. This paper examined how different goal orientation profiles are related to participation in professional development activities (acquiring…

  13. The Impact of Goal Achievement Orientation on Student Technology Usage in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, Rory; McGillicuddy, Kara T.; Christensen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether students with differing goal achievement orientations were more likely to engage in on-task or off-task mobile device usage, as well as whether particular devices (specifically, laptops and smartphones) have a positive or negative relationship with specific task usage. The results of this study…

  14. Individualism-Collectivism and the Role of Goal Orientation in Organizational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Altovise; Spitzmueller, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    This research examines how individualism-collectivism and goal orientation impact training effectiveness through study of an internationally diverse sample of engineers who were undergoing technical training. In light of contemporary views of individualism-collectivism, we argue that collectivism will moderate the influence of learning and…

  15. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  16. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2001-01-01

    In a study in 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation – as a personality trait -increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  17. Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Patricia

    Guidance Oriented Acquisition of Learning Skills (Project GOALS) was a federally-funded project in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools in its fourth year of operation in 1992-93. It served 312 limited-English-proficient and 57 English-proficient students through instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA) in…

  18. College Students' Goal Orientations, Situational Motivation and Effort/Persistence in Physical Activity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Podlog, Leslie W.; Harrison, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among college students' 2 x 2 goal orientations (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], performance-avoidance [PAv]), situational motivation (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation and amotivation) and effort/persistence in…

  19. Students’ goal orientations and learning strategies in a powerful learning environment : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Beijaard, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Dutch secondary education, experiments with powerful social constructivist learning environments are conducted that aim to appeal to students’ intrinsic goal orientations, use of deep cognitive learning strategies, and self-direction of meta-cognitive learning strategies. The aim of this study is

  20. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A; De Dreu, CKW; Van der Vaart, T

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation-as a personality trait-increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern, combined

  1. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  2. How to become more entrepreneurial? : The role of identity in entrepreneurial goal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarysse, Bart; van Boxstael, A.; Humphreys, John

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze how social identification and role identity salience interplay and explain the entrepreneurial goal orientation of founder-owners of professional home nursing practices. First, we show how social identification with particular communities (i.e. professional

  3. Weak Ties and Self-Regulation in Job Search: The Effects of Goal Orientation on Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, John-Paul; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relationship between the self-regulatory variable of goal orientation and the extent to which job seekers reach out to and use weak ties in their job search. Weak ties, as defined by Granovettor, are connections to densely knit networks outside the individual's direct contacts who could…

  4. Workplace Learning within Teacher Education: The Role of Job Characteristics and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Donche, Vincent; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Within teacher education, it is widely recognised that internships play a major role in preparing prospective teachers. The current research examines if the learning activities students' undertake in the workplace can be explained by students' goal orientation and their perceptions of the workplace. In addition, it will be investigated…

  5. Work Engagement: Antecedents, the Mediating Role of Learning Goal Orientation and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Buckley, Finian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to explore the effects of state (trust in supervisor) and trait (trust propensity) trust on employees' work engagement. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and two forms of performance: in-role job performance and innovative…

  6. The Impact of Within-School Autonomy on Students' Goal Orientations and Engagement with Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Colin; Muir, Tracey; Callingham, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    School autonomy has been identified as having an impact on a school's performance, yet less has been reported about the effect this has on students' goal orientations and engagement with mathematics. In a national study conducted in schools across Australia, measures of school autonomy were collected from teachers and school leaders, along with…

  7. The company they keep and avoid: social goal orientation as a predictor of children's ethnic segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined whether social goal orientation (i.e., demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid, and social development goals) predicts changes in ethnic segregation among 4th and 5th grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years) from fall to spring. Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in friendships, (b) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer group affiliations, and (c) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social goal orientation was asymmetrically associated with ethnic segregation for the 2 groups. Among African Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted increases in same-ethnicity favoritism and cross-ethnicity dislike. Among European Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted decreases in same-ethnicity favoritism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  9. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  10. Norwegian Football Academy Players-Players Self-Assessed Competence, Perfectionism, Goal Orientations and Motivational Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Nerland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory and perfectionism theory, the purpose of this study was to examine how self-assessed perceived abilities covariance these variables among Norwegian football academy players. 140 adolescent football players participated, representing three football academies. Perceived competence was reported as equivalent to or better than others. Perfectionism scores showed personal standards as the highest of the dimensions of perfectionism, while perceived parental pressure was lowest. In contrast, mean task orientation and perceived mastery climate were higher than ego orientation and perceived performance climate. The correlation analysis showed that perceived competence correlated positively with personal standards. Personal standards correlated positively with the rest of the perfectionism dimensions as well as ego orientation, perceived mastery- and performance climate. Concern over mistakes was positively correlated with ego-orientation. Overall, findings suggested that personal standards correlate with perceived competence, while these variables also relate to other perfectionism dimensions, goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Therefore, coaches should highlight the importance of high personal standards, as a potentially maladaptive function on talent development.

  11. Cultural orientations, parental beliefs and practices, and latino adolescents' autonomy and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M; Caughy, Margaret O; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Dittus, Patricia J; Franzini, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Despite the salience of behavioral autonomy and independence to parent-child interactions during middle adolescence, little is known about parenting processes pertinent to youth autonomy development for Latino families. Among a diverse sample of 684 Latino-origin parent-adolescent dyads in Houston, Texas, this study examines how parents' cultural orientations are associated directly and indirectly, through parental beliefs, with parenting practices giving youth behavioral autonomy and independence. Informed by social domain theory, the study's parenting constructs pertain to youth behaviors in an "ambiguously personal" domain-activities that adolescents believe are up to youth to decide, but which parents might argue require parents' supervision, knowledge, and/or decision-making. Results for latent profile analyses of parents' cultural identity across various facets of acculturation indicate considerable cultural heterogeneity among Latino parents. Although 43% of parents have a Latino cultural orientation, others represent Spanish-speaking/bicultural (21%), bilingual/bicultural (15%), English-speaking/bicultural (15%), or US (6%) cultural orientations. Structural equation modeling results indicate that bilingual/bicultural, English-speaking/bicultural, and US-oriented parents report less emphasis on the legitimacy of parental authority and younger age expectations for youth to engage in independent behaviors than do Latino-oriented parents. Parental beliefs endorsing youth's behavioral independence and autonomy, in turn, are associated with less stringent parental rules (parental report), less parental supervision (parental and youth report), and more youth autonomy in decision-making (parental and youth report). Evidence thus supports the idea that the diverse cultural orientations of Latino parents in the US may result in considerable variations in parenting processes pertinent to Latino adolescents' development.

  12. Motivational Regulations and Goal Orientation in Division III Basketball Players: Gender and Playing Status Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Teri J. Hepler; Kelly S. Witte

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in motivational regulations and goal orientation based on gender and playing status.  Method:  Two hundred and fourteen Division III basketball players (92 males, 112 females) completed the Sport Motivation Scale-28 and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport.  Based on average playing time per game, participants were classified as starters (over 20 minutes, n = 80), substitutes (6-20 minutes, n = 65), and benchwarmers (5 minutes o...

  13. Goal orientation and well-being in college athletes: The importance of athletic social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; Walters, Andrew Schrack

    2017-11-01

    The present study examined the ability of an interpersonal construct called athletic connectedness to mediate the relationship between task and ego goal orientations and well-being. We operationalised athletic social connectedness as a sense of social belonging and sense of connection with teammates. We hypothesised that athletic social connectedness would be positively associated with task goals, negatively associated with ego goals, and would at least partially mediate the relationship between achievement goals and well-being. We administered questionnaires to female (N = 106; mean age = 20.47, SD = 1.12) and male (N = 100; mean age = 20.95, SD = 1.21) NCAA Division III college athletes. We tested our hypothesised model using structural equation modelling, which included testing a measurement model that specified four latent variables and then comparing the estimates generated by our hypothesised model with our data. We also tested three alternative models and found our hypothesised model to fit best. As predicted, there were significant indirect effects of task and ego motivation on well-being through athletic connectedness, demonstrating formal evidence of mediation. The r 2 coefficient indicated that the model explained 30% of the variance in well-being, a moderate effect size (Cohen, 1988). Discussion focuses on the importance of considering interpersonal constructs as a way to improve our understanding of relationship between task and ego goal orientations to well-being in athletes.

  14. Self-Regulation and Problem Solving Ability in 7E-Learning Cycle Based Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono; Noor, N. L.

    2017-04-01

    Goal orientation differences between mastery goals and performance goals can be a cause of high and low self-regulation and problem-solving abilities. To overcome these problems applied 7E-learning cycle in which students learn and develop ways to optimise the power of reason through the learning phase elicit, engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate, and extend. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of learning by 7E-learning cycle and describe self-regulation and mathematics problem solving based on goal-orientation after the implementation 7E-learning cycle. This study used mix method design with research subject is graders XII sciences MA NU Nurul Ulum Jekulo Kudus which divided into goal orientation is mastery goal and performance goal. The independent variable of this research is learning model, while the dependent variable is problem solving and self-regulation. Then, collecting data using scale, interviews and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, paired samples t-test, and Normality-gain. The results show problem-solving abilities of students through 7E-learning cycle the average of mathematical problem-solving capability class, self-regulation at 7E-learning cycle is better than the traditional model study. The problem-solving skills at 7E-learning cycle are better than the traditional model study, there is an increase in self-regulation through 7E-learning cycle of 0.4 (medium), and there is an increased problem-solving ability through 7E-learning cycle by 0.79 (high). Based on the qualitative analysis, self-regulation and problem-solving ability after the implementation of 7E-learning cycle students of a mastery goal group are better than the performance goal team. It is suggested to implement 7E-learning cycle to improve self-regulation and problem-solving ability as well as directing and fostering mastery goal on the student in the learning process.

  15. Goal-oriented Balancing: a New Model of Contemporary Sales Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Johan Åge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of sales management and it suggests that the main concern of a sales manager is to reach the sales and economical goals of the sales organization. The social process by which this main concern is resolved is called goal-oriented balancing and it describes two complementary organizational dimensions, frame development and individual development that are continuously balanced against each other. That is, the sales manager must establish effective organizational processes and structures as well as find the keys to maximum individual performance. These two processes have to be in balance and supportive of each other.

  16. EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Pedagogy in the EAP-oriented Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanhua Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research reports a two-year EAP-oriented teaching reform at Shanghai Dianji University by analyzing the pedagogy of three English teachers. The study examines what happens to the three teachers’ pedagogy when the Shanghai Municipal Educational Commission promotes new methodologies, that is, task-based learning and content-based instruction which seem to be in conflict with their traditional pedagogy. This research adopted quantitative methods (questionnaire combined with qualitative methods (interviews and classroom observation and demonstrated how they reconcile their pedagogy with the promoted methodology in a situated context constrained by college culture, college authorities’ expectation, students’ expectations and the availability of resources. The study reveals the dynamic nature of pedagogy under the effect of teachers’ beliefs as well as the interplay of teachers’ beliefs and classroom practice, which is in contrast with the image of teachers of English as pure disseminators of grammatical knowledge, bounded by textbooks.

  17. Examination of group cohesiveness levels and goal orientations of basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ötkan Can Çavin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to examine goal orientation and group cohesiveness levels of basketball players. 243 mature players who play in the leagues of Turkish Basketball Federation in 2016- 2017 season participated the study. “Task and Ego Orientation in Sports” and “Group Cohesiveness” questionnaires are used in study. While frequency, arithmetic mean and standard deviation is used for the analysis of data, T-Test, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Post-Hoc test statistics (Tukey HSD are used for independent samples. Depending on the variables of gender and educational background of players, a significant difference is identified in sub-dimension of Task Attraction of Group and a low-level negatively significant difference is identified between Ego Orientation in terms of age and sportive age. Significant differences are identified between the Perception of Team Success and sub-dimensions of Social Integration of Group and Social Attraction of Group. No statistically significant difference can be found for the variable of time spent in team in terms of group cohesiveness and goal orientation.

  18. Instructional characteristics in mathematics classrooms: relationships to achievement goal orientation and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Rubach, Charlott

    2017-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning, support for autonomy, and competence in mathematic classrooms (Time 1), and students' achievement goal orientations and engagement in mathematics 6 months later (Time 2). We tested whether student-perceived instructional characteristics at Time 1 indirectly related to student engagement at Time 2, via their achievement goal orientations (Time 2), and, whether student gender moderated these relationships. Participants were ninth and tenth graders (55.2% girls) from 46 classrooms in ten secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Only data from students who participated at both timepoints were included (N = 746 out of total at Time 1 1118; dropout 33.27%). Longitudinal structural equation modeling showed that student-perceived teaching for meaning and support for competence indirectly predicted intrinsic motivation and effort, via students' mastery goal orientation. These paths were equivalent for girls and boys. The findings are significant for mathematics education, in identifying motivational processes that partly explain the relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning and competence support and intrinsic motivation and effort in mathematics.

  19. 3-D direct current resistivity anisotropic modelling by goal-oriented adaptive finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Qiu, Lewen; Tang, Jingtian; Wu, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Zilong

    2018-01-01

    Although accurate numerical solvers for 3-D direct current (DC) isotropic resistivity models are current available even for complicated models with topography, reliable numerical solvers for the anisotropic case are still an open question. This study aims to develop a novel and optimal numerical solver for accurately calculating the DC potentials for complicated models with arbitrary anisotropic conductivity structures in the Earth. First, a secondary potential boundary value problem is derived by considering the topography and the anisotropic conductivity. Then, two a posteriori error estimators with one using the gradient-recovery technique and one measuring the discontinuity of the normal component of current density are developed for the anisotropic cases. Combing the goal-oriented and non-goal-oriented mesh refinements and these two error estimators, four different solving strategies are developed for complicated DC anisotropic forward modelling problems. A synthetic anisotropic two-layer model with analytic solutions verified the accuracy of our algorithms. A half-space model with a buried anisotropic cube and a mountain-valley model are adopted to test the convergence rates of these four solving strategies. We found that the error estimator based on the discontinuity of current density shows better performance than the gradient-recovery based a posteriori error estimator for anisotropic models with conductivity contrasts. Both error estimators working together with goal-oriented concepts can offer optimal mesh density distributions and highly accurate solutions.

  20. When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Aaron M; Foster Thompson, Lori; Rudolph, Jane V; Whelan, Thomas J; Behrend, Tara S; Gissel, Amanda L

    2013-07-01

    Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Ability Beliefs and Motivational Orientation on the Self-Efficacy of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Koul, Ravinder; Sujivorakul, Chuchai

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of entity beliefs, gender stereotypes and motivational goals on participants' self-efficacy in biology and physics and their career aspirations. Participants (n = 2638, males 46% and females 54%) were students enrolled in Years 10-12 of the academic science-maths stream in Thailand. Entity beliefs were…

  2. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester

    2009-07-01

    Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.

  3. Goal Orientation among Boys and Girls in Higher Secondary Schools of Kerala: How Parenting Styles Influence It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…

  4. A Novel Goal-Oriented Approach for Training Older Adult Computer Novices: Beyond the Effects of Individual-Difference Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.; Sterns, Harvey L.

    1999-01-01

    Spreadsheet training using either goal-oriented or verbal persuasion approach was given to 106 computer novices aged 50-89. Goal orientation achieved more changes in computer attitudes, efficacy, and proficiency. Intellectual ability and personality dimensions did not affect results. (SK)

  5. Sex differences in goal orientation in adolescents aged 10-19: The older boys adopt work-avoidant goals twice as often as girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Dekker, S. J., Krabbendam, L., Lee, N. C., Boschloo, A. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2013). Sex differences in goal orientation in adolescents aged 10-19: The older boys adopt work-avoidant goals twice as often as girls. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 196-200.

  6. Evaluation of Beckman Coulter DxI 800 immunoassay system using clinically oriented performance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Neval; Schryver, Patricia G; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia; Baumann, Nikola A; Block, Darci R; Budd, Jeffrey R; Gaston, S J Stephen; Klee, George G

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of 24 immunoassays using the Beckman Coulter DxI 800 immunoassay systems at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN for trueness, precision, detection limits, linearity, and consistency (across instruments and reagent lots). Clinically oriented performance goals were defined using the following methods: trueness-published desirable accuracy limits, precision-published desirable biologic variation; detection limits - 0.1 percentile of patient test values, linearity - 50% of total error, and consistency-percentage test values crossing key decision points. Local data were collected for precision, linearity, and consistency. Data were provided by Beckman Coulter, Inc. for trueness and detection limits. All evaluated assays except total thyroxine were within the proposed goals for trueness. Most of the assays met the proposed goals for precision (86% of intra-assay results and 75% of inter-assay results). Five assays had more than 15% of the test results below the minimum detection limits. Carcinoembryonic antigen, total thyroxine and free triiodothyronine exceeded the proposed goals of ±6.3%, ±5% and ±5.7% for dilution linearity. All evaluated assays were within the proposed goals for instrument consistency. Lot-to-lot consistency results for cortisol, ferritin and total thyroxine exceeded the proposed goals of 3.3%, 11.4% and 7% at one medical decision level, while vitamin B12 exceeded the proposed goals of 5.2% and 3.8% at two decision levels. The Beckman Coulter DxI 800 immunoassay system meets most of these proposed goals, even though these clinically focused performance goals represent relatively stringent limits. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic Effects of Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation on Student Achievement in Language and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Gonida, Sofia-Eleftheria N

    2018-07-01

    The present study used achievement goal theory (AGT) as a theoretical framework and examined the role of mastery and performance goals, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance, on school achieve-ment within the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective. A series of cusp catastrophe models were applied on students' achievement in a number of school subjects, such as mathematics and language for elementary school and algebra, geometry, ancient and modern Greek language for high school, using achievement goal orientations as control variables. The participants (N=224) were students attending fifth and eighth grade (aged 11 and 14, respectively) in public schools located in northern Greece. Cusp analysis based on the probability density function was carried out by two procedures, the maximum likelihood and the least squares. The results showed that performance-approach goals had no linear effect on achievement, while the cusp models implementing mastery goals as the asymmetry factor and performance-avoidance as the bifurcation, proved superior to their linear alternatives. The results of the study based on NDS support the multiple goal perspective within AGT. Theoretical issues, educational implications and future directions are discussed.

  8. Does Goal Orientation Matter for Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance? An Investigation in University Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes (Behzadi, Hamzei, Nori and Salehian, 2011; Duda and Whitehead, 1998; Roberts, 2001; Biddle, 2001;…

  9. Presenting the students’ academic achievement causal model based on goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRAHIM NASIRI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.

  10. IGNORING CHILDREN'S BEDTIME CRYING: THE POWER OF WESTERN-ORIENTED BELIEFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maute, Monique; Perren, Sonja

    2018-03-01

    Ignoring children's bedtime crying (ICBC) is an issue that polarizes parents as well as pediatricians. While most studies have focused on the effectiveness of sleep interventions, no study has yet questioned which parents use ICBC. Parents often find children's sleep difficulties to be very challenging, but factors such as the influence of Western approaches to infant care, stress, and sensitivity have not been analyzed in terms of ICBC. A sample of 586 parents completed a questionnaire to investigate the relationships between parental factors and the method of ICBC. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Latent variables were used to measure parental stress (Parental Stress Scale; J.O. Berry & W.H. Jones, 1995), sensitivity (Situation-Reaction-Questionnaire; Y. Hänggi, K. Schweinberger, N. Gugger, & M. Perrez, 2010), Western-oriented parental beliefs (Rigidity), and children's temperament (Parenting Stress Index; H. Tröster & R.R. Abidin). ICBC was used by 32.6% (n = 191) of parents in this study. Parents' Western-oriented beliefs predicted ICBC. Attitudes such as feeding a child on a time schedule and not carrying it out to prevent dependence were associated with letting the child cry to fall asleep. Low-sensitivity parents as well as parents of children with a difficult temperament used ICBC more frequently. Path analysis shows that parental stress did not predict ICBC. The results suggest that ICBC has become part of Western childrearing tradition. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Rethinking physical activity communication: using focus groups to understand women's goals, values, and beliefs to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle; Taber, Jennifer M; Patrick, Heather; Thai, Chan L; Oh, April

    2017-05-18

    Communication about physical activity (PA) frames PA and influences what it means to people, including the role it plays in their lives. To the extent that PA messages can be designed to reflect outcomes that are relevant to what people most value experiencing and achieving in their daily lives, the more compelling and effective they will be. Aligned with self-determination theory, this study investigated proximal goals and values that are salient in everyday life and how they could be leveraged through new messaging to better support PA participation among women. The present study was designed to examine the nature of women's daily goals and priorities and investigate women's PA beliefs, feelings, and experiences, in order to identify how PA may compete with or facilitate women's daily goals and priorities. Preliminary recommendations are proposed for designing new PA messages that align PA with women's daily goals and desired experiences to better motivate participation. Eight focus groups were conducted with White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina women aged 22-49, stratified by amount of self-reported PA (29 low active participants, 11 high active participants). Respondents discussed their goals, values, and daily priorities along with beliefs, feelings about and experiences being physically active. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using a thematic analysis strategy to identify emergent themes. Many of the goals and values that both low and high active participants discussed as desiring and valuing map on to key principles of self-determination theory. However, the discussions among low active participants suggested that their beliefs, feelings, experiences, and definitions of PA were in conflict with their proximal goals, values, and priorities, also undermining their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Findings from this study can be used to inform and evaluate new physical activity communication strategies that leverage more

  12. Analysis of self-determined motivation in basketball players through goal orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Manuel; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Abraldes, J Arturo; Rodríguez-Suárez, Nuria

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. Firstly to examine the relations between the different constructs that defines Nicholls' Achievement Goal Theory and Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. Secondly to analyse the differences that exist between them with respect to the socio-demographic variables gender and age. A sample of 292 federated basketball players from the Region of Murcia (Spain) with ages between 14 and 18 years old was used. In addition, Castilian versions of The Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) and the Sports Motivational Scale (SMS) were administered. Three statistical analyses were employed, a descriptive analysis, a correlation analysis and a regression analysis. The results showed a positive relation between ego orientation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. The motivational relations between both theories and the differences with respect to gender and age are discussed. We have found out that mainly gender and also age differences are strong predictors of ego orientation, extrinsic motivation of external regulation and amotivation. We can also confirm that extrinsic motivation of external regulation positively predicts ego orientation and a decrease of task orientation. The results ratify the use of the Spanish version of the SMS to measure different types of motivation within the sports context.

  13. How Learning Goal Orientation Fosters Leadership Recognition in Self-managed Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yih-Teen; Paunova, Minna

    2017-01-01

    understudied. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose and test an individual-level two-stage process model of generalised exchange linking LGO and leadership recognition in self-managed teams. Specifically, we posit that learning-oriented individuals will tend to feel safer in self-managed teams, which......Defined as a mental framework for how individuals interpret and respond to achievement situations, learning goal orientation (LGO) has received increasing attention in organisational research. However, its effect on leadership, especially in contexts absent of formal leadership, remains......, but that contextual role behavior alone does not mediate the effect of LGO on leadership recognition. LGO has an indirect effect on leadership recognition through the joint mediation of felt safety and contextual role behavior. Our results offer insight on the link between LGO and leadership, with practical...

  14. Goal orientation and conflicts: Motors of change in development projects in health care service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elg, Mattias; Kollberg, Beata; Lindmark, Jan; Olsson, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present parts of a larger research study, which aims at explaining how a process-oriented innovation unfolds and develops over time in Swedish health care. Through a longitudinal field study of a national and a local development project, we analyze how the flow model--a process-oriented innovation that emphasizes the sequence of activities a patient undertakes through the health care system--has been developed in Swedish health care. We propose to explain how the development projects unfold over time through the use of process theories of organizational development and change. The national project is best understood as a process of evolution from the phase of selection of projects and teleological (goal-oriented, socially constructed development) and dialectic theory (development via conflict of 2 opposing ideas from different organizational entities) through the process in which national ideas face real-world practice. We also propose a synthesis of dialectics and teleological motors for explaining local development. This synthesis proposes that local development teams have a rather broad notion of what it takes to implement the flow model. The team knows the goal, procedures, and activities from a broad perspective. Through a search-and-interact process, in which other organizational entities such as IT consultants, medical units and politicians have a heavy influence, the group sets and implements goals. Details of how to proceed are, however, constructed in the process of acting. This occurs as ideas are developed and tested in real settings. We conclude the article by presenting managerial implications for understanding these process patterns.

  15. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A

    2014-03-28

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-"coupled"- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz-Kalos-Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary MATLAB

  16. Fully anisotropic goal-oriented mesh adaptation for 3D steady Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loseille, A.; Dervieux, A.; Alauzet, F.

    2010-04-01

    This paper studies the coupling between anisotropic mesh adaptation and goal-oriented error estimate. The former is very well suited to the control of the interpolation error. It is generally interpreted as a local geometric error estimate. On the contrary, the latter is preferred when studying approximation errors for PDEs. It generally involves non local error contributions. Consequently, a full and strong coupling between both is hard to achieve due to this apparent incompatibility. This paper shows how to achieve this coupling in three steps. First, a new a priori error estimate is proved in a formal framework adapted to goal-oriented mesh adaptation for output functionals. This estimate is based on a careful analysis of the contributions of the implicit error and of the interpolation error. Second, the error estimate is applied to the set of steady compressible Euler equations which are solved by a stabilized Galerkin finite element discretization. A goal-oriented error estimation is derived. It involves the interpolation error of the Euler fluxes weighted by the gradient of the adjoint state associated with the observed functional. Third, rewritten in the continuous mesh framework, the previous estimate is minimized on the set of continuous meshes thanks to a calculus of variations. The optimal continuous mesh is then derived analytically. Thus, it can be used as a metric tensor field to drive the mesh adaptation. From a numerical point of view, this method is completely automatic, intrinsically anisotropic, and does not depend on any a priori choice of variables to perform the adaptation. 3D examples of steady flows around supersonic and transsonic jets are presented to validate the current approach and to demonstrate its efficiency.

  17. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-“coupled”- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz–Kalos–Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary

  18. Intra- and interpersonal coordination of goal-oriented movements in a working scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Stork, Sonja; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2008-01-01

    We present a scenario for examining mechanisms of goal-oriented movement coordination in humans. Our aim is to determine behavioral rules and constraints that shape movement execution. Therefore, trajectories of hand and finger movements are recorded while participants perform a simple construction...... task. We measure different parameters of reaching and grasping and compare performance in a single-person versus a two-person condition. First results of a pilot study are shown. Finally, we discuss our scenario with respect to possible applications in human-robot interaction in a factory environment....

  19. Error estimation for goal-oriented spatial adaptivity for the SN equations on triangular meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathouwers, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate different error estimation procedures for use within a goal oriented adaptive algorithm for the S N equations on unstructured meshes. The method is based on a dual-weighted residual approach where an appropriate adjoint problem is formulated and solved in order to obtain the importance of residual errors in the forward problem on the specific goal of interest. The forward residuals and the adjoint function are combined to obtain both economical finite element meshes tailored to the solution of the target functional as well as providing error estimates. Various approximations made to make the calculation of the adjoint angular flux more economically attractive are evaluated by comparing the performance of the resulting adaptive algorithm and the quality of the error estimators when applied to two shielding-type test problems. (author)

  20. The role of self-regulated strategies and goal orientation in predicting achievement of elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kitsantas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81 fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in students’ academic achievement. Overall, goal orientation was not a significant predictor of students’ outcomes measures across different subject areas. Areas for future research are explored and implications for school personnel are provided.

  1. Generational differences in young adults' life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Freeman, Elise C

    2012-05-01

    Three studies examined generational differences in life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation among American high school seniors (Monitoring the Future; N = 463,753, 1976-2008) and entering college students (The American Freshman; N = 8.7 million, 1966-2009). Compared to Baby Boomers (born 1946-1961) at the same age, GenX'ers (born 1962-1981) and Millennials (born after 1982) considered goals related to extrinsic values (money, image, fame) more important and those related to intrinsic values (self-acceptance, affiliation, community) less important. Concern for others (e.g., empathy for outgroups, charity donations, the importance of having a job worthwhile to society) declined slightly. Community service rose but was also increasingly required for high school graduation over the same time period. Civic orientation (e.g., interest in social problems, political participation, trust in government, taking action to help the environment and save energy) declined an average of d = -.34, with about half the decline occurring between GenX and the Millennials. Some of the largest declines appeared in taking action to help the environment. In most cases, Millennials slowed, though did not reverse, trends toward reduced community feeling begun by GenX. The results generally support the "Generation Me" view of generational differences rather than the "Generation We" or no change views.

  2. Motivational Regulations and Goal Orientation in Division III Basketball Players: Gender and Playing Status Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri J. Hepler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in motivational regulations and goal orientation based on gender and playing status.  Method:  Two hundred and fourteen Division III basketball players (92 males, 112 females completed the Sport Motivation Scale-28 and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport.  Based on average playing time per game, participants were classified as starters (over 20 minutes, n = 80, substitutes (6-20 minutes, n = 65, and benchwarmers (5 minutes or less, n = 63.  Results: Results indicated that males scored higher than females on external regulation, substitutes scored higher than starters on all 3 dimensions of extrinsic motivation, and benchwarmers expressed the most amotivation.  Task orientation was positively related to all types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Conclusion: While coaches should strive to enhance the intrinsic motivation in all of their athletes, special emphasis should be placed on promoting intrinsic motivation of male athletes and substitutes.   Keywords:  motives, playing time, sex differences

  3. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  4. Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan L; Balaguer, Isabel; Duda, Joan L

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to determine if dispositional achievement goal orientation profiles that are reported in the literature would be observed in a sample of youth athletes, and (b) to examine potential achievement goal orientation profile differences on perceptions of the motivational climate, perceptions of peer relationships, and motivation-related responses. Male soccer players (n=223) aged 9-12 years (mean=10.9, s=0.6) completed a multi-section questionnaire containing assessments of dispositional goal (task, ego) orientations, the perceived task- and ego-involving features of the motivational climate, perceived peer acceptance and friendship quality (positive friendship quality, conflict), perceived ability, soccer enjoyment, and satisfaction with one's performance and the team. Four profiles were observed that closely matched those observed by Hodge and Petlichkoff (2000), though in the present study a lower proportion of participants exhibited achievement goal profiles consisting of relatively high ego orientation. Achievement goal profile differences were found for all variables except positive friendship quality, with a general trend for those reporting relatively lower task goal orientation to exhibit less adaptive responses. Overall, the findings support achievement goal frameworks (e.g. Nicholls, 1989) and suggest that further examination of dispositional achievement goals may afford a deeper understanding of social relationships and motivational processes in youth sport.

  5. Understanding the emergence of state goal orientation in organizational work groups: the role of leadership and multilevel climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa

    2005-11-01

    This article attends to a broad range of practically significant employee motivations and provides insight into how to enhance individual-level performance by examining individual-level state goal orientation emergence in organizational work groups. Leadership and multilevel climate processes are theorized to parallel each dimension of state goal orientation to cue and ultimately induce the corresponding achievement focus among individual work group members. It is argued that the patterns of leader behavior, which elucidate the leader's achievement priority, shape group members' psychological and work group climate to embody this priority. Resulting multilevel climate perceptions signal and compel group members to adopt the ascribed form of state goal orientation. The quality of the leader-member exchange relationship is viewed as a means to clarify leader messages in the formation of group members' psychological climate and internalize these cues in the emergence of state goal orientation. Considerations for future research and practice are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Social Studies Oriented Achievement Goal Scale (SOAGS: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehat GEZER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students' social studies achievement goal. The research was conducted on a study group consisted of 374 middle school students studying in the central district of Diyarbakır in 2014-2015 school year fall semester. Expert opinion was consulted with regard to the scale's content and face validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were performed in order to measure the scale's construct validity. As a result of EFA, a 29-item and a six-factor structure model which explains 50.82% of the total variance was obtained. The emerging factors were called as a self-approach, task-approach, other-approach, task-avoidance, other-avoidance and self-avoidance respectively. The findings acquired CFA indicated that the 29-item and six-factor structure related to social studies oriented achievement goal scale have acceptable goodness of fit indices. The scale's reliability coefficients were calculated by means of internal consistency method. As a result of reliability analysis, it was determined that the reliability coefficients were within admissible limits. The finding of the item correlation and 27% of upper and lower group comparisons demonstrated that all of the items in the scale should remain. In light of these results, it could be argued that the scale is reliable and valid instrument and can be used in order to test students' social studies achievement goals.

  7. Social Goal Orientations, Interpersonal Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Japan: A Test of the Diathesis-Stress Model Using the Trichotomous Framework of Social Goal Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether depression among early adolescents (aged 12-14 years, N = 116; 65 girls) can be predicted by interactions between social goal orientations and interpersonal stress. Based on Kuroda and Sakurai (2001), this study applied Elliot and Harackiewicz's (1996) trichotomous framework of achievement goals to…

  8. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  9. When focusing on a goal interferes with action control: action versus state orientation and over-maintenance of intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigendijk, H.A.H.; Koole, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    People vary in action versus state orientation, or the ease versus difficulty by which they can form and enact goals under demanding conditions (Kuhl and Beckmann in Volition and personality: action versus state orientation, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 1994). According to the over-maintenance hypothesis,

  10. An Investigation of Task and Ego Oriented Goals of the Students Majoring at the Faculty of Sport Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the task and ego oriented goals of the students majoring at the Faculty of Sports Sciences at Ataturk University. For data collection, "The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire", which was developed by Duda (1) and adapted into Turkish by Toros and Yetim (2), was used in the current study to…

  11. False-belief understanding and language ability mediate the relationship between emotion comprehension and prosocial orientation in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ornaghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion comprehension is known to be a key correlate and predictor of prosociality from early childhood. The present study look at their relation within the wide theoretical construct of social understanding which includes a number of socio-emotional skills, as well as cognitive and linguistic abilities. Theory of mind, especially false-belief understanding, has been found to have positive correlations with both emotion comprehension and prosocial orientation. Similarly, language ability is known to play a key role in children’s socio-emotional development. The combined contribution of both false-belief understanding and language in explaining the relation between emotion comprehension and prosociality has yet to be investigated. Thus, in the current study, we conducted an in-depth exploration of how preschoolers’ false-belief understanding and language ability each contribute to modeling the relationship between their comprehension of emotion and their disposition to act prosocially towards others, after controlling for age and gender. Participants were 101 4-to-6 year old children (54% boys, who were administered measures of language ability, false-belief understanding, emotion comprehension and prosocial orientation. Multiple mediation analysis of the data suggested that false-belief understanding and language ability jointly and fully mediated the effect of preschoolers’ emotion comprehension on their prosocial orientation. Analysis of covariates revealed that gender exerted no statistically significant effect, while age had a trivial positive effect. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. False-Belief Understanding and Language Ability Mediate the Relationship between Emotion Comprehension and Prosocial Orientation in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornaghi, Veronica; Pepe, Alessandro; Grazzani, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Emotion comprehension (EC) is known to be a key correlate and predictor of prosociality from early childhood. In the present study, we examined this relationship within the broad theoretical construct of social understanding which includes a number of socio-emotional skills, as well as cognitive and linguistic abilities. Theory of mind, especially false-belief understanding, has been found to be positively correlated with both EC and prosocial orientation. Similarly, language ability is known to play a key role in children's socio-emotional development. The combined contribution of false-belief understanding and language to explaining the relationship between EC and prosociality has yet to be investigated. Thus, in the current study, we conducted an in-depth exploration of how preschoolers' false-belief understanding and language ability each contribute to modeling the relationship between children's comprehension of emotion and their disposition to act prosocially toward others, after controlling for age and gender. Participants were 101 4- to 6-year-old children (54% boys), who were administered measures of language ability, false-belief understanding, EC and prosocial orientation. Multiple mediation analysis of the data suggested that false-belief understanding and language ability jointly and fully mediated the effect of preschoolers' EC on their prosocial orientation. Analysis of covariates revealed that gender exerted no statistically significant effect, while age had a trivial positive effect. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Predicting Turkish Preservice Elementary Teachers' Orientations to Teaching Science with Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Conceptions, and Learning Approaches in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elif Adibelli; Deniz, Hasan; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated to what extent Turkish preservice elementary teachers' orientations to teaching science could be explained by their epistemological beliefs, conceptions of learning, and approaches to learning science. The sample included 157 Turkish preservice elementary teachers. The four instruments used in the study were School…

  14. Attributions for sexual orientation vs. stereotypes : How beliefs about value violations account for attribution effects on anti-gay discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyna, Christine; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Yantis, Caitlyn; Brandt, Mark J.

    Attributions for sexual orientation strongly predict opposition to gay rights policies; however, we propose that beliefs that gays and lesbians violate important values drive gay rights opposition and account for the relationship between attributions and anti-gay discrimination. In two studies, we

  15. How the Future Orientation of Traditional Israeli Palestinian Girls Links Beliefs about Women's Roles and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel; Mahajna, Sami

    2004-01-01

    A model in which future orientation links perceived fathers' and girls' beliefs about traditional women's roles and academic achievement was tested on data collected from traditional Israeli Palestinian girls (N=295) attending a Moslem all-girl senior high school. LISREL analyses estimated two empirical models pertaining to educational and family…

  16. Theoretical Value Belief, Cognitive Ability, and Personality as Predictors of Student Performance in Object-Oriented Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dianne J.; Cegielski, Casey G.; Wade, James N.

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this article reports the results of a study designed to evaluate the relationship among object-oriented (OO) computer programming task performance and a student's (1) theoretical value belief, (2) cognitive ability, and (3) personality. The results of this study do not support the assertion that cognitive ability is a…

  17. Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems

    KAUST Repository

    Almeida, Regina C.

    2010-08-01

    A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. A goal-oriented field measurement filtering technique for the identification of material model parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2009-05-16

    The post-processing of experiments with nonuniform fields is still a challenge: the information is often much richer, but its interpretation for identification purposes is not straightforward. However, this is a very promising field of development because it would pave the way for the robust identification of multiple material parameters using only a small number of experiments. This paper presents a goal-oriented filtering technique in which data are combined into new output fields which are strongly correlated with specific quantities of interest (the material parameters to be identified). Thus, this combination, which is nonuniform in space, constitutes a filter of the experimental outputs, whose relevance is quantified by a quality function based on global variance analysis. Then, this filter is optimized using genetic algorithms. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems

    KAUST Repository

    Almeida, Regina C.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Sport ability beliefs, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation: the moderating role of perceived competence in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J

    2009-06-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.

  1. Teachers' Workplace Well-Being: Exploring a Process Model of Goal Orientation, Coping Behavior, Engagement, and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The current research integrated components of the transactional model of stress and coping with self-worth and goal theories to examine a model where (a) teachers' goal orientation (as indicated by mastery and failure avoidance) was hypothesized to predict their teaching coping strategies (as indicated by problem- and emotion-focused coping) and…

  2. The development of learning material using learning goal orientation approach in digital electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitaningayu, P.; Anifah, L.; Kholis, N.

    2018-01-01

    Mastery of digital electronics principles is essential for future engineers in the digital era. This article describes the use of simulations in an undergraduate electrical engineering course to promote the adoption of a learning-goal orientation. This study used experimental method. This was done by providing students with a simulation environment which students freely use to experiment with various circuit models. Students were then invited to reflect on how the simulation results compare with results from lab experiments. The module got 82% of positive rating from 28 students and all of them passed in the examination with 81.8 as the average score. Those majority students were motivated by the combination of two learning goals written in the module. Moreover, they also gain the ability to design more complex systems because of their combined experience. Additionally, the module also has been validated and got 83% of reliability. The final product of this research hereafter can be recommended to be used as teaching material.

  3. Adolescents' goal orientations for science in single-gender Israeli religious schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortus, David; Daphna, Limor

    2017-01-01

    Israeli students and their families can choose between state-funded secular, religious, orthodox, and other alternative schools (e.g., Waldorf, Montessori, democratic). Earlier studies showed that the motivation to engage with science differs greatly between Israeli students in secular schools and democratic schools, with these differences being attributed to differences in school culture rather than home influence (Vedder-Weiss & Fortus, 2011, 2012). In this study we extend earlier studies by looking at religious state-funded schools that serve 18% of Israel's Jewish population. These schools provide a unique research environment since from grade 6 they are gender-separated. We examined the science-related mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoid goal orientations, perceptions of the science teachers, parents, schools, and peers' goal emphases in relation to science of the students in these schools. We compared between students in religious schools (newly collected data) and secular schools (data reported in prior studies), and found that there is a distinct difference between these two populations that is associated with differing attitudes toward gender and science at these schools. This study provides additional evidence for the influence of culture on students' motivation to engage with science, suggests mechanisms by which this influence may occur.

  4. Goal-oriented failure analysis - a systems analysis approach to hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, A.B.; Davies, J.; Foster, J.; Wells, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Goal-Oriented Failure Analysis, GOFA, is a methodology which is being developed to identify and analyse the potential failure modes of a hazardous plant or process. The technique will adopt a structured top-down approach, with a particular failure goal being systematically analysed. A systems analysis approach is used, with the analysis being organised around a systems diagram of the plant or process under study. GOFA will also use checklists to supplement the analysis -these checklists will be prepared in advance of a group session and will help to guide the analysis and avoid unnecessary time being spent on identifying obvious failure modes or failing to identify certain hazards or failures. GOFA is being developed with the aim of providing a hazard identification methodology which is more efficient and stimulating than the conventional approach to HAZOP. The top-down approach should ensure that the analysis is more focused and the use of a systems diagram will help to pull the analysis together at an early stage whilst also helping to structure the sessions in a more stimulating way than the conventional techniques. GOFA will be, essentially, an extension of the HAZOP methodology. GOFA is currently being computerised using a knowledge-based systems approach for implementation. The Goldworks II expert systems development tool is being used. (author)

  5. A meta-analytic examination of the goal orientation nomological net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie C; Youngcourt, Satoris S; Beaubien, J Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The authors present an empirical review of the literature concerning trait and state goal orientation (GO). Three dimensions of GO were examined: learning, prove performance, and avoid performance along with presumed antecedents and proximal and distal consequences of these dimensions. Antecedent variables included cognitive ability, implicit theory of intelligence, need for achievement, self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and the Big Five personality characteristics. Proximal consequences included state GO, task-specific self-efficacy, self-set goal level, learning strategies, feedback seeking, and state anxiety. Distal consequences included learning, academic performance, task performance, and job performance. Generally speaking, learning GO was positively correlated, avoid performance GO was negatively correlated, and prove performance GO was uncorrelated with these variables. Consistent with theory, state GO tended to have stronger relationships with the distal consequences than did trait GO. Finally, using a meta-correlation matrix, the authors found that trait GO predicted job performance above and beyond cognitive ability and personality. These results demonstrate the value of GO to organizational researchers. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Analysis of the project synthesis goal cluster orientation and inquiry emphasis of elementary science textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. An inquiry classification scheme was used for the remaining segment. Four questions were answered: (1) To what extent do elementary science textbooks focus on each Project Synthesis goal cluster? (2) In which part of the text is such information found? (3) To what extent are the activities and experiments merely verifications of information already introduced in the text? (4) If inquiry is present in an activity, then what is the level of such inquiry?Eleven science textbook series, which comprise approximately 90 percent of the national market, were selected for analysis. Two units, one primary (K-3) and one intermediate (4-6), were selected for analysis by first identifying units common to most series, then randomly selecting one primary and one intermediate unit for analysis.Each randomly selected unit was carefully read, using the sentence as the unit of analysis. Each declarative and interrogative sentence in the body of the text was classified as: (1) academic; (2) personal; (3) career; or (4) societal in its focus. Each illustration, except those used in evaluation items, was similarly classified. Each activity/experiment and each miscellaneous sentence in end-of-chapter segments labelled review, summary, evaluation, etc., were similarly classified. Finally, each activity/experiment, as a whole, was categorized according to a four-category inquiry scheme (confirmation, structured inquiry, guided inquiry, open inquiry).In general, results of the analysis are: (1) most text prose focuses on academic science; (2) most remaining text prose focuses on the personal goal cluster; (3) the career and societal goal clusters receive only minor attention; (4) text illustrations exhibit a pattern similar to text prose; (5) text activities/experiments are academic in orientation

  7. Believing is seeing: how people's beliefs influence goals, emotions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Pim W; Bok, Harold G J

    2013-11-01

    Health care professionals work and learn in complex environments. Some are able to continue learning from their practice and the challenges it presents, whereas others refrain from investing more effort when faced with setbacks. This paper discusses a social cognitive model of motivation that helps to explain the different kinds of behaviour that emerge when individuals are confronted with challenges. Self-theories (people's theories on what competence is and means for the self) play a major role in establishing the goals people set for themselves, the emotions they experience and the meanings they attach to situations. These self-views are often not explicitly articulated and are therefore called 'implicit' ('self-') theories. Social cognitive research suggests there are two distinct ways of thinking about one's personal attributes: entity theorists view a trait as a fixed, concrete internal entity, whereas incremental theorists instead believe a trait to be something malleable that can be developed or cultivated through effort. Holding an entity theory leads one to set performance goals and to harbour concerns about performing well and making a good impression. Holding an incremental theory tends to lead one to set learning goals, and to focus less on performance and more on spending time and effort in determining which strategies work. The current literature on self-theories is used to explore the relevance of these theories in medical education in three contexts: (i) it is argued that, in order to support lifelong learning, both individual and organisational efforts fit best with an incremental outlook on professional development; (ii) if it is to move forward in the domain of feedback-seeking behaviour, medical education might benefit from a better understanding of the interactions among self-theories, feedback behaviour, and the pervading role of organisational culture, and (iii) the impact of self-theories on assessors' evaluations of performance. © 2013

  8. Intrinsic motivation, performance, and the mediating role of mastery goal orientation: a test of self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Ford, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Although intrinsic motivation has been linked repeatedly to performance and outcomes, the causal relationship between the two has remained unclear. To explain the link, this study considered the focusing influence of mastery goals. Using a three-wave panel study and hypotheses drawn from self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the current study sought to clarify the relationships between intrinsic motivation, mastery goal orientation, and performance. Specifically, the current study hypothesized and found that mastery goals mediated (explained) the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance.

  9. Goal-oriented functional tree structure for nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.V.; Roush, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for development and implementation of emergency response plans do not provide the planner/implementer with an adequate overview of the functions to be achieved or a measure of their relative importance. To provide a framework in which this importance can be recognized, understood and quantified, a logical goal oriented tree structure has been developed which integrates and gives a clear visual representation of the functions required to meet the emergency preparedness objective. The tree considers a spectrum of both high and low probability events which may require mitigation both onsite and offsite. The ultimate objective: to Minimize the Ill Effects of a Nuclear Power Plant Incident is satisfied by functions concerned with prevention and mitigation of human injury and property damage. A complete and detailed structure which specifies the subfunctions and success paths which satisfy these functions has been developed. Institutional activities such as planning, training, procedure development, monitoring and decision making do not enter the tree directly. Instead, the logic structure defines the extent to which these activities must be considered and the information systems and decision models required for successful implementation of the plan. The top structure of the tree is presented and a few branches are considered in detail. The impact of institutional activities, information systems, etc. is discussed. Tree quantification is considered

  10. A Goal Oriented Approach for Modeling and Analyzing Security Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Golnaz; Yu, Eric

    In designing software systems, security is typically only one design objective among many. It may compete with other objectives such as functionality, usability, and performance. Too often, security mechanisms such as firewalls, access control, or encryption are adopted without explicit recognition of competing design objectives and their origins in stakeholder interests. Recently, there is increasing acknowledgement that security is ultimately about trade-offs. One can only aim for "good enough" security, given the competing demands from many parties. In this paper, we examine how conceptual modeling can provide explicit and systematic support for analyzing security trade-offs. After considering the desirable criteria for conceptual modeling methods, we examine several existing approaches for dealing with security trade-offs. From analyzing the limitations of existing methods, we propose an extension to the i* framework for security trade-off analysis, taking advantage of its multi-agent and goal orientation. The method was applied to several case studies used to exemplify existing approaches.

  11. Goal orientations and sport motivation, differences between the athletes of competitive and non-competitive rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpoula, M; Tsopani, D; Flessas, K; Chairopoulou, C

    2011-09-01

    The present study examines the sport motivation and the goal orientations in the competitive and non-competitive structure of rhythmic gymnastics. Participation of individuals in one or the other structure of the sport differs in line with the goals they want to achieve and possibly also with respect to the factors that impulse them to take part in one or the other. The purpose of this study is to examine how individuals who participate in different structures of the sport of rhythmic gymnastics differentiate with regard to the type of motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation) and goal orientations. The study involved 98 young female rhythmic gymnastics athletes (aged 14 years and up), out of which 40 were athletes of competitive clubs or members of national teams, and 58 were athletes of non-competitive clubs. For the evaluation of motivation and goal orientations the following tools were used: the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Descriptive and inductive statistical data analysis was conducted. The results showed that the athletes of the non-competitive structure presented higher levels of introjected regulation (extrinsic motivation), amotivation and lower levels of ego orientation (PRhythmic gymnastics athletes' (regardless of the structure of the sport) presented high level in task orientation while the high levels of task orientation is positively associated with high levels of intrinsic motivation regardless of the levels of ego orientation. The intrinsic motivation of athletes participating in rhythmic gymnastics runs at high levels. The amotivation of rhythmic gymnastics athletes' is a phenomenon which is also presented in the the non-competitive sport structure. It is important that the two different structures of sports be determined with accurate criteria.

  12. Consideration of learning orientations as an application of achievement goals in evaluating life science majors in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-06-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics such as metacognition. We investigate a sample population of 218 students in a first-semester introductory algebra-based physics course, drawn from 14 laboratory sections within six semesters of course sections, to determine the influence of achievement goals on life science majors' attitudes towards physics. Learning orientations that, respectively, pertain to mastery goals and performance goals, in addition to a learning orientation that does not report a performance goal, were recorded from students in the specific context of learning a problem-solving framework during an in-class exercise. Students' learning orientations, defined within the context of students' self-reported statements in the specific context of a problem-solving-related research-based course implementation, are compared to pre-post results on physics problem-solving items in a well-established attitudinal survey instrument, in order to establish the categories' validity. In addition, mastery-related and performance-related orientations appear to extend to overall pre-post attitudinal shifts, but not to force and motion concepts or to overall course grade, within the scope of an introductory physics course. There also appears to be differentiation regarding overall course performance within health science majors, but not within biology majors, in terms of learning orientations; however, health science majors generally appear to fare less well on all measurements in the study than do biology majors, regardless of learning orientations.

  13. The Relationships among Students' Future-Oriented Goals and Subgoals, Perceived Task Instrumentality, and Task-Oriented Self-Regulation Strategies in an Academic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Sharon E.; Miller, Raymond B.; Relyea, George E.

    2008-01-01

    The authors performed path analysis, followed by a bootstrap procedure, to test the predictions of a model explaining the relationships among students' distal future goals (both extrinsic and intrinsic), their adoption of a middle-range subgoal, their perceptions of task instrumentality, and their proximal task-oriented self-regulation strategies.…

  14. Goal orientation and work role performance: predicting adaptive and proactive work role performance through self-leadership strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Curral, Luís Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between goal orientation, self-leadership dimensions, and adaptive and proactive work role performances. The authors hypothesize that learning orientation, in contrast to performance orientation, positively predicts proactive and adaptive work role performances and that this relationship is mediated by self-leadership behavior-focused strategies. It is posited that self-leadership natural reward strategies and thought pattern strategies are expected to moderate this relationship. Workers (N = 108) from a software company participated in this study. As expected, learning orientation did predict adaptive and proactive work role performance. Moreover, in the relationship between learning orientation and proactive work role performance through self-leadership behavior-focused strategies, a moderated mediation effect was found for self-leadership natural reward and thought pattern strategies. In the end, the authors discuss the results and implications are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  15. The Comparison and Relationship between Religious Orientation and Practical Commitment to Religious Beliefs with Marital Adjustment in Seminary Scholars and University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رویا رسولی

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality and faith are powerful aspects of human experience. So, it is important to consider the relation between faith, beliefs, and marriage. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between religious orientation and practical commitment to religious beliefs with marital adjustment among seminary scholars and Yazd university students. Research sample consists 200 subjects including 50 student couples and 50 couples of seminary scholars collected via available sampling method from Yazd University and seminary scholars. Research instruments included: 1 Religious Orientation Scale 2 Test of Practical Commitment to Religious Beliefs, and 3 Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Correlation analyses showed that a relationship between religious orientation and marital adjustment. Marital adjustment has positive correlation with religiosity and negatively associated with unconstructed religiosity. Also there was a relationship between practical commitments to religious beliefs with marital adjustment in the groups. Relationship between practical commitments to religious beliefs with marital adjustment was higher than relationship between religious orientation and marital adjustment. the results of independent t-test analysis, showed signifycant differences between university students and seminary scholars in terms of religious orientation, practical commitent to religious beliefs and marital adjustment. Also, practical commitment to religious beliefs, marital adjustment and religious orientation in seminary schoolars were higher than students. Marital adjustment in seminary scholars was higher than students due to marital satisfaction because religious persons have faith beliefs. We conclude that faith beliefs impact marital satisfaction, marital adjustment conflict solving, and forgiveness. Negative beliefs about divorce and the believe that god supports marriage, may explain the relationship between commitment to religious beliefs and

  16. 3D CSEM inversion based on goal-oriented adaptive finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Key, K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a parallel 3D frequency domain controlled-source electromagnetic inversion code name MARE3DEM. Non-linear inversion of observed data is performed with the Occam variant of regularized Gauss-Newton optimization. The forward operator is based on the goal-oriented finite element method that efficiently calculates the responses and sensitivity kernels in parallel using a data decomposition scheme where independent modeling tasks contain different frequencies and subsets of the transmitters and receivers. To accommodate complex 3D conductivity variation with high flexibility and precision, we adopt the dual-grid approach where the forward mesh conforms to the inversion parameter grid and is adaptively refined until the forward solution converges to the desired accuracy. This dual-grid approach is memory efficient, since the inverse parameter grid remains independent from fine meshing generated around the transmitter and receivers by the adaptive finite element method. Besides, the unstructured inverse mesh efficiently handles multiple scale structures and allows for fine-scale model parameters within the region of interest. Our mesh generation engine keeps track of the refinement hierarchy so that the map of conductivity and sensitivity kernel between the forward and inverse mesh is retained. We employ the adjoint-reciprocity method to calculate the sensitivity kernels which establish a linear relationship between changes in the conductivity model and changes in the modeled responses. Our code uses a direcy solver for the linear systems, so the adjoint problem is efficiently computed by re-using the factorization from the primary problem. Further computational efficiency and scalability is obtained in the regularized Gauss-Newton portion of the inversion using parallel dense matrix-matrix multiplication and matrix factorization routines implemented with the ScaLAPACK library. We show the scalability, reliability and the potential of the algorithm to deal with

  17. Goal orientation in surgical residents: a study of the motivation behind learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rebecca L; Hudak-Rosander, Cristina; Datta, Jashodeep; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2014-08-01

    The subconscious way in which an individual approaches learning, goal orientation (GO), has been shown to influence job satisfaction, job performance, and burnout in nonmedical cohorts. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate an instrument to assess GO in surgical residents, so that in the future, we can better understand how differences in motivation affect professional development. Residents were recruited to complete a 17-item survey adapted from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). The survey included three scales assessing GO in residency-specific terms. Items were scored on a 5-point Likert scale, and the psychometric properties of the adapted and original PALS were compared. Ninety-five percent of residents (61/64) participated. Median age was 30 y and 33% were female. Mean (standard deviation) scale scores for the adapted PALS were: mastery 4.30 (0.48), performance approach (PAP) 3.17 (0.99), and performance avoid 2.75 (0.88). Mean (standard deviation) scale scores for the original PALS items were: mastery 3.35 (1.02), PAP 2.76 (1.15), and performance avoid 2.41 (0.91). Cronbach alpha were α = 0.89 and α = 0.84 for the adapted PAP and avoid scales, respectively, which were comparable with the original scales. For the adapted mastery scale, α = 0.54. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors, and factor loadings for individual mastery items did not load consistently onto a single factor. This study represents the first steps in the development of a novel tool to measure GO among surgical residents. Understanding motivational psychology in residents may facilitate improved education and professional development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Perceived Parenting Styles: Goal Orientations and Career Aspirations of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…

  19. Enhancing Peer Acceptance of Children with Learning Difficulties: Classroom Goal Orientation and Effects of a Storytelling Programme with Drama Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum; Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Tam, Zoe W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Peer acceptance is an important facilitator for the success of inclusive education. The aim of the current study is twofold: (1) to examine how classroom goal orientation is associated with children's acceptance of peers with learning difficulties; and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of a storytelling programme with drama techniques on…

  20. Students' goal orientations, information processing strategies and knowledge development in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, learning processes of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education (PVSE; in Dutch vmbo) were investigated. The study aimed at describing the relation between goal orientations, information processing strategies and the development of knowledge of these students.

  1. Does Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect Always Exist? Investigation of Goal Orientations as Moderators in the Hong Kong Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2014-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) posits that students with the same ability will have higher academic self-concepts when they are in low-ability classes than in high-ability classes. Our research puts the BFLPE under scrutiny by examining goal orientations as the moderators that may affect the size of the BFLPE. We collected data on…

  2. The Relationship between Self-Determination, Achievement Goal Orientation and Satisfaction with the Learning Experience: Working with Adult Lifelong Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…

  3. Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…

  4. The effects of a learning-goal orientation training on self-regulation: A field experiment among unemployed job seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, G.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; van Mierlo, H.; van Dam, A.; Born, M.Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Finding reemployment after job loss is a complex and difficult task that requires extensive motivation and self-regulation. This study aimed to examine whether improving unemployed job seekers’ cognitive self-regulation can increase reemployment probabilities. Based on the goal orientation

  5. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Contingent Reward, and Organizational Identification: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Innovation and Goal Culture Orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenikou, Athena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward as complementary, but distinct, forms of leadership on facets of organizational identification via the perception of innovation and goal organizational values. Design/Methodology/Approach: Three studies were carried out implementing either a measurement of mediation or experimental-causal-chain design to test for the hypothesized effects. Findings: The measurement of mediation study showed that transformational leadership had a positive direct and indirect effect, via innovation value orientation, on cognitive identification, whereas transactional contingent reward was more strongly related to affective, rather than cognitive, identification, and goal orientation was a mediator of their link. The findings of the two experimental-causal-chain studies further supported the hypothesized effects. Transformational leadership was found to lead subordinates to perceive the culture as more innovative compared to transactional contingent reward, whereas transactional contingent reward led employees to perceive the culture as more goal, than innovation, oriented. Finally, innovation, compared to goal, value orientation increased cognitive identification, while goal orientation facilitated affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Implications: The practical implications involve the development of strategies organizations can apply, such as leadership training programs, to strengthen their ties with their employees, which, in turn, may have a positive impact on in-role, as well as extra-role, behaviors. Originality/Value: The originality of this research concerns the identification of distinct mechanisms explaining the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward on cognitive and affective identification applying an organizational culture perspective and a combination of measurement and causal mediation designs.

  6. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Contingent Reward, and Organizational Identification: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Innovation and Goal Culture Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenikou, Athena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward as complementary, but distinct, forms of leadership on facets of organizational identification via the perception of innovation and goal organizational values. Design/Methodology/Approach: Three studies were carried out implementing either a measurement of mediation or experimental-causal-chain design to test for the hypothesized effects. Findings: The measurement of mediation study showed that transformational leadership had a positive direct and indirect effect, via innovation value orientation, on cognitive identification, whereas transactional contingent reward was more strongly related to affective, rather than cognitive, identification, and goal orientation was a mediator of their link. The findings of the two experimental-causal-chain studies further supported the hypothesized effects. Transformational leadership was found to lead subordinates to perceive the culture as more innovative compared to transactional contingent reward, whereas transactional contingent reward led employees to perceive the culture as more goal, than innovation, oriented. Finally, innovation, compared to goal, value orientation increased cognitive identification, while goal orientation facilitated affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Implications: The practical implications involve the development of strategies organizations can apply, such as leadership training programs, to strengthen their ties with their employees, which, in turn, may have a positive impact on in-role, as well as extra-role, behaviors. Originality/Value: The originality of this research concerns the identification of distinct mechanisms explaining the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward on cognitive and affective identification applying an organizational culture perspective and a combination of measurement and causal mediation designs

  7. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  8. Perceived Parenting Styles and Goal Orientations: A Study of Teacher Education Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui

    2005-01-01

    Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…

  9. Mathematics Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs about the Nature of Mathematics and the Goals of Mathematics Teaching and Learning in the Beginning of Their Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Antti; Asikainen, Mervi; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Finnish mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs concerning the nature of mathematics and the goals of mathematics teaching and learning solely in the beginning of their studies at university. A total of 18 students participated in a study consisting of a short questionnaire and interviews. The data was analyzed…

  10. Global self-esteem, goal achievement orientations, and self-determined behavioural regulations in a physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-01-15

    We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.

  11. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of mastery-approach goal orientation, performance-avoidance goal orientation, self-efficacy, and achievement were employed. Students’ cognitive processing was a...

  12. Study to validate the outcome goal, competencies and educational objectives for use in intensive care orientation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M; Butcher, R; Kenney, C

    1998-03-01

    Intensive care orientation programs have become an accepted component of intensive care education. To date, however, there have been no Australian-based standards defining the appropriate level of competence to be attained upon completion of orientation. The aim of this study was to validate a set of aims, competencies and educational objectives that could form the basis of intensive care orientation and which would ensure an outcome standard of safe and effective practice. An initial document containing a statement of the desired outcome goal, six competency statements and 182 educational objectives was developed through a review of the orientation programs developed by the investigators. The Delphi technique was used to gain consensus among 13 nurses recognised for their expertise in intensive care education. The expert group rated the acceptability of each of the study items and provided suggestions for objectives to be included. An approval rating of 80 per cent was required to retain each of the study items, with the document refined through three Delphi rounds. The final document contains a validated statement of outcome goal, competencies and educational objectives for intensive care orientation programs.

  13. Goal orientation as a motivation model and self-confidence among tennis players of different levels of success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepir Duško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to determine differences between the successful and less successful tennis players regarding their goal orientation and self-confidence, as well as to examine the correlation between these two psychological constructs. Active male tennis players (N=40, ranked on the senior list of the Tennis Federation of Austria, age 18 to 26, filled in the TEOSQ-D1 questionnaire (Würth, Alfermann and Saborowski, 1999, and CSI questionnaire (Vealey, 1986, just before the national senior championship of Austria. After categorising a 'successful tennis player' as one ranked in top 100 (N=20, and a 'less successful' one as ranked outside top 100 (N=20, analyses of their differences concerning goal orientation and self-confidence were conducted by means of the T-test, but no statistically significant differences were found for any scale. Pearson's coefficient for the entire sample showed that task orientation correlate significantly with the sport confidence trait (r= 0,451; Sig.= 0,05, and to a certain extent with sport-confidence as a state (r= 0,387; Sig.= 0,092, but that correlation is not statistically significant at the level Sig.< 0,05. For the result/ego scale orientation, there were no significant correlations with sporting-confidence. Guidelines for future research are based on the development of a more adequate system for evaluation of success in sport, and also on increasing of sample size. This could be very helpful for making more reliable conclusions about the influence of goal orientation preference on sport-confidence and sport success, which could justify the utilization of this psychological construct for practical purposes.

  14. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Learning processes of students pre-vocational secondary education: relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.; Teune, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information

  16. Is gaze following purely reflexive or goal-directed instead? Revisiting the automaticity of orienting attention by gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Paola; Carcagno, Samuele; Vallar, Giuseppe; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Distracting gaze has been shown to elicit automatic gaze following. However, it is still debated whether the effects of perceived gaze are a simple automatic spatial orienting response or are instead sensitive to the context (i.e. goals and task demands). In three experiments, we investigated the conditions under which gaze following occurs. Participants were instructed to saccade towards one of two lateral targets. A face distracter, always present in the background, could gaze towards: (a) a task-relevant target--("matching" goal-directed gaze shift)--congruent or incongruent with the instructed direction, (b) a task-irrelevant target, orthogonal to the one instructed ("non-matching" goal-directed gaze shift), or (c) an empty spatial location (no-goal-directed gaze shift). Eye movement recordings showed faster saccadic latencies in correct trials in congruent conditions especially when the distracting gaze shift occurred before the instruction to make a saccade. Interestingly, while participants made a higher proportion of gaze-following errors (i.e. errors in the direction of the distracting gaze) in the incongruent conditions when the distracter's gaze shift preceded the instruction onset indicating an automatic gaze following, they never followed the distracting gaze when it was directed towards an empty location or a stimulus that was never the target. Taken together, these findings suggest that gaze following is likely to be a product of both automatic and goal-driven orienting mechanisms.

  17. A low-cost, goal-oriented ‘compact proper orthogonal decomposition’ basis for model reduction of static systems

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-01-01

    A novel model reduction technique for static systems is presented. The method is developed using a goal-oriented framework, and it extends the concept of snapshots for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to include (sensitivity) derivatives of the state with respect to system input parameters. The resulting reduced-order model generates accurate approximations due to its goal-oriented construction and the explicit 'training' of the model for parameter changes. The model is less computationally expensive to construct than typical POD approaches, since efficient multiple right-hand side solvers can be used to compute the sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a parameterized aerospace structure problem. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A low-cost, goal-oriented ‘compact proper orthogonal decomposition’ basis for model reduction of static systems

    KAUST Repository

    Carlberg, Kevin

    2010-12-10

    A novel model reduction technique for static systems is presented. The method is developed using a goal-oriented framework, and it extends the concept of snapshots for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to include (sensitivity) derivatives of the state with respect to system input parameters. The resulting reduced-order model generates accurate approximations due to its goal-oriented construction and the explicit \\'training\\' of the model for parameter changes. The model is less computationally expensive to construct than typical POD approaches, since efficient multiple right-hand side solvers can be used to compute the sensitivity derivatives. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on a parameterized aerospace structure problem. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Exploring the motivations and emotions underlying rewarding self-gift giving and how they encourage achievement oriented goals.

    OpenAIRE

    Karayiannis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore consumers’ descriptions of rewarding self-gift behaviour during the entire consumption process, including the motivations and emotions involved and how these encourage towards the achievement of personal oriented goals. The study specifically focuses on luxury self-gifts and attempts to incorporate desires and the cycle of desire with self-gift giving. In doing so, the study adopts an interpretive approach, consistent with the author’s philosophical ass...

  20. Relationship between motivational goal orientations, perceptions of general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chanut Poondej; Thanita Lerdpornkulrat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have reported empirical evidence that the deep approaches to learning account for significant successful learning. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between students' motivational goal orientation, their perceptions of the general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning strategies. Participants (N = 494) were first- and second-year college students enrolled in any of the general education courses in higher education in Thaila...

  1. The impact of goal-oriented task design on neurofeedback learning for brain-computer interface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, S R; Tremblay, A; Boe, S G; Bardouille, T

    2018-02-01

    Neurofeedback training teaches individuals to modulate brain activity by providing real-time feedback and can be used for brain-computer interface control. The present study aimed to optimize training by maximizing engagement through goal-oriented task design. Participants were shown either a visual display or a robot, where each was manipulated using motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography signals. Those with the robot were instructed to quickly navigate grid spaces, as the potential for goal-oriented design to strengthen learning was central to our investigation. Both groups were hypothesized to show increased magnitude of these signals across 10 sessions, with the greatest gains being seen in those navigating the robot due to increased engagement. Participants demonstrated the predicted increase in magnitude, with no differentiation between hemispheres. Participants navigating the robot showed stronger left-hand MI increases than those with the computer display. This is likely due to success being reliant on maintaining strong MI-related signals. While older participants showed stronger signals in early sessions, this trend later reversed, suggesting greater natural proficiency but reduced flexibility. These results demonstrate capacity for modulating neurofeedback using MI over a series of training sessions, using tasks of varied design. Importantly, the more goal-oriented robot control task resulted in greater improvements.

  2. Goal-orientated cognitive rehabilitation for dementias associated with Parkinson's disease-A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V; Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Roberts, Julie; Brand, Andrew; Hoare, Zoe; Martyr, Anthony; Clare, Linda

    2018-05-01

    To examine the appropriateness and feasibility of cognitive rehabilitation for people with dementias associated with Parkinson's in a pilot randomised controlled study. This was a single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial of goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for dementias associated with Parkinson's. After goal setting, participants were randomised to cognitive rehabilitation (n = 10), relaxation therapy (n = 10), or treatment-as-usual (n = 9). Primary outcomes were ratings of goal attainment and satisfaction with goal attainment. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, mood, cognition, health status, everyday functioning, and carers' ratings of goal attainment and their own quality of life and stress levels. Assessments were at 2 and 6 months following randomisation. At 2 months, cognitive rehabilitation was superior to treatment-as-usual and relaxation therapy for the primary outcomes of self-rated goal attainment (d = 1.63 and d = 1.82, respectively) and self-rated satisfaction with goal attainment (d = 2.04 and d = 1.84). At 6 months, cognitive rehabilitation remained superior to treatment-as-usual (d = 1.36) and relaxation therapy (d = 1.77) for self-rated goal attainment. Cognitive rehabilitation was superior to treatment as usual and/or relaxation therapy in a number of secondary outcomes at 2 months (mood, self-efficacy, social domain of quality of life, carers' ratings of participants' goal attainment) and at 6 months (delayed recall, health status, quality of life, carer ratings of participants' goal attainment). Carers receiving cognitive rehabilitation reported better quality of life, health status, and lower stress than those allocated to treatment-as-usual. Cognitive rehabilitation is feasible and potentially effective for dementias associated with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Perfectionism in gifted students: moderating effects of goal orientation and contingent self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Fu, Chu-Chun; Rice, Kenneth G

    2012-06-01

    We examined the moderating effects of mastery goals and academic contingency of self-worth (CSW-A) on how perfectionistic discrepancy associates with academic efficacy and satisfaction with life among gifted students in middle and high school. Participants in this study were 144 gifted students from 6th to 12th grade in a suburban Midwest U.S. school district. A significant three-way interaction effect was found among discrepancy, mastery goals, and CSW-A on academic self-efficacy. The findings suggest that having high mastery goals served as a protective factor against the negative impact of discrepancy on academic efficacy for gifted students, but only for those with low CSW-A. For gifted students with elevated CSW-A, discrepancy was not negatively associated with academic self-efficacy, regardless of their level of mastery goals. The implications for these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Functional Suitability Measurement using Goal-Oriented Approach based on ISO/IEC 25010 for Academics Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Savitri Puspaningrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid of information technology development grow a new competitive environment. Including higher education, they need to improve their service quality in order to provide education service in more competitive. One of the ways of using information technology in higher education is the used of Academic Information System (AIS. AIS was developed to achieve the goals of the learning process which is one of vision and mission organization success factor. The measurement is needed to evaluate the quality of AIS. Functionality is one of the quality factors which is measured by observing the correlation between function and functional suitability. In this study, the quality of AIS functional suitability is measured using goal-oriented approach base on ISO/IEC 25010 in the perspective of a lecturer. The strategic plan of an institution is used as a reference to measure if the system used to have meet institution goals when using this approach. The result shows that the measurement using goal-oriented approach become more objective and suitable to the need of used AIS quality improvement for the institution than the measurement with ISO/IEC 25010 only.

  5. COMPARISON BETWEEN SPORT PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION AND GOAL-ORIENTATION OF YOUTH ATHLETES: THE ROLE OF PARENTS' EDUCATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshin Benar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of present study was to (A compare and prioritizing the main six motivations of sport participation of youth athletes, (B compare and prioritize task and ego-orientation of youth athletes, and (C the role of parents' education level and its impact on the motivation of sport participation and goal-orientation youth athletes. In the study, descriptive-analytic design was applied. For the study 376 Iranian youth athletes were singled out by cluster-random sampling. They answered to participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ and task & ego-orientation in sport questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q. Also data about parents' education level (PEL was obtained using questions about demographic features. The findings showed that those who participated in individual sports had more motivation for status than team sports athletes and they were more ego-orientation. Also it was found that more highly educated mothers came to induce internal motivation in youth athletes using Kruskal-Wallis test, whereas more highly educated fathers came to induce both internal and external motivation to them. It seems that those athletes who participated in individual and open-skilled sports are more ego-oriented than those who participated in team and open-skilled sports. The feedbacks which are based on task orientation are probably provided, along with promotion of mothers' education level; however with promotion of fathers' education level, both of these feedbacks and those based on ego-orientation will be provided, probably for their children to participation in sport activities.

  6. Analysis of mathematical literacy ability based on goal orientation in model eliciting activities learning with murder strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, R.; Waluya, S. B.; Masrukan

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research are (1) to analyze the learning quality of MEAs with MURDER strategy, (2) to analyze students’ mathematical literacy ability based on goal orientation in MEAs learning with MURDER strategy. This research is a mixed method research of concurrent embedded type where qualitative method as the primary method. The data were obtained using the methods of scale, observation, test and interviews. The results showed that (1) MEAs Learning with MURDER strategy on students' mathematical literacy ability is qualified, (2) Students who have mastery goal characteristics are able to master the seven components of mathematical literacy process although there are still two components that the solution is less than the maximum. Students who have performance goal characteristics have not mastered the components of mathematical literacy process with the maximum, they are only able to master the ability of using mathematics tool and the other components of mathematical literacy process is quite good.

  7. Data warehouse model for monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs) using goal oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammed Thajeel; Ta'a, Azman; Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu

    2016-08-01

    The growth and development of universities, just as other organizations, depend on their abilities to strategically plan and implement development blueprints which are in line with their vision and mission statements. The actualizations of these statements, which are often designed into goals and sub-goals and linked to their respective actors are better measured by defining key performance indicators (KPIs) of the university. The proposes ReGADaK, which is an extended the GRAnD approach highlights the facts, dimensions, attributes, measures and KPIs of the organization. The measures from the goal analysis of this unit serve as the basis of developing the related university's KPIs. The proposed data warehouse schema is evaluated through expert review, prototyping and usability evaluation. The findings from the evaluation processes suggest that the proposed data warehouse schema is suitable for monitoring the University's KPIs.

  8. Pre-Service English Teachers' Beliefs on Speaking Skill Based on Motivational Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore pre-service English teachers' perceptions of teaching speaking in Turkey, the importance they give to this language skill, and their self-evaluation of their speaking competence. With case design and maximum variation sampling approach, seven pre-service English teachers' beliefs about speaking skills were gathered in…

  9. Quality of Goals - a key to the human-oriented technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Begier

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A kind of an essay on some social and ethical impact of new technologies has been given in the first five sections. The next two sections bring a study on quality referred to the software process. Then some ethical issues are presented in the context of IT development and computer applications. The need for a quality of goals has been emphasized. Human objectives should gain the top position, especially in a coming post-computer era. Some conceptual research in the topic of quality of goals has been suggested to safe humanistic values.

  10. The interaction between stimulus-driven and goal-driven orienting as revealed by eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreij, D.B.B.; Los, S.A.; Theeuwes, J.; Enns, J.T.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally agreed that attention can be captured in a stimulus-driven or in a goal-driven fashion. In studies that investigated both types of capture, the effects on mean manual response time (reaction time [RT]) are generally additive, suggesting two independent underlying processes. However,

  11. Turning vice into virtue - when low self-control states facilitate goal-oriented behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, T.T.L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite having good intentions, people often fail to exercise self-control to act in line with their long-term goals. Research shows that even mundane circumstances such as ego-depletion, mental distraction, and hunger could all hamper self-control performance. Considering these circumstances are

  12. Visibility-Based Goal Oriented Metrics and Application to Navigation and Path Planning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-14

    Oriented Metrics and Application to Navigation and Path Planning Problems Report Term: 0-Other Email : ytsai@math.utexas.edu Distribution Statement: 1...error bounds that we have obtained. Report Date: 06-Dec-2017 INVESTIGATOR(S): Phone Number: 5122327757 Principal: Y Name: Yen-Hsi Tsai Email ...w1 w2 ◆ and ~z = ✓ z1 z2 ◆ . Then we can write D0 h (PN (xi,j)) = Rp (R+⌘)2+h2 + 1 2h (µ2w1 µ2z1) 0 µ2w2µ3z2 2h 0 ! . It follows that the non

  13. Turning vice into virtue - when low self-control states facilitate goal-oriented behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, T.T.L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite having good intentions, people often fail to exercise self-control to act in line with their long-term goals. Research shows that even mundane circumstances such as ego-depletion, mental distraction, and hunger could all hamper self-control performance. Considering these circumstances are inevitably part of daily life, the current dissertation aimed to gain a deeper understanding of low self-control states and how they affect performance. Critically, we worked with, rather than agains...

  14. [Becoming more "goal-oriented" in therapy of dyslipidemias: results of the Hungarian MULTI GAP 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, István; Paragh, György; Márk, László; Pados, Gyula

    2011-05-22

    Previous studies have found that many high-risk patients are not achieving their LDL-cholesterol goals, and many patients, despite being treated with lipid-lowering therapy, also have elevated triglycerides and/or low levels of HDL-cholesterol. Authors analyzed the treatment strategies for dyslipidemic subjects following cardiovascular events similarly to their former survey from 2008 and 2009. In the MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2010 trial data from standard and structured questionnaires of 2332 patients were processed. Authors analyzed the proportion of the patients reaching target levels for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, A-C (atherogen cholesterol) and triglyceride. 15% (n = 355) of the patients did not receive any lipid lowering treatment. 44% of the patients treated by specialists reached the target LDL-C level of 2.5 mmol/l. In "high risk" group target levels for HDL-C were reached by 61% of the patients, and for triglyceride by 43% of the subjects. 43% of the patients with the best compliance (>90%) reached the target LDL-C level of 2.5 mmol/l. There is a need for more effective lipid lowering therapy with more frequent use of higher doses of statins or combinations of lipid lowering drugs.

  15. Long-Term Use and Perceived Benefits of Goal-Oriented Attentional Self-Regulation Training in Chronic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Loya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Objective. To investigate the long-term use and perceived benefit(s of strategies included in Goal-Oriented Attentional Self-Regulation (GOALS training (Novakovic-Agopian et al., 2011 by individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI and chronic executive dysfunction. Research Design. Longitudinal follow-up of training. Methods and Procedures. Sixteen participants with chronic ABI participated in structured telephone interviews 20 months (range 11 to 31 months following completion of GOALS training. Participants responded to questions regarding the range of strategies they continued to utilize, perceived benefit(s of strategy use, situations in which strategy use was found helpful, and functional changes attributed to training. Results. Nearly all participants (94% reported continued use of at least one trained strategy in their daily lives, with 75% of participants also reporting improved functioning resulting from training. However, there was considerable variability with respect to the specific strategies individuals found helpful as well as the perceived impact of training on overall functioning. Conclusions. GOALS training shows promising long-term benefits for individuals in the chronic phase of brain injury. Identifying individual- and injury-level factors that account for variability in continued strategy use and the perceived long-term benefits of training will help with ongoing intervention development.

  16. The role of goal cognitions, illness perceptions and treatment beliefs in self-reported adherence after kidney transplantation: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Tielen, Mirjam; Laging, Mirjam; Beck, Denise K; Khemai, Roshni; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication (IM) after kidney transplantation is related to poorer patient and graft outcomes; therefore research into modifiable factors associated with nonadherence is a priority. In this prospective cohort study we investigated whether changes in goal cognitions, illness perceptions, and treatment beliefs were related to self-reported medication adherence six months after kidney transplantation. Interviews were conducted with patients in the out-patient clinic six weeks (T1: n=113) and six months (T2: n=106) after transplantation. Self-reported adherence was measured using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale (BAASIS© Interview). The Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and questions on goal cognitions were also administered at both time points. Self-reported nonadherence increased significantly between 6 weeks and 6 months after transplantation from 17% to 27%. Importance of medication adherence as a personal goal and self-efficacy to successfully carry out this goal decreased significantly over time. Perceived necessity of immunosuppressive medication was high but significantly decreased over time. Concerns about the medicines were low. There were no significant changes in illness perceptions or concerns over time. An increase in perceived graft longevity (timeline) was related to higher likelihood of nonadherence six months post-transplant. Furthermore, younger adult patients were more likely to be nonadherent six months after transplantation. The self-reported nonadherence levels found in this study so soon after transplantation demonstrate the need for early and continued intervention after kidney transplantation in order to maximise adherence and consequently clinical outcomes. Changes in (unrealistic) beliefs regarding the longevity of the graft may offer a potential target for intervention among nonadherent patients. © 2013.

  17. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-05-14

    In this paper we present a goal-oriented self-adaptive hp Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) with shared data structures and a parallel multi-frontal direct solver. The algorithm automatically generates (without any user interaction) a sequence of meshes delivering exponential convergence of a prescribed quantity of interest with respect to the number of degrees of freedom. The sequence of meshes is generated from a given initial mesh, by performing h (breaking elements into smaller elements), p (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal-oriented adaptivity and the solver work fully in parallel. We describe the parallel self-adaptive hp-FEM algorithm with shared computational domain, as well as its efficiency measurements. We apply the methodology described to the three-dimensional simulation of the borehole resistivity measurement of direct current through casing in the presence of invasion.

  18. Social work and the house of Islam: orienting practitioners to the beliefs and values of Muslims in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2005-04-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the mainstream media coverage misrepresents the population. This article reviews the basic beliefs, practices, and values that commonly characterize, or inform, the House of Islam in the United States. The organizations that embody and sustain the Muslim communities that constitute the House of Islam are profiled, and areas of possible value conflicts are examined. The article concludes by offering suggestions for integrating the article's themes into practice settings. Particular attention is given to enhancing cultural competence and to suggestions for spiritual assessment and interventions.

  19. From Positive Orientation to Job performance : The Role of Work Engagement and Self-efficacy Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessandri, Guido; Borgogni, Laura; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Consiglio, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the validity of a conceptual model that explains the mechanisms linking positive orientation (P-OR) to future job performance in a sample of 388 male security agents. The relationship between P-OR and job performance as rated by three supervisors, each with different

  20. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  1. ANALISIS PENGARUH GOAL ORIENTATION DAN WORK MOTIVATION TERHADAP WORK ROLE INNOVATION DENGAN SELF-LEADERSHIP SEBAGAI MEDIATOR; STUDI PADA PERUSAHAAN MEDIA (PT. SURYA CITRA TELEVISI)

    OpenAIRE

    Masruroh; Andana Sasriya

    2015-01-01

    This research has an aim to discover an understand the influence of Goal Orientation and Work Motivation against Work Role Innovation through Self-leadership at PT. Surya Citra Televisi. PT. Surya Citra Televisi engaged in TV broadcasting sector. To see the influence of Goal Orientation and Work Motivation against Work Role Innovation through Self-leadership, this research use a quantitative approach where questionaire used to collect data from a total of 150 employees correspondent and the r...

  2. The association between reality-based beliefs and indirectly experienced traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Schwartz, Isabella; Kadari, Michal; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between belief types and the magnitude of indirect traumatization. Specific types of beliefs were defined in terms of the cognitive orientation theory, which is a cognitive-motivational approach to the understanding, predicting, and changing of behaviors. Belief types that were analyzed included beliefs about self, general beliefs, beliefs about norms, and goal beliefs as they relate to personal growth. Study participants included 38 rescuers (body handlers), 37 nurses, and 31 rehabilitation workers who treated injured civilians that had been exposed to politically motivated violence. The Cognitive Orientation for Posttraumatic Growth Scale was used to assess beliefs about personal growth. The Revised Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory was administered to evaluate indirect traumatization. The results indicate that three of the four belief types related to personal growth were associated with the level of indirect traumatization. Optimistic and positive beliefs about self and general beliefs were associated with a lower level of indirect traumatization symptomatology, suggesting that these types of beliefs may counteract indirect traumatization. On the other hand, stronger goal beliefs were associated with greater indirect traumatization. The negative association between positive goal beliefs and indirect trauma may be related to the gap the individual perceives between the hoped-for ideals and the trauma-stricken reality. These results indicate the importance of cognitive beliefs and their possible role in determining the response to indirect traumatization.

  3. Extracurricular participation and the development of school attachment and learning goal orientation: the impact of school quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Natalie; Theis, Désirée

    2014-06-01

    School motivation and attachment typically decline after the transition to middle school. According to the stage-environment fit approach, extracurricular activities are supposed to promote motivation. However, research has shown that the effects depend on the quality of the activities, which usually is measured by assessing students' individual perceptions. This article adds to previous studies in examining effects of school-based extracurricular participation on the development of individual motivation (learning goal orientation) and school attachment depending on the quality of the activities (i.e., amounts of challenge and social support) at the school level. We focused on the motivation development of 3,230 students at 98 schools who filled in questionnaires in Grades 5 (2005), 7 (2007), and 9 (2009). The quality of extracurricular activities was assessed on the basis of responses from 4,270 students in Grades 5, 7, and 9 at the same schools at the first measurement point (2005). Thus, individual development of the longitudinal sample was predicted by aggregated quality measures at the school level. Three-level hierarchical linear growth-curve models including school level, student level, and time were calculated. Cross-level interactions were analyzed to examine the influence of extracurricular participation on individual development as a function of school quality. Results show that the effects of extracurricular participation on the development of learning goal orientation are dependent on both features of school quality, whereas the development of school attachment in particular is influenced by activities offering social support. Thus, the effects of extracurricular activities are based not only on individual perceptions of activity features but also on school quality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Learning processes of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune; P. den Brok

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n=719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing

  5. Learning Processes of Students in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Relations between Goal Orientations, Information Processing Strategies and Development of Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Maaike; Den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Teune, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing strategies were examined using questionnaires.…

  6. Response of the Pre-oriented Goal-directed Attention to Usual and Unusual Distractors: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Baghdadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, we investigated the distraction power of the unusual and usual images on the attention of 20 healthy primary school children. Methods: Our study was different from previous ones in that the participants were asked to fix the initial position of their attention on a pre-defined location after being presented with unusual images as distractors. The goals were presented in locations, which were far from the attraction basin of distractors. Our expectation was that the pre-orienting of the attention to the position of targets can reduce the attractive effect of unusual images compared to the usual ones. The percentage of correct responses and the reaction time have been measured as behavioral indicators of attention performance. Results: Results showed that using the goal-directed attention, subjects ignored both kinds of distractors nearly the same way. Conclusion: With regard to previous reports about the more attraction towards the unusual images, it is suggested that the dynamics of the visual attention system be sensitive to the initial condition. That is, changing the initial position of the attention can lead to the decrement of the unusual images’ effects. However, several other possibilities such as a probable delay in processing unusual features could explain this observation, too. 

  7. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  8. Examining a negative halo effect to anabolic steroids users through perceived achievement goals, sportspersonship orientations, and aggressive tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the social image of anabolic steroids (AS) users grounding our analysis on the achievement goal theory of Nicholls. Our main goal was to explore how an athlete's acceptance of AS use would impact on the way that athlete will be perceived by others. Non-AS-using participants reacted to one of two scenarios portraying a male athlete either accepting or refusing to engage in drug use behavior. The results suggested that the acceptance of anabolic steroids yielded an unfavorable social image--perceivers inferred a predominant ego orientation to characterize the AS-user's motivation as well as weaker sportspersonship and a stronger proclivity for reactive aggression than instrumental aggression. Moreover, the analyses did not yield significant gender or interaction effects. Finally, those findings are commented in view of methodological shortcomings and of the perspectives that they may offer for future research concerning the motivational aspects of the social perceptions of drug use in sport. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  9. Does extrinsic goal framing enhance extrinsic goal-oriented individuals' learning and performance? An experimental test of the match perspective versus self-determination theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Timmermans, Tinneke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Previous work within self-determination theory has shown that experimentally framing a learning activity in terms of extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals results in poorer conceptual learning and performance, presumably because extrinsic goal framing detracts attention from the learning activity and is less directly satisfying of basic psychological needs. According to the match perspective, experimental extrinsic, compared to intrinsic, goal framing should enhance learning and performance f...

  10. Toward a More Complete Picture of Student Learning: Assessing Students' Motivational Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Beghetto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the assessment of students' motivational beliefs. The..body of the article is focused on a particular type of motivational belief, namely, beliefs involving..achievement goal orientations. I explain why these beliefs are an important aspect of academic learning,..and suggest how teachers can incorporate assessments of them within existing classroom routines.

  11. Toward a More Complete Picture of Student Learning: Assessing Students' Motivational Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald A. Beghetto

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the assessment of students' motivational beliefs. The..body of the article is focused on a particular type of motivational belief, namely, beliefs involving..achievement goal orientations. I explain why these beliefs are an important aspect of academic learning,..and suggest how teachers can incorporate assessments of them within existing classroom routines.

  12. Does Extrinsic Goal Framing Enhance Extrinsic Goal-Oriented Individuals' Learning and Performance? An Experimental Test of the Match Perspective versus Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Timmermans, Tinneke; Lens, Willy; Soenens, Bart; Van den Broeck, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Previous work within self-determination theory has shown that experimentally framing a learning activity in terms of extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals results in poorer conceptual learning and performance, presumably because extrinsic goal framing detracts attention from the learning activity and is less directly satisfying of basic…

  13. Profiles of self-concept, goal orientation, and self-regulation in students with physical, intellectual, and multiple disabilities: Implications for instructional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored physical self-concept, goal orientation in sport, and self-regulation in regard to a motor task, in 75 secondary students with physical, intellectual, and multiple disabilities, who were educated in the same special education units. It was found that students with intellectual disabilities generally presented a positive profile in all three psychosocial constructs, whereas students with physical disabilities presented low scores in most measures. Students with multiple disabilities did not differ essentially from students with intellectual disability in regard to physical self-concept and goal orientation; however, they compared unfavorably to them regarding self-regulation. The delineation of a distinct and defendable profile of self-concept, goal orientation, and self-regulation for each disability group allows the formulation of proposals for the implementation of appropriate instructional programs for students belonging to the above mentioned categories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining Mental Training and Physical Training With Goal-Oriented Protocols in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Feasibility Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes of permanent disability in adults. The literature suggests that rehabilitation is key to early motor recovery. However, conventional therapy is labor and cost intensive. Robotic and functional electrical stimulation (FES devices can provide a high dose of repetitions and as such may provide an alternative, or an adjunct, to conventional rehabilitation therapy. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI could augment neuroplasticity by introducing mental training. However, mental training alone is not enough; but combining mental with physical training could boost outcomes. In the current case study, a portable rehabilitative platform and goal-oriented supporting training protocols were introduced and tested with a chronic stroke participant. A novel training method was introduced with the proposed rehabilitative platform. A 37-year old individual with chronic stroke participated in 6-weeks of training (18 sessions in total, 3 sessions a week, and 1 h per session. In this case study, we show that an individual with chronic stroke can tolerate a 6-week training bout with our system and protocol. The participant was actively engaged throughout the training. Changes in the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT suggest that the training positively affected arm motor function (12% improvement in WMFT score.

  15. Science self-efficacy of African American middle school students: Relationship to motivation self-beliefs, achievement, gender, and gender orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britner, Shari Lynn

    Motivation researchers have established that students' self-efficacy beliefs, the confidence they have in their academic capabilities, are related to academic outcomes. Self-efficacy has been amply researched in mathematics and language arts and nearly exclusively with White students. African American students and the area of science have each received scant attention. Typically, gender differences favor boys in mathematics and girls in language arts. Researchers have also found that these differences may be a function of gender orientation beliefs. The purpose of this study was to extend findings in science self-efficacy and to African American middle school students. I sought to determine whether self-efficacy assessed at differing levels of specificity (lab skills versus science grades) would each predict science achievement assessed at corresponding levels, to discover whether mean scores in academic motivation and achievement would differ by gender, and to determine whether these differences are a function of gender orientation (N = 268). Science grade self-efficacy was positively associated with the grades obtained by boys and by girls. For girls, grades were also associated positively with science self-concept and negatively with value of science. For reasons resulting from problematic instructional practices, lab skills self-efficacy was not associated with lab grades. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and received higher grades in science class. Gender orientation beliefs did not account for these differences, but masculinity and femininity were each associated with science grade self-efficacy, suggesting that androgyny is an adaptive orientation for the science self-efficacy beliefs of African American students. Findings are interpreted within the framework of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.

  16. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  17. A Goal Orientation Analysis of Teachers' Motivations to Participate in the School Self-Assessment Processes of a Quality Assurance System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen; Madrid, Romina; Fernández, María Beatriz; Ahumada, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the goal orientations that could be inferred from how teachers from six municipal schools in Chile described their understandings, emotions, and behaviors during their participation in the assessment phase of the School Management Quality Assurance System. Content analysis of focus group interview transcripts evidenced…

  18. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between student's achievement goal orientation, self-efficiacy, cognitive processing and achievement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Patrick H.M.; van Joolingen, Wouter; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In

  19. Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students' achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In

  20. The Impact of Personality, Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy on Participation of High School Teachers in Learning Activities in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal, Tine; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of personality traits, goal orientation and self-efficacy on high school teachers' participation in learning activities in the workplace (i.e. experimentation, informal interaction with colleagues, self-regulation and avoidance behaviour). A convenience sample of 95 teachers from six high schools in Flanders…

  1. Chicken or the Egg: Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Dilemma between Goal Orientation, Self-Regulation and Cognitive Processing Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Mikael; Galand, Benoit; Frenay, Mariane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direction of the effect between goal orientation, self-regulation and deep processing strategies in order to understand the impact of these three constructs on students' achievement. The participants were 110 freshmen from the engineering faculty at the Universite catholique de Louvain in Belgium, who…

  2. Motivational Climate, 2×2 Achievement Goal Orientation and Dominance, Self-Regulation, and Physical Activity in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of a mastery motivational climate in physical education (PE) classes on 2×2 achievement goal orientation and dominance, self-regulated learning (SRL), and physical activity (PA) in leisure time. A total of 408 (264 women, 144 men) university students were randomly assigned to two groups:…

  3. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  4. How to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: choosing the right instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric properties of three instruments: a semi-structured interview, a questionnaire and a sorting task. The central question is which instrument is most suitable to investigate the goal orientations of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education.

  5. Beyond the dichotomy of teacher- versus student-focused education: A survey study on physics teachers' beliefs about the goals and pedagogy of physics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, Nelleke; Belo, N.; van Driel, J.H.; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the content and structure of physics teachers' beliefs on teaching and learning in general in relation to their domain-specific beliefs. A questionnaire was administered to secondary school teachers in physics (N = 126) in the Netherlands. The results showed that beliefs about

  6. Beyond the dichotomy of teacher- versus student-focused education : A survey study on physics teachers' beliefs about the goals and pedagogy of physics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, Nelleke A. H.; van Driel, Jan H.; van Veen, Klaas; Verloop, Nico

    This study explored the content and structure of physics teachers' beliefs on teaching and learning in general in relation to their domain-specific beliefs. A questionnaire was administered to secondary school teachers in physics (N = 126) in the Netherlands. The results showed that beliefs about

  7. Explaining Sex Differences in Reactions to Relationship Infidelities: Comparisons of the Roles of Sex, Gender, Beliefs, Attachment, and Sociosexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477, and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  8. Explaining sex differences in reactions to relationship infidelities: comparisons of the roles of sex, gender, beliefs, attachment, and sociosexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Adair, Lora; Monk, Kale

    2014-02-04

    To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477), and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs) and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  9. Consideration of Learning Orientations as an Application of Achievement Goals in Evaluating Life Science Majors in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics…

  10. WAYS TO DECREASE INFANT MORTALITY IN A LARGE AGRO INDUSTRIAL REGION IN RUSSIAN NORTH WEST BASED ON A PROGRAMMED GOAL ORIENTED APPROACH (MATERIALS FROM VOLOGDA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Orel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze infant mortality situation in a large agroindustrial region to the north west of Russia. Basing on a programmed goal oriented approach and the example of Vologda region, the authors suggest ways to reduce the sickness rate, perinatal, early neonatal and infant mortality, as well as the methods to improve medical aid to early children.Key words: infant mortality, maternity and infant health protection, sickness rate, organization of health services.

  11. Goal-Oriented Self-Adaptive hp Finite Element Simulation of 3D DC Borehole Resistivity Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.; Pardo, David; Paszyński, Maciej R.

    2011-01-01

    (adjusting polynomial orders of approximation) or hp (both) refinements on the finite elements. The new parallel implementation utilizes a computational mesh shared between multiple processors. All computational algorithms, including automatic hp goal

  12. Employees' goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    As hypothesized, data from 170 employees of a Dutch firm showed that the quality of leader-member exchange mediated positive relationships between a mastery orientation and leader-rated in-role job performance, leader-rated innovative job performance, and job satisfaction. In contrast, a performance

  13. Employees' goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange, and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.; Yperen, N.W. van

    2004-01-01

    As hypothesized, data form 170 employees of a Dutch firm showed that the quality of leader-member exchange mediated positive relationships between a mastery orientation and leader-rated in-role job performance, leader-rated innovative job performance, and job satisfaction. In contract, a performance

  14. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  15. The Interaction of Pedagogical Approach, Gender, Self-Regulation, and Goal Orientation Using Student Response System Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Kellah M.

    2008-01-01

    This research compares a behaviorally based approach for using electronic student response system (SRS) technology with a metacognitive-oriented approach to determine effects on attendance, preparation for class, and achievement. Also examined are the interaction effects of pedagogical approach with self-regulatory and motivational characteristics…

  16. Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: the role of sport ability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated determinants of active lifestyles in Singaporean university students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a measure of lay beliefs concerning athletic ability was confirmed. Other results confirmed hypotheses that beliefs reflecting that athletic ability can be developed over time (incremental beliefs) predict an achievement task (self-referenced) orientation, while beliefs reflecting that athletic ability is relatively stable (entity beliefs) predict an ego (other-person, comparative) orientation. Goal orientations directly affect perceived competence which, in turn, influence intrinsic motivation to be physically active. A task orientation had a direct link to intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation towards sport and physical activity might be enhanced through interventions that focus on self-referenced and self-improvement notions of ability as well as perceived competence.

  17. Diffusion of Corporate Governance Beliefs: Board independence and the emergence of a shareholder value orientation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Bezemer (Pieter-Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe globalization and liberalization of national economies have contributed to an increasing diffusion of Anglo-American corporate governance practices worldwide. In this dissertation, we examine the spread of two types of corporate governance beliefs: the emerging focus on board

  18. Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Bebetsos, Evaggelos; Theodorakis, Yannis; Christodoulidis, Triantafyllos; Kouli, Olga

    2006-04-01

    Little information exists about the causal relationships of sport and exercise participation with goal orientations, perceived athletic competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education. A longitudinal study was conducted involving 882 Greek students who completed questionnaires on three occasions: 3 - 5 weeks into the academic year, 3 - 6 weeks before the end of the academic year, and 7 months later. The data were analysed using structural equation models, controlling for age. Task orientation and intrinsic motivation in physical education at the beginning of the academic year predicted sport and exercise participation 7 and 14 months later. Perceived athletic competence both at the beginning and end of the academic year predicted sport and exercise participation 7 and 14 months later, while ego orientation did not predict sport and exercise involvement at either time. Previous sport and exercise participation had positive effects on task orientation and perceived athletic competence 3 - 6 weeks before the end of the academic year and predicted all cognitive-affective constructs 7 months later. These results imply that the cultivation of task orientation, intrinsic motivation in physical education and perceived athletic competence will help to promote sport and exercise participation in adolescence.

  19. Orientaciones de meta como mediadoras en la relación entre perfeccionismo y ansiedad precompetitiva. [Goal orientations as mediators in the relationship between perfectionism and precompetitive anxiety].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Antonio Pineda-Espejel

    2018-04-01

    orientations, and precompetitive anxiety and self-confidence, through two models that analyze sequential relationships. A first model analyzed the effect of global perfectionism in competition, on goal orientations, and consequences of precompetitive anxiety and self-confidence. Subsequently, perfectionism was separated into two dimensions, positive and negative, from the facets of striving for perfection, and negative reactions to imperfection, respectively. Such a model proved the sequence: two facets of multidimensional perfectionism in competition, goal orientations, and consequences of precompetitive anxiety and self-confidence. Additionally, the mediating role of goal orientations within the second model was analyzed. 171 high-performance athletes of both sexes, with an age of 23.5 years participated in the study, who answered a set of questionnaires to measure the study variables before the competition. The results of structural equation models showed that global perfectionism predicts ego orientation and cognitive anxiety. However, the two facets of perfectionism positively predict ego orientation and anxiety symptoms. Contrary to the striving for perfection also positively predicts the orientation in the task, and this negatively both anxieties. In conclusion, it is reinforced that state perfectionism can be an adaptive trait, since the striving for perfection, if accompanied by a predominance of task orientation. So the goal orientations theoretically explain the relationship between the striving for perfection and precompetitive anxiety.

  20. Interaction between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors: The Influences of Academic Goal Orientation and Working Memory on Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Ning, Flora; Goh, Hui Chin

    2014-01-01

    Although the effects of achievement goals and working memory on academic performance are well established, it is not clear whether they jointly affect academic performance. Children from Primary 4 and 6 (N = 608) were administered (a) measures of working memory and updating from the automated working memory battery and a running span task, (b)…

  1. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  2. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Oliver, Yolanda; Giuliano, Chiara; Economidou, Daina; Goodlett, Charles R; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Everitt, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  3. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peña-Oliver

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  4. Goal Oriented Activity Towards Life Skill Training: Preliminary Indications of a Task-intensive Approach to Manage Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumen Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise a viable programme of intervention for older people with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Methods: Using focus group interviews, a ‘top down’ model of intervention was devised among older children and adolescents with CP. Ten participants volunteered and a custom tailored approach was employed, in keeping with the participants’ goals. Results: The outcomes are described qualitatively. Conclusions: There are preliminary indications that the programme is versatile and feasible. Further trials must be conducted before conclusive comments can be made.

  5. Filipino Mothers' Beliefs about Parenting: A Question of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses research on Filipino mothers' socialization goals and beliefs about the role of other adults in disciplining their children. The results reveal that Filipinos have a collectivistic orientation, but that they nevertheless encourage independence in their children. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the…

  6. Model and system learners, optimal process constructors and kinetic theory-based goal-oriented design: A new paradigm in materials and processes informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Duval, Jean Louis; Cueto, Elias; Chinesta, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Traditionally, Simulation-Based Engineering Sciences (SBES) has relied on the use of static data inputs (model parameters, initial or boundary conditions, … obtained from adequate experiments) to perform simulations. A new paradigm in the field of Applied Sciences and Engineering has emerged in the last decade. Dynamic Data-Driven Application Systems [9, 10, 11, 12, 22] allow the linkage of simulation tools with measurement devices for real-time control of simulations and applications, entailing the ability to dynamically incorporate additional data into an executing application, and in reverse, the ability of an application to dynamically steer the measurement process. It is in that context that traditional "digital-twins" are giving raise to a new generation of goal-oriented data-driven application systems, also known as "hybrid-twins", embracing models based on physics and models exclusively based on data adequately collected and assimilated for filling the gap between usual model predictions and measurements. Within this framework new methodologies based on model learners, machine learning and kinetic goal-oriented design are defining a new paradigm in materials, processes and systems engineering.

  7. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  8. An Extension of Lipovec’s Definition of Organisation and the Most Relevant Goal-Oriented Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Mihelčič

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of academic literature explicitly or implicitly defines an organisation as “a group of people”. In this paper, we advocate a distinction between the formal social unit (“FSU” as economic organisation and its (internal organisation and argue that the latter is essentially the structure (or set of dynamic relationships between the FSU’s members. Such an approach is supported by the two levels, economic and organisational, of that adaptation of an FSU’s organisation in promoting success in a high-performance economy. A consideration of relationships between members as basic units of organisational analysis elicits the question of which types of relationships (out of many available classifications are most crucial for attaining the FSU’s goals. By taking firms as the prevailing types of FSUs, we find five (close to Barnard’s view types or dimensions of relationships, creating the direct instrumental chain of relationships, as being most influential regarding this objective. Due to our awareness that the performance of a firm significantly depends on the quality of the five types of relationships, we suggest that well-defined statistical analyses should be made in order to prove the strength of the influence between the quality of relationships on the direct instrumental chain and the firm’s performance in economic terms. A comparison with similar analyses in which some other groupings of relationships are taken into consideration should prove or negate our assumption.

  9. An enhanced reliability-oriented workforce planning model for process industry using combined fuzzy goal programming and differential evolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighravwe, D. E.; Oke, S. A.; Adebiyi, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper draws on the "human reliability" concept as a structure for gaining insight into the maintenance workforce assessment in a process industry. Human reliability hinges on developing the reliability of humans to a threshold that guides the maintenance workforce to execute accurate decisions within the limits of resources and time allocations. This concept offers a worthwhile point of deviation to encompass three elegant adjustments to literature model in terms of maintenance time, workforce performance and return-on-workforce investments. These fully explain the results of our influence. The presented structure breaks new grounds in maintenance workforce theory and practice from a number of perspectives. First, we have successfully implemented fuzzy goal programming (FGP) and differential evolution (DE) techniques for the solution of optimisation problem in maintenance of a process plant for the first time. The results obtained in this work showed better quality of solution from the DE algorithm compared with those of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimisation algorithm, thus expressing superiority of the proposed procedure over them. Second, the analytical discourse, which was framed on stochastic theory, focusing on specific application to a process plant in Nigeria is a novelty. The work provides more insights into maintenance workforce planning during overhaul rework and overtime maintenance activities in manufacturing systems and demonstrated capacity in generating substantially helpful information for practice.

  10. Compiling standardized information from clinical practice: using content analysis and ICF Linking Rules in a goal-oriented youth rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Nadia A; Prodinger, Birgit; Dorjbal, Delgerjargal; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke

    2017-09-23

    To illustrate how routinely written narrative admission and discharge reports of a rehabilitation program for eight youths with chronic neurological health conditions can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. First, a qualitative content analysis was conducted by building meaningful units with text segments assigned of the reports to the five elements of the Rehab-Cycle ® : goal; assessment; assignment; intervention; evaluation. Second, the meaningful units were then linked to the ICF using the refined ICF Linking Rules. With the first step of transformation, the emphasis of the narrative reports changed to a process oriented interdisciplinary layout, revealing three thematic blocks of goals: mobility, self-care, mental, and social functions. The linked 95 unique ICF codes could be grouped in clinically meaningful goal-centered ICF codes. Between the two independent linkers, the agreement rate was improved after complementing the rules with additional agreements. The ICF Linking Rules can be used to compile standardized health information from narrative reports if prior structured. The process requires time and expertise. To implement the ICF into common practice, the findings provide the starting point for reporting rehabilitation that builds upon existing practice and adheres to international standards. Implications for Rehabilitation This study provides evidence that routinely collected health information from rehabilitation practice can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by using the "ICF Linking Rules", however, this requires time and expertise. The Rehab-Cycle ® , including assessments, assignments, goal setting, interventions and goal evaluation, serves as feasible framework for structuring this rehabilitation program and ensures that the complexity of local practice is appropriately reflected. The refined "ICF Linking Rules" lead to a standardized

  11. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: The effect of action versus state orientation on solving a goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jostmann, N.B.; Gieselmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus

  12. When you have to climb downhill to reach the top: the effect of action versus state orientation on solvinga goal-subgoal conflict in the Tower of Hanoi task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostmann, Nils B; Gieselmann, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Complex problems often include a response conflict between a subgoal and a final goal. The present experiment investigated the roles of situational demands and individual differences in self-regulation on solving goal-subgoal conflicts in a computerized Tower of Hanoi task. Action-oriented versus state-oriented individuals were randomly assigned to a demanding condition in which they deliberated about a personal decision problem, or to a nondemanding control condition. In line with expectations state-oriented individuals had greater difficulties to solve goal-subgoal conflicts in the demanding compared to the nondemanding condition. Action-oriented individuals performed well in both conditions. In line with Personality Systems Interactions theory (Kuhl, 2000) the findings show that complex problem solving depends on how well people are able to deal with situational demands.

  13. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  14. Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) with children with Asperger's syndrome who have motor-based occupational performance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Brandenburg, Julia

    2009-02-01

    Motor difficulties associated with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are commonly reported, despite these not being diagnostically significant. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a verbal problem-solving intervention developed for use with children with developmental coordination disorder to address their motor-based difficulties. This paper reports on two case studies of children with AS illustrating the outcomes of CO-OP to address motor-based occupational performance goals. A case study approach was used to document how two children with AS engaged in 10 weekly sessions of CO-OP addressing child-chosen motor-based occupational performance goals and the outcomes of this intervention. Pre and post-intervention assessment using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and the Performance Quality Rating Scale indicated that both children were able to engage in CO-OP intervention to successfully improve their occupational performance. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with AS is warranted based on preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties in two children with AS.

  15. Developing a Structural Model on the Relationship among Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlelmula, Fatma Kayan; Cakiroglu, Erdinc; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among students' motivational beliefs (i.e. achievement goal orientations, perception of classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy), use of self-regulated learning strategies (i.e. elaboration, organization, and metacognitive self-regulation strategies), and achievement in mathematics, by proposing and…

  16. Stochastic, goal-oriented rapid impact modeling of uncertainty and environmental impacts in poorly-sampled sites using ex-situ priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Yandong; Chang, Ching-Fu; Tan, Benjamin; Chen, Ziyang; Sege, Jon; Wang, Changhong; Rubin, Yoram

    2018-01-01

    Modeling of uncertainty associated with subsurface dynamics has long been a major research topic. Its significance is widely recognized for real-life applications. Despite the huge effort invested in the area, major obstacles still remain on the way from theory and applications. Particularly problematic here is the confusion between modeling uncertainty and modeling spatial variability, which translates into a (mis)conception, in fact an inconsistency, in that it suggests that modeling of uncertainty and modeling of spatial variability are equivalent, and as such, requiring a lot of data. This paper investigates this challenge against the backdrop of a 7 km, deep underground tunnel in China, where environmental impacts are of major concern. We approach the data challenge by pursuing a new concept for Rapid Impact Modeling (RIM), which bypasses altogether the need to estimate posterior distributions of model parameters, focusing instead on detailed stochastic modeling of impacts, conditional to all information available, including prior, ex-situ information and in-situ measurements as well. A foundational element of RIM is the construction of informative priors for target parameters using ex-situ data, relying on ensembles of well-documented sites, pre-screened for geological and hydrological similarity to the target site. The ensembles are built around two sets of similarity criteria: a physically-based set of criteria and an additional set covering epistemic criteria. In another variation to common Bayesian practice, we update the priors to obtain conditional distributions of the target (environmental impact) dependent variables and not the hydrological variables. This recognizes that goal-oriented site characterization is in many cases more useful in applications compared to parameter-oriented characterization.

  17. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  18. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  19. Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teacher participation in facilitating beliefs and values in life orientation programmes: ... strategies of belief and value orientations in a multicultural education system. ... and religious backgrounds of learners represented in participating schools.

  20. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual factors: what are the relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M; Flint, Annaline; McDonald, Lyn G

    2012-06-01

    There is a plethora of research around student beliefs and their contribution to student outcomes. However, there is less research in relation to teacher beliefs. Teacher factors are important to consider since beliefs mould thoughts and resultant instructional behaviours that, in turn, can contribute to student outcomes. The purpose of this research was to explore relationships between the teacher characteristics of gender and teaching experience, school contextual variables (socio-economic level of school and class level), and three teacher socio-psychological variables: class level teacher expectations, teacher efficacy, and teacher goal orientation. The participants were 68 male and female teachers with varying experience, from schools in a variety of socio-economic areas and from rural and urban locations within New Zealand. Teachers completed a questionnaire containing items related to teacher efficacy and goal orientation in reading. They also completed a teacher expectation survey. Reading achievement data were collected on students. Interrelationships were explored between teacher socio-psychological beliefs and the teacher and school factors included in the study. Mastery-oriented beliefs predicted teacher efficacy for student engagement and classroom management. The socio-economic level of the school and teacher gender predicted teacher efficacy for engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, and a mastery goal orientation. Being male predicted a performance goal orientation. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual variables can result in differences in teacher instructional practices and differing classroom climates. Further investigation of these variables is important since differences in teachers contribute to differences in student outcomes. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Goal conflict and goal facilitation in community-based cardiac rehabilitation: a theory-based interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Boyd, Emily; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2015-01-01

    Theories often consider behaviors in isolation of conflicting and facilitating personal goals. We conducted interviews with 13 people in cardiac rehabilitation, investigating whether eliciting physical activity (PA) control beliefs sufficiently captures goal conflict and goal facilitation. We assessed PA, intention, and control beliefs using standard elicitation methods and then assessed goal conflict and goal facilitation. Twelve participants described conflicting, and all described facilitating, personal goals. Most goal facilitation (94%) and conflict (82%) beliefs were identified beyond the control belief elicitation. Goal facilitation and conflict are not captured in a standard control belief elicitation and may supplement single-behavior models to understand PA.

  2. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  3. Importance of the Motivational Climate in Goal, Enjoyment, and the Causes of Success in Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Rodríguez-Suárez, Nuria; Abraldes, J Arturo; Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the motivational climate created by the coach and perceived by a group of young handball players on their goal orientations, their beliefs regarding reasons for success and their self-satisfaction. The study participants were 159 young handball players. Players were administered a battery composed of tests to measure the above-mentioned motivational constructs. Results showed that a perceived mastery-oriented motivational climate was positively related to a task-centered goal orientation, enjoyment, and a belief that success may be achieved through effort. In contrast, a perceived performance-orientated training climate was linked to an ego-centered goal orientation, boredom, or lack of enthusiasm, and a belief that the routes of success in this sport are the abilities and the use of deception techniques. On the whole, this study underlines the educational role of the coach in young handball players. Specifically, the coach's socializing role influences both handball player's commitment and positive motivational profile as well as sport performance.

  4. Importance of the Motivational Climate in Goal, Enjoyment, and the Causes of Success in Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Granero-Gallegos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the motivational climate created by the coach and perceived by a group of young handball players on their goal orientations, their beliefs regarding reasons for success and their self-satisfaction. The study participants were 159 young handball players. Players were administered a battery composed of tests to measure the above-mentioned motivational constructs. Results showed that a perceived mastery-oriented motivational climate was positively related to a task-centered goal orientation, enjoyment, and a belief that success may be achieved through effort. In contrast, a perceived performance-orientated training climate was linked to an ego-centered goal orientation, boredom, or lack of enthusiasm, and a belief that the routes of success in this sport are the abilities and the use of deception techniques. On the whole, this study underlines the educational role of the coach in young handball players. Specifically, the coach’s socializing role influences both handball player’s commitment and positive motivational profile as well as sport performance.

  5. Differences in Beliefs and Attitudes toward the Improvability of Writing of Gifted Students Who Exhibit Mastery-Oriented and Helpless Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jolene; Tollefson, Nona

    1991-01-01

    On measures of ability to improve writing quality, motivation to write, confidence in writing, and attitudes toward writing, 29 middle level students classified as mastery oriented consistently scored higher than 21 students classified as helpless. The 66 students classified as neither mastery oriented nor helpless had mean scores between the…

  6. Addressing Social, Emotional, and Organizational Goals for a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Using the Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czmowski, Gina M.; Willert, Shea L.; Nielsen, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have social, emotional, and organizational skill deficits which are frequently addressed through behavioral-based skills training. However, these approaches often do not result in generalization of skills. This case study sought to understand if the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational…

  7. Outcomes of a multimodal cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for persons with mild dementia and their caregivers: a goal-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Justin Chew, Mei-Sian Chong, Yoke-Leng Fong, Laura Tay Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Singapore Background: Nonpharmacological interventions such as exercise and cognitive rehabilitation programs have shown promise in reducing the impact of dementia on the individual and the caregiver. In this study, we examine the effect of a multimodal cognitive and physical rehabilitation program for persons with mild dementia and their caregivers using conventional measures of cognition, behavior, quality of life (QoL, and caregiver burden together with goal attainment scaling (GAS, an individualized outcome measure.Methods: Goals were set at baseline, and GAS score was calculated at the end of the program. Participants were also assessed with the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, functional and behavioral scales (Barthel Index, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, QoL, and caregiver burden using EuroQol-five dimension questionnaire and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI. Differences in median scores postintervention were obtained. Further analysis of caregiver burden was undertaken utilizing the multidimensional classification of burden on the ZBI.Results: Thirty-four (61.8% patients were assessed to have met their goals (GAS score ≥50. Mean (standard deviation GAS score was 48.6 (6.5. Cognition goals were set in only 20.6%, followed by goals to improve engagement and socialization; reduce caregiver stress; and improve physical function, behavior, and mood. Median scores in the cognitive, functional, and QoL measures did not differ significantly pre- and postintervention. The intervention had a positive impact on role strain, a unique dimension of caregiver burden.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that a multimodal approach combining physical exercise and cognitive rehabilitation improves goal attainment and caregiver burden

  8. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  9. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  10. Examining Motivational Orientation and Learning Strategies in Computer-Supported Self-Directed Learning (CS-SDL) for Mathematics: The Perspective of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Andrew Chan-Chio; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Huang, Mark C. L.; Ku, Oskar; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2017-01-01

    One-to-one technology, which allows every student to receive equal access to learning tasks through a personal computing device, has shown increasing potential for self-directed learning in elementary schools. With computer-supported self-directed learning (CS-SDL), students may set their own learning goals through the suggestions of the system…

  11. Why and when do learning goal orientation and attitude decrease with aging? : The role of perceived remaining time and work centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Zacher, H.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted two studies to improve our understanding of why and when older workers are focused on learning. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, which proposes that goal focus changes with age and the perception of time, we hypothesized and found that older workers perceive their remaining

  12. Extrinsic value orientation and affective forecasting: overestimating the rewards, underestimating the costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Gunz, Alexander; Nichols, Charles P; Ferguson, Yuna

    2010-02-01

    We examined affective forecasting errors as a possible explanation of the perennial appeal of extrinsic values and goals. Study 1 found that although people relatively higher in extrinsic (money, fame, image) compared to intrinsic (growth, intimacy, community) value orientation (REVO) are less happy, they nevertheless believe that attaining extrinsic goals offers a strong potential route to happiness. Study 2's longitudinal experimental design randomly assigned participants to pursue either 3 extrinsic or 3 intrinsic goals over 4 weeks, and REVO again predicted stronger forecasts regarding extrinsic goals. However, not even extrinsically oriented participants gained well-being benefits from attaining extrinsic goals, whereas all participants tended to gain in happiness from attaining intrinsic goals. Study 3 showed that the effect of REVO on forecasts is mediated by extrinsic individuals' belief that extrinsic goals will satisfy autonomy and competence needs. It appears that some people overestimate the emotional benefits of achieving extrinsic goals, to their potential detriment.

  13. Is the Theory of Mind deficit observed in visual paradigms in schizophrenia explained by an impaired attention toward gaze orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Paul; Forgeot d'Arc, Baudoin; Passerieux, Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with poor Theory of Mind (ToM), particularly in goal and belief attribution to others. It is also associated with abnormal gaze behaviors toward others: individuals with schizophrenia usually look less to others' face and gaze, which are crucial epistemic cues that contribute to correct mental states inferences. This study tests the hypothesis that impaired ToM in schizophrenia might be related to a deficit in visual attention toward gaze orientation. We adapted a previous non-verbal ToM paradigm consisting of animated cartoons allowing the assessment of goal and belief attribution. In the true and false belief conditions, an object was displaced while an agent was either looking at it or away, respectively. Eye movements were recorded to quantify visual attention to gaze orientation (proportion of time participants spent looking at the head of the agent while the target object changed locations). 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 matched controls were tested. Compared to controls, patients looked significantly less at the agent's head and had lower performance in belief and goal attribution. Performance in belief and goal attribution significantly increased with the head looking percentage. When the head looking percentage was entered as a covariate, the group effect on belief and goal attribution performance was not significant anymore. Patients' deficit on this visual ToM paradigm is thus entirely explained by a decreased visual attention toward gaze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Goal-oriented incentive payment in CUDAM institution and variation in medical visit indicators in children under one and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The establishment of National Integrated Health System in Uruguay from 2007 led to changes in the financing of the Collective Health Care Institutions (IAMC. They charge the National Health Fund (FONASA for their partners from social security (SS a health fee consists of: a A risk-adjusted capita (94%b A component for compliance with performance (6%, depending on the fulfillment of three goals of care. Goal 1 is a component of the child under 1 year and a component of the pregnant woman. For both components were established institutional baseline (July 2007-September 2008 in the control patients in both age groups. This motif COMPLIANCE quarterly reports with a fee of $48/user FONASA/month for average baseline compliment. Las for children and pregnant women were monitored for IAMC CUDAM 64% and 59% respectively.This institution has 42,000 users, 95% derived from SS, featuring 45 births, 585 children <1 year and 405 pregnant women tested monthly.Objectives: Evaluate two years (July-September 2010:a The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant CUDAM with medical controlb Relationship between income through the FONASA insitucional for goal 1 and children and pregnant women in medical management during the quarter.Methods: a retrospective study of children and pregnant women with medical control CUDAM. In turn, each target has 6 indicators (N: children, F: females. Child: N1 and N2: derivation and acquisition of the newborn, N3: controls as a guideline, N4: current vaccination, N5: ultrasound hip and pregnant, N6: accreditation in good feeding practices for infants and young children and pregnant women. Pregnant woman: M1 controls as a guideline, M2: leaf perinatal information system, M3: HIV and VDRL performed, M4: uptake in 1 st quarter, M5 and M6: dental checkup during pregnancy and postpartum.Results: The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant women increased to 92% (164 additional children and 88

  15. Interest, Attitudes and Self-Efficacy Beliefs Explaining Upper-Secondary School Students' Orientation Towards Biology-Related Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the contribution of students' interest in school biology, as well as their self-efficacy and attitudes towards different science subjects and mathematics when explaining students' orientation towards biology-related careers at upper-secondary school. The data of 321 K-11 students (49% women) were…

  16. Closing the Gap between Beliefs and Practice: Change of Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Orientations during a PCK-Based NOS Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdögen, Betül; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakçi, Esen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to investigate how pre-service chemistry teachers' science teaching orientations change during a two-semester intervention designed to enhance their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching the nature of science (NOS). Moreover, the way that pre-service chemistry teachers translated their change in…

  17. A case of learning to teach elementary science: Investigating beliefs, experiences, and tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Lynn Ann

    This study examines how preservice elementary teacher beliefs and experiences within the context of reflective science teacher education influence the development of professional knowledge. From a cognitive constructivist theoretical perspective, I conducted a case analysis to investigate the beliefs about science teaching and learning held by a preservice teacher (Barbara), identify the tensions she encountered in learning to teach elementary science, understand the frames from which she identified problems of practice, and discern how her experiences influenced the process of reflecting on her own science teaching. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs about science teaching and learning. Her foundational beliefs concerned: (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about: (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. The dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in life-long science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well-grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. Barbara encountered tensions in thinking about science teaching and learning as a result of inconsistencies between her vision of science teaching and her actual practice. Confronting these tensions prompted Barbara to rethink the connections between her classroom actions and students' learning, create new perspectives for viewing her practice, and consider alternative practices more resonant with her visionary beliefs. However, the self-reinforcing belief system created by her

  18. Student beliefs and learning environments: Developing a survey of factors related to conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Mary

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents a model for the type of classroom environment believed to facilitate scientific conceptual change. A survey based on this model contains items about students' motivational beliefs, their study approach and their perceptions of their teacher's actions and learning goal orientation. Results obtained from factor analyses, correlations and analyses of variance, based on responses from 113 students, suggest that an empowering interpersonal teacher-student relationship is related to a deep approach to learning, a positive attitude to science, and positive self-efficacy beliefs, and may be increased by a constructivist approach to teaching.

  19. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  20. Parental involvement in homework: relations with parent and student achievement-related motivational beliefs and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonida, Eleftheria N; Cortina, Kai S

    2014-09-01

    Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy support, control, interference, cognitive engagement) (1) are predicted by their mastery and performance goals for their child and their beliefs of the child's academic efficacy, and (2) predict student achievement goal orientations, efficacy beliefs, and achievement. Grade-level differences were also investigated. The sample consisted of 282 elementary school (5th grade) and junior high school students (8th grade) and one of their parents. Surveys were used for data collection. Structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis. (1) Autonomy support during homework was predicted by parent mastery goal, parents' control and interference by their performance goal and perceptions of child efficacy, and cognitive engagement as supplementary to homework by parent perceptions of child efficacy. (2) Parental autonomy support, control, and interference were differentially associated with student mastery and performance goal orientations, whereas parent cognitive engagement was associated with student efficacy beliefs. (3) The structural model was the same for elementary and junior high school students but the latent means for a number of variables were different. Different types of parental involvement in homework were associated with different outcomes with parent autonomy support to be the most beneficial one. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Academic goals and learning quality in higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Cabanach, Ramón G; González-Pienda, Julio A; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Muñoz-Cadavid, María A; Cerezo, Rebeca

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, the relations between academic goals and various indicators that define the quality of the learning process are analyzed. The purpose was to determine to what extent high, moderate, or low levels of academic goals were positively or negatively related to effort regulation, the value assigned to academic tasks, meta-cognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, beliefs about learning control, and management of time and study environment. The investigation was carried out with a sample of 632 university students (70% female and 30% male) and mean age of 21.22 (SD=2.2).The results show that learning goals, or task orientation, are positively related to all the indictors of learning quality considered herein. Although for other kinds of goals-work-avoidance goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals-significant relations were not found with all the indicators, there was a similar tendency of significant results in all cases; the higher the levels of these goals, the lower the levels of the indicators of learning quality.

  2. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  3. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Using Goal-Oriented Applied Research as a Means of Building Comprehensive and Integrated Scientific Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.

  4. Orientações motivacionais, crenças educacionais e desempenho escolar de estudantes do ensino fundamental Orientación motivacional, creencias educativas y los logros académicos de los estudiantes de la escuela primaria Motivational orientation, educational beliefs and academic achievement of elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Lopez Martini Fernandes Paiva

    2010-06-01

    planes de intervención más focalizados.The main goal of the present study was to investigate the motivational orientations and beliefs about effort, intelligence, luck, and about the necessary conditions to achieve success in school as well as the expectations to overcome a poor academic performance in a sample of 120 students from elementary school. The relationship between such variables, and their correlation to academic performance, gender and school grades was also analyzed. Data were acquired by applying the Structured Interview of Educational Beliefs and Motivational Orientation for Student and School Achievement Test from Stein in an individual basis. Results indicate a predominance of intrinsic motivation and a highly appropriate beliefs pattern to motivation and learning. Given the educational implications involved, boys, repeater and extrinsically motivated student beliefs must be carefully taken into account to better plan more focused interventions.

  5. EFL learners’ motivational beliefs and their use of learning strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Najibi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to examine the relationship between English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners’ motivational beliefs and their use of learning strategies. The three components of motivation, i.e. expectancy component, value component and affective component, were examined in relation to metacognitive, cognitive and effort management strategies. Two hundred and fifty seven EFL learners representing different proficiency levels completed the Persian version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, which consisted of motivation scale and learning strategies scale. The analysis of the effect of proficiency level on motivational beliefs showed a significant effect of proficiency level on test anxiety and extrinsic goal orientation, suggesting that less proficient learners were significantly more anxious and more extrinsically oriented compared to advanced learners of English. It was also found that self-efficacy, control of learning beliefs, intrinsic goal orientation and task value could account for 70% of variations in self-regulated learning (SRL strategies. Based on the findings of this study, several suggestions are made to aid instructors in creating a non-product-oriented approach to learning, which promotes foreign language learners’ learning outcomes.

  6. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  7. From Desires, Obligations and Norms to Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Kinny, D.; Sonenberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models of agents based on Beliefs, Desires and Intentions usually only include either desires or goals. Therefore the process whereby goals arise from desires is given scant attention. In this paper we argue that the inclusion of both desires and goals in the same model can be

  8. Gibbon travel paths are goal oriented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Norberto; Brockelman, Warren Y; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2011-05-01

    Remembering locations of food resources is critical for animal survival. Gibbons are territorial primates which regularly travel through small and stable home ranges in search of preferred, limited and patchily distributed resources (primarily ripe fruit). They are predicted to profit from an ability to memorize the spatial characteristics of their home range and may increase their foraging efficiency by using a 'cognitive map' either with Euclidean or with topological properties. We collected ranging and feeding data from 11 gibbon groups (Hylobates lar) to test their navigation skills and to better understand gibbons' 'spatial intelligence'. We calculated the locations at which significant travel direction changes occurred using the change-point direction test and found that these locations primarily coincided with preferred fruit sources. Within the limits of biologically realistic visibility distances observed, gibbon travel paths were more efficient in detecting known preferred food sources than a heuristic travel model based on straight travel paths in random directions. Because consecutive travel change-points were far from the gibbons' sight, planned movement between preferred food sources was the most parsimonious explanation for the observed travel patterns. Gibbon travel appears to connect preferred food sources as expected under the assumption of a good mental representation of the most relevant sources in a large-scale space.

  9. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a brief overview of belief change, a research area concerned with the question of how a rational agent ought to change its mind in the face of new, possibly conflicting, information. The authors limit themselves...

  10. The effects of market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Kåre

    1998-01-01

    This research is designed to accomplish three goals. The first goal is to revisit the market orientation construct in order to define the different facets of it. A review of the market orientation literature is made to assess and synthesize the stock of accumulated knowledge regarding the market orientation construct. The second goal of the research is to develop a theory of the effects ofmarket orientation. Using the literature concerning resource-based theory and organization...

  11. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a proactive, goal-oriented, integrated care model in general practice for older people. A cluster randomised controlled trial: Integrated Systematic Care for older People--the ISCOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jeanet; den Elzen, Wendy; van Houwelingen, Anne H; Heijmans, Margot; Stijnen, Theo; Van den Hout, Wilbert; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    older people often experience complex problems. Because of multiple problems, care for older people in general practice needs to shift from a 'problem-based, disease-oriented' care aiming at improvement of outcomes per disease to a 'goal-oriented care', aiming at improvement of functioning and personal quality of life, integrating all healthcare providers. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this proactive and integrated way of working are not yet established. cluster randomised trial. all persons aged ≥75 in 59 general practices (30 intervention, 29 control), with a combination of problems, as identified with a structured postal questionnaire with 21 questions on four health domains. for participants with problems on ≥3 domains, general practitioners (GPs) made an integrated care plan using a functional geriatric approach. Control practices: care as usual. (i) quality of life (QoL), (ii) activities of daily living, (iii) satisfaction with delivered health care and (iv) cost-effectiveness of the intervention at 1-year follow-up. Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. of the 11,476 registered eligible older persons, 7,285 (63%) participated in the screening. One thousand nine hundred and twenty-one (26%) had problems on ≥3 health domains. For 225 randomly chosen persons, a care plan was made. No beneficial effects were found on QoL, patients' functioning or healthcare use/costs. GPs experienced better overview of the care and stability, e.g. less unexpected demands, in the care. GPs prefer proactive integrated care. 'Horizontal' care using care plans for older people with complex problems can be a valuable tool in general practice. However, no direct beneficial effect was found for older persons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  12. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  13. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  14. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  15. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  16. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  17. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in the presence of Vacuity. 3.2 Partial meet theory contraction The preceding construction works equally well when B is taken to be a theory K. But in this case, since the input to contraction is a theory, we should expect the output to be a theory too... that is analogous to that of a belief set K in theory change. Intuitively, E is the ?current? set of expectations of the agent, and the plausible consequences of a sentence ? are those sentences ? for which ? |?? holds. The set of expectations E is not explicitly...

  18. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaly, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them. 1 After developing this view, I consider what it might imply about controversial research the goal of which is to yield true beliefs but the outcome of which might include negative social consequences. In particular, I focus on the implications of research into biological differences between racial groups.

  19. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...

  20. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  1. Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Cheung, Him; Shen, Manqiong; Wang, Ruiming

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition. In Experiment 1, an agent placed a ball into one of two boxes and left. The ball then rolled out and moved either into the other box (new box) or back into the original one (old box). The participants were to decide from which box they themselves or the agent would try to recover the ball. Results showed that false belief performance was affected by increased orientation disparity between the participants and the agent, suggesting involvement of embodied transformation. In Experiment 2, false belief was similarly induced and the participants were to decide if the agent would try to recover the ball in one specific box. Orientation disparity was again found to affect false belief performance. The present results extend previous findings on EET in visuospatial perspective taking and suggest that false belief reasoning, which is a kind of psychological perspective taking, can also involve embodied rotation, consistent with the embodied cognition view. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Blaming for a better future: future orientation and associated intolerance of personal uncertainty lead to harsher reactions toward innocent victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Michèlle; van den Bos, Kees

    2012-07-01

    People are often encouraged to focus on the future and strive for long-term goals. This noted, the authors argue that this future orientation is associated with intolerance of personal uncertainty, as people usually cannot be certain that their efforts will pay off. To be able to tolerate personal uncertainty, people adhere strongly to the belief in a just world, paradoxically resulting in harsher reactions toward innocent victims. In three experiments, the authors show that a future orientation indeed leads to more negative evaluations of an innocent victim (Study 1), enhances intolerance of personal uncertainty (Study 2), and that experiencing personal uncertainty leads to more negative evaluations of a victim (Study 3). So, while a future orientation enables people to strive for long-term goals, it also leads them to be harsher toward innocent victims. One underlying mechanism causing these reactions is intolerance of personal uncertainty, associated with a future orientation.

  3. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  4. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  5. Lucky Belief in Science Education - Gettier Cases and the Value of Reliable Belief-Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Richard

    2018-05-01

    The conceptualisation of knowledge as justified true belief has been shown to be, at the very least, an incomplete account. One challenge to the justified true belief model arises from the proposition of situations in which a person possesses a belief that is both justified and true which some philosophers intuit should not be classified as knowledge. Though situations of this type have been imagined by a number of writers, they have come to be labelled Gettier cases. Gettier cases arise when a fallible justification happens to lead to a true belief in one context, a case of `lucky belief'. In this article, it is argued that students studying science may make claims that resemble Gettier cases. In some contexts, a student may make a claim that is both justified and true but which arises from an alternative conception of a scientific concept. A number of instances of lucky belief in topics in science education are considered leading to an examination of the criteria teachers use to assess students' claims in different contexts. The possibility of lucky belief leads to the proposal that, in addition to the acquisition of justified true beliefs, the development of reliable belief-forming processes is a significant goal of science education. The pedagogic value of various kinds of claims is considered and, it is argued, the criteria used to judge claims may be adjusted to suit the context of assessment. It is suggested that teachers should be alert to instances of lucky belief that mask alternative conceptions.

  6. The Beliefs, Attitudes and Views of University Students about Anger and the Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Oriented Anger Control and Anxiety Management Programs on Their Anger Management Skill Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, T. Fikret; Yalçin, B. Murat; Erbas, Melda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative focus group using a randomized controlled trail with a mixed methodology. The study has dual aims. First we searched the beliefs, attitudes and views of 176 university students on how to deal with anger using eight focus discussion groups. The anxiety and anger levels of these students were investigated…

  7. Identifying values and beliefs in an outcomes-based curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is therefore a need for teachers to be sensitised to the different values embedded in each belief system and all cultureal orientations. The prevalence of values and belief systems in the OBE curricula of C2005 and the NCS will have to be acknowledged, identified, and promoted. South African Journal of Education ...

  8. Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Moghimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting productivity is one of the goals of usinginformation technology in organizations. The purpose of this research isexamining the impact of IT on organizational productivity andrecognizing its mechanisms based on process-oriented approach. For thisend, by reviewing the literature of the subject a number of impacts of ITon organizational processes were identified. Then, through interviewswith IT experts, seven main factors were selected and presented in aconceptual model. This model was tested through a questionnaire in 148industrial companies. Data analysis shows that impact of IT onproductivity can be included in the eight major categories: Increasing ofthe Automation, Tracking, Communication, Improvement, Flexibility,Analytic, Coordination and Monitoring in organizational processes.Finally, to improve the impact of information technology onorganizational productivity, some suggestions are presented.

  9. Predicting Academic Self-Handicapping in Different Age Groups: The Role of Personal Achievement Goals and Social Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondari, Angeliki; Gonida, Eleftheria

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic self-handicapping refers to the use of impediments to successful performance on academic tasks. Previous studies have shown that it is related to personal achievement goals. A performance goal orientation is a positive predictor of self-handicapping, whereas a task goal orientation is unrelated to self-handicapping. Aims: The…

  10. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs and Motivational Components of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Male and Female EFL Learners across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Nayebi Limoodehi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between five dimensions of the epistemological beliefs regarding structure of knowledge, stability of knowledge, source of knowledge, ability to learn and, speed of learning and six measures of the motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies (intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy, control of learning, and test anxiety among male and female EFL learners across years of study (freshman and sophomore students. The participants of this study were 101 EFL students studying English literature and English translation in the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran, during the spring semester of 2013. The participants completed Persian version of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie, 1991 and Persian version of Epistemological Questionnaire (Schommer, 1990. Results showed that, in general, the more naïve the epistemological beliefs of students, the less likely they are to use motivational learning strategies. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between dimensions of epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies among male and female students. On the other hand, a statistically significant relationship was found between dimensions of epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies for both freshman and sophomore students.

  11. The benefits of interpersonal regulatory fit for individual goal pursuit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Rusbult, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work examines whether individual goal pursuit is influenced by advice and suggestions from interaction partners whose regulatory orientation is perceived to fit (vs. not fit) the individual's orientation. We sought to investigate whether such interpersonal regulatory fit yields

  12. What Happens When a Teacher's Science Belief Structure Is in Disequilibrium? Entangled Nature of Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anita; Park, Soonhye; Hand, Brian

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative case study examined the process of change in an experienced elementary teacher's belief structure during implementation of an inquiry-based science program. Difficulties generally associated with ascertaining beliefs were minimized by using Leatham's (Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 91-102 (2006) Sensible System Framework, enabling researchers to obtain rich descriptions of the teacher's belief structure by focusing on words (professed beliefs), intentions (intended beliefs), and actions (enacted beliefs). Models were constructed of the teacher's belief structure before and after implementation of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach (Hand et al. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 131-149, 2004), an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. Key beliefs for this teacher were related to how students learn, goals for teaching science, focus of instruction, and roles of teacher and student. Ultimately, the teacher shifted her professed, intended, and enacted beliefs resulting in a shift from a teacher-centered to a student-centered classroom. Findings support Thagard's Coherence Theory of Justification (2002), positing that change in one belief creates a state of disequilibrium that must be alleviated by changing/realigning other beliefs in order to re-establish coherence in the overall belief structure. This research focus is distinct from the general trend in teacher beliefs research in important ways. Most significant is that this study was not focused on the traditional two lists—those beliefs that were consistent with practice and those that were inconsistent with practice—but instead focused on the entwined nature of beliefs and practice and have shown that a teacher's practice can be viewed as their enacted beliefs, an integral part of the teacher's overall belief structure.

  13. Future orientation and health quality of life in primary care: vitality as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C; Sirois, Fuschia M

    2015-07-01

    Temporal perspective, including views about future goals, may influence motivational processes related to health. An adaptive sense of future orientation is linked to better health, but little research has examined potential underlying factors, such as vitality. In a sample of 101 primary care patients, we examined whether belief in the changeability of the future was related to mental and physical energization and, in turn, to health-related quality of life. Participants were working, uninsured primary care patients, who completed self-report measures of future orientation, vitality, and health-related quality of life. Mediation models, covarying age, sex, and race/ethnicity indicated that vitality significantly mediated the association between future orientation and the outcomes of general health, mental health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role limitations due to emotional and physical reasons. Vitality exerted an indirect-only effect on the relation between future orientation and physical functioning. Our findings suggest that adaptive beliefs about the future may promote, or allow access to, physical and mental energy and, in turn, may result in better mental and physical health functioning. Individual-level and public health interventions designed to promote future orientation and vitality may beneficially influence quality of life and well-being.

  14. The Impact of Agentic and Communal Exercise Messages on Individuals' Exercise Class Attitudes, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Intention to Attend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Sparks, Cassandra; Jackson, Ben

    2017-12-01

    We tested the effects of advertisements about a fictitious exercise class-derived using the theoretical constructs of agency and communion-on recipients' perceptions about, and interest in, the class. The final sample consisted of 150 adults (M age  = 44.69, SD = 15.83). Results revealed that participants who received a communal-oriented message reported significantly greater exercise task self-efficacy and more positive affective attitudes relative to those who received an agentic-oriented message. Communal (relative to agentic) messages were also indirectly responsible for greater intentions to attend the class, via more positive self-efficacy beliefs and affective attitudes. These findings were obtained despite the use of another manipulation to orient participants to either agency or communion goals. The results indicate that the primacy of communion over agency for message recipients may extend to exercise settings and may occur irrespective of whether participants are situationally oriented toward agency or communion.

  15. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  16. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    LePrevost, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This...

  17. Relationships among constructivist learning environment perceptions, motivational beliefs, self-regulation and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra

    2013-11-01

    Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing

  18. Can we use yesterday's technology for achieving our goals in the future. New lines of orientation required for energy policies on the way to the postmaterialistic society. Technik von gestern fuer die Ziele von morgen. Energiepolitische Orientierungen auf dem Weg zur postmaterialistischen Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, M.; Molt, W. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The change from materialistic to postmaterialistic needs increasingly makes itself felt in the industrialised societies of the Western world. Problems such as the need for new definitions of the quality of life, new approaches questioning the relation between technical progress and social goals, and man's attitude towards nature have become topics of public concern. Policy makers more and more find themselves confronted with these questions. Energy policy and related strategies are taken as an example to illustrate the conflicts currently emerging in the search for new lines of orientation, and to explain the difficulties in finding ways and alternatives which are likely to be accepted as a comprise leading to new goals and values. The all in all ten authors do not foster an attitude of fundamental opposition; they rather elaborate proposals for compromising, sometimes admit not to be able to present answers for the time being, and always try to give a balanced view of the problems involved.

  19. Flexible goal attribution in early mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Christensen, Wayne

    2016-03-01

    The 2-systems theory developed by Apperly and Butterfill (2009; Butterfill & Apperly, 2013) is an influential approach to explaining the success of infants and young children on implicit false-belief tasks. There is extensive empirical and theoretical work examining many aspects of this theory, but little attention has been paid to the way in which it characterizes goal attribution. We argue here that this aspect of the theory is inadequate. Butterfill and Apperly's characterization of goal attribution is designed to show how goals could be ascribed by infants without representing them as related to other psychological states, and the minimal mindreading system is supposed to operate without employing flexible semantic-executive cognitive processes. But research on infant goal attribution reveals that infants exhibit a high degree of situational awareness that is strongly suggestive of flexible semantic-executive cognitive processing, and infants appear moreover to be sensitive to interrelations between goals, preferences, and beliefs. Further, close attention to the structure of implicit mindreading tasks--for which the theory was specifically designed--indicates that flexible goal attribution is required to succeed. We conclude by suggesting 2 approaches to resolving these problems. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The motivational properties of hope in goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    We argue that hope is not an expectancy based on beliefs about pathways to desired goals and personal capacities to act on them, but an experience of the mere possibility of a desired outcome. We propose that in the latter sense, hope has unique motivational consequences for goal striving.

  1. Goals are not selfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  2. Intention and Normative Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Chislenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    I defend the view that we act “under the guise of the good.” More specifically, I argue that an intention to do something is a belief that one ought to do it. I show how conflicts in intention and belief, as well as more complex impairments in these states, account for the central problem cases: akrasia in belief and intention, apparently unintelligible choices, and lack of motivation or accidie.

  3. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Rationality of a player is determined by comparing her actual expected payoff to her expected payoff when her strategy is changed , while her beliefs —and...reduced strategies, and it is possible that under such conditions, beliefs about other players’ reduced strategies change as well. Thus, independence...assumptions, whether they concern observability of moves or subjective beliefs of any other kind, can be all accommodated by changing the informational

  4. Cognitive orientation and genital infections in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, S; Kreitler, H; Schwartz, R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the psychological determinants of common genital infections in young women. The study was done in the framework of the cognitive orientation theory which assumes that cognition guides behavior and provides predictions of behaviors and psychophysiological phenomena. We expected that beliefs of four types (about self, norms, goals, and general) would predict the occurrence and/or frequency of 17 gynecological symptoms (e.g., itching, swelling, different vaginal discharges, abscesses). The subjects were 195 female volunteers, undergraduates, about 23 years old, without gross gynecological disorders, mostly (87.7%) unmarried, mostly (83.6%) having had intercourse. They were administered anonymously questionnaires about demographic variables, frequency and treatment of gynecological symptoms and 3 urological ones (for control), and about cognitive orientation that referred to pretested themes (e.g., assertiveness, hypochondriasis). Stepwise discriminant and regression analyses showed that the belief types enabled predicting the occurrence and frequency of all symptoms, with a mean 34.5% improvement over the 50% chance level, accounting for 45.7-67.2% of the variance. Also the urological symptoms were predicted although at a lower level. Discussion focuses on the specificity of cognitive-motivational determinants and their role in producing conditions favoring physical pathology.

  5. Orientaciones de Meta y Compromiso Físico-Motor en Educación Física. Un estudio en alumnos de 4º de Educación Primaria. (Goals orientations and level of motor commitment in physical activity in physical education. A study of students in 4th of primary education .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbero Alvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Partiendo de estudios previos que señalan la influencia que lo realizado en la infancia y adolescencia tiene en etapas vitales posteriores respecto a hábitos de participación en actividades físicas (Pate, Dowda, Baranowski y Puhl, 1993 y la relación existente entre nivel de capacidad física, orientaciones de meta y nivel de compromiso en actividades físicas (Goudas, Biddle y Fox, 1994; Tzetis, Goudas, Kourtesis y Zisi, 2002; Vlachopoulos y Biddle, 1996, en el presente trabajo se describe un estudio que se ha llevado a cabo con alumnos de 4º de Educación Primaria en Educación Física cuyo objetivo es determinar la existencia de relaciones entre orientaciones de meta, variables condicionales físicas (nivel de capacidad física y niveles de compromiso físico-motor en clases de Educación Física, medidas mediante el cuestionario TEOSQ, test deresistencia Shuttle-Run de 20 m y UPG (Unidad de posicionamiento global. Los resultados muestran la inexistencia de relaciones significativas entre orientación de meta y variables cinemáticas y fisiológicas, al considerar de forma global al conjunto de los sujetos. Al realizar el análisis en función del género se han encontrado relaciones significativas en el subgrupo mujeres entre la puntuación alcanzada en el factor orientación a la tarea y algunos parámetros cinemáticos y fisiológicos. Abstract Several previous studies pointed out to the influence of the experience acquired during childhood and adolescence on further vital stages, regarding the habits of taking part in physical activities, as well as therelation between physical capacity level, goal orientations and commitment level in physical activities. Therefore, in this paper we describe a study carried out with 4th-grade students in Primary Education in the Physical Education class. This study aims to determine the relations between goal orientations, physical conditional variables (physical capacity level and physical

  6. Graphics-oriented application language for LASNEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    GOAL, a graphics-oriented application language, was developed to help physicists understand the large amounts of data produced by LASNEX. GOAL combines many aspects of the old LASNEX language, computer graphics, and standard computer languages

  7. The theory of experience orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Legaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the theory of experience orientation, which builds on the division of experiences in two categories: Goal-oriented and Omni-oriented. The theory comes from preliminary studies of userexperiences in a work-context, where I have found this distinction to be beneficial....... In this paper I explain the theory behind it and the practical application of such a distinction when designing for an experience....

  8. Academic goals in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian

    2013-12-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  9. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  10. To curve or not to curve? The effect of college science grading policies on implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structures, and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, James M.

    There is currently a shortage of students graduating with STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) degrees, particularly women and students of color. Approximately half of students who begin a STEM major eventually switch out. Many switchers cite the competitiveness, grading curves, and weed-out culture of introductory STEM classes as reasons for the switch. Variables known to influence resilience include a student's implicit theory of intelligence and achievement goal orientation. Incremental theory (belief that intelligence is malleable) and mastery goals (pursuit of increased competence) are more adaptive in challenging classroom contexts. This dissertation investigates the role that college science grading policies and messages about the importance of effort play in shaping both implicit theories and achievement goal orientation. College students (N = 425) were randomly assigned to read one of three grading scenarios: (1) a "mastery" scenario, which used criterion-referenced grading, permitted tests to be retaken, and included a strong effort message; (2) a "norm" scenario, which used norm-referenced grading (grading on the curve); or (3) an "effort" scenario, which combined a strong effort message with the norm-referenced policies. The dependent variables included implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy. A different sample of students (N = 15) were randomly assigned a scenario to read, asked to verbalize their thoughts, and responded to questions in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that students reading the mastery scenario were more likely to endorse an incremental theory of intelligence, perceived greater mastery goal structure, and had higher self-efficacy. The effort message had no effect on self-efficacy, implicit theory, and most of the goal structure measures. The interviews revealed that it was the retake policy in the mastery scenario and the competitive atmosphere in the norm

  11. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  12. Scandinavian belief in fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Ström

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In point of principle, Christianity does not give room for any belief in fate. Astrology, horoscopes, divination, etc., are strictly rejected. Belief in fate never disappeared in Christian countries, nor did it in Scandinavia in Christian times. Especially in folklore we can find it at any period: People believed in an implacable fate. All folklore is filled up with this belief in destiny. Nobody can escape his fate. The future lies in the hands of fate, and the time to come takes its form according to inscrutable laws. The pre-Christian period in Scandinavia, dominated by pagan Norse religion, and the secularized epoch of the 20th century, however, show more distinctive and more widespread beliefs in fate than does the Christian period. The present paper makes a comparison between these forms of belief.

  13. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  14. Some predictors of life goals in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Poljšak Škraban

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal goals and interests play an important role in human development because they orient people's life planning, decision-making and also, therefore, their future life course. The article presents the findings of a research which explores the eventual differences between Slovenian and Croatian sample in agency-oriented and communion-oriented life goals and the analysis of significant predictors of above mentioned life goals on both samples. The research included 924 adults of both genders, aged between 21 and 70 years from Slovenia and Croatia. In the study we used the scale of Goals (Pohlman and Brunstein, 1997 and a set of questions regarding various participant's life domains and their perceived importance. The results show significant differences on agency- oriented and communion-oriented life goals between the Slovenian and Croatian sample; in both cases croatian participants reach higher results than those from slovenina sample. As significant predictors in both samples were identified (a age and importance of effective use of free time for agency-oriented goals, and (b and gender, parenthood, importance of parenthood and importance of effective use of free time for communion-oriented life goals. The differences in results are explained by respective levels of social modernisation and social welfare, given the fact the Slovenian respondents are embedded in the social environment that offers more possibilities for fullfilment of their life goals, and are closer to postmaterialism and individualism.a

  15. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  16. From goal motivation to goal progress: the mediating role of coping in the Self-Concordance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The present studies examined the mediating role of self-regulatory mechanisms in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress in the Self-Concordance Model. First, a systematic review, using meta-analytical path analysis, supported the mediating role of effort and action planning in the positive association between autonomous goal motivation and goal progress. Second, results from two additional empirical studies, using structural equation modeling, lent credence to the mediating role of coping in the relationship between goal motivation and goal progress of university students. Autonomous goal motivation was positively associated with task-oriented coping, which predicted greater goal progress during midterm exams (Study 1, N=702) and at the end of the semester in a different sample (Study 2, N=167). Controlled goal motivation was associated with greater disengagement-oriented coping (Study 1 and Study 2) and lesser use of task-oriented coping (Study 2), which reduced goal progress. These results held up after controlling for perceived stress (Study 2). Our findings highlight the importance of coping in the "inception-to-attainment" goal process because autonomous goal motivation indirectly rather than directly predicts goal progress of university students through their usage of task-oriented coping.

  17. Student-generated questions during chemistry lectures: Patterns, self-appraisals, and relations with motivational beliefs and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Bradley W.

    Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how students evaluate their questions, and the relations among questions, motivations, and achievement. This study examined the questions undergraduate students (N = 103) generated during 8 lectures in an introductory chemistry course. Students recorded and appraised their question in daily question logs and reported lecture-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy, personal interest, goal orientations, and other motivational self-beliefs were measured before and after the unit. Primary analyses included testing path models, multiple regressions, and latent class analyses. Overall, results indicated that several characteristics of student questioning during lectures were significantly related to various motivations and achievement. Higher end-of-class self-efficacy was associated with fewer procedural questions and more questions that reflected smaller knowledge deficits. Lower exam scores were associated with questions reflecting broader knowledge deficits and students' appraisals that their questions had less value for others than for themselves. Individual goal orientations collectively and positively predicted question appraisals. The questions students generated and their relations with motivational variables and achievement are discussed in light of the learning task and academic context.

  18. From User Goals to Service Discovery and Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonino da Silva Santos, L.O.; Guizzardi, G.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Goals are often used to represent stakeholder's objectives. The intentionality inherited by a goal drives stakeholders to pursuit the fulfillment of their goals either by themselves or by delegating this fulfillment to third parties. In Service-Oriented Computing, service client's requirements are

  19. Science Motivation of University Students: Achievement Goals as a Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…

  20. Negotiating Competing Goals in the Development of an Urban Ecology Practitioner Inquiry Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Peter; McNeill, Katherine L.

    2013-11-01

    Teacher learning communities are hailed by many as vehicles for reforming and elevating the professional status of teaching. While much research explores teacher community as a venue for measurable gains, our research examines the orientation of practitioner inquiry toward critical debate about effective instruction. Specifically, our study focuses on a group of middle and high school teachers who worked with a nonprofit organization to engage students in urban environmental field investigations. Teachers met regularly as a community with the common goal of teaching urban ecology in an outdoor setting. We collected interview data from members of the teacher community, and we observed teacher interaction during a meeting of the practitioner inquiry group. Interview results indicated that while the nonprofit aimed to support collaborative dialogue and self-critique, participants saw the community mainly as a venue for pursuing short-term goals, such as receiving new resources or socializing with colleagues. Observation data, however, suggested that the community was taking early steps toward building an environment oriented toward critical discussion. Juxtaposing results from our interviews and observations, we discuss the challenges communities face when they seek to develop shared beliefs and deal openly with conflict. Ultimately, we suggest that organizers of collaborative learning environments should work to actively develop structures for building the organizational trust necessary to support civil critique.

  1. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  2. The relationship between epistemological beliefs, implicit theories of intelligence, and self-regulated learning among Norwegian postsecondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I

    2005-12-01

    More empirical work is needed to examine the dimensionality of personal epistemology and relations between those dimensions and motivational and strategic components of self-regulated learning. In particular, there is great need to investigate personal epistemology and its relation to self-regulated learning across cultures and academic contexts. Because the demarcation between personal epistemology and implicit theories of intelligence has been questioned, dimensions of personal epistemology should also be studied in relation to implicit theories of intelligence. The primary aim was to examine the dimensionality of personal epistemology and the relation between those dimensions and implicit theories of intelligence in the cultural context of Norwegian postsecondary education. A secondary aim was to examine the relative contribution of epistemological beliefs and theories of intelligence to motivational and strategic components of self-regulated learning in different academic contexts within that culture. The first sample included 178 business administration students in a traditional transmission-oriented instructional context; the second, 108 student teachers in an innovative pedagogical context. The dimensionality of the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire was examined through factor analyses, and the resulting dimensions were examined in relation to implicit theories of intelligence. We performed multiple regression analyses, separately for the two academic contexts, to try to predict motivational (i.e. self-efficacy beliefs, mastery goal orientation, and interest) and strategic (i.e. self-regulatory strategy use) components of self-regulated learning with epistemological beliefs and implicit theories of intelligence. Considerable cross-cultural generalizability was found for the dimensionality of personal epistemology. Moreover, the dimensions of personal epistemology seemed to represent constructs separate from the construct of implicit theories of

  3. GOAL-to-HAL translation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, J. H.; Helmers, C. T.; Stanten, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    This report deals with the feasibility, problems, solutions, and mapping of a GOAL language to HAL language translator. Ground Operations Aerospace Language, or GOAL, is a test-oriented higher order language developed by the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be used in checkout and launch of the space shuttle. HAL is a structured higher order language developed by the Johnson Space Center to be used in writing the flight software for the onboard shuttle computers. Since the onboard computers will extensively support ground checkout of the space shuttle, and since these computers and the software development facilities on the ground use the HAL language as baseline, the translation of GOAL to HAL becomes significant. The issue of feasibility was examined and it was found that a GOAL to HAL translator is feasible. Special problems are identified and solutions proposed. Finally, examples of translation are provided for each category of complete GOAL statement.

  4. Conservative orientation as a determinant of hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C K; Kwok, S T

    1996-06-01

    Conservative orientation is identified with reference to authoritarianism, work ethic belief, just world belief, and endorsement of individualistic causes of social problems. This over-arching orientation is hypothesized to affect hopelessness and to be affected by self-esteem with reference to ego development theory and learned helplessness theory. Causal modeling of data obtained from 1st-year college students (N = 556) in Hong Kong supports the hypotheses, showing that a student's hopelessness relates to his or her conservative orientation, even when self-esteem is controlled. This relationship can be interpreted by ego development and learned helplessness theories and cannot be explained as a spurious effect. Through the theories, hopelessness is interpreted as a result of maladaptive development and fatalistic, alienated, and helpless outlooks. This maladaptive development and the outlooks in turn result from students' conservative and individualistic orientation.

  5. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...

  6. Tougher containment design goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrelly, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day LWR containment design goals are reviewed, together with their potential failure modes. Rasmussen's estimates of failure probabilities are discussed and the concept of ''delayed failure'' is seen to be a valuable safety goal for hypothetical accidents. The paper investigates the inherent coremelt resistance capability of various containment designs and suggests improvements, with special emphasis on increasing the failure delay times. (author)

  7. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  8. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  9. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  10. Making The Most of Medical orientation; A New Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jonathan Taitz

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientating new junior medical staff can be a complex and time consuming task. Traditional models have typically involved a day or longer of lectures. This involves a large number of senior staff being available on the first day of term. It also means that junior staff not present on the first day had any access to an orientation program at all. Evaluation of our program confirmed the belief that the day was dull and that there was simply too much information for new staff to absorb. As a result of this feedback we extensively updated our orientation program. Pre-reading of the junior staff manual became compulsory. We departed from the traditional lecture style program and devised a new ten- station scenario based interactive program. The stations were designed to cover aspects of the hospital’s mandatory education and key educational requirements in order to function effectively on our campus. Station leaders were selected and trained in the goals of the new process. Several of our secondment sites were engaged in the development of the project topics. We hoped that our secondment sites would be relieved of some orientation responsibility if core material was delivered centrally. The strength of the new orientation is that it is portable, reproducible and uniform. It is also available via video conferencing. A single person can educate new staff in three hours if the need arises. Most importantly all new staff will have access to the program within a week of starting a term at our hospital.

  11. Goal Orientation Framing and Its Influence on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Mindset is the ability to maintain a first strike action against an aggressor , even if you move second. The move and think without fear, to be the...Mental chronometry is the study of how long it takes the brain to recognize and respond to various inputs, ERPs. For each cognitive event (visual...which then gave them a distorted performance score. Recruiting was conducted by online advertising on the Naval Postgraduate School intranet morning

  12. Goal oriented Mathematics Survey at Preparatory Level- Revised set ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross sectional study design on mathematical syllabi at preparatory levels of the high schools was to investigate the efficiency of the subject at preparatory level education serving as a basis for several streams, like Natural science, Technology, Computer Science, Health Science and Agriculture found at tertiary levels.

  13. Goal-oriented model adaptivity for viscous incompressible flows

    KAUST Repository

    van Opstal, T. M.

    2015-04-04

    © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In van Opstal et al. (Comput Mech 50:779–788, 2012) airbag inflation simulations were performed where the flow was approximated by Stokes flow. Inside the intricately folded initial geometry the Stokes assumption is argued to hold. This linearity assumption leads to a boundary-integral representation, the key to bypassing mesh generation and remeshing. It therefore enables very large displacements with near-contact. However, such a coarse assumption cannot hold throughout the domain, where it breaks down one needs to revert to the original model. The present work formalizes this idea. A model adaptive approach is proposed, in which the coarse model (a Stokes boundary-integral equation) is locally replaced by the original high-fidelity model (Navier–Stokes) based on a-posteriori estimates of the error in a quantity of interest. This adaptive modeling framework aims at taking away the burden and heuristics of manually partitioning the domain while providing new insight into the physics. We elucidate how challenges pertaining to model disparity can be addressed. Essentially, the solution in the interior of the coarse model domain is reconstructed as a post-processing step. We furthermore present a two-dimensional numerical experiments to show that the error estimator is reliable.

  14. Goal-oriented model adaptivity for viscous incompressible flows

    KAUST Repository

    van Opstal, T. M.; Bauman, P. T.; Prudhomme, S.; van Brummelen, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    insight into the physics. We elucidate how challenges pertaining to model disparity can be addressed. Essentially, the solution in the interior of the coarse model domain is reconstructed as a post-processing step. We furthermore present a two

  15. Goal-Oriented Probability Density Function Methods for Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    approximations or data-driven approaches. We investigated the accuracy of analytical tech- niques based Kubo -Van Kampen operator cumulant expansions for...analytical techniques based Kubo -Van Kampen operator cumulant expansions for Langevin equations driven by fractional Brownian motion and other noises

  16. Challenging tasks: The role of employees' and supervisors' goal orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.; van Vianen, A.; de Pater, I.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that challenging jobs stimulate employee learning and retention. Nevertheless, empirical knowledge on what influences the amount of challenging tasks employees perform in their job is lacking. In this study, we examined the extent to which the performance of challenging tasks is

  17. Exploring the ideological undercurrents of HRM: Workplace values and beliefs in Ireland & New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Geare, Alan; Edgar, Fiona; Harney, Brian; Cafferkey, Kenneth; Dundon, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Despite hints of more pluralist undercurrents, workplace values and beliefs have rarely been surfaced to inform our understanding of HRM. This paper examines management and employee workplace values and beliefs in the national contexts of Ireland and New Zealand. The findings indicate a) a divergence of managerial beliefs at the level of society and the level of their own workplace, b) an overall pluralist orientation amongst employees. These findings highlight the importance of greater sensi...

  18. Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabanach, Ramón G; Núnez, José C; González-Pienda, Julio; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel

    2003-03-01

    The type of academic goals pursued by students is one of the most important variables in motivational research in educational contexts. Although motivational theory and research have emphasised the somewhat exclusive nature of two types of goal orientation (learning goals versus performance goals), some studies (Meece, 1994; Seifert, 1995, 1996) have shown that the two kinds of goals are relatively complementary and that it is possible for students to have multiple goals simultaneously, which guarantees some flexibility to adapt more efficaciously to various contexts and learning situations. The principal aim of this study is to determine the academic goals pursued by university students and to analyse the differences in several very significant variables related to motivation and academic learning. Participants were 609 university students (74% women and 26% men) who filled in several questionnaires about the variables under study. We used cluster analysis ('quick cluster analysis' method) to establish the different groups or clusters of individuals as a function of the three types of goals (learning goals, performance goals, and social reinforcement goals). By means of MANOVA, we determined whether the groups or clusters identified were significantly different in the variables that are relevant to motivation and academic learning. Lastly, we performed ANOVA on the variables that revealed significant effects in the previous analysis. Using cluster analysis, three groups of students with different motivational orientations were identified: a group with predominance of performance goals (Group PG: n = 230), a group with predominance of multiple goals (Group MG: n = 238), and a group with predominance of learning goals (Group LG: n = 141). Groups MG and LG attributed their success more to ability, they had higher perceived ability, they took task characteristics into account when planning which strategies to use in the learning process, they showed higher persistence

  19. Beliefs in the Future as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. F. Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs in the future are an internalization of hope and optimism about future outcomes. This paper reviews and compares several theories of hope and optimism and highlights the features constituting beliefs in the future. This paper points out that beliefs in the future include a series of goal-directed thoughts and motivation, such as setting up valued and attainable goals, planning pathways, and maintaining self-confidence and mastery, so as to keep adolescents engaged in the pursuit of goals. This kind of personal mastery, together with sociocultural values, family, school, and peers are the antecedents leading to beliefs in the future, which is related to adolescents’ well-being and positive development. In order to cultivate adolescents’ beliefs in the future, enabling their ability to manipulate goal-directed thoughts and motivation and providing a supportive environment including their family, school, peers, and the society are recommended.

  20. 78 FR 55264 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Awareness and Beliefs About Cancer Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...; 30-Day Comment Request: Awareness and Beliefs About Cancer Survey, National Cancer Institute (NCI.... Proposed Collection: Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer Survey, 0925-NEW, National Cancer Institute (NCI... gather data about American adults' awareness and beliefs about cancer. The ultimate goal is to determine...

  1. Acculturation and Religion in Schools: The Views of Young People from Minority Belief Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study of Punishment Beliefs and Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Knowles, Eric D

    2017-02-01

    The current research examined cultural similarities and differences in punishment beliefs and decisions. Participants were European Americans ( N = 50), Chinese Americans ( N = 57), and Chinese in Mainland China ( N = 50). The Functions of Punishment Questionnaire was used to measure participants' beliefs about the retributive or deterrent functions of punishment and a scenario method was used to measure the extent to which punishment decisions were driven by individuals' concerns for retribution or deterrence. The results indicated that, contrary to the hypothesis that the retributive function would be emphasized by individualistic groups and the deterrent function by collectivistic groups, Mainland Chinese participants had a stronger belief in retribution and a weaker belief in deterrence than did European and Chinese Americans. The results also indicated that retribution played a bigger role in punishment decisions for Chinese than for the other two groups, but the importance of the deterrence function in punishment decisions did not differ across the three groups. Finally, the correlation between interdependence orientation and the belief in retribution was positive for Chinese but negative for European Americans. Taken together, the findings provided little evidence that collectivists are more deterrence-oriented and individualists more retribution-oriented.

  3. Belief, hope and faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luis Claudio

    2004-12-01

    A case of hysteria is presented in order to create a frame of reference for the author's approach to the concepts of hope, belief and faith. A difference between hope as a 'sad passion' (which is here called regressive hope) and hope as a principle of mental functioning is established. The concept of hope will at first always be based on beliefs--either beliefs organised in the paranoid-schizoid position (called here fragmented and delusional beliefs)--or those organised from the depressive position (complex systems of beliefs, which end up being dogmatic); the latter typically occur in neurotics. It is suggested here that there is another possibility for hope, which is based on faith. The meaning of faith is considered here externally to the religious sense. The solid establishment of hope as a principle--based on faith--can be viewed as responsible for the opening up of creative potentials and as one of the main aims of analysis. Such an aim, however requires the establishment of a deep relationship, both in theory and in clinical practice, between the Kleinian question of the depressive position and the Freudian question of the Oedipus complex.

  4. Practical goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This book and its treatment of goal programming will help organizations meet targets and objectives. The book includes many worked-out examples and tutorial exercises, and is designed to demostrate and teach its readers good modeling practice.

  5. Conservative Orientation as a Determinant of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Kwok, Siu-Tong

    1996-01-01

    Hypothesizes that a conservative and individualistic orientation results in the fatalistic, alienated, and helpless outlook known as hopelessness. Provides extensive references to studies and theories characterizing conservatism and a work ethic belief as manifestations of an a maladaptive stage of psychological development. (MJP)

  6. The Structuring Principle: Political Socialization and Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Donald D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Assesses the significance of data on childhood political learning to political theory by testing the structuring principle,'' considered one of the central assumptions of political socialization research. This principle asserts that basic orientations acquired during childhood structure the later learning of specific issue beliefs.'' The…

  7. Rule-Based Reasoning Is Fast and Belief-Based Reasoning Can Be Slow: Challenging Current Explanations of Belief-Bias and Base-Rate Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian R.; Gibb, Maia; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this…

  8. Validation of a Teachers' Achievement Goal Instrument for Teaching Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Bo; Luo, Xiaobin; Hu, Qingshan; Garn, Alex C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Using Butler's teacher achievement goal orientation as a conceptual framework, we developed this study to validate a teachers' achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Methods: A sample of 322 Chinese physical education teachers participated in this study and completed measures of achievement goal orientations and job…

  9. An Investigation of the Relationships between Goals and Software Project Escalation: Insights from Goal Setting and Goal Orientation Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    Escalation of commitment is manifested as a behavior in which an individual resists withdrawing from a failing course of action despite negative feedback, and it is an enduring problem that occurs in a variety of situations, including R&D investment decisions and software project overruns. To date, a variety of theoretical explanations have…

  10. Prayer beliefs and change in life satisfaction over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2013-06-01

    A considerable number of studies have focused on the relationship between prayer, health, and well-being. But the influence of some types of prayer (e.g., petitionary prayer) has received more attention than others. The purpose of this study is to examine an overlooked aspect of prayer: trust-based prayer beliefs. People with this orientation believe that God knows that best way to answer a prayer and He selects the best time to provide an answer. Three main findings emerge from data that were provided by a nationwide longitudinal survey of older people reveals. First, the results reveal that Conservative Protestants are more likely to endorse trust-based prayer beliefs. Second, the findings suggest that these prayer beliefs tend to be reinforced through prayer groups and informal support from fellow church members. Third, the data indicate that stronger trust-based prayer beliefs are associated with a greater sense of life satisfaction over time.

  11. Islamic Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefein, Naim A.

    1981-01-01

    To help social studies classroom teachers present a realistic picture of the Middle Eastern religion of Islam, this article presents an overview of major beliefs and religious practices of Moslems. Information is presented on religious fundamentals, Islam's relationship to Judaism and Christianity, the development of Islam, the role of women, and…

  12. Further tests of belief-importance theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Petrides

    Full Text Available Belief-importance (belimp theory hypothesizes that personality traits confer a propensity to perceive convergences or divergences between the belief that we can attain certain goals and the importance that we place on these goals. Belief and importance are conceptualized as two coordinates, together defining the belimp plane. We tested fundamental aspects of the theory using four different planes based on the life domains of appearance, family, financial security, and friendship as well as a global plane combining these four domains. The criteria were from the areas of personality (Big Five and trait emotional intelligence and learning styles. Two hundred and fifty eight participants were allocated into the four quadrants of the belimp plane (Hubris, Motivation, Depression, and Apathy according to their scores on four reliable instruments. Most hypotheses were supported by the data. Results are discussed with reference to the stability of the belimp classifications under different life domains and the relationship of the quadrants with the personality traits that are hypothesized to underpin them.

  13. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  14. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  15. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.

    1981-07-15

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized.

  16. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  17. Underestimating belief in climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T.

    2018-03-01

    People are influenced by second-order beliefsbeliefs about the beliefs of others. New research finds that citizens in the US and China systematically underestimate popular support for taking action to curb climate change. Fortunately, they seem willing and able to correct their misperceptions.

  18. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  19. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  20. Illness perception and quality of life of HIV-positive persons: mediation effects of tenacious and flexible goal pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catunda, Carolina; Seidl, Eliane Maria Fleury; Lemétayer, Fabienne

    2017-02-01

    Medical advances contribute to raise life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). However, they still face challenges related to the disease, thus, quality of life (QOL) became a priority on the field. The self-regulatory model (SRM) guided this study. Illness perceptions (IP) are the beliefs, cognitions, representations of a disease, impacting PLHIV coping strategies and QOL. Tenacious goal pursuit (TGP) is the pursuit of goals with determination, flexible goal adjustment (FGA) is doing it with flexibility, disengaging if necessary, they can both be considered as coping strategies. This study aims to measure the impact of HIV Perception in the QOL of PLHIV mediated by the TGP and FGA. Data was collected from 196 PLHIV with the WHOQOL-HIV Bref, the Brief-IPQ and the FGA and TGP scales. Structural equation model provided a good fit consistent with the theoretical SRM. IP, TGP and FGA had direct effects on the QOL of PLHIV. IP had also an indirect effect (partially mediated by TGP/FGA), suggesting that TGP/FGA reduce the impact of a threatening IP in the QOL. Goal oriented interventions should focus in the HIV perception of PLHIV to ameliorate their QOL.

  1. Traditional and Contemporary Lakota Death, Dying, Grief, and Bereavement Beliefs and Practices: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Joseph B.

    1998-01-01

    Bereavement beliefs and practices in the modern, American culture have been well documented. However, virtually no research has been conducted on traditional and contemporary death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices among native tribes, such as the Lakota. The present study was conducted with the Lakota, and fulfilled two goals. iii First, the contemporary and traditional death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices of the Lakota were documented and summariz...

  2. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis.

  3. How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Lens, W.; Phalet, K.

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the impact of future goals on motivation and learning in multicultural classrooms. Across cultures, schooling is a future-oriented investment. Studies of minority students’ school achievement have advanced future goals as a crucial protective factor in the face of frequent

  4. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  5. Choosing the Future You Prefer. A Goal Setting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Edward B.; Lippitt, Ronald O.

    The guide, intended for group and organization leaders, presents activities and exercises to aid in personal and group goal-setting and planning for the future. The objective is to help groups choose goals which are sensitive to and oriented toward the evolving future with its rapid rate of change. The guide is presented in eight chapters.…

  6. Personal Goals and Academic Achievement among Theology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanen, Topi; Hirsto, Laura; Lonka, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Studying in higher education requires long-term commitment. Previous studies have shown that commitment, perceived competence, intrinsic motivation and work-life orientation are positively related to academic achievement. This study examines the kinds of goals theology students have at the beginning of studies, and whether these goals are related…

  7. Cultural influence on Chinese teachers’ perceptions and beliefs in a Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a pilot study designed to investigate native Chinese teachers’ beliefs and perceptions in Danish teaching context and how culture impacts their perceptions and beliefs. Ethnographic interviews were utilized to explore their perceptions on students’ characteristics......, teaching methods, and relevant experiences of four native Chinese who have been teaching in Denmark for many years. It demonstrates that teachers’ perceptions reflect two different educational cultures which have shaped and are reshaping their beliefs about students’ characteristics and teaching methods...... in Danish context. It suggests that teachers’ cultural backgrounds and the new cultural contexts in which they are teaching cause their belief development from more teacher-oriented to more student-oriented. However, their belief about teaching methods also implies a complexity of combining two competing...

  8. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  9. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market......Most research on market orientation has dealt with assessing how market orientation behaviour is related to business performance. This work has established an intense market-oriented activity as significantly and positively related to business performance under most circumstances. In a maturing......-oriented activity. A framework of six generic domains is suggested: Organizational structure, human resource management, market-oriented activity competence, psychological climate, managers' personality characteristics, and individually held beliefs. A model is suggested inter-relating the domains....

  10. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  12. The relationship between competitive anxiety, achievement goals, and motivational climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate to perceptions of the intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety in a sample of university athletes representing various team sports. Although some studies have demonstrated that task orientation and mastery climate are associated with adaptive emotional patterns and ego orientation and performance climate are linked to less adaptive emotions, others have not verified these findings. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to test these links. The results showed that perceptions of a performance climate were associated with ego orientation, whereas perceptions of a mastery climate were linked to task orientation. Furthermore, no significant links were found between task orientation and direction of competitive anxiety, while it was shown that the impact of ego orientation on the intensity and direction of cognitive and somatic anxiety was exerted through self-confidence. No significant direct links were found between motivational climates and competitive anxiety, thus implying that motivational climates may have an indirect impact on affective responses through the different goal orientations. The findings of the present study are discussed along with suggestions for examining situational and individual difference variables that may explain the relationships between intensity and direction of competitive anxiety and achievement goals and motivational climates.

  13. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  14. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzle, J Mark; Uggla, Claes

    2009-01-01

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  15. Impacts of a digital dialogue game and epistemic beliefs on argumentative discourse and willingness to argue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; McAlister, S.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore how students debate with their peers within a designed context using a digital dialogue game, and whether their epistemic beliefs are significant to the outcomes. Epistemic beliefs are known to colour student interactions within argumentative discourse, leading

  16. Modeling cognition as querying a database of labeled beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important conditions for an agent to ensure that it selects the right plans for fulfilling its goals, is that its knowledge about its own status and that of the world is consistent, and as correct as possible. The knowledge of an agent is referred to as its belief set. The common

  17. Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Knowledge, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo Ann; Rearden, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the beliefs of K-8 preservice teachers during a content methods course. The goals of this course included exposing the preservice teachers to student-centered instructional methods for math and science and encouraging the development of lessons that would integrate mathematics and science. Prior research suggested that one must…

  18. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysfunctional sexual beliefs: a comparative study of heterosexual men and women, gay men, and lesbian women with and without sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    Conservative and dysfunctional sexual beliefs are commonly associated with sexual problems among heterosexual men and women. However, little is known about the role of sexual beliefs in sexual problems in gay men and lesbians. The present study aimed at analyzing the role of sexual beliefs in sexual dysfunction in a sample of heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Participants answered questions about self-perceived sexual problems and completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire. Two hundred twelve men (106 gay) and 192 women (96 lesbian) completed a Web survey. Findings indicated that men with sexual dysfunction (regardless of sexual orientation) reported significantly more conservative beliefs and more erroneous beliefs related to partner's sexual satisfaction compared with sexually healthy men. Also, gay men with sexual dysfunction (but not heterosexual men) scored higher on belief in sex as an abuse of men's power compared with healthy controls. In addition, heterosexual men scored higher on "macho" beliefs, beliefs regarding partner's sexual satisfaction, and partner's power, compared with gay men. For women, a main effect was found for sexual orientation, with lesbian women scoring higher on sexual desire as a sin, age-related beliefs, and affection primacy and lower on beliefs related to motherhood primacy. Overall, findings suggest that dysfunctional sexual beliefs may play a role as vulnerability factors for sexual dysfunction regardless of sexual orientation, particularly in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  2. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  3. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  4. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  10. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  12. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  13. Motivational Goal Bracketing: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We study in an online, real-effort experiment how the bracketing of non-binding goals affects performance in a work-leisure self-control problem. We externally induce the goal bracket - daily goals or a weekly goal - and within that bracket let subjects set goals for how much they want to work over...... a one-week period. Our theoretical model predicts (i) that weekly goals create incentives to compensate for a lower than desired performance today with the promise to work harder tomorrow, whereas daily goals exclude such excuses; (ii) that subjects with daily goals set higher goals in aggregate...... and work harder than those with weekly goals. Our data support these predictions. Surprisingly, however, when goals are combined with an externally enforced commitment that requires subjects to spend less than a minute each day on the task to get started working, performance deteriorates because of high...

  14. Can children identify and achieve goals for intervention? A randomized trial comparing two goal-setting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Jacobsson, Helén; Johansson, Ulla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of two different goal-setting approaches (children's self-identified goals and goals identified by parents) were compared on a goal-directed, task-oriented intervention. In this assessor-blinded parallel randomized trial, 34 children with disabilities (13 males, 21 females; mean age 9y, SD 1y 4mo) were randomized using concealed allocation to one of two 8-week, goal-directed, task-oriented intervention groups with different goal-setting approaches: (1) children's self-identified goals (n=18) using the Perceived Efficacy and Goal-Setting System, or (2) goals identified by parents (n=16) using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Participants were recruited through eight paediatric rehabilitation centres and randomized between October 2011 and May 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Goal Attainment Scaling and the secondary measure, the COPM performance scale (COPM-P). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention and at the 5-month follow-up. There was no evidence of a difference in mean characteristics at baseline between groups. There was evidence of an increase in mean goal attainment (mean T score) in both groups after intervention (child-goal group: estimated mean difference [EMD] 27.84, 95% CI 22.93-32.76; parent-goal group: EMD 21.42, 95% CI 16.16-26.67). There was no evidence of a difference in the mean T scores post-intervention between the two groups (EMD 6.42, 95% CI -0.80 to 13.65). These results were sustained at the 5-month follow-up. Children's self-identified goals are achievable to the same extent as parent-identified goals and remain stable over time. Thus children can be trusted to identify their own goals for intervention, thereby influencing their involvement in their intervention programmes. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  17. Property company's sustainability goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Kim

    2014-11-01

    In a keynote presentation on the second morning of this year's Healthcare Estates conference, Kim Ormsby (pictured), national corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability manager at NHS Property Services, discussed how, as part of its broader goals of 'supporting the NHS in delivering clinical services', and 'helping to enhance the experience' of patients visiting its buildings, the organization would continue to pursue and embed in its activities sustainable policies wherever and whenever possible, encouraging both its staff and tenants to take a similar approach. In an informative address, she highlighted some of the key steps the property company had already taken to encourage a proactive approach. Echoing the sentiments of Day One keynote speaker, Julian Hartley (see pages 55-60), she argued that one of the fundamentals to success was wide-ranging staff engagement.

  18. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  19. DOE goals: Excellence, openness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    The author feels that the benefit of the experience and programmatic resources it has developed since passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982 and of the sound and flexible policy framework provided by the amendments, DOE is confident that program objectives can be met on a schedule that balances the needs for technical excellence, institutional openness, and timely acceptance. As the program evolves, DOE will continue to assess how effectively policies are serving program objectives. The need for flexibility in developing a first-of-a-kind system is essential. But flexibility does not alter the need for program stability, which, in turn, requires a commonly shared commitment to realizing the program's goals. This commitment must rest upon a pragmatic understanding of the realities of waste-management system development

  20. Seismic analysis - what goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagart, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    The seismic analysis of nuclear components is characterized today by extensive engineering computer calculations in order to satisfy both the component standard codes such as ASME III as well as federal regulations and guides. The current nuclear siesmic design procedure has envolved in a fragmented fashion and continues to change its elements as improved technology leads to changing standards and guides. The dominant trend is a monotonic increase in the overall conservation with time causing a similar trend in costs of nuclear power plants. Ironically the improvements in the state of art are feeding a process which is eroding the very incentives that attracted us to nuclear power in the first place. This paper examines the cause of this process and suggests that what is needed is a realistic goal which appropriately addresses the overall uncertainty of the seismic design process. (Auth.)

  1. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  2. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  3. When goals diverge: Staff consensus and the organizational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gerald; Ulaszek, Wendy R; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Wexler, Harry K

    2009-08-01

    A sample of correctional officers and prison substance abuse treatment staff collected by the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey is used to provide an exploratory study of an aspect of organizational culture consisting of consensus (agreement) among prison personnel regarding their beliefs about rehabilitation in the presence of conflicting organizational goals and aspects of the organizational climate important to change. Findings show that among those staff members responding to the survey, the belief in rehabilitation scale mean score was associated with higher levels of organizational commitment, and interdepartmental coordination. However, an hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis that used an index score derived from the standard deviation for staff consensus regarding these same beliefs about rehabilitation produced a different pattern of results, showing that high levels of consensus were associated with job frustration, cynicism towards the ability of the institution to change, and lower levels of organizational commitment. The authors conclude that, although the sample may not express the beliefs of corrections officers or prison-based treatment staff at large, within the sample, consensus appeared to play a unique role in evaluating the effect of divergent goals on organizational climate as it relates to change, and warrants consideration when considering the effects of organizational climate.

  4. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  5. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  6. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  7. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; Dickinson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind

  8. Are Teachers' Psychological Control, Autonomy Support and Autonomy Suppression Associated with Students' Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Nave, Adi; Hen, Shiran

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between student-perceived teacher behaviours and students' personal goal orientations. Thus, the study applied theoretical concepts from self-determination theory and parenting style in an attempt to enhance understanding of additional environmental characteristics possibly affecting personal goal orientation.…

  9. The Benefit of Ambiguity in Understanding Goals in Requirements Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Pedell, Sonja; Sterling, Leon

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the benefit of ambiguity in describing goals in requirements modelling for the design of socio-technical systems using concepts from Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) and ethnographic and cultural probe methods from Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The authors’ aim...... ambiguity in the process of elicitation and analysis through the use of empirically informed quality goals attached to functional goals. The authors demonstrate the benefit of articulating a quality goal without turning it into a functional goal. Their study shows that quality goals kept at a high level...... of abstraction, ambiguous and open for conversations through the modelling process add richness to goal models, and communicate quality attributes of the interaction being modelled to the design phase, where this ambiguity is regarded as a resource for design....

  10. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  11. The role of salient beliefs in graduates’ intention to apply

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Adams; François de Kock

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Organisations compete fiercely to recruit the best graduates, because they consider them a rich source of future talent. In the recruitment literature, it has become increasingly important to understand the factors that influence graduate applicant intentions. Research purpose: Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we tested a model proposing that applicant intention is a function of their attitude towards applying, beliefs about referent other’s expectations (su...

  12. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  13. Free will and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  14. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  15. Playing with knowledge and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiutek, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the development of Soft Dynamic Epistemic Logic (Soft DEL). Soft DEL has been introduced to deal with a number of informational phenomena, including belief revision. The work in this thesis extends the scope of Soft DEL to belief contraction, providing as such a framework

  16. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  17. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  18. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  19. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  20. Politics of climate change belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump's actions during the election and his first weeks as US president-elect send a strong message about his belief in climate change, or lack thereof. However, these actions may reflect polarization of climate change beliefs, not climate mitigation behaviour.