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Sample records for gmfix validation studies

  1. Geophysical Multiphase Flow With Interphase Exchanges - Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Models, and Numerical Techniques, Version GMFIX-1.61, Design Document Attachment 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartevelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    Since the multiphase system is made up of a large number of particles, it is impractical to solve the motion of each individual particle; hence GMFIX v1.61 is based upon the Implicit Multi-Field formalism (IMF) which treats all phases in the system as interpenetrating continua. Each instantaneous local point variable (mass, velocity, temperature, pressure, so forth) must be treated to acknowledge the fact that any given arbitrary volume can be shared by different phases at the same time. This treatment may involve, for instance, an averaging or a smoothing process. GMFIX is the geophysical version of MFIX codes developed by NETL and ORNL. MFIX comes after 30 years of continuous developments and improvements from K-FIX codes from LANL. At the time this manuscript was ready for publication (March 2005), some differences exist between the current versions of GMFIX (v. 1.61) and MFIX (v: 1.60) regarding the exact formulation of the energy and momentum equations, the interfacial closures, and the turbulence formulation. Yet both GMFIX and MFIX are being improved, and developed tightly sides by sides

  2. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs.

  3. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

  4. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  5. GLM Validation Studies in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Reimel, K.; Fuchs, B.; Xu, W.

    2017-12-01

    On 8 May 2017 the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) calibration/validation field campaign completed a mission over the domain of the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). This "gold mine day" produced a mixture of normal polarity and anomalous storms of varying intensity. A case study analysis has been completed for a portion of three individual storms from this day. By utilizing a cell tracking algorithm and lightning flash attribution program, individual lightning flashes detected by the GLM, LMA, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) are attributed to individual storm cells. The focus of this analysis is the detection efficiency of GLM. We will discuss how the GLM detection efficiency changes as a result of storm morphology and lightning flash characteristics. Lightning flash size, flash height, and the amount of ice present between the lightning flash altitude and the top of the cloud all appear to play a role in how well GLM detects lightning flashes. Since GLM shares the same concept as its predecessor TRMM LIS (optically-based lightning detection), the evaluation of TRMM LIS against LMA network-detected lightning provides insights into the GLM detection efficiency. We have collected observations by LIS and LMA coincident in time and space during 2008-2014. The sample includes 400 LIS overpasses with both LIS and LMA detecting flashes within 150 km radius of the center of the LMA array during the 120 second LIS observing time period (analysis presently confined to the Alabama LMA network). The overall LIS detection efficiency (DE, defined as the ratio of flash rates between LIS and LMA) is 0.45, with higher DE for lower flash rate cases. LIS showed a DE of nearly 100% for cases with flash rates storms (> 300 fl/min). We further separated the dataset into day and night, and found that the night-time DE (0.6) increased by 20% compared to day-time DE (0.5). LIS DE also increased as a function of

  6. Validation studies of nursing diagnoses in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Rabasová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the review was the analysis of Czech and foreign literature sources and professional periodicals to obtain a relevant comprehensive overview of validation studies of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. Design: Review. Methods: The selection criterion was studies concerning the validation of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. To obtain data from relevant sources, the licensed professional databases EBSCO, Web of Science and Scopus were utilized. The search criteria were: date of publication - unlimited; academic periodicals - full text; peer-reviewed periodicals; search language - English, Czech and Slovak. Results: A total of 788 studies were found. Only 5 studies were eligible for content analysis, dealing specifically with validation of nursing diagnoses in neonatology. The analysis of the retrieved studies suggests that authors are most often concerned with identifying the defining characteristics of nursing diagnoses applicable to both the mother (parents and the newborn. The diagnoses were validated in the domains Role Relationship; Coping/Stress tolerance; Activity/Rest, and Elimination and Exchange. Diagnoses represented were from the field of dysfunctional physical needs as well as the field of psychosocial and spiritual needs. The diagnoses were as follows: Parental role conflict (00064; Impaired parenting (00056; Grieving (00136; Ineffective breathing pattern (00032; Impaired gas exchange (00030; and Impaired spontaneous ventilation (00033. Conclusion: Validation studies enable effective planning of interventions with measurable results and support clinical nursing practice.

  7. BIOMOVS: an international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1988-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (author)

  8. BIOMOVS: An international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1987-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (orig.)

  9. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of other validity studies. 1607.7 Section 1607.7 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.7 Use of other validity studies. A. Validity... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and...

  10. Discriminant validity study of Achilles enthesis ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito Molinero, María Rosa; de Miguel Mendieta, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    We want to know if the ultrasound examination of the Achilles tendon in spondyloarthritis is different compared to other rheumatic diseases. We studied 97 patients divided into five groups: rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, gout, chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis, exploring six elementary lesions in 194 Achilles entheses examined. In our study the total index ultrasonographic Achilles is higher in spondyloarthritis with significant differences. The worst elementary spondyloarthritis lesions for discriminations against other pathologies were calcification. This study aims to demonstrate the discriminant validity of Achilles enthesitis observed by ultrasound in spondyloarthritis compared with other rheumatic diseases that may also have ultrasound abnormalities such enthesis level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  11. Standardisation And Validation Study Of A New Study Skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns have also been raised by various researchers about the latent constructs of existing western scales to assess study skills. The objective of this study was to develop, standardize and validate a culturally sensitive study skills questionnaire (SSQ). Methods: a stratified random sample of secondary school students (n ...

  12. Italian version of Dyspnoea-12: cultural-linguistic validation, quantitative and qualitative content validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Arrigoni, Cristina; Groppelli, Katia; Magon, Arianna; Dellafiore, Federica; Pittella, Francesco; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Chessa, Massimo; Yorke, Janelle

    2018-01-16

    Dyspnoea-12 is a valid and reliable scale to assess dyspneic symptom, considering its severity, physical and emotional components. However, it is not available in Italian version due to it was not yet translated and validated. For this reason, the aim of this study was to develop an Italian version Dyspnoea-12, providing a cultural and linguistic validation, supported by the quantitative and qualitative content validity. This was a methodological study, divided into two phases: phase one is related to the cultural and linguistic validation, phase two is related to test the quantitative and qualitative content validity. Linguistic validation followed a standardized translation process. Quantitative content validity was assessed computing content validity ratio (CVR) and index (I-CVIs and S-CVI) from expert panellists response. Qualitative content validity was assessed by the narrative analysis on the answers of three open-ended questions to the expert panellists, aimed to investigate the clarity and the pertinence of the Italian items. The translation process found a good agreement in considering clear the items in both the six involved bilingual expert translators and among the ten voluntary involved patients. CVR, I-CVIs and S-CVI were satisfactory for all the translated items. This study has represented a pivotal step to use Dyspnoea-12 amongst Italian patients. Future researches are needed to deeply investigate the Italian version of  Dyspnoea-12 construct validity and its reliability, and to describe how dyspnoea components (i.e. physical and emotional) impact the life of patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.

  13. Using wound care algorithms: a content validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, J M; van Rijswijk, L

    1999-09-01

    Valid and reliable heuristic devices facilitating optimal wound care are lacking. The objectives of this study were to establish content validation data for a set of wound care algorithms, to identify their associated strengths and weaknesses, and to gain insight into the wound care decision-making process. Forty-four registered nurse wound care experts were surveyed and interviewed at national and regional educational meetings. Using a cross-sectional study design and an 83-item, 4-point Likert-type scale, this purposive sample was asked to quantify the degree of validity of the algorithms' decisions and components. Participants' comments were tape-recorded, transcribed, and themes were derived. On a scale of 1 to 4, the mean score of the entire instrument was 3.47 (SD +/- 0.87), the instrument's Content Validity Index was 0.86, and the individual Content Validity Index of 34 of 44 participants was > 0.8. Item scores were lower for those related to packing deep wounds (P valid and reliable definitions. The wound care algorithms studied proved valid. However, the lack of valid and reliable wound assessment and care definitions hinders optimal use of these instruments. Further research documenting their clinical use is warranted. Research-based practice recommendations should direct the development of future valid and reliable algorithms designed to help nurses provide optimal wound care.

  14. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  15. Job Involvement: A Construct Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Robert A.; White, J. Kenneth

    The interrelationships among job involvement, values, personal background, participation in decision making, and job attitudes were investigated by questionnaire for a sample of 2,775 employees of six manufacturing organizations, representing a 66 percent response rate. The results of this study indicated that job involvement, a basic orientation…

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION GCPEX SNOW MICROPHYSICS CASE STUDY V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation GCPEX Snow Microphysics Case Study characterizes the 3-D microphysical evolution and distribution of snow in context of the thermodynamic...

  17. Developing therapeutic rapport: a training validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Tim; Birdi, Kamaljit; Patterson, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Patient-centred consulting is at the heart of modern medicine, and training programmes now routinely highlight a range of communication skills that enhance the doctor-patient relationship. The present pilot study focuses on the central role played by empathic skills in developing rapport and shared understanding, as captured in a new model developed by the authors. The specific aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of a short-term training programme using this model to improve rapport-related behaviour in general practitioner (GP) trainees. In a quasi-experimental study, 37 GP trainees from schemes in central England (the training group) participated in a training programme based around a new model of therapeutic rapport, with pre- and post-training analysis of relevant knowledge-based, affective and behavioural outcomes. A control group of ten GP trainees, from schemes in a comparable UK medical deanery, took no part in the training programme but were involved in all pre- and post-training analyses. The training group demonstrated significant increases in rapport-related knowledge and all three affective dimensions (attitudes, confidence and motivation); there was a similar finding in terms of 'positive engagement' and all expert-rated aspects of rapport-related behaviours. The control group showed no comparable improvement in any area, and recorded a significant drop in demonstration of positive engagement behaviours. The significant improvement in rapport-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour after training, and the lack of any comparable change in the control group, gives some support to the suggestion that the module (and the model that underpinned it) may have triggered such an impact independent of ongoing experience or other educational activities.

  18. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  19. Validity in Action: Lessons from Studies of Data Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of data use illuminate ways in which education professionals have used test scores and other evidence relevant to students' learning--in action in their own contexts of work--to make decisions about their practice. These studies raise instructive challenges for a validity theory that focuses on intended interpretations and uses of test…

  20. The Jackson Career Explorer: Two Further Validity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Julie Aitken

    2012-01-01

    The present report consists of two further validity studies using the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE), a short form and continuous version of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, measuring 34 interests. The first study examined the relationships between the JCE and five personality factors, from a sample of 528 individuals. The correlations found…

  1. Cooperative learning benefits scale: construction and validation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale of benefits of the Cooperative Learning (SBCL given the exiguity of instruments that evaluate these outputs of the method. The study resorted to a convenience sample comprised of 162 students, males and females, aged between 11 and 18 years. The final instrument has 23 items in a two-dimensional factor structure: psychological and academic benefits and social benefits. The results indicate that the SBCL present good psychometric properties (construct and discriminant validity and reliability. The results are discussed in light of the model of cooperative learning.

  2. Discomfort Intolerance Scale: A Study of Reliability and Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÖZDEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discomfort Intolerance Scale was developed by Norman B. Schmidt et al. to assess the individual differences of capacity to withstand physical perturbations or uncomfortable bodily states (2006. The aim of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of Discomfort Intolerance Scale-Turkish Version (RDÖ. Method: From two different universities, total of 225 students (male=167, female=58 were participated in this study. In order to determine the criterion validity, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis after the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Barlett test had been performed. To assess the test-retest reliability the scale was re-applied to 54 participants 6 weeks later. Results: To assess construct validity of DIS, factor analyses were performed using varimax principal components analysis with varimax rotation. The factor analysis resulted in two factors named “discomfort (in tolerance” and “discomfort avoidance”. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the entire scale, discomfort-(intolerance subscale, discomfortavoidance subscale were, .592, .670, .600 respectively. Correlations between two factors of DIS, discomfort intolerance and discomfort avoidance, and Trait Anxiety Inventory of STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were statistically significant at the level of 0.05. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant at the level of 0.01. Conclusion: Analysis demonstrated that DIS had a satisfactory level of reliability and validity in Turkish university students.

  3. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  4. Model validation studies of solar systems, Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.; Winn, C.B.

    1978-12-01

    Results obtained from a validation study of the TRNSYS, SIMSHAC, and SOLCOST solar system simulation and design are presented. Also included are comparisons between the FCHART and SOLCOST solar system design programs and some changes that were made to the SOLCOST program. Finally, results obtained from the analysis of several solar radiation models are presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for ten papers.

  5. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  6. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  7. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  8. Sponsorship Evaluation Scale (SES): a validity and reliability study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of consumer response to sport sponsorship is limited in the academic literature. This research was aimed to conduct a dimensionality, validity and reliability study of the Speed and Thompson Sponsorship Questionnaire in Turkey (2000). Eight hundred and fifty-two (852) university students participated in the ...

  9. Leisure negotiation strategies scale: a study of validity and reliability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a Turkish version of the “Leisure Negotiation Strategies Scale” for university students and to examine its validity and reliability. The Leisure Negotiation Strategies Scale contains 31 items, which are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The scale was tested in two separate samples ...

  10. Pennsylvania's Preparing for a Changing World Instrument: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James R.; Shannon, Gregory A.

    The validities of the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) Preparing for a Changing World Instruments at grades 5, 8, and 11 were investigated. The study was carried out in a suburban school district where many students had experienced a great deal of change in their lives. At each grade level approximately 60 students who had…

  11. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  12. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  13. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of…

  14. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  15. A reliability and validity study of the Palliative Performance Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Michael G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Palliative Performance Scale (PPS was first introduced in1996 as a new tool for measurement of performance status in palliative care. PPS has been used in many countries and has been translated into other languages. Methods This study evaluated the reliability and validity of PPS. A web-based, case scenarios study with a test-retest format was used to determine reliability. Fifty-three participants were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, each evaluating 11 cases at two time points. The validity study was based on the content validation of 15 palliative care experts conducted over telephone interviews, with discussion on five themes: PPS as clinical assessment tool, the usefulness of PPS, PPS scores affecting decision making, the problems in using PPS, and the adequacy of PPS instruction. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients for absolute agreement were 0.959 and 0.964 for Group 1, at Time-1 and Time-2; 0.951 and 0.931 for Group 2, at Time-1 and Time-2 respectively. Results showed that the participants were consistent in their scoring over the two times, with a mean Cohen's kappa of 0.67 for Group 1 and 0.71 for Group 2. In the validity study, all experts agreed that PPS is a valuable clinical assessment tool in palliative care. Many of them have already incorporated PPS as part of their practice standard. Conclusion The results of the reliability study demonstrated that PPS is a reliable tool. The validity study found that most experts did not feel a need to further modify PPS and, only two experts requested that some performance status measures be defined more clearly. Areas of PPS use include prognostication, disease monitoring, care planning, hospital resource allocation, clinical teaching and research. PPS is also a good communication tool between palliative care workers.

  16. Reliability and validity of the foot and ankle outcome score: a validation study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Mazaheri, Masood; Salavati, Mahyar; Sohani, Soheil Mansour; Askari, Marjan; Fanian, Hossein; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to culturally adapt and validate the Persian version of Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and present data on its psychometric properties for patients with different foot and ankle problems. The Persian version of FAOS was developed after a standard forward-backward translation and cultural adaptation process. The sample included 93 patients with foot and ankle disorders who were asked to complete two questionnaires: FAOS and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To determine test-retest reliability, 60 randomly chosen patients completed the FAOS again 2 to 6 days after the first administration. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. To evaluate convergent and divergent validity of FAOS compared to similar and dissimilar concepts of SF-36, the Spearman's rank correlation was used. Dimensionality was determined by assessing item-subscale correlation corrected for overlap. The results of test-retest reliability show that all the FAOS subscales have a very high ICC, ranging from 0.92 to 0.96. The minimum Cronbach's alpha level of 0.70 was exceeded by most subscales. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for convergent construct validity fell within 0.32 to 0.58 for the main hypotheses presented a priori between FAOS and SF-36 subscales. For dimensionality, the minimum Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.40 was exceeded by most items. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the Persian version of FAOS seems to be suitable for Iranian patients with various foot and ankle problems especially lateral ankle sprain. Future studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for patients with different foot and ankle problems.

  17. Development and validation study of the Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Kyeong; Kim, Ji-Hae; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ho; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a screening questionnaire that could distinguish individuals at high risk of smartphone overuse from casual users. The reliability, validity, and diagnostic ability of the Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire (SOS-Q) were evaluated. Preliminary items were assessed by 50 addiction experts on-line, and 28 questions were selected. A total of 158 subjects recruited from six community centers for internet addiction participated in this study. The SOS-Q, Young's internet addiction scale, Korean scale for internet addiction, and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale) were used to assess the concurrent validity. Construct validity was supported by a six-factor model using an exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency and the item-total correlations were favorable (α = 0.95, r = 0.35-0.81). The test-retest reliability was moderate (r = 0.70). The SOS-Q showed superior concurrent validity with the highest correlation between the S-Scale (r = 0.76). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.877. A cut-off point of 49 effectively categorized addiction high-risk group with a sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.86. Overall, the current study supports the use of SOS-Q as both a primary and supplementary measurement tool in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Delphi study to validate an advanced practice nursing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne M; Gardner, Glenn E; Duffield, Christine; Ramis, Mary-Anne

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to validate an instrument for measuring advanced practice nursing role delineation in an international contemporary health service context using the Delphi technique. Although most countries now have clear definitions and competency standards for nurse practitioners, no such clarity exists for many advanced practice nurse roles, leaving healthcare providers uncertain whether their service needs can or should be met by an advanced practice nurse or a nurse practitioner. The validation of a tool depicting advanced practice nursing is essential for the appropriate deployment of advanced practice nurses. This paper is the second in a three-phase study to develop an operational framework for assigning advanced practice nursing roles. An expert panel was established to review the activities in the Strong Model of Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool. Using the Delphi technique, data were collected via an on-line survey through a series of iterative rounds in 2008. Feedback and statistical summaries of responses were distributed to the panel until the 75% consensus cut-off was obtained. After three rounds and modification of five activities, consensus was obtained for validation of the content of this tool. The Strong Model of Advanced Practice Role Delineation tool is valid for depicting the dimensions of practice of the advanced practice role in an international contemporary health service context thereby having the potential to optimize the utilization of the advanced practice nursing workforce. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Landslide Tsunami Generation Models: Validation and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    There has been a proliferation of landslide tsunami generation and propagation models in recent time, spurred largely by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models or techniques have been carefully validated. Moreover, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available geological data and interpretations into convincing case studies. The Tsunami Open and Progressive Initial Conditions System (TOPICS) rapidly provides approximate landslide tsunami sources for tsunami propagation models. We present 3D laboratory experiments and 3D Boundary Element Method simulations that validate the tsunami sources given by TOPICS. Geowave is a combination of TOPICS with the fully nonlinear and dispersive Boussinesq model FUNWAVE, which has been the subject of extensive testing and validation over the course of the last decade. Geowave is currently a tsunami community model made available to all tsunami researchers on the web site www.tsunamicommunity.org. We validate Geowave with case studies of the 1946 Unimak, Alaska, the 1994 Skagway, Alaska, and the 1998 Papua New Guinea events. The benefits of Boussinesq wave propagation over traditional shallow water wave models is very apparent for these relatively steep and nonlinear waves. For the first time, a tsunami community model appear sufficiently powerful to reproduce all observations and records with the first numerical simulation. This can only be accomplished by first assembling geological data and interpretations into a reasonable tsunami source.

  20. Online crowdsourcing for efficient rating of speech: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Halpin, Peter F; Szeredi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Blinded listener ratings are essential for valid assessment of interventions for speech disorders, but collecting these ratings can be time-intensive and costly. This study evaluated the validity of speech ratings obtained through online crowdsourcing, a potentially more efficient approach. 100 words from children with /r/ misarticulation were electronically presented for binary rating by 35 phonetically trained listeners and 205 naïve listeners recruited through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing platform. Bootstrapping was used to compare different-sized samples of AMT listeners against a "gold standard" (mode across all trained listeners) and an "industry standard" (mode across bootstrapped samples of three trained listeners). There was strong overall agreement between trained and AMT listeners. The "industry standard" level of performance was matched by bootstrapped samples with n = 9 AMT listeners. These results support the hypothesis that valid ratings of speech data can be obtained in an efficient manner through AMT. Researchers in communication disorders could benefit from increased awareness of this method. Readers will be able to (a) discuss advantages and disadvantages of data collection through the crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), (b) describe the results of a validity study comparing samples of AMT listeners versus phonetically trained listeners in a speech-rating task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. External validity of post-stroke interventional gait rehabilitation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafri, Michal; Dickstein, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Gait rehabilitation is a major component of stroke rehabilitation, and is supported by extensive research. The objective of this review was to examine the external validity of intervention studies aimed at improving gait in individuals post-stroke. To that end, two aspects of these studies were assessed: subjects' exclusion criteria and the ecological validity of the intervention, as manifested by the intervention's technological complexity and delivery setting. Additionally, we examined whether the target population as inferred from the titles/abstracts is broader than the population actually represented by the reported samples. We systematically researched PubMed for intervention studies to improve gait post-stroke, working backwards from the beginning of 2014. Exclusion criteria, the technological complexity of the intervention (defined as either elaborate or simple), setting, and description of the target population in the titles/abstracts were recorded. Fifty-two studies were reviewed. The samples were exclusive, with recurrent stroke, co-morbidities, cognitive status, walking level, and residency being major reasons for exclusion. In one half of the studies, the intervention was elaborate. Descriptions of participants in the title/abstract in almost one half of the studies included only the diagnosis (stroke or comparable terms) and its stage (acute, subacute, and chronic). The external validity of a substantial number of intervention studies about rehabilitation of gait post-stroke appears to be limited by exclusivity of the samples as well as by deficiencies in ecological validity of the interventions. These limitations are not accurately reflected in the titles or abstracts of the studies.

  2. A Study on Guide Sign Validity in Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhonghua

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of guide sign to inform road user about the information of network is important. How to design and locate guide sign to increase traffic operation efficiency is a key point for traffic engineers. Driving simulator is useful devised to study guide sign in the process and system control. For the purpose of studying guide signs using the tool of driving simulator, guide sign's validity in driving simulator was studied. Results of this experiment are the foundation of further study on guide sign. Simulator calibration procedure for guide sign was set up in this study. Legibility distance as measure of performance was used to evaluate the validity of guide sign in driving simulator. Thirty two participants were recruited. Results indicated legibility distance and speed were inversely related with the method of data mining. Legibility distance and text height of guide sign were positive related. When speed is 20km/h, 30km/h, 40km/h, magnifying power of text height is 4.3, 4.1, 3.8, while guide signs are absolute validity in driving simulator.

  3. The birth satisfaction scale: Turkish adaptation, validation and reliability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fatma Cosar; Sezer, Ayse; Merih, Yeliz Dogan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the validity and the reliability of Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and to adapt it into the Turkish language. This scale is used for measuring maternal satisfaction with birth in order to evaluate women’s birth perceptions. METHODS: In this study there were 150 women who attended to inpatient postpartum clinic. The participants filled in an information form and the BSS questionnaire forms. The properties of the scale were tested by conducting reliability and validation analyses. RESULTS: BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions. It was developed by Hollins Martin and Fleming. Total scale scores ranged between 30–150 points. Higher scores from the scale mean increases in birth satisfaction. Three overarching themes were identified in Scale: service provision (home assessment, birth environment, support, relationships with health care professionals); personal attributes (ability to cope during labour, feeling in control, childbirth preparation, relationship with baby); and stress experienced during labour (distress, obstetric injuries, receiving sufficient medical care, obstetric intervention, pain, prolonged labour and baby’s health). Cronbach’s alfa coefficient was 0.62. CONCLUSION: According to the present study, BSS entails 30 Likert-type questions and evaluates women’s birth perceptions. The Turkish version of BSS has been proven to be a valid and a reliable scale. PMID:28058355

  4. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  5. The Dutch Marital Satisfaction and Communication Questionnaire: A Validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van den Troost

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to validate the Dutch Marital Satisfaction and Communication Questionnaire (DMSCQ, a 16-item measure that disentangles marital satisfaction, negative communication and open communication. In three subsequent studies empirical evidence for the construct and criterion validity is presented using (confirmatory factor analyses, and correlational analyses with criterion variables. Results indicate that the 16 items represent a solid three-factor structure, which was replicated across time and in independent samples. High agreement in factor structure between men and women was demonstrated by high levels of Tucker's coefficient of congruence. The internal consistencies of the marital satisfaction and negative communication scales are good; for the open communication scale it is somewhat lower but still acceptable. Consistent evidence was obtained for a negative relationship between the three marital outcomes and parental depression and conflictual family climate whereas the three former are positively related to life satisfaction and well-being. Spouses who feel restricted by their parental role or experience parenting stress tend to be less satisfied with their partnership and perceive the marital communication as more negative. Our results demonstrate that the DMSCQ provides a brief, valid and reliable measure of marital satisfaction, negative and open communication.

  6. Self-Control Scale AS-36: Construction and validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nęcka Edward

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation study of a new questionnaire of self-control as an individual trait. The questionnaire has two parallel versions, one based on self-reports (AS-36 and another one based on informant reports (AS-36-3. Each version consists of three subscales, called Inhibition (12 items, Switching (12 items, and Goal Monitoring (12 items. Eight samples of participants (N = 935 altogether took part in the validation study. Both versions obtained satisfactory indices of internal consistency, assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficients. Selfcontrol assessed with this scale proved to be entirely independent of general intelligence. However, AS-36 and AS-36-3 scores tended to correlate with other self-report measures of trait self control, such as Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone’s (2004 self-control scale. We conclude that AS-36 is a valid and reliable tool, suitable for assessment of self-control in both research and diagnostic settings.

  7. Absorption in Sport: A Cross-Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Stefan; Stavrou, Nektarios A. M.; Cogley, Jeremy; Morris, Tony; Mosek, Erez; Watt, Anthony P.

    2017-01-01

    Absorption has been identified as readiness for experiences of deep involvement in the task. Conceptually, absorption is a key psychological construct, incorporating experiential, cognitive, and motivational components. Although, no operationalization of the construct has been provided to facilitate research in this area, the purpose of this research was the development and examination of the psychometric properties of a sport-specific measure of absorption that evolved from the use of the modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (MODTAS; Jamieson, 2005) in mainstream psychology. The study aimed to provide evidence of the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of the Measure of Absorption in Sport Contexts (MASCs). The psychometric examination included a calibration sample from Scotland and a cross-validation sample from Australia using a cross-sectional design. The item pool was developed based on existing items from the modified Tellegen Absorption Scale (Jamieson, 2005). The MODTAS items were reworded and translated into a sport context. The Scottish sample consisted of 292 participants and the Australian sample of 314 participants. Congeneric model testing and confirmatory factor analysis for both samples and multi-group invariance testing across samples was used. In the cross-validation sample the MASC subscales showed acceptable internal consistency and construct reliability (≥0.70). Excellent fit indices were found for the final 18-item, six-factor measure in the cross-validation sample, χ(120)2 = 197.486, p sport-specific measure of absorption. The MASC provides rich research opportunities in sport psychology that can enhance the theoretical understanding between absorption and related constructs and facilitate future intervention studies. PMID:28883802

  8. Circumplex Model VII: validation studies and FACES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D H

    1986-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent empirical studies validating the Circumplex Model and describes the newly developed self-report measure, FACES III. Studies testing hypotheses derived from the Circumplex Model regarding the three dimensions of cohesion, change, and communication are reviewed. Case illustrations using FACES III and the Clinical Rating Scale are presented. These two assessment tools can be used for making a diagnosis of family functioning and for assessing changes over the course of treatment. This paper reflects the continuing attempt to develop further the Circumplex Model and to bridge more adequately research, theory, and practice.

  9. Validation of physical activity instruments: Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, PPAQ also demonstrated significant correlations for total (r=0.42, PPAQ is a useful measure of physical activity in the BWHS cohort and thus has utility in prospective epidemiologic research.

  10. 41 CFR 60-3.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of other validity... of other validity studies. A. Validity studies not conducted by the user. Users may, under certain circumstances, support the use of selection procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted...

  11. Fully automated antibody structure prediction using BIOVIA tools: Validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kemmish

    Full Text Available We describe the methodology and results from our validation study of the fully automated antibody structure prediction tool available in the BIOVIA (formerly Accelrys protein modeling suite. Extending our previous study, we have validated the automated approach using a larger and more diverse data set (157 unique antibody Fv domains versus 11 in the previous study. In the current study, we explore the effect of varying several parameter settings in order to better understand their influence on the resulting model quality. Specifically, we investigated the dependence on different methods of framework model construction, antibody numbering schemes (Chothia, IMGT, Honegger and Kabat, the influence of compatibility of loop templates using canonical type filtering, wider exploration of model solution space, and others. Our results show that our recently introduced Top5 framework modeling method results in a small but significant improvement in model quality whereas the effect of other parameters is not significant. Our analysis provides improved guidelines of best practices for using our protocol to build antibody structures. We also identify some limitations of the current computational model which will enhance proper evaluation of model quality by users and suggests possible future enhancements.

  12. Validation study of a nonspecific psychological distress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Carole; Lemoine, Odette; Poirier, Léo-Roch; Lambert, Jean

    2005-12-01

    Psychological distress scales are often used in national epidemiological surveys to monitor the mental health status and predict demands in mental health services. These scales have the advantage of being easy to administer and inexpensive to use. The goal of this study is to assess the clinical validity of the Psychological Distress Manifestations Measure Scale (PDMMS) by comparing it to a standard criterion. The validation study is based on data from a large-scale mental health survey conducted in 1999 in the Montreal area (Canada). The target population was constituted of adults living in private households. A telephone survey was carried out with a probability sample of 4,704 respondents using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Simplified (CIDIS) to detect mental disorders. Then, subsequent face-to-face interviews with a subsample of 359 of these respondents were conducted to validate other measures for assessing mental health needs for care and services including the PDMMS. Our study showed that high psychological distress is highly associated with mental disorder (OR=5.94). However, a large majority of the people in the high psychological distress category does not have a known mental problem. These data confirm that like other psychological distress scales, the PDMMS is not a diagnostic tool. Rather, it is designed to explore comorbidity among symptoms, independent of caseness. The prevalence of psychological distress in the population allows us to identify people who have subclinical symptoms substantial enough to precipitate dysfunctioning in everyday life and who utilize health services more frequently. The use of this tool for epidemiological surveys is useful for mental health service planning because it provides information on the needs of individuals whose state of mental health affects social functioning even though they do not suffer from pathology.

  13. [MISSCARE Survey - Italian Version: findings from an Italian validation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Luisa; Contini, Carla; Bandini, Anna; Bandini, Stefania; Massa, Licia; Zanin, Roberta; Maricchio, Rita; Gianesini, Gloria; Bassi, Erika; Tartaglini, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Ferraresi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The Missed Nursing Care (MNC) refers to nursing interventions that are not completed, partially completed, or postponed. Despite the relevance of MNC, no assessment tools are available in the Italian context, and no data regarding the occurrence of this phenomenon has been documented on a large scale to date. The study aims were: (1) to validate the Italian version of the MISSCARE Survey tool; (2) to measure the prevalence of missed interventions and reasons for missed care as perceived by clinical nurses working in Italian health care settings. After having conducted the forward and backward translation, pre-pilot and pilot phases were developed to ensure face and content validity as well as semantic and conceptual equivalence of the Italian version with the original version. The MISSCARE survey questionnaire was then distributed to 1,233 clinical nurses of whom 1,003 completed the questionnaire. Overall, 979 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires were completed from January to March 2012, by nurses working in medical and surgical hospital departments in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. Construct validity and internal consistency of the instrument were assessed. The face and content validity were ascertained by a group of experts. The instrument acceptability was good given that 79.4% of respondents replied to all items. Construct validity was investigated by an Exploratory Factor Analysis. Four factors explaining 64.18% of variance emerged: communication, lack of facilities/supplies, lack of staff, and unexpected events. Internal consistency, evaluated with Cronbach a, was 0.94. The nursing interventions omitted with greater frequency were, in order: ambulation (74.8%), passive mobilization (69.6%) and oral care (51.3%). The three main reasons for missed interventions were: an unexpected increase in the number of patients (90.5%), increased instability of the clinical condition (86.1%) and insufficient human resources (85.5%). The Italian version of

  14. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported.

  15. Validation of radioisotopic labelling techniques in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, R.; Stanghellini, V.; Raiti, C.; Calamelli, R.; Salgemini, R.; Barbara, L.; Zarabini, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several techniques are currently employed to label solid and liquid foods with gamma-emitting radioisotopes in order to carry out gamma-camera gastric emptying studies. The present study describes an in vitro technique for evaluating the labelling stability of some of the most commonly employed radiomarkers of both the solid and liquid phases. Technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC) in vivo and in vitro labelled liver of chickens and other animal species appears to be almost ideal marker of the solid phase (97% of radioactivity still bound to the solid phase after incubation in gastric juice for 90 minutes). On the contrary, 51 CrCl 3 -beef ground meat (81%) and 99m Tc-SC egg white (69%) are unsatisfactory markers of the solid phase. Likewise, 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA cannot be considered satisfactory fluid-phase agents, because of the high proportion of radioactivity that leaves the liquid phase to become bound to the solid phase (respectively 76% and 49% after 90 minutes of incubation). This validation technique appears to be simple, feasible and reprodicible, and can be applied in any Nuclear Medicine Department to evaluate the validity of the labelling procedures, in order to improve the accuracy of the results of radioisotopic gastric emptying studies

  16. Validation study of the Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Li, Sophia Ling; Rao, Nirmala; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Lau, Winnie Wai Sim; Chow, Chun Bong

    2013-09-23

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a comprehensive instrument used to assess school readiness in preschool children. This study was carried out to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the EDI (CEDI) in Hong Kong. One hundred and sixty-seven children were purposefully sampled from kindergartens in two districts with very different socioeconomic statuses. The CEDI was assessed for concurrent validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The developmental vulnerability identified using the CEDI scores was further examined in relation to the socioeconomic status of the district and family. The CEDI displayed adequate internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.70 to 0.95 on its five domains. Concurrent validity was supported by moderate and significant correlations (0.25 to 0.49) on the relevant domains between the CEDI and a comparable measure. The level of test-retest reliability was good, with a kappa statistic of 0.89. In general, girls outperformed boys, particularly in the social, emotional and communication/general knowledge domains. After controlling for the uneven distribution of sex, children from socioeconomically disadvantaged districts and families were found to be at greater risk of developmental vulnerability than their more advantaged counterparts. The evidence gathered in this study supports the CEDI's use as a valid and reliable instrument in assessing school readiness and identifying developmentally vulnerable children in Chinese populations. Its preliminary findings on the socioeconomic gradients of child development suggest that the CEDI is a promising tool for leveraging evidence-based, context-sensitive policies and practices to foster the development of all children.

  17. A Validation Study of Homeopathic Prescribing and Patient Care Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munmun Koley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary version of the homeopathic prescribing and patient care indicators was available. The instrument was modified further in this study with an intention to address formally its validity and reliability, audit prescriptions, identify areas of sub-optimal prescribing, and highlight target areas for improving the quality of practices. A cross-sectional study with record analysis was conducted on systematically sampled 377 patients of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital (MBHMC and H, Howrah, West Bengal, India. The outcome measures were homeopathic prescribing indicators (6 items and patient care indicators (5 items. Individualized homeopathic prescriptions predominated in the encounters. Areas demanding immediate attention were extremely poor labeling of drugs dispensed from the hospital pharmacy, improper record of case history and disease diagnosis, ongoing therapies, and investigational findings in the prescriptions. Internal consistency of the overall instrument was estimated to be good (Cronbach's alpha: Prescribing indicators 0.752 and patient care indicators 0.791. The prescribing indicators, except items 1 and 3, reflected acceptable item-corrected total correlations – Pearson's r from 0.58 (95% CI: 0.52-0.65 to 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69-0.78. The patient care indicators, except item 2, showed acceptable correlations – Pearson's r from 0.40 (95% CI: 0.31-0.48 to 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78-0.85. The instrument also showed high discriminant validity (prescribing indicators P<0.0001 and patient care indicators P<0.0001. Improper prescribing practice was quite rampant and corrective measures are warranted. The developed indicators appeared to be validated and reliable; however, they are amendable for further development.

  18. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers. Methods We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking) and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk). Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses. Results Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies) and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8%) and subsequent (58/600 9.7%) lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1%) than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%). Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48) than subsequent ones (29/45) and than lifestyle studies (31/63). Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38) than the neurological (26/41) or somatic (40/77) ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim. Conclusion Journalists

  19. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Dumas-Mallet

    Full Text Available To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers.We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk. Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses.Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8% and subsequent (58/600 9.7% lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1% than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%. Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48 than subsequent ones (29/45 and than lifestyle studies (31/63. Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38 than the neurological (26/41 or somatic (40/77 ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim.Journalists preferentially cover initial findings

  20. Chlorine-36 validation Study at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Paces

    2006-01-01

    The amount, spatial distribution, and velocity of water percolating through the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are important issues for assessing the performance of the proposed deep geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To help characterize the nature and history of UZ flow, isotopic studies were initiated in 1995, using rock samples collected from the Miocene ash-flow tuffs in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), an 8-km-long tunnel constructed along the north-south extent of the repository block, and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift, a 2.5-km-long tunnel constructed across the repository block (Figure 1-1, Sources: Modified from DOE 2002 [Figure 1-14] and USBR 1996). Scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) analyzed for chlorine-36 ( 36 Cl) in salts leached from whole-rock samples collected from tunnel walls and subsurface boreholes, and scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, uranium, lead, thorium, and strontium in secondary minerals collected from subsurface fractures and lithophysal cavities. Elevated values for ratios of 36 Cl to total chloride ( 36 Cl/CL) at the level of the proposed repository indicated that small amounts of water carrying bomb-pulse 36 Cl (i.e., 36 Cl/Cl ratios greater than 1250 x 10 -15 resulting from 36 Cl produced by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices during the 1950s and early 1960s) had percolated through welded and nonwelded tuffs to depths of 200 to 300 meters (m) beneath the land surface over the past 50 years. Because of the implications of short travel times to the performance of the proposed repository, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Repository Development (ORD), decided to verify the 36 Cl/Cl data with an independent validation study. DOE asked the USGS to design and implement a validation

  1. Checklist for the qualitative evaluation of clinical studies with particular focus on external validity and model validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmar Horst C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often stated that external validity is not sufficiently considered in the assessment of clinical studies. Although tools for its evaluation have been established, there is a lack of awareness of their significance and application. In this article, a comprehensive checklist is presented addressing these relevant criteria. Methods The checklist was developed by listing the most commonly used assessment criteria for clinical studies. Additionally, specific lists for individual applications were included. The categories of biases of internal validity (selection, performance, attrition and detection bias correspond to structural, treatment-related and observational differences between the test and control groups. Analogously, we have extended these categories to address external validity and model validity, regarding similarity between the study population/conditions and the general population/conditions related to structure, treatment and observation. Results A checklist is presented, in which the evaluation criteria concerning external validity and model validity are systemised and transformed into a questionnaire format. Conclusion The checklist presented in this article can be applied to both planning and evaluating of clinical studies. We encourage the prospective user to modify the checklists according to the respective application and research question. The higher expenditure needed for the evaluation of clinical studies in systematic reviews is justified, particularly in the light of the influential nature of their conclusions on therapeutic decisions and the creation of clinical guidelines.

  2. Validation study of core analysis methods for full MOX BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    JNES has been developing a technical database used in reviewing validation of core analysis methods of LWRs in the coming occasions: (1) confirming the core safety parameters of the initial core (one-third MOX core) through a full MOX core in Oma Nuclear Power Plant, which is under the construction, (2) licensing high-burnup MOX cores in the future and (3) reviewing topical reports on core analysis codes for safety design and evaluation. Based on the technical database, JNES will issue a guide of reviewing the core analysis methods used for safety design and evaluation of LWRs. The database will be also used for validation and improving of core analysis codes developed by JNES. JNES has progressed with the projects: (1) improving a Doppler reactivity analysis model in a Monte Carlo calculation code MVP, (2) sensitivity study of nuclear cross section date on reactivity calculation of experimental cores composed of UO 2 and MOX fuel rods, (3) analysis of isotopic composition data for UO 2 and MOX fuels and (4) the guide of reviewing the core analysis codes and others. (author)

  3. Instrumented Test of Sensory Integration for Balance: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lynn; Gera, Geetanjali; Horak, Fay B; Blackinton, Mary T; Besch, Mark; King, Laurie

    Abnormal postural sway is associated with an increase in risk of falls but is difficult for clinicians to accurately quantify without access to laboratory equipment. Instrumenting clinical outcome measures using body-worn movement monitors is a low-cost alternative. This is the first study to compare the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (i-mCTSIB) to the laboratory test of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) with dynamic posturography in a group of participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and subtle balance limitations. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the concurrent validity of the i-mCTSIB with the SOT (6 and 4 conditions) and (2) compare the i-mCTSIB and the SOT to differentiate between individuals with and without recent falls within the previous 6 months. This cross-sectional study examined 26 participants with idiopathic PD who had a Motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score of 32.7 (13.5) out of 108. The composite and conditions 1 and 4 of the i-mCTSIB and SOT scores were significantly correlated: composite scores r = -0.64 (P ≤ .001), C1 r = -0.43 (P = .03), C3 r = -0.60 (P ≤ .01), and C4 r = -0.54 (P ≤ .001). A significant difference was observed in mean i-mCTSIB composite scores between fallers and nonfallers (P = .04). In contrast, the SOT composite was not significantly different between fallers and nonfallers (P = 0.31). The results suggest that the i-mCTSIB may be a valid and clinically meaningful measure of sensory organization in persons with PD, even those with mild postural instability as measured by the median Hoehn and Yahr score (2.0). Future research should evaluate predictive validity of the i-mCTSIB for prospective falls. The instrumented mCTSIB with portable, body-worn movement allows clinicians to quantify abnormal postural sway without the ceiling effects of clinical balance testing or the expense and importability of force plate technology in the SOT. Instrumenting mCTSIB may also

  4. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  5. Regression Discontinuity and Beyond: Options for Studying External Validity in an Internally Valid Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Coady; Bello-Gomez, Ricardo A.

    2018-01-01

    Treatment effect estimates from a "regression discontinuity design" (RDD) have high internal validity. However, the arguments that support the design apply to a subpopulation that is narrower and usually different from the population of substantive interest in evaluation research. The disconnect between RDD population and the…

  6. Teacher Stress Questionnaire: validity and reliability study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    This study analyses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire elaborated in England by Travers and Cooper in 1996. This Italian survey was completed by 863 teachers randomly drawn from a cross-section of Italian school levels. The construct validity of the questionnaire was verified by factor analysis and by measuring the internal consistency of the single scales. All dimensions measured by the Teacher Stress Questionnaire were compared for sample subgroups of all teacher levels. Several meaningful and reliable factors emerged from the factor analysis of the scales. The internal consistency of each scale (Cronbach's alpha) revealed satisfactory values. Teachers' age and school level were determining factors for all dimensions of stress explored. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire showed satisfactory psychometric properties and constitutes a useful and reliable measure to analyse stress in Italian schools.

  7. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: a validational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie

    2002-10-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology.

  8. External Validation of the HERNIAscore: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Moses, Maya L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Hannon, Craig; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-09-01

    The HERNIAscore is a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) risk assessment tool that uses only preoperative variables and predictable intraoperative variables. The aim of this study was to validate and modify, if needed, the HERNIAscore in an external dataset. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing resection for gastrointestinal malignancy from 2011 through 2015 at a safety-net hospital. The primary end point was clinical postoperative VIH. Patients were stratified into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups based on HERNIAscore. A revised HERNIAscore was calculated with the addition of earlier abdominal operation as a categorical variable. Cox regression of incisional hernia with stratification by risk class was performed. Incidence rates of clinical VIH formation within each risk class were also calculated. Two hundred and forty-seven patents were enrolled. On Cox regression, in addition to the 3 variables of the HERNIAscore (BMI, COPD, and incision length), earlier abdominal operation was also predictive of VIH. The revised HERNIAscore demonstrated improved predictive accuracy for clinical VIH. Although the original HERNIAscore effectively stratified the risk of an incisional radiographic VIH developing, the revised HERNIAscore provided a statistically significant stratification for both clinical and radiographic VIHs in this patient cohort. We have externally validated and improved the HERNIAscore. The revised HERNIAscore uses BMI, incision length, COPD, and earlier abdominal operation to predict risk of postoperative incisional hernia. Future research should assess methods to prevent incisional hernias in moderate-to-high risk patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma carotenoid levels as biomarkers of dietary carotenoid consumption: A systematic review of the validation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: This review summarizes typical dietary intakes and plasma concentrations and their expected associations based on validation studies conducted to date which provides a benchmark for future validation studies.

  10. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: A Construct Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian W.

    1983-01-01

    Regression analyses indicated that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory has convergent validity with regard to the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Assessment Scale, has discriminant validity with regard to the Children's Social Desirability Scale, is sensitive to differences in achievement level,…

  11. Validity of the Rosenfeld relationship: A comparative study of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we explore the validity of the Rosenfeld and the Dzugutov relation for the Lennard- Jones (LJ) system, its repulsive counterpart, the WCA system and a network forming liquid, the NTW model. We find that for all the systems both the relations are valid at high temperature regime with an universalexponent close ...

  12. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  13. Validity Shrinkage in Ridge Regression: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Vivian; Bobko, Philip

    1982-01-01

    Ridge regression offers advantages over ordinary least squares estimation when a validity shrinkage criterion is considered. Comparisons of cross-validated multiple correlations indicate that ridge estimation is superior when the predictors are multicollinear, the number of predictors is large relative to sample size, and the population multiple…

  14. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.5 General standards for validity... selection procedures for higher level jobs. If job progression structures are so established that employees..., section 14 below. New strategies for showing the validity of selection procedures will be evaluated as...

  15. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Patrão, Ivone M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT's items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals.

  16. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  17. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  18. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  19. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and structural validity of the Japanese version of the Physical Activity Self-Regulation scale (PASR-12) among Japanese workers: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Adachi, Hidehiko; Inoue, Shigeru; Meyer, M Renee Umstattd

    2017-01-24

    Self-regulation for physical activity is considered as one of the most effective factors in promoting physical activity. However, there is no reliable and valid scale to measure it in Japanese. The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal consistency, convergent validity, and structural validity of the newly developed Japanese version of the 12-item Physical Activity Self-Regulation scale (PASR-12) among Japanese workers. A cross-sectional Internet-based survey recruiting 516 Japanese workers was conducted in Japan. The PASR-12 was translated according to the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) task force guidelines. Physical activity and self-efficacy for physical activity were measured as comparisons for convergent validity. We calculated Cronbach's alphas, and conducted correlational analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Of 516 workers, 485 workers were eligible for all analyses. Cronbach's alpha for the scale scores ranged from 0.79 to 0.95. The scores of the total and 6 factor scales of the Japanese version of the PASR-12 had small-to-moderate positive correlations with the total physical activity and self-efficacy. Moreover, the 6-factor hypothesized model demonstrated excellent fit (χ2 (39) = 100.74, CFI = 0.973, RMSEA = 0.057). The Japanese version of the PASR-12 showed good reliability and factor-based and construct validity. Therefore, this scale could be applied to assess self-regulation for physical activity among Japanese workers.

  20. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  1. Dental models made with an intraoral scanner: A validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, A.M.; Harms, M.C.; Rangel, F.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Breuning, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to determine the validity and reproducibility of measurements on stereolithographic models and 3-dimensional digital dental models made with an intraoral scanner. METHODS: Ten dry human skulls were scanned; from the scans, stereolithographic models and digital

  2. Published diagnostic models safely excluded colorectal cancer in an independent primary care validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Kok, Liselotte; Witteman, Ben J M; Goedhard, Jelle G; Romberg-Camps, Mariëlle J L; Muris, Jean W M; de Wit, Niek J; Moons, Karel G M

    OBJECTIVE: To validate published diagnostic models for their ability to safely reduce unnecessary endoscopy referrals in primary care patients suspected of significant colorectal disease. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Following a systematic literature search, we independently validated the identified

  3. Evaluation of physicians' professional performance: An iterative development and validation study of multisource feedback instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Karlijn; Wollersheim, Hub C.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Cruijsberg, Juliette K.; Grol, Richard P. T. M.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors,

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... of these guidelines, section 14 of this part. New strategies for showing the validity of selection... should support the method the user chooses for operational use of the procedure, if that method of use...

  5. Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bayram; Yaman, Erkan; Peker, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale, which determines cyber victimization and bullying behaviors of high school students. Research group consisted of 404 students (250 male, 154 male) in Sakarya, in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study sample, mean age is 16.68. Content validity and face validity of the scale was…

  6. MINET validation study using steam generator test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Guppy, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three steam generator transient test cases that were simulated using the MINET computer code are described, with computed results compared against experimental data. The MINET calculations closely agreed with the experiment for both the once-through and the U-tube steam generator test cases. The effort is part of an ongoing effort to validate the MINET computer code for thermal-hydraulic plant systems transient analysis, and strongly supports the validity of the MINET models

  7. Structured Programming Series. Volume 15. Validation and Verification Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-22

    System for FORTRAN," February 1975, pp 1-16. Gruenberger, F., "Program Testing and Validacion ," Datamation, July 1968, pp 39-47. Holland, J. G...by block rnmbor) Verification Validation Inspection Testing Certify Prove 20 ABSTRACT (■Conllnu» on nimm tldo II ntcofmry and Idonllly by...majority of software projects rely almost entirely on computer based testing as the method of verifying and validating software. Second, structured

  8. Validation study of the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems (QSMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions.

  9. The Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Ma, Kitty; Becher, Yvonne; Lee, Diana; Lau, Carrie; Zhang, Li; Chow, Chun Bong; Ip, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of the Hong Kong Early Child Development Scale (HKECDS), a holistic measure of child development designed specifically for preschool children in Hong Kong. Scale development was an iterative process and the first version of the scale contained 190 items whereas the final version includes only 95. Children ranging in age from three to six years were administered trial versions of the HKECDS in Studies 1 (n = 60) and 2 (n = 240). Item analyses indicated that it is a developmental scale and that it has an appropriate level of difficulty for preschool children. It also discriminates between three- to six-year-olds from different social backgrounds in Hong Kong. The final version of the HKECDS includes items from the following eight subscales: Personal, Social and Self-Care (7 items), Language Development (13 items), Pre-academic Learning (27 items), Cognitive Development (10 items), Gross Motor (12 items), Fine Motor (9 items), Physical Fitness, Health and Safety (7 items), and Self and Society (10 items). The HKECDS is the first early child development scale which considers both the holistic development of preschool children and incorporates current expectations of early child development in Hong Kong. In this era of evidence-based decision making, it can be used to evaluate both the efficacy of targeted interventions and broader child-related public policies on early child development in Hong Kong.

  10. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    lack of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  11. Validation of the TEMPS-A Buenos Aires: Spanish psychometric validation of affective temperaments in a population study of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Gustavo H; Nasetta, Susana; Mercado, Beatriz; Romero, Ester; Tifner, Sonia; Ramón, María del L; Garelli, Valentina; Bonifacio, Ana; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2007-06-01

    The TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego) is a 110-item questionnaire in five scales which has been translated into over 25 language versions: American, Italian (only for Interview version or TEMPS-I), French, Lebanese, Hungarian, Japanese and Turkish versions have already been validated. There are two Spanish versions, one from Barcelona, and the present one from Buenos Aires. This study represents the first attempt at validating the TEMPS-A in Spanish. 932 clinically well subjects were studied, of both sexes (62% female) with mean+/-SD age of 35.4+/-18.1. Standard psychometric tests of reliability and validation were performed. Chronbach alphas were 0.7 (depressive) and 0.8 (anxious, cyclothymic, irritable and hyperthymic). In exploratory factor analyses, the hyperthymic was distinct from the others. As expected, the depressive and anxious correlated strongly, so did the cyclothymic and anxious. Dominant temperaments ranged from 2.1% to 4.5% of the population under study, except for the hyperthymic which had a negligible rate of 0.2% (but accounted for 13% between +1 SD and +2 SD). We did not examine test-to-test reliability. This is the first validation of the TEMPS-A in Spanish, the Buenos Aires version with the original 110 items, with very good psychometric properties.

  12. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor

  13. Validation and performance studies for the ATLAS simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    We present the validation of the ATLAS simulation software project. Software development is controlled by nightly builds and several levels of automatic tests to ensure stability. Software performance validation, including CPU time, memory, and disk space required per event, is monitored for all software releases. Several different physics processes are checked to thoroughly test all aspects of the detector simulation. The robustness of the simulation software is demonstrated by the production of 500 million events on the World-wide LHC Computing Grid in the last year.

  14. Overview of the Exploration Exercise Device Validation Study Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J. K.; Swan, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA has determined that a multi-functional exercise device will be developed for use as an exercise device during exploration missions. The device will allow for full body resistance and metabolic exercise necessary to minimize physiological losses during space flight and to maintain fitness necessary to perform critical mission tasks. Prior to implementation as an exercise device on an Exploration vehicle, there will be verification and validation testing completed to determine device efficacy at providing the necessary training stimuli to achieve desired goals. Because the exploration device will be new device that has yet be specified, specific Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols have yet to be developed. Upon delivery of an exploration exercise device training unit, stakeholders throughout NASA will develop V&V plans that include ground-based testing and testing on the International Space Station (ISS). Stakeholders will develop test protocols that include success criterion for the device. Ground tests will occur at NASA Johnson Space Station prior to flight testing. The intents of the ground tests are to allow crew, spaceflight medicine, science, engineering, Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Reconditioning staff, and others to gain experience in the best utilization of the device. The goal is to obtain an evidence base for recommending use of the device on the ISS. The developed protocol will be created to achieve multiple objectives, including determining if the device provides an adequate training stimulus for 5th - 95th percentile males and females, allows for exercise modalities that protect functional capability, and is robust and can withstand extensive human use. Although protocols are yet to be determined, current expectations include use of the device by test subjects and current crew in order to obtain quantitative and qualitative feedback. Information obtained during the ground tests may be used to influence device modifications

  15. Can We Study Autonomous Driving Comfort in Moving-Base Driving Simulators? A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellem, Hanna; Klüver, Malte; Schrauf, Michael; Schöner, Hans-Peter; Hecht, Heiko; Krems, Josef F

    2017-05-01

    To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions. Participants ( N = 72) experienced six differently parameterized lane-change and deceleration maneuvers and subsequently rated the comfort of each scenario. One group of participants experienced the maneuvers on a test-track setting, whereas two other groups experienced them in one of two moving-base simulator configurations. We could demonstrate relative and absolute validity for one of the two simulator configurations. Subsequent analyses revealed that the validity of the simulator highly depends on the parameterization of the motion system. Moving-base simulation can be a useful research tool to study driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. However, our results point at a preference for subunity scaling factors for both lateral and longitudinal motion cues, which might be explained by an underestimation of speed in virtual environments. In line with previous studies, we recommend lateral- and longitudinal-motion scaling factors of approximately 50% to 60% in order to obtain valid results for both active and passive driving tasks.

  16. Studies on cleaning validation for a cream and ointment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufacturing line. Aliaa A Badawi1, Khaled Hegazy2, Dina Louis1*. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, 2Central Administration of ... Purpose: To validate a new and simple method for cleaning a manufacturing line for creams and ..... Geneva, Switzerland;. 2006 ...

  17. Measuring Elementary Student's Mathematics Motivation: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a 10-item math motivation scale were empirically validated with an independent sample consisting of 182 elementary-school students. Analysis of the model dimensionality supported a one-factor structure fit. Item parameter estimates from a Classical Test Theory framework revealed that most items were highly…

  18. A Validity Study of Two Projective Object Representations Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Stephen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two projective measures of object representations, the Concept of the Object on the Rorschach and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales, were compared with each other and measures of intelligence and pathology with 15 children and 94 adult patients. Results support the construct validity of object representations. (SLD)

  19. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in section 14B(3) below with respect to criterion-related validity. Any method of job analysis may be... comparsion of the content of the training program with the critical or important work behavior(s) of the job... measures of job performance. Measures of relative success in training include but are not limited to...

  20. Studies on cleaning validation for a cream and ointment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validation methods included the visual inspection of the machine surface, swab sampling, microbial bioburden determination and testing the final rinse for conductivity, pH and total organic carbon (TOC) limits. Acceptance limit calculations depended on the figure tip unit (FTU). Results: No visual residue or chemical residue ...

  1. The validity of a portable clinical force plate in assessment of static postural control: concurrent validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golriz, Samira; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Foreman, K Bo; Walker, Bruce F

    2012-05-23

    The broad use of force plates in clinical settings for postural control assessment suggests the need for instruments that are easy to use, affordable and readily available. In addition, these instruments of measurement should be reliable and valid as adequate reliability and validity are prerequisites to making correct inferences. The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of postural control measures obtained with a clinical force plate. Thirty-one healthy adults were recruited. Participants completed 1 set of 5 trials on each force plate. Postural control measures (centre of pressure [COP] average velocity and sway area) were collected and compared using the Midot Posture Scale Analyzer (clinical force plate) and the Accugait force plate (criterion measure). Intra class correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement , and paired t-tests were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were constructed to compare the force plates and assess consistency of measurement and agreement between them. The ICC values (ICC = 0.14-0.60) between the two force plates were lower than the acceptable value for both COP average velocity and sway area. There was significant difference (p > 0.05) in COP average velocity and sway area between the force plates. Examination of the plots revealed that there is less difference between the force plates in lower magnitudes of COP for average velocity and sway area however, the greater the average velocity and sway area, the greater the difference between the measures obtained from the two force plates. Findings of this study showed poor concurrent validity of the clinical force plate. This clinical force plate cannot be a replacement for known reliable and valid force plates and consequently measures obtained from this force plate should be treated with caution especially in a clinical population.

  2. DEVELOPING OF INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE ANXIETY SCALE: VALIDITY - RELIABILITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra DALKIRAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning  individual instrument performance anxiety of the students  who are getting instrument training  in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students  who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and  the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.Extended AbstractsIntroductionAnxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002.In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000. People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him

  3. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  4. Perceived stress scale: reliability and validity study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Añez, Ciro Romélio Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    The perceived stress scale (PSS-10) reliability and validity were evaluated in Brazilian adults. A two-stage translation procedure was employed to achieve a Portuguese version. Participants were 793 Brazilian university teachers. The exploratory factor analysis showed two factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 (56.8% of variance). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 (Factor 1), 0.77 (Factor 2) and 0.87 (Total Score). The test-retest reliability scores were 0.83 (Factor 1), 0.68 (Factor 2) and 0.86 (Total Score). PSS-10 and perceived health correlations ranged from -0.22 to -0.35. The PSS-10 showed an adequate reliability and validity supporting its use in this population.

  5. Dental models made with an intraoral scanner: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Anne Margreet R; Harms, Marit C; Rangel, Frits A; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Schols, Jan G J H; Breuning, K Hero

    2012-09-01

    Our objectives were to determine the validity and reproducibility of measurements on stereolithographic models and 3-dimensional digital dental models made with an intraoral scanner. Ten dry human skulls were scanned; from the scans, stereolithographic models and digital models were made. Two observers measured transversal distances, mesiodistal tooth widths, and arch segments on the skulls and the stereolithographic and digital models. All measurements were repeated 4 times. Arch length discrepancy and tooth size discrepancy were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by using paired t tests. For the measurements on the stereolithographic and digital models, statistically significant differences were found. However, these differences were considered to be clinically insignificant. Digital models had fewer statistically significant differences and generally the smallest duplicate measurement errors compared with the stereolithographic models. Stereolithographic and digital models made with an intraoral scanner are a valid and reproducible method for measuring distances in a dentition. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ST was significantly and negatively associated with sit-ups (r = -0.38, p<0.01) and shuttle run (r = -0.29, p<0.05). Similarly, the results of the shuttle run (10x5 meter run), sit-ups, bent arm hang, and standing broad jump tests, had significant associations with vigorous PA. The CLASS questionnaire is a valid and reliable ...

  7. Validation of Internet Application: Study, Analysis and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Today, testing applications for Internet (web sites and other applications) is being verified using proprietary test solutions. The Internet Security became a very important and complex field of researches in our present time, especially if we apply this to the discussion of Internet protocols as basic interfaces for exchanging sensitive data over the Internet and finding appropriate and trustworthy algorithms for their validation. Test Competence Centre at Ericsson AB has expertise on tes...

  8. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Carpentier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C, endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG. Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93% were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P<0.001 in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care.

  9. The Development of a New Medical Device for Standardized Episiotomy: A Pre-Clinical Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Femke; Piersma, Dorine; Veersema, Sebastiaan; van der Post, Joris; Roovers, Jan-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the validation and optimization process for a new innovative medical device to create a standardized episiotomy. We performed a preclinical validation study. This study was performed at the University hospital. Animal, cadaver. Together with technical engineers,

  10. Validity of Internet-based longitudinal study data: the elephant in the virtual room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carys A; Summers, Kim M; Bronsvoort, B Mark C; Handel, Ian G; Clements, Dylan N

    2015-04-16

    Internet-based data collection relies on well-designed and validated questionnaires. The theory behind designing and validating questionnaires is well described, but few practical examples of how to approach validation are available in the literature. We aimed to validate data collected in an ongoing Internet-based longitudinal health study through direct visits to participants and recall of their health records. We demonstrate that despite extensive pre-planning, social desirability can still affect data in unexpected ways and that anticipation of poor quality data may be confounded by positive validation. Dogslife is a large-scale, Web-based longitudinal study of canine health, in which owners of Labrador Retrievers were recruited and questioned at regular intervals about the lifestyle and health of their dogs using an Internet-based questionnaire. The Dogslife questionnaire predominantly consists of closed-answer questions. In our work, two separate validation methodologies were used: (1) direct interviews with 43 participants during visits to their households and (2) comparison of owner-entered health reports with 139 historical health records. Our results indicate that user-derived measures should not be regarded as a single category; instead, each measurement should be considered separately as each presents its own challenge to participants. We recommend trying to ascertain the extent of recall decay within a study and, if necessary, using this to guide data collection timepoints and analyses. Finally, we recommend that multiple methods of communication facilitate validation studies and aid cohort engagement. Our study highlighted how the theory underpinning online questionnaire design and validation translates into practical data issues when applied to Internet-based studies. Validation should be regarded as an extension of questionnaire design, and that validation work should commence as soon as sufficient data are available. We believe that validation is a

  11. Large Scale Simulation Platform for NODES Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotorrio, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qin, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-27

    This report summarizes the Large Scale (LS) simulation platform created for the Eaton NODES project. The simulation environment consists of both wholesale market simulator and distribution simulator and includes the CAISO wholesale market model and a PG&E footprint of 25-75 feeders to validate the scalability under a scenario of 33% RPS in California with additional 17% of DERS coming from distribution and customers. The simulator can generate hourly unit commitment, 5-minute economic dispatch, and 4-second AGC regulation signals. The simulator is also capable of simulating greater than 10k individual controllable devices. Simulated DERs include water heaters, EVs, residential and light commercial HVAC/buildings, and residential-level battery storage. Feeder-level voltage regulators and capacitor banks are also simulated for feeder-level real and reactive power management and Vol/Var control.

  12. A validity study of the SSP-School Inclusion Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DĂMEAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the results of a research that aimed to identify the factors influencing school inclusion among disadvantagedstudents. The main outcome of the research was the development of the SSP-School Inclusion Questionnaire, intended to: (1measure school inclusion levels among students; (2 identify students with significantly lower levels of school inclusion, whoneed to be included in intervention programs; and (3 measure the impact of intervention programs using subjective indicators(beneficiaries’ perception of school and teachers, feelings of safety in school, school performance. The questionnaire was completedby 480 vocational school students aged 15-19 from a large developed urban area (Cluj-Napoca in Romania. The purpose of theresearch was to test the validity and reliability of the instrument and to propose it to professionals working in education (schoolpsychologists, school counsellors etc. for efficient data collection and for measuring the impact of educational intervention.

  13. Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-06-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT) to a multiple-choice (MC) format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA) test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students' knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N =61 ) and beta versions (N =263 ) to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.

  14. Development of Creative Behavior Observation Form: A Study on Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Zeynep; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    This study, Creative Behavior Observation Form was developed to assess creativity of the children. While the study group on the reliability and validity of Creative Behavior Observation Form was being developed, 257 children in total who were at the ages of 5-6 were used as samples with stratified sampling method. Content Validity Index (CVI) and…

  15. Reliability and Validity Issues Related to Interactive Tailored Patient Assessments: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruland, Cornelia M; Bakken, Suzanne; Røislien, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a proliferation of interactive tailored patient assessment (ITPA) tools. However, evidence of the reliability and validity of these instruments is often missing, which makes their value in research studies questionable. Because several of the common methods to evaluate instrument reliability and validity are not applicable to interactive tailored patient assessments, informatics researchers may benefit from some guidance on which methods of reliability and validity ass...

  16. Validation Study on the MCC-based Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungkeun; Lee, Dowhan; Kang, Shincheul; Choi, Hyunwoo; Chai, Jangbom

    2006-01-01

    KEPRI and M and D Corporation has developed a methodology, called the NEST I (Non-intrusive Evaluation of Stem Thrust), for determining the stem thrust for a Motor Operated Valve (MOV) based on the motor torque and the stem displacement. The motor torque is determined using another method called NEET (Non-intrusive Evaluation of Electric Torque) which uses the voltage and current data from three phases to obtain the motor torque. The stem displacement is obtained from the voltage and current data along with the nameplate information of the motor, actuator and stem. The motor data (voltage, current and coil current) are measured using MOVIDS (Motor Operated Valve Intelligent Diagnostic System). The motor torque is determined using a NEET algorithm and the stem thrust is calculated using the NEST I method. The goal of this testing was to obtain data from operation of a MOV and to compare the actual measured thrust with the thrust calculated using the NEET / NEST I methods and therefore validate the NEET / NEST I methods

  17. Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Andreou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14 and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version, and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha (reliability, and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals’ characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.82 for the full scale for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69. PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64, depression (r = 0.61, and anxiety (r = 0.54. Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001 positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. Conclusions: The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.

  18. Perceived Stress Scale: reliability and validity study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Lionis, Christos; Varvogli, Liza; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2011-08-01

    To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach's alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals' characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach's alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.

  19. Reporting to Improve Reproducibility and Facilitate Validity Assessment for Healthcare Database Studies V1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Shirley V.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Berger, Marc L.; Brown, Jeffrey; de Vries, Frank; Douglas, Ian; Gagne, Joshua J.; Gini, Rosa; Klungel, Olaf; Mullins, C. Daniel; Nguyen, Michael D.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Smeeth, Liam; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Defining a study population and creating an analytic dataset from longitudinal healthcare databases involves many decisions. Our objective was to catalogue scientific decisions underpinning study execution that should be reported to facilitate replication and enable assessment of validity

  20. Reporting to Improve Reproducibility and Facilitate Validity Assessment for Healthcare Database Studies V1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Shirley V.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Berger, Marc L.; Brown, Jeffrey; de Vries, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303546670; Douglas, Ian; Gagne, Joshua J.; Gini, Rosa; Klungel, Olaf|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Mullins, C. Daniel; Nguyen, Michael D.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Smeeth, Liam; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Defining a study population and creating an analytic dataset from longitudinal healthcare databases involves many decisions. Our objective was to catalogue scientific decisions underpinning study execution that should be reported to facilitate replication and enable assessment of validity of

  1. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  2. A Cross-Validation Study of Police Recruit Performance as Predicted by the IPI and MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusman, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    Validation and cross-validation studies were conducted using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) to predict job performance for 698 urban male police officers who completed a six-month training academy. Job performance criteria evaluated included absence, lateness, derelictions, negative…

  3. VALIDITY OF THE GHQ AND SCL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCALES - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOETER, MWJ

    This article presents the results of a comparison between the validity of the SCL anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression scales and the GHQ-28 anxiety-/insomnia and severe depression scales in a psychiatric outpatient population. Validity was studied at a categorical level with DSM-III diagnosis,

  4. The development and evaluation of content validity of the Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure: Preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Mweshi

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The new functional measure with an acceptable level of content validity titled Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure (ZSBFM was developed. It was designed to evaluate effectiveness of interventions given to children with SB from the age of 6 months to 5 years. Psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity were tested and are reported in another study.

  5. Role delineation and test specification validation study for the CNRN examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowin, M; Ozuna, J

    1988-10-01

    The American Board of Neuroscience Nursing conducted a role delineation and validation study to determine practice areas to be tested. In addition, weighting for each area to be included in the certification examination was determined. This article describes steps taken in the validation process and discusses findings along with application of results to certification examination revision.

  6. Prediction Models for Prolonged Intensive Care Unit Stay after Cardiac Surgery: Systematic Review and Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linda Peelen; Karel Moons; Cor Kalkman; Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; Roelof G.A. Ettema; Arno Nierich

    2010-01-01

    Several models have been developed to predict prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery. However, no extensive quantitative validation of these models has yet been conducted. This study sought to identify and validate existing prediction models for prolonged ICU length of

  7. Recommendations of the VAC2VAC workshop on the design of multi-centre validation studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halder, Marlies; Depraetere, Hilde; Delannois, Frédérique; Akkermans, Arnoud; Behr-Gross, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bruysters, Martijn; Dierick, Jean-François; Jungbäck, Carmen; Kross, Imke; Metz, Bernard; Pennings, Jeroen; Rigsby, Peter; Riou, Patrice; Balks, Elisabeth; Dobly, Alexandre; Leroy, Odile; Stirling, Catrina

    2018-01-01

    Within the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 (IMI 2) project VAC2VAC (Vaccine batch to vaccine batch comparison by consistency testing), a workshop has been organised to discuss ways of improving the design of multi-centre validation studies and use the data generated for product-specific validation

  8. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emrah Karadere

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The preliminary data obtained from the study of reliability and validity of the scale shows that ‘Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test’ supports reliability and validity in Turkish population. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 156-161

  9. Toddler physical activity study: laboratory and community studies to evaluate accelerometer validity and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R. Hager

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toddlerhood is an important age for physical activity (PA promotion to prevent obesity and support a physically active lifestyle throughout childhood. Accurate assessment of PA is needed to determine trends/correlates of PA, time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA, and the effectiveness of PA promotion programs. Due to the limited availability of objective measures that have been validated and evaluated for feasibility in community studies, it is unclear which subgroups of toddlers are at the highest risk for inactivity. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the objectives of this study are to develop valid thresholds, examine feasibility, and examine demographic/ anthropometric PA correlates of MVPA among toddlers from low-income families. Methods Two studies were conducted with toddlers (12–36 months. Laboratory Study (n = 24- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle. PA was observed using the Child Activity Rating Scale (CARS, prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (correlation: activity counts of two Acticals, criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and CARS ratings, and sensitivity/specificity for thresholds. Community Study (n = 277, low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited- An Actical was worn on the ankle for > 7 days (goal >5, 24-h days. Height/weight was measured. Mothers reported demographics. Analyses included frequencies (feasibility and stepwise multiple linear regression (sMLR. Results Laboratory Study- Acticals demonstrated reliability (r = 0.980 and validity (r = 0.75. Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (86 % and specificity (88 %. Community Study- 86 % wore accelerometer, 69 % had valid data (mean = 5.2 days. Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: refusal (14 % and wear-time ≤2 days (11 %. The MVPA threshold (>2200 cpm yielded 54 min/day. In sMLR, MVPA was associated with age (older

  10. How valid are claims for synergy in published clinical studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana, A; Amir, E; Yeung, C; Seruga, B; Tannock, I F

    2012-08-01

    Clinical trials evaluating drug combinations are often stimulated by claims of synergistic interactions in preclinical models. Overuse or misuse of the term synergy could lead to poorly designed clinical studies. We searched PubMed using the terms 'synergy' or 'synergistic' and 'cancer' to select articles published between 2006 and 2010. Eligible studies were those that referred to synergy in preclinical studies to justify a drug combination evaluated in a clinical trial. Eighty-six clinical articles met eligibility criteria and 132 preclinical articles were cited in them. Most of the clinical studies were phase I (43%) or phase II trials (56%). Appropriate methods to evaluate synergy in preclinical studies included isobologram analysis in 18 studies (13.6%) and median effect in 10 studies (7.6%). Only 26 studies using animal models (39%) attempted to evaluate therapeutic index. There was no association between the result of the clinical trial and the use of an appropriate method to evaluate synergy (P=0.25, chi-squared test). Synergy is cited frequently in phase I and phase II studies to justify the evaluation of a specific drug combination. Inappropriate methods for evaluation of synergy and poor assessment of therapeutic index have been used in most preclinical articles.

  11. A Validity Study: Attitudes towards Statistics among Japanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Eike

    2015-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigated the relationship between attitudes toward statistics (ATS) and course achievement (CA) among Japanese college students. The sample consisted of 135 male and 134 female students from the first two-year liberal arts program of a four-year college in Tokyo, Japan. Attitudes about statistics were measured using…

  12. Validation Study of Normogram For the Clinical Determination of Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study of 70 newly diagnosed hypertensive at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital over a six month period, echocardiography detected increased left ventricular weight (= 225g) in 31 patients representing 44.3%. When compared with the rapid assessment of the estimation of Left Ventricular Mass (LVM) with a ...

  13. Unmasking the Capability of Strategic Learning: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Charlotta A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The strategic learning perspective has attracted increased interest among strategic management scholars, yet the operationalisation of this concept is still in its infancy. The aim of this study is to develop a multidimensional understanding of the strategic learning process and to build an instrument to measure this concept.…

  14. Turkish Version of Kolcaba's Immobilization Comfort Questionnaire: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tosun, RN, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal that the ICQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the comfort of patients in Turkey who are immobilized because of lower extremity orthopedic problems.

  15. Attitude Patterns and the Production of Original Verbal Images: A Study in Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatena, Joe; Torrance, E. Paul

    1971-01-01

    The Runner Studies of Attitude Patterns, a personality inventory, was used as the criterion to determine construct validity of Sounds and Images and Onomatopoeia and Images, two tests of verbal originality. (KW)

  16. Determination of maduramicin in feedingstuffs and premixtures by liquid chromatography : development, validation and interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.; Stoisser, B.; Wagner, K.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Hofman, P.; Putzka, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for determination of maduramicin in feedingstuffs and premixtures was developed, validated, and interlaboratory studied. The extraction solvent was methanol. Maduramicin was detected at 520 nm after postcolumn derivatization with vanillin. Recovery was

  17. Results of the Independent Verification and Validation Study for the D2-Puff Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowers, J

    1999-01-01

    .... The independent verification and validation (IV&V) study of D2-Puff Version 2.0.6 focused on these accreditation requirements and the implicit requirement that the model provide safe-sided hazard estimates...

  18. Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement Devices in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Natalie A; Woolley, Jonathan J; Cleary, Kirsten Lawrence; Falzon, Louise; Alpert, Bruce S; Oparil, Suzanne; Cutter, Gary; Wapner, Ronald; Muntner, Paul; Tita, Alan T; Shimbo, Daichi

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy is essential to guide medical decision making that affects both mother and fetus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the accuracy of ambulatory, home, and clinic BP measurement devices in pregnant women. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL EBSCO, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and dabl from inception through August 3, 2017 for articles that assessed the validity of an upper arm BP measurement device against a mercury sphygmomanometer in pregnant women. Two independent investigators determined eligibility, extracted data, and adjudicated protocol violations. From 1798 potential articles identified, 41, that assessed 28 devices, met the inclusion criteria. Most articles (n=32) followed a standard or modified American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization, British Hypertension Society, or European Society of Hypertension validation protocol. Several articles described the results of validation studies performed on >1 device (n=7) or in >1 population of pregnant women (n=12), comprising 64 pairwise validity assessments. The device was validated in 61% (32 of 52) of studies which used a standard or modified protocol. Only 34% (11 of 32) of the studies wherein the device was successfully validated were performed without a protocol violation. Given the implications of inaccurate BP measurement in pregnant women, healthcare providers should be aware of and try to use the BP measurement devices which have been properly validated in this population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement: A multi-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Augustyniak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial kits. We have further explored the potential causes of variance in carbonyl analysis in a ring study. A soluble protein fraction was prepared from rat liver and exposed to 0, 5 and 15 min of UV irradiation. Lyophilised preparations were distributed to six different laboratories that routinely undertook protein carbonyl analysis across Europe. ELISA and Western blotting techniques detected an increase in protein carbonyl formation between 0 and 5 min of UV irradiation irrespective of method used. After irradiation for 15 min, less oxidation was detected by half of the laboratories than after 5 min irradiation. Three of the four ELISA carbonyl results fell within 95% confidence intervals. Likely errors in calculating absolute carbonyl values may be attributed to differences in standardisation. Out of up to 88 proteins identified as containing carbonyl groups after tryptic cleavage of irradiated and control liver proteins, only seven were common in all three liver preparations. Lysine and arginine residues modified by carbonyls are likely to be resistant to tryptic proteolysis. Use of a cocktail of proteases may increase the recovery of oxidised peptides. In conclusion, standardisation is critical for carbonyl analysis and heavily oxidised proteins may not be effectively analysed by any existing technique.

  20. Monte Carlo Simulations Validation Study: Vascular Brachytherapy Beta Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orion, I.; Koren, K.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade many versions of angioplasty irradiation treatments have been proposed. The purpose of this unique brachytherapy is to administer a sufficient radiation dose into the vein walls in order to prevent restonosis, a clinical sequel to balloon angioplasty. The most suitable sources for this vascular brachytherapy are the β - emitters such as Re-188, P-32, and Sr-90/Y-90, with a maximum energy range of up to 2.1 MeV [1,2,3]. The radioactive catheters configurations offered for these treatments can be a simple wire [4], a fluid filled balloon or a coated stent. Each source is differently positioned inside the blood vessel, and the emitted electrons ranges therefore vary. Many types of sources and configurations were studied either experimentally or with the use of the Monte Carlo calculation technique, while most of the Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using EGS4 [5] or MCNP [6]. In this study we compared the beta-source absorbed-dose versus radial-distance of two treatment configurations using MCNP and EGS4 simulations. This comparison was aimed to discover the differences between the MCNP and the EGS4 simulation code systems in intermediate energies electron transport

  1. Development of a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas; Raphael, Karen G; Glaros, Alan; Axelsson, Susanna; Arima, Taro; Ernberg, Malin; Farella, Mauro; Lobbezoo, Frank; Manfredini, Daniele; Michelotti, Ambra; Svensson, Peter; List, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity assessment, (4) reliability and discriminitive validity assessment, and (5) instrument refinement. The kappa value and phi-coefficient were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability and discriminative ability, respectively. Following preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was compiled. Eleven experts were invited to join a Delphi panel and 10 accepted. Four Delphi rounds reduced the preliminary tool-Quality-Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS)- to 8 items: study aim, study sample, control condition or group, study design, experimental bruxism task, statistics, interpretation of results, and conflict of interest statement. Consensus among the Delphi panelists yielded good face validity. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77). Discriminative validity was excellent (phi coefficient 1.0; P reviews of experimental bruxism studies, exhibits face validity, excellent discriminative validity, and acceptable inter-observer reliability. Development of quality assessment tools for many other topics in the orofacial pain literature is needed and may follow the described procedure.

  2. Development of caries risk assessment tool for Iranian preschoolers: A primary validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mortazavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to develop a dental caries risk assessment tool for Iranian preschoolers. Methods: In a validation and cross-sectional study, a random sample of 150 preschool children was involved. This study was conducted in three phases: questionnaire design (expert panel and peer evaluation, questionnaire testing (pilot evaluation and field testing, and validation study. The initial assessments include interview, dental examination, and laboratory investigations. Validity and reliability indices, content validity index (CVI, content validity ratio (CVR, impact score, and test-retest and Cronbach's alpha were measured. Decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft scores were calculated according to the WHO guidelines. Results: The Iranian version of caries risk assessment (CRA questionnaire contained 17 items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.86 indicated a suitable internal consistency. The mean scores for the CVI and the CVR were 0.87 and 0.78, respectively. The prevalence rate of dental caries in the study group was 69.3%, and the mean dmft was 4.57 (range 0–19. Conclusions: The Persian version of CRA questionnaire was adapted to the Iranian population. The findings demonstrated overall acceptable validity and also reliability in the application of test-retest. The results of the present study provide initial evidence that the designed CRA form could be a useful tool for CRA in the Iranian preschoolers.

  3. Validation of the Korean coefficient for the modification of diet in renal disease study equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun Jung; Cha, Ran-Hui; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yu, Kyung Sang; Kim, Satbyul Estella; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yon Su

    2016-03-01

    Race and ethnicity are important determinants when estimatingglomerular filtration rate (GFR). The Korean coefficients for the isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equations were developed in 2010. However, the coefficients have not been validated. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD Study equations. Equation development and validation were performed in separate groups (development group, n = 147 from 2008 to 2009; validation group, n = 125 from 2010 to 2012). We compared the performance of the original IDMS MDRD equations and modified equations with Korean coefficients. Performance was assessed by comparing correlation coefficients, bias, and accuracy between estimated GFR and measured GFR, with systemic inulin clearance using a single injection method. The Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD equations developed previously showed good performance in the validation group. The new Korean coefficients for the four- and six-variable IDMS MDRD equations using both the development and validation cohorts were 1.02046 and 0.97300, respectively. No significant difference was detected for the new Korean coefficients, in terms of estimating GFR, between the original and modified IDMS MDRD Study equations. The modified equations with Korean coefficients for the IDMS MDRD Study equations were not superior to the original equations for estimating GFR. Therefore, we recommend using the original IDMS MDRD Study equation without ethnic adjustment in the Korean population.

  4. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  5. A study on the validity of strategic classification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hun

    2013-01-01

    The commodity classification is to identify strategic commodity. The export license is to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSSC (Nuclear Safety and Security Commission) operates the NEPS (Nuclear Export Promotion Service) for export control of nuclear items. NEPS contributed to reduce process time related to submission of documents, issuing certificates and licenses, etc. Nonetheless, it became necessary to enhance capacity to implement export control precisely and efficiently as development of Korean nuclear industry led to sharp increase of export. To provide more efficient ways, development of the advanced export control system, IXCS (Intelligent eXport Control System) was suggested. To build IXCS successfully, export control experts have analyzed Korean export control system. Two classification processes of items and technology were derived as a result of the research. However, it may reflect real cases insufficiently because it is derived by experts' discussion. This study evaluated how well the process explains real cases. Although the derived processes explained real cases well, some recommendations for improvement were found through this study. These evaluation results will help to make classification flow charts more compatible to the current export system. Most classification reports on equipment and material deliberated specification and functions while related systems were not considered. If a 'specification review' stage is added to the current process and delete unnecessary stages, this will improve accuracy of the flow chart. In the classification of nuclear technology, detailed process to identify specific information and data need to be specified to decrease subjectivity. Whether they are imitations or not is an unnecessary factor in both processes. The successful development of IXCS needs accurate export control processes as well as IT technology. If these classification processes are

  6. Study of experimental validation for combustion analysis of GOTHIC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Yang, S. Y.; Park, K. C.; Jeong, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, present lumped and subdivided GOTHIC6 code analyses of the premixed hydrogen combustion experiment at the Seoul National University and comparison with the experiment results. The experimental facility has 16367 cc free volume and rectangular shape. And the test was performed with unit equivalence ratio of the hydrogen and air, and with various location of igniter position. Using the lumped and mechanistic combustion model in GOTHIC6 code, the experiments were simulated with the same conditions. In the comparison between experiment and calculated results, the GOTHIC6 prediction of the combustion response does not compare well with the experiment results. In the point of combustion time, the lumped combustion model of GOTHIC6 code does not simulate the physical phenomena of combustion appropriately. In the case of mechanistic combustion model, the combustion time is predicted well, but the induction time of calculation data is longer than the experiment data remarkably. Also, the laminar combustion model of GOTHIC6 has deficiency to simulate combustion phenomena unless control the user defined value appropriately. And the pressure is not a proper variable that characterize the three dimensional effect of combustion

  7. An external construct validity study of Rorschach personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, D F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined (a) hypothesized relationships between Rorschach variables and self-report test measures relating to nominally similar aspects of personality functioning and (b) interrelationships among Rorschach variables. Sixty-two undergraduates were administered the Rorschach, Barron Ego Strength Scale, Kaplan Self-Derogation Scale, Eagly Self-Esteem Scale, Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist (MAACL), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Rotter Locus of Control Scale. Only a few of the predictions received confirmation: inanimate movement (m) correlated, as expected, with MAACL anxiety and hostility, the egocentricity index (3r + 2)/R (R = total responses) correlated significantly with self-esteem, and human movement with minus form level (M-) correlated (inversely) with ego strength. Among the unpredicted findings were some that appear inconsistent with standard Rorschach interpretation. Rorschach variables human movement (M), and experience actual (EA), generally interpreted as reflecting coping resources, related significantly with self-report measures of poor coping and of dysphoric affect. In general, the Rorschach appears better at identifying weaknesses in the ego rather than strengths.

  8. [Validity of partial systems of periodontal examination in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, A; Ainamo, J; Noguerol, B; Cobo, J; Lucas, V; Bascones, A

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the representativeness of partial examination in the assessment of the average severity and the prevalence of periodontal disease. 343 subjects aged 7, 12 and 15-19 years were examined for the presence or absence of gingival bleeding after gentle probing, supra or subgingival calculus and pocket depths of 4-5 mm., or 6 mm. and over, of each tooth. Three sets of average severity and prevalence scores were prepared: based on the full mouth examination, on observations made from the index teeth of the P.D.I., and on the six teeth utilized for the C.P.I.T.N. in this age group. Partial indices tended to underestimate the real prevalence of the different signs, and slightly overestimate severity, being these observations statistically significant. Average severity scores were obtained more accurately with the six Ramfjord teeth, while real prevalence rates were better determined with the C.P.I.T.N. teeth. From an epidemiological point of view, the real significance of the differences observed should be further determined.

  9. Validation study of the thorax phantom Lungman for optimization purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Sunay; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    This work aims to investigate the advantages and limitations of the Kyoto Kagaku thorax phantom Lungman for use in chest radiography optimization studies. First, patient survey data were gathered for chest posterior anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) examinations in a standard chest X-ray room over a period of one year, using a Caesium Iodide (CsI) based flat panel detector with automatic exposure control (AEC). Parameters surveyed included exposure index (EI), dose area product (DAP) and AEC exposure time. PA and LAT projections of the phantom were then compared to these values. Additionally, the equivalence in millimetres of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was established for the different regions of the Lungman phantom (lungs and mediastinum). Finally, a voxel model of the Lungman phantom was developed by the segmentation of a volumetric dataset of the phantom acquired using CT scanning. Subsequently, the model was used in Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE/penEasy code to calculate the energy deposited in the organs of the phantom. This enabled comparison of the phantom tissue-equivalent materials with materials defined by ICRP 89 in terms of energy deposition. For the survey data, close agreement was found between phantom and the median values for the patient data (deviations ranged from 4% to 31%, one outlier). The phantom lung region is equivalent to 89 mm to 106 mm of PMMA, depending on tube voltage. Energy deposited in the phantom material compared to those for ICRP defined material differed by at most 36% in AP irradiations and 49% in PA irradiations.

  10. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  11. The present status of the study on the validity of concurrent verbalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Megumi; Takahashi, Hideaki.

    1993-09-01

    We reviewed study on the validity of the method of verbal reports. The method of verbal reports gives us detailed information about human cognitive process as compared with observing a sequence of actions, while it is subjected to criticism for the validity as data. Ericsson and Simon proposed a model of verbalization and investigated conditions to keep verbal reports valid. Although a lot of studies quote their model as a base of adopting the method of verbal reports, verification the validity of verbal reports is incomplete because effects of verbalization is not clear. We pointed out that it is necessary to take into consideration kinds of task strategies, effects of trial repetition, effects of task difficulty to examine precisely effects of verbalization. (author)

  12. The Prediction of Training Proficiency in Firefighters: A Study of Predictive Validity in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Berges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides results of criterion validity in the selection of firefighters in Spain. The predictors were cognitive skills, job knowledge, and physical aptitudes, and the criterion was training proficiency. The process involves 639 candidates, but only 44 complete successfully the selection process. Our results support previous evidence showing that general cognitive ability is the best predictor of training proficiency, with an operational validity of .57. With respect to the other predictors, job knowledge presented an operational validity of .55 and physical tests of .49. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that cognitive aptitude explains 33% of the variance, but when physical aptitudes are included the explained variance increases to 50%. If we also add job knowledge, explained variance increases to 55%. Our study offers recent results of criterion validity in a barely investigated job, gathered in a country other than the one where prior research had been carried out.

  13. The "RG Sausage's" Missing Ingredients: Investigating the Validity of Reliability Generalization Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Jeanine; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of selected methodological factors on the validity of conclusions from reliability generalization (RG) studies. The study focused on four factors; (1) missing data in the primary studies; (2) transformation of sample reliability estimates; (3) use of sample weights for estimating mean…

  14. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    OpenAIRE

    Adie Sam; Ko Victoria; Naylor Justine M; Gaskin Clive; Walker Richard; Harris Ian A; Mittal Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodolo...

  15. Do placebo based validation standards mimic real batch products behaviour? Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabidi, A; Talbi, M; Bouklouze, A; El Karbane, M; Bourichi, H; El Guezzar, M; Ziemons, E; Hubert, Ph; Rozet, E

    2011-06-01

    Analytical methods validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application. Validation usually involves validation standards or quality control samples that are prepared in placebo or reconstituted matrix made of a mixture of all the ingredients composing the drug product except the active substance or the analyte under investigation. However, one of the main concerns that can be made with this approach is that it may lack an important source of variability that come from the manufacturing process. The question that remains at the end of the validation step is about the transferability of the quantitative performance from validation standards to real authentic drug product samples. In this work, this topic is investigated through three case studies. Three analytical methods were validated using the commonly spiked placebo validation standards at several concentration levels as well as using samples coming from authentic batch samples (tablets and syrups). The results showed that, depending on the type of response function used as calibration curve, there were various degrees of differences in the results accuracy obtained with the two types of samples. Nonetheless the use of spiked placebo validation standards was showed to mimic relatively well the quantitative behaviour of the analytical methods with authentic batch samples. Adding these authentic batch samples into the validation design may help the analyst to select and confirm the most fit for purpose calibration curve and thus increase the accuracy and reliability of the results generated by the method in routine application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation study of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey at a Hispanic-serving institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashti Sawtelle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS has been widely acknowledged as a useful measure of student cognitive attitudes about science and learning. The initial University of Colorado validation study included only 20% non-Caucasian student populations. In this Brief Report we extend their validation to include a predominately under-represented minority population. We validated the CLASS instrument at Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, by interviewing students in introductory physics classes using a semistructured protocol, examining students’ responses on the CLASS item statements, and comparing them to the items’ intended meaning. We find that in our predominately Hispanic population, 94% of the students’ interview responses indicate that the students interpret the CLASS items correctly, and thus the CLASS is a valid instrument. We also identify one potentially problematic item in the instrument which one third of the students interviewed consistently misinterpreted.

  17. Development of a Digital Citizenship Scale for Youth: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer KUŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale for identifying digital citizenship perceptions of young people in the most common age groups. The study was conducted as a survey study. The study group of this study is composed of 438 people in Turkey who are among 16-24 age group with the highest rate of internet use in Turkey. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the validity of the scale and the item discrimination powers were calculated. The total variance of the scale was determined that the scale had 8-factor structure and was found to be 49,70%. The internal consistency level was also calculated to determine the reliability of the scale. As a result, it can be said that this scale is a valid and reliable scale that can be used to determine the digital citizenship perceptions of young people.

  18. COSMIN methodology for evaluating the content validity of patient-reported outcome measures: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwee, C B; Prinsen, C A C; Chiarotto, A; Westerman, M J; Patrick, D L; Alonso, J; Bouter, L M; de Vet, H C W; Mokkink, L B

    2018-05-01

    Content validity is the most important measurement property of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and the most challenging to assess. Our aims were to: (1) develop standards for evaluating the quality of PROM development; (2) update the original COSMIN standards for assessing the quality of content validity studies of PROMs; (3) develop criteria for what constitutes good content validity of PROMs, and (4) develop a rating system for summarizing the evidence on a PROM's content validity and grading the quality of the evidence in systematic reviews of PROMs. An online 4-round Delphi study was performed among 159 experts from 21 countries. Panelists rated the degree to which they (dis)agreed to proposed standards, criteria, and rating issues on 5-point rating scales ('strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree'), and provided arguments for their ratings. Discussion focused on sample size requirements, recording and field notes, transcribing cognitive interviews, and data coding. After four rounds, the required 67% consensus was reached on all standards, criteria, and rating issues. After pilot-testing, the steering committee made some final changes. Ten criteria for good content validity were defined regarding item relevance, appropriateness of response options and recall period, comprehensiveness, and comprehensibility of the PROM. The consensus-based COSMIN methodology for content validity is more detailed, standardized, and transparent than earlier published guidelines, including the previous COSMIN standards. This methodology can contribute to the selection and use of high-quality PROMs in research and clinical practice.

  19. [Validation of the Italian Clinical Learning Environment Instrument (SVIAT):study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Destrebecq, Anne; Terzoni, Stefano; Grassetti, Luca; Altini, Pietro; Bevilacqua, Anita; Brugnolli, Anna; Benaglio, Carla; Dalponte, Adriana; De Biasio, Laura; Dimonte, Valerio; Gambacorti, Benedetta; Fasci, Adriana; Grosso, Silvia; Mansutti, Irene; Mantovan, Franco; Marognolli, Oliva; Montalti, Sandra; Nicotera, Raffaela; Perli, Serena; Randon, Giulia; Stampfl, Brigitte; Tollini, Morena; Canzan, Federica; Zannini, Lucia; Saiani, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    . Validation of the Italian Clinical Learning Environment Instrument (SVIAT): study protocol. Nursing students obtain most of their university credits in internship environments whose quality can affect their clinical learning. Several tools are available to measure the quality of the clinical learning environment (CLE) as perceived by students: these instruments developed in other countries, were validated in Italian but do not discriminate those CLEs capable (or not) to promote significant clinical learning. To validate an instrument to measure the capability of the CLE to generate clinical learning; the secondary aim is to describe the learning environments as perceived by nursing students according to individual course site and tutorial models adopted. The study will be developed in three phases: a) instrument development and pilot phase, b) validation of the psychometric properties of the instrument and c) description of the CLEs as perceived by the students including factors/item confirmed in the validation process. Expected outcomes. A large validation, with more than 8,000 participating students is expected; the construct under lying will be confirmed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and will report high internal consistency; the instrument will report also a high test-retest and inter-rater reliability; in addition, the instrument will demonstrate predictive ability by discriminating those units able (or not) to activate effective learning processes.

  20. The Reliability and Validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) with College Developmental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Mary P.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares the reliability and validity of the 10 subtests of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) obtained from 99 developmental college students with norming values obtained in an earlier study. Indicates that 9 out of 10 subtest reliability coefficients approached but did not equal the earlier study. (HB)

  1. Validation of traffic-related air pollution exposure estimates for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosbroeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of studies that investigate the validity of using outdoor concentrations and/or traffic-related indicator exposure variables as a measure for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies on the long-term effect of traffic-related air pollution. A pilot study was

  2. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  3. The Dutch Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI): a reliability and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes-de Graaf, Marloes; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Duijn, Edwin; Karel, Yasmaine; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Dutch Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI-D). The SPADI is recommended and frequently used. However, the validity and reliability of the SPADI-D are unknown. The study population consisted of patients consulting a physical therapist for shoulder pain. We assessed construct validity, using known groups, convergent validity (SDQ) and divergent validity (EQ5D) for which the mean difference or Spearman correlations coefficients were calculated. The factor structure was assessed using principal component factor analysis, and we calculated Cronbach's alpha and the ICC to assess the reliability. A total of 356 patients and a randomly selected group of 74 subjects for the reliability analysis were included. There was a significant difference between extreme groups (a high/low level of pain and work absence/presence) in SPADI score. The correlation between the SPADI and the SDQ was 0.69, with the EQ5D mobility-item 0.25 and with the depression-item 0.14. The SPADI consisted of one factor according to principal component factor analysis, which showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94 for the total score), and the test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.89). The Dutch SPADI is a valid and reliable questionnaire for patients in primary care in assessing functional disability.

  4. Validation of Immunomonitoring Methods for Application in Clinical Studies: The HLA-Peptide Multimer Staining Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, P Anoop; Laske, Karoline; Cazaly, Angelica; Rusch, Elisa; Schmid-Horch, Barbara; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2018-03-01

    Validated assays are essential to generate data with defined specificity, consistency, and reliability. Although the process of validation is required for applying immunoassays in the context of clinical studies, reports on systematic validation of in vitro T cell assays are scarce so far. We recently validated our HLA-peptide multimer staining assay in a systematic manner so as to qualify the method for monitoring antigen-specific T cell responses after immunotherapy. Parameters of the assay, specificity, precision, linearity, sensitivity, and robustness were assessed systematically. Experiments were designed to address specifically each parameter and are detailed. Nonspecific multimer staining was below the acceptance limit of 0.02% multimer (+) CD8 (+) cells. The assay showed acceptable precision in all dimensions it was repeated (CV  0.99) of antigen specific cells. We succeeded in validating the HLA-multimer staining assay in a systematic manner. Additionally, we propose a technical framework and recommendations that can be applied for validating other T cell assessment methods. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. IASI spectral radiance validation inter-comparisons: case study assessment from the JAIVEx field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Larar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Measurement system validation is crucial to achieving this goal and maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral and spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This manuscript focuses on validating infrared spectral radiance from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI through a case study analysis using data obtained during the recent Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx field campaign. Emphasis is placed upon the benefits achievable from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I since, in addition to IASI radiance calibration performance assessments, cross-validation with other advanced sounders such as the AQUA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS is enabled.

  6. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination. 761.386 Section 761.386 Protection of... Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.386 Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination. The following...

  7. Validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in Head Start. Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n=22) and feasibility (n=24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic...

  8. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12: translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garmaroudi Gholamreza

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 in Iran. Methods Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language. Then a sample of young people aged 18 to 25 years old completed the questionnaire. In addition, a short questionnaire containing demographic questions and a single measure of global quality of life was administered. To test reliability the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was performed using convergent validity. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing principal component analysis using oblique factor solution. Results In all 748 young people entered into the study. The mean age of respondents was 21.1 (SD = 2.1 years. Employing the recommended method of scoring (ranging from 0 to 12, the mean GHQ score was 3.7 (SD = 3.5. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory result (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.87. Convergent validity indicated a significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and global quality of life scores as expected (r = -0.56, P Conclusion The study findings showed that the Iranian version of the GHQ-12 has a good structural characteristic and is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used for measuring psychological well being in Iran.

  9. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): translation and validation study of the Iranian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Harirchi, Amir Mahmood; Shariati, Mohammad; Garmaroudi, Gholamreza; Ebadi, Mehdi; Fateh, Abolfazl

    2003-11-13

    The objective of this study was to translate and to test the reliability and validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in Iran. Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language). Then a sample of young people aged 18 to 25 years old completed the questionnaire. In addition, a short questionnaire containing demographic questions and a single measure of global quality of life was administered. To test reliability the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was performed using convergent validity. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing principal component analysis using oblique factor solution. In all 748 young people entered into the study. The mean age of respondents was 21.1 (SD = 2.1) years. Employing the recommended method of scoring (ranging from 0 to 12), the mean GHQ score was 3.7 (SD = 3.5). Reliability analysis showed satisfactory result (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.87). Convergent validity indicated a significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and global quality of life scores as expected (r = -0.56, P GHQ-12 was a measure of psychological morbidity with two-factor structure that jointly accounted for 51% of the variance. The study findings showed that the Iranian version of the GHQ-12 has a good structural characteristic and is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used for measuring psychological well being in Iran.

  10. A content validity study of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Jamilly da Silva; de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Sousa, Francisco Stélio; Batista, Joana D'arc Lyra; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To validate the content of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS for people with deafness. Method: Methodological development study, which involved 36 people with deafness and three LIBRAS specialists. The study was conducted in three stages: investigation of the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems, referred to by people with deafness, reported in a questionnaire; video recordings of how people with deafness express, through LIBRA, the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems; and validation of the contents of the recordings of the expressions by LIBRAS specialists. Data were processed in a spreadsheet and analyzed using univariate tables, with absolute frequencies and percentages. The validation results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index (CVI). 33 expressions in LIBRAS, of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems were evaluated, and 28 expressions obtained a satisfactory CVI (1.00). The signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS presented validity, in the study region, for health professionals, especially nurses, for use in the clinical anamnesis of the nursing consultation for people with deafness.

  11. A content validity study of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Jamilly da Silva; de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Sousa, Francisco Stélio; Batista, Joana D'arc Lyra; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to validate the content of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS for people with deafness Method: methodological development study, which involved 36 people with deafness and three LIBRAS specialists. The study was conducted in three stages: investigation of the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems, referred to by people with deafness, reported in a questionnaire; video recordings of how people with deafness express, through LIBRA, the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems; and validation of the contents of the recordings of the expressions by LIBRAS specialists. Data were processed in a spreadsheet and analyzed using univariate tables, with absolute frequencies and percentages. The validation results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index (CVI). Results: 33 expressions in LIBRAS, of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems were evaluated, and 28 expressions obtained a satisfactory CVI (1.00). Conclusions: the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS presented validity, in the study region, for health professionals, especially nurses, for use in the clinical anamnesis of the nursing consultation for people with deafness. PMID:26625991

  12. Design, development, testing and validation of a Photonics Virtual Laboratory for the study of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Francisco L.; Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel L.; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the design, development, testing and validation of a Photonic Virtual Laboratory, highlighting the study of LEDs. The study was conducted from a conceptual, experimental and didactic standpoint, using e-learning and m-learning platforms. Specifically, teaching tools that help ensure that our students perform significant learning have been developed. It has been brought together the scientific aspect, such as the study of LEDs, with techniques of generation and transfer of knowledge through the selection, hierarchization and structuring of information using concept maps. For the validation of the didactic materials developed, it has been used procedures with various assessment tools for the collection and processing of data, applied in the context of an experimental design. Additionally, it was performed a statistical analysis to determine the validity of the materials developed. The assessment has been designed to validate the contributions of the new materials developed over the traditional method of teaching, and to quantify the learning achieved by students, in order to draw conclusions that serve as a reference for its application in the teaching and learning processes, and comprehensively validate the work carried out.

  13. Adaptation of Organizational Justice in Sport Scale into Turkish Language: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Ayfer; Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide a Turkish adaptation of the Organizational Justice in Sport Scale and perform reliability and validity studies. Answers provided by 260 participants who work as football, male basketball and female basketball coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were analysed using the original scale that…

  14. The WPPSI and the Stanford-Binet: A Validity and Reliability Study Using Gifted Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschival, M. Lena; Way, John Gilbert

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether WPPSI is a valid and reliable instrument for the measurement of the intelligence of children whose scores fall within the upper range as measured by the Stanford-Binet. The results of this study indicated that there was only a moderate relationship between the two. (Author)

  15. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  16. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  17. Assessment of mastication in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy: a validity and consistency study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijn, L.; Speyer, R.; Groen, B.E.; Holtus, P.C.; Limbeek, J. van; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument for observing and assessing the chewing ability of children eating solid and lumpy foods. This study describes the process of item definition and item selection and reports the content validity,

  18. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  19. Estimation of low back moments from video analysis: A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Faber, G.S.; Xu, X.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop, compare and validate two versions of a video analysis method for assessment of low back moments during occupational lifting tasks since for epidemiological studies and ergonomic practice relatively cheap and easily applicable methods to assess low back loads are needed.

  20. Validated and longitudinally stable asthma phenotypes based on cluster analysis of the ADEPT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loza, Matthew J.; Djukanovic, Ratko; Chung, Kian Fan; Horowitz, Daniel; Ma, Keying; Branigan, Patrick; Barnathan, Elliot S.; Susulic, Vedrana S.; Silkoff, Philip E.; Sterk, Peter J.; Baribaud, Frédéric; Adcock, Ian; Adriaens, Nora; Ahmed, Hassan; Aliprantis, Antonios; Alving, Kjell; Auffray, Charles; Badorrek, Philipp; Bakke, Per; Balgoma, David; Bansal, Aruna T.; Barber, Clair; Bautmans, An; Behndig, Annelie F.; Bel, Elisabeth; Beleta, Jorge; Berglind, Ann; Berton, Alix; Bigler, Jeannette; Bisgaard, Hans; Bochenek, Grazyna; Boedigheimer, Michel J.; Bøonnelykke, Klaus; Brandsma, Joost; Braun, Armin; Brinkman, Paul; Burg, Dominic; Campagna, Davide; Carayannopoulos, Leon; Caruso, Massimo; da Purificação, Rocha João Pedro Carvalho; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Chaleckis, Romanas; Chanez, Pascal; Chung, Kian F.; Coleman, Courtney; Compton, Chris; Corfield, Julie; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Dahlen, Barbro; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; de Alba, Jorge; de Boer, Pim; de Lepeleire, Inge; de Meulder, Betrand; Dekker, Tamara; Delin, Ingrid; Dennison, Patrick; Dijkhuis, Annemiek; Draper, Aleksandra; Edwards, Jessica; Emma, Rosalia; Ericsson, Magnus; Erpenbeck, Veit; Erzen, Damijan; Fichtner, Klaus; Fitch, Neil; Fleming, Louis J.; Flood, Breda; Fowler, Stephen J.; Frey, Urs; Gahlemann, Martina; Galffy, Gabriella; Gallart, Hector; Garrett, Trevor; Geiser, Thomas; Gent, Julaiha; Gerhardsson, de Verdier Maria; Gibeon, David; Gomez, Cristina; Gove, Kerry; Gozzard, Neil; Guo, Yi-Ke; Hashimoto, Simone; Haughney, John; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hekking, Pieter-Paul; Henriksson, Elisabeth; Hewitt, Lorraine; Higgenbottam, Tim; Hoda, Uruj; Hohlfeld, Jens; Holweg, Cecile; Horvath, Ildiko; Howarth, Peter; Hu, Richard; Hu, Sile; Hu, Xugang; Hudson, Val; James, Anna J.; Kamphuis, Juliette; Kennington, Erika J.; Kerry, Dyson; Klüglich, Matthias; Knobel, Hugo; Knowles, Richard; Knox, Alan; Kolmert, Johan; Konradsen, Jon; Kots, Maxim; Krueger, Linn; Krug, Norbert; Kuo, Scott; Kupczyk, Maciej; Lambrecht, Bart; Lantz, Ann-Sofie; Larsson, Lars; Lazarinis, Nikos; Lefaudeux, Diane; Lone-Latif, Saeeda; Lutter, Rene; Marouzet, Lisa; Martin, Jane; Masefield, Sarah; Mathon, Caroline; Matthews, John G.; Mazein, Alexander; Meah, Sally; Meiser, Andrea; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Metcalf, Leanne; Middelveld, Roelinde; Mikus, Maria; Miralpeix, Montse; Monk, Philip; Montuschi, Paolo; Mores, Nadia; Murray, Clare S.; Musial, Jacek; Myles, David; Naz, Shama; Nething, Katja; Nicholas, Ben; Nihlen, Ulf; Nilsson, Peter; Nordlund, Björn; Östling, Jörgen; Pacino, Antonio; Pahus, Laurie; Palkonen, Susanna; Pandis, Ioannis; Pavlidis, Stelios; Pennazza, Giorgio; Petrén, Anne; Pink, Sandy; Postle, Anthony; Powel, Pippa; Rahman-Amin, Malayka; Rao, Navin; Ravanetti, Lara; Ray, Emma; Reinke, Stacey; Reynolds, Leanne; Riemann, Kathrin; Riley, John; Robberechts, Martine; Roberts, Amanda; Roberts, Graham; Rossios, Christos; Rowe, Anthony; Russell, Kirsty; Rutgers, Michael; Sandström, Thomas; Santini, Giuseppe; Santoninco, Marco; Schoelch, Corinna; Schofield, James P. R.; Seibold, Wolfgang; Shaw, Dominick E.; Sigmund, Ralf; Singer, Florian; Sjödin, Marcus; Skipp, Paul J.; Smids, Barbara; Smith, Caroline; Smith, Jessica; Smith, Katherine M.; Söderman, Päivi; Sogbesan, Adesimbo; Sousa, Ana R.; Staykova, Doroteya; Strandberg, Karin; Sun, Kai; Supple, David; Szentkereszty, Marton; Tamasi, Lilla; Tariq, Kamran; Thörngren, John-Olof; Thornton, Bob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Valente, Salvatore; van, Aalderen Wim; van de Pol, Marianne; van, Drunen Kees; van, Geest Marleen; Versnel, Jenny; Vestbo, Jorgen; Vink, Anton; Vissing, Nadja; von, Garnier Christophe; Wagener, Ariane; Wagers, Scott; Wald, Frans; Walker, Samantha; Ward, Jonathan; Weiszhart, Zsoka; Wetzel, Kristiane; Wheelock, Craig E.; Wiegman, Coen; Williams, Siân; Wilson, Susan J.; Woodcock, Ashley; Yang, Xian; Yeyasingham, Elizabeth; Yu, Wen; Zetterquist, Wilhelm; Zwinderman, Koos

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a disease of varying severity and differing disease mechanisms. To date, studies aimed at stratifying asthma into clinically useful phenotypes have produced a number of phenotypes that have yet to be assessed for stability and to be validated in independent cohorts. The aim of this study

  1. Social Media Addiction Scale-Student Form: The Reliability and Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cengiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to determine the social media addictions of secondary school, high school and university students. 998 students participated in the study. 476 students from secondary schools, high schools and universities participated in the first application during which the…

  2. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  3. A Study of Validity and Reliability on the Instructional Capacity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Mehmet Tufan; Eres, Figen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool that can determine the instructional capacity, according to teacher opinions. In the academic year of 2016-2017, 1011 teachers working in the public high schools and vocational technical schools in Ankara participated in the study. The total number of items on the scale was…

  4. Using a single question to assess physical activity in older adults: a reliability and validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Dawn P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-item physical activity questions provide a quick approximation of physical activity levels. While recall questionnaires provide a more detailed picture of an individual's level of physical activity, single-item questions may be more appropriate in certain situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate two single-item physical activity questions (one absolute question and one relative question for test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, in a sample of older adults. Methods Data was obtained from the Project to Prevent Falls in Veterans, a fall risk-factor screening and modification trial. One question measured absolute physical activity (seldom, moderately, vigorously active and one measured relative physical activity (more, about as, less active than peers. Test-retest reliability was examined using weighted Kappa statistics (κ in a sample of 43 subjects. Validity was assessed using correlation coefficients (r in participants who received clinical assessments (n = 159. Results The absolute physical activity question was more reliable than the relative physical activity question (κ = 0.75 vs. κ = 0.56. Convergent validity, however, was stronger for the relative physical activity question (r = 0.28 to 0.57 vs. r = 0.10 to 0.33. Discriminant validity was similar for both questions. For the relative physical activity question, there was moderate agreement when this question was re-administered seven days later, fair to moderate/good associations when compared with indicators of physical function, and little to no associations when compared with measures hypothesized to be theoretically not related to physical activity. Conclusions The relative physical activity question had the best combination of test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity. In studies requiring a measure of physical activity, where physical activity is not the primary focus and more

  5. A pilot study to validate measures of the theory of reasoned action for organ donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung; Chow, Amy Yin Man

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed at taking the first attempt in validating the measures generated based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A total of 211 university students participated in the study, 95 were included in the exploratory factor analysis and 116 were included in the confirmatory factor analysis. The TRA measurements were established with adequate psychometric properties, internal consistency, and construct validity. Findings also suggested that attitude toward organ donation has both a cognitive and affective nature, while the subjective norm of the family seems to be important to students' views on organ donation.

  6. Can relaxation interventions reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiotherapy? outcomes and study validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elith, C.A.; Perkins, B.A.; Johnson, L.S.; Skelly, M.H.; Dempsey, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study piloted the use of three relaxation interventions in an attempt to reduce levels of anxiety in patients who are immobilised for radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers, as well as trying to validate the study methodology. In addition to receiving normal radiation therapy treatment, 14 patients were assigned to either a control group not receiving the relaxation intervention or one of three validated relaxation intervention techniques; music therapy, aromatherapy or guided imagery. Patients in the intervention groups underwent the relaxation technique daily for the first seven days of treatment. On days 1, 3, 5 and 7 of treatment patients were required to complete the State Anxiety Inventory survey. While caution should be taken in accepting the results due to the small numbers of patients involved in the study and the non-randomised assignment of patients within the study, the results of the study demonstrate a clinically significant reduction in anxiety levels in each of the three relaxation interventions compared to the control group. The study demonstrated good study validity due to the ease of implementation, the unambiguous results generated, and the use of already validated anxiety intersections and measurement tools. Copyright (2001) Australian Institute of Radiography

  7. Structural refinement and prediction of potential CCR2 antagonists through validated multi-QSAR modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sk Abdul; Adhikari, Nilanjan; Baidya, Sandip Kumar; Gayen, Shovanlal; Jha, Tarun

    2018-01-03

    Chemokines trigger numerous inflammatory responses and modulate the immune system. The interaction between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) may be the cause of atherosclerosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. However, CCR2 is also implicated in other inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and neuropathic pain. Therefore, there is a paramount importance of designing potent and selective CCR2 antagonists despite a number of drug candidates failed in clinical trials. In this article, 83 CCR2 antagonists by Jhonson and Jhonson Pharmaceuticals have been considered for robust validated multi-QSAR modeling studies to get an idea about the structural and pharmacophoric requirements for designing more potent CCR2 antagonists. All these QSAR models were validated and statistically reliable. Observations resulted from different modeling studies correlated and validated results of other ones. Finally, depending on these QSAR observations, some new molecules were proposed that may exhibit higher activity against CCR2.

  8. A study on construction, validation and determination of normalization of adolescents depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to construct, to validate and to determine normalization factors associated with adolescents depression scale. The study is performed among 750 randomly selected guided and high school students, 364 male and 386 female, who live in city of Zanjan, Iran. Validity of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS and divergence validity of the Coopersmith self- esteem coefficients are 0.72, 0.37 and -0.71, respectively. Result suggests that adolescents’ depression test is a reliable and valid tool for assessing depression, with utility in both research and clinical settings, counseling centers. In addition, the results of correlation test indicate there are some meaningful differences between depression levels of female and male students. In fact, our survey indicates that female students have more depression than male students do (F-value = 33.06, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there are some meaningful differences between depression levels in various educational levels (F-value = 8.59, Sig. = 0.000. However, the study does not find sufficient evidence to believe there is any meaningful correlation between educational backgrounds and gender.

  9. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The short form endometriosis health profile (EHP-5: translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasebi Azita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-5 is a valid instrument to measure health-related quality of life in endometriosis. This study was conducted to culturally adapt and validate the EHP-5 in Iran. Methods Using a standard "forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language. Then a sample of 199 women aged 18-50 years completed the questionnaire. To test reliability the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was evaluated using known groups comparison. Results The mean age of respondents was 31.4 (SD = 5.4 years. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory result (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.71. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in infertility and premenstrual syndrome (PMS in the expected direction. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EHP-5 proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of quality of life in endometriosis patients.

  11. Validity of Self-Reported Periodontal Status in the Florida Dental Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Litaker, Mark S

    2007-07-01

    Our objectives were to assess the validity of self-reported periodontal status by quantifying the 1) concordance between self-reported and clinical status at baseline; and 2) validity using a multivariable regression of self-reported periodontal status and sociodemographic status. The Florida Dental Care Study was a prospective study that used a population-based, stratified random sample of 873 persons in four counties of north Florida who were ≥45 years of age at baseline. Analyses used baseline data derived from in-person interviews and clinical periodontal examinations. Multivariable logistic regressions were done to quantify the relationships between the outcome (clinically determined periodontal attachment level) and predictors (self-reported dental symptoms, self-reported dental behaviors, sociodemographic circumstances, and clinically determined number of remaining teeth). Self-rated "gum" health and presence of a loose tooth were the only periodontal measures that were associated significantly with clinically determined periodontal status in multivariable regressions. The validity of self-reported periodontal status improved when the threshold of severity was increased. Significant racial differences in the validity of self-reports were evident. Self-reported measures of periodontal status were related to clinically measured periodontal attachment loss and warranted classifying their validity as "moderate" and useful for some circumstances. © 2007 American Academy of Periodontology.

  12. Initial Studies of Validity of the Sensory Processing 3-Dimensions Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Shelley; Schoen, Sarah; Miller, Lucy; Valdez, Andrea; Wiggins, Aryanna; Hartford, Brianna; Rixon, Amy

    2018-02-21

    This study examined the validity of a new measure of sensory processing for children, the Sensory Processing 3-Dimensions Scale (SP-3D). The SP-3D is a performance-based measure for children ages three to thirteen years, designed to assess sensory processing abilities, and identify the three patterns of sensory processing disorder (SPD) and related subtypes, including sensory modulation, sensory discrimination, and sensory-based motor disorders. Age trends were explored using descriptive statistics and graphing techniques with a sample of children with and without SPD. SP-3D scores were correlated with scores from the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to examine criterion-related validity. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing SP-3D scores from children with and without SPD. Age trends of SP-3D scores supported sensory discrimination, praxis and postural functions as developmental constructs. Several mild to moderate correlations were found between the scores of the SP-3D and the SPM, indicating that the tools are measuring similar constructs, and supporting the SP-3D as a measure of sensory processing. Modulation and Motor Behavior Scores from the SP-3D discriminated typically developing children from those with SPD, while results from subtests measuring sensory discrimination, postural and praxis were mixed regarding capacity for discrimination suggesting revision to several items. The study provides preliminary evidence of the SP-3D as a valid measure of sensory processing abilities and dysfunction. Further research regarding the reliability and validity of the SP-3D are needed.

  13. Primary care COPD patients compared with large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies: an UNLOCK validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Ställberg, Björn; Jones, Rupert C M; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Lisspers, Karin; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Jan Willem H; Chavannes, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS). There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. We aimed to evaluate the external validity of six LPCS (ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT, ECLIPSE, POET-COPD) on which current guidelines are based, in relation to primary care COPD patients, in order to inform future clinical practice guidelines and trials. Baseline data of seven primary care databases (n=3508) from Europe were compared to baseline data of the LPCS. In addition, we examined the proportion of primary care patients eligible to participate in the LPCS, based on inclusion criteria. Overall, patients included in the LPCS were younger (mean difference (MD)-2.4; p=0.03), predominantly male (MD 12.4; p=0.1) with worse lung function (FEV1% MD -16.4; pTRISTAN) to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT). Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. More research is needed to determine the effect of pharmacological treatment in mild to moderate patients. We encourage future guideline makers to involve primary care populations in their recommendations.

  14. A Study of the Validity of English Language Testing at the Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Mohammad Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Validity is considered to be of paramount importance in language testing, and therefore, remains the central concept to all designs and research activities in the field of testing and assessment. Arguably, all researches in language testing are in some senses about validity and the process of validation. In this regard, it is the intent of the present research to investigate the validity of the English language tests employed at the Higher Secondary level in Bangladesh. The research questions addressed concern finding out whether the tests are valid in terms of content and construct. The tests administered at this level are ‘achievement tests’, designed to measure the extent of learning in a prescribed content domain in accordance with explicitly stated objectives of a learning program. The first objective of the study is, therefore, to examine how far the course objectives are reflected in the contents of the existing tests. Secondly, the study makes an assessment of how well these tests measure the abilities they are intended to measure. The findings reveal a great mismatch between what the tests aim at testing and what they actually test. A wide gap is found between the curriculum goals and the existing test format. The study also finds that the Higher Secondary language tests are largely unable to measure the constructs they are based on. The key recommendations to increase the content and construct validity of these tests  include developing  test specifications and designing syllabus in accordance with  course objectives, using direct tests and authentic tasks, sampling widely and unpredictably, arranging  training programs for the language teachers, etc.

  15. Assessment of the nursing care product (APROCENF: a reliability and construct validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabiana Cucolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the reliability and construct validity estimates of the "Assessment of nursing care product" scale (APROCENF and its applicability. Methods: this validation study included a sample of 40 (inter-rater reliability and 172 (construct validity assessments performed by nurses at the end of the work shift at nine inpatient services of a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Southeast. The data were collected between February and September/2014 with interruptions. Cronbach's alpha and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated, as well as the intraclass correlation and the weighted kappa index (inter-rater reliability. Exploratory factor analysis was used with principal component extraction and varimax rotation (construct validity. Results: the internal consistency revealed an alpha coefficient of 0.85, item-item correlation ranging between 0.13 and 0.61 and item-total correlation between 0.43 and 0.69. Inter-rater equivalence was obtained and all items evidenced significant factor loadings. Conclusion: this research evidenced the reliability and construct validity of the scale to assess the nursing care product. Its application in nursing practice permits identifying improvements needed in the production process, contributing to management and care decisions.

  16. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire used in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Kristoffersen, Lars; Ladelund, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Inter99 food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) compared with a 28-days' diet history and biomarkers. SUBJECTS: A random sample of 13 016 individuals were drawn from a general population and invited for a health screening programme. Participation rate was 52.......5%. All high-risk individuals were re-invited for assessment after 1 and 3 years and completed a 198-item FFQ at all three occasions. Participants attending for 3 years follow-up were invited to participate in the validation study, including a 28-days' diet history, a 24-h urine collection and a fasting...

  17. Extended Validation Study of the Thinking and Creative Style Scale: Development of a Shorter Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are several measures of cognition and creative styles, however few of them are valid and short enough to be administered in different settings. Therefore, this study had two purposes: to reanalyze and obtain validity evidence of the Scale of Thinking and Creative Scale (STCS, developed by Wechsler, measuring five styles, based on a progression of increasingly rigorous exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic procedures, and (b to provide a viable psychometrically sound short version of this scale. Based on a sample of 1,752 Brazilians (55% women; ages 14 to 70 living in four states (93% from Sao Paulo, results strongly supported five dimensions of thinking and creative style, thus indicating the validity and reliability of the abridged STCS version.

  18. Assistive technology for visually impaired women for use of the female condom: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Duarte Wanderley Cavalcante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To validate assistive technology for visually impaired women to learn how to use the female condom. METHOD a methodological development study conducted on a web page, with data collection between May and October 2012. Participants were 14 judges; seven judges in sexual and reproductive health (1st stage and seven in special education (2nd stage. RESULTS All items have reached the adopted parameter of 70% agreement. In Stage 1 new materials were added to represent the cervix, and instructions that must be heard twice were included in the 2nd stage. CONCLUSION The technology has been validated and is appropriate for its objectives, structure / presentation and relevance. It is an innovative, low cost and valid instrument for promoting health and one which may help women with visual disabilities to use the female condom.

  19. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  20. A predictive validity study of the Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ) using multiple, specific learning criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, F.R.; Boekholt, L.; den Rooyen, C.; van der Flier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple and specific learning criteria were used to examine the predictive validity of the Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ). Ninety-nine students in a college of higher learning in The Netherlands participated in a naturally occurring field study. The students were categorized into one of four

  1. Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Ter Kuile, M.; Dankelman, J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to adapt and validate a patient safety (PS) framework for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as a first step in understanding the clinical relevance of various PS risk factors in MIS. Eight patient safety risk factor domains were identified using frameworks from a systems

  2. Slicing the Attitude Pie: A Validity and Reliability Study of a New Attitude Assessment Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James T.; Cappella, Joseph N.

    This paper introduces a new measure of attitude, the "attitude pie," which attempts to separate true neutrality from degree of indifference while providing an evaluation score on the issue being judged. A large reliability-validity study involving ten attitude traits, four different methods, and over one hundred subjects at three different times…

  3. Open and Distance Education Accreditation Standards Scale: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertug

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop, and test the validity and reliability of a scale for the use of researchers to determine the accreditation standards of open and distance education based on the views of administrators, teachers, staff and students. This research was designed according to the general descriptive survey model since it aims…

  4. fMRI analysis for motor paradigms using EMG-based designs: a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Renken, Remco; de Jong, Bauke M.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present validation study is to show that continuous surface EMG recorded simultaneously with 3T fMRI can be used to identify local brain activity related to (1) motor tasks, and to (2) muscle activity independently of a specific motor task, i.e. spontaneous (abnormal) movements. Five

  5. FMRl analysis for motor paradigms using EMG-Based designs : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Renken, Remco; De Jong, Bauke M.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present validation study is to show that continuous surface EMG recorded simultaneously with 3T fMRI can be used to identify local brain activity related to (1) motor tasks, and to (2) muscle activity independently of a specific motor task, i.e. spontaneous (abnormal) movements. Five

  6. Measuring patient-centredness, the neglected outcome in fertility care: A random multicentre validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.W.H. van Empel; J.W.M. Aarts (Johanna); B.J. Cohlen (Ben); D.A. Huppelschoten (Dana); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); W.L.D.M. Nelen (Willianne); J.A.M. Kremer

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: High-quality fertility care should be effective and safe, but also patient-centred. However, a suitable instrument for measuring patient-centredness is lacking. This study aims to develop and validate an instrument that can reliably measure patient-centredness in fertility

  7. Measuring patient-centredness, the neglected outcome in fertility care: a random multicentre validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empel, I.W.H. van; Aarts, J.W.M.; Cohlen, B.J.; Huppelschoten, D.; Laven, J.S.E.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-quality fertility care should be effective and safe, but also patient-centred. However, a suitable instrument for measuring patient-centredness is lacking. This study aims to develop and validate an instrument that can reliably measure patient-centredness in fertility care:

  8. A meta-analysis of published studies concerning the validity of thoracic impedance cardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, E.; Faes, T.J.C.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Goovaerts, H.G.; Heethaar, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To provide a meta-analysis of current literature concerning the validation of thoracic impedance cardiography (TIC) and to explain the variations in the reported results from the differences in the studies. Data Sources: A computer-assisted search of English-language, German, and Dutch

  9. Validating the Interpretations of PISA and TIMSS Tasks: A Rating Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Baumeister, Antonia E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Scholastic tests regard cognitive abilities to be domain-specific competences. However, high correlations between competences indicate either high task similarity or a dependence on common factors. The present rating study examined the validity of 12 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and Third or Trends in International…

  10. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  11. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  12. Study of the Validity and Reliability of a Self-Efficacy Scale of Teaching Material Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale in order to detect the level of pre-service teachers' utilization from teaching materials based on their perception of self-efficacy. The sample group is composed of 439 students for the first application and 215 students for the second. In order to detect the validity of the scale, exploratory…

  13. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  14. Coding Conversation between Intimates: A Validation Study of the Intimate Negotiation Coding System (INCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    A study was conducted to test the reliability and validity of the Intimate Coding System (INCS)--an instrument designed to code verbal conversation in intimate relationships. Subjects, 34 married couples, completed Spanier's Dyadic Adjustment Scale, which elicited information about relational adjustment and satisfaction in intimate couples in…

  15. Validation study of automatically generated codes in colonoscopy using the endoscopic report system Endobase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, Marcel J. M.; van Buuren, Henk R.; van Berge Henegouwen, Gerard P.; Fockens, Paul; van der Lei, Johan; Stuifbergen, Wouter N. H. M.; van der Schaar, Peter J.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Ouwendijk, Rob J. Th

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal endoscopy databases are important for surveillance, epidemiology, quality control and research. A good quality of automatically generated databases to enable drawing justified conclusions based on the data is of key importance. The aim of this study is to validate the

  16. Development of a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, A.; Raphael, K.G.; Glaros, A.; Axelsson, S.; Arima, T.; Ernberg, M.; Farella, M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Manfredini, D.; Michelotti, A.; Svensson, P.; List, T.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. METHODS: Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity

  17. Test of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and a short wheelie test : a feasibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Van der Woude, Lucas Hv; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and validity of both the Test of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and a wheelie test. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: KU Leuven gymnasium. Subjects: Thirty male manual wheelchair users (age range 23-53 years) with spinal cord injury. Interventions: Participants

  18. National perinatal audit, a feasible initiative for the Netherlands!? A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diem, Mariet; De Reu, Paul; Eskes, Martine; Brouwers, Hens; Holleboom, Cas; Slagter-Roukema, Tineke; Merkus, Hans

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of a national perinatal audit organization. Design. Validation study. Setting. Three regions in the Netherlands. Population. 228 cases of perinatal mortality. Methods. Narratives of perinatal mortality cases were assessed by a panel of representatives of all

  19. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy for Longitudinal Studies of Carotid Plaque Development in Mice: Validation with Histological Endpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmon, Erin Y.; Fronhofer, Van; Keller, Rebecca S.; Feustel, Paul J.; Brosnan, M. Julia; von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Loegering, Daniel J.; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is responsible for the death of thousands of Americans each year. The carotid constriction model of plaque development has recently been presented as a model for unstable plaque formation in mice. In this study we 1) validate ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) for the determination of

  20. A Cross-Cultural Validation Study of the "Language Learning Strategy Scale" and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jane; Chen, Yih-Lan E.; Walker, Brenda

    The underlying factor structure of the Language Learning Strategy Scale (LLSS) (Y. Chen, 2001) was examined to determine its consistency across 2 distinct cultures. Variables that affected students' language learning were also identified. The validation study for the LLSS suggested a three-factor model of functional strategies, deep-processing…

  1. Validation study of linear distance measurements from CT scans using a multiplanar reformatting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, R.J.; Roberts, D.; Lotufo, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The work reported here is a validation study of linear distance measurements based on images obtained from CT scanners and post-processed by an off-line multiplanar-reformatting system. It discusses some of the problems and shows how such a system can yield more accurate measurements than utilizing just the scanner console. (author)

  2. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : A validation study of an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; van Dijk, AJ; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Kinebanian, A

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  3. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: a validation study of an observational method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Dijk, A.J. van; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  4. Korean Version of the painDETECT Questionnaire: A Study for Cultural Adaptation and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jun Kyung; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Jeong, Jinyoung; Kim, Won-Joong; Lee, Da Jeong; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yong-Chul; Moon, Jee Youn

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the painDETECT Questionnaire (PD-Q) into a Korean version (KPD-Q) and validate it. A single-center prospective observational study was performed. During the first phase of the study, linguistic adaptation was carried out to develop the KPD-Q. During the second phase of the study, feasibility, internal consistency, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were assessed for psychometric validation of the KPD-Q. A total of 232 patients participated. Among them, 82 patients (35%) were classified in the neuropathic pain (NeP) group, 80 (34%) in the nociceptive pain group, and 70 (30%) in the mixed pain group. Regarding the reliability of the KPD-Q, internal consistency for the whole scale was 0.804, as evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Pearson's correlation between the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs scale and the KPD-Q scores was positive and statistically significant (r = 0.74, P international clinical research. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  5. 40 CFR 152.92 - Submission of a new valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of a new valid study. 152.92 Section 152.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data...

  6. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  7. A Clinical Validation of Self-Reported Periodontitis Among Participants in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brenda; Gordon, Nicholas B; Garcia, Raul I; Rosenberg, Lynn; Rich, Sharron; Fox, Matthew P; Cozier, Yvette C

    2017-06-01

    There is a paucity of data on the validity of self-report of periodontal disease in African Americans. The Black Women's Health Study (BWHS), a United States national cohort study of 59,000 black women followed via mailed questionnaires since 1995, offered the opportunity to clinically validate self-reported periodontitis among a sample of participants. Oral health questionnaires were sent to study participants residing in Massachusetts. Respondents living in the Boston metro area were invited for clinical examination. Self-reports were compared with clinical data obtained from the 77 women (mean age: 59 years) who were examined. The authors examined the predictive ability of individual and combined questionnaire items with respect to clinical periodontal disease severity. Validation parameters were calculated for each question, and receiver operating characteristic statistics were generated to compare questionnaire items. Periodontitis prevalence in the validation sample was 24% for severe periodontitis and 61% for moderate disease. Performance of individual questionnaire items with respect to predicting periodontitis was better for severe compared with moderate disease. Combinations of questionnaire items improved the predictive ability with respect to severe disease beyond that of individual questionnaire items. Prevalence of severe periodontitis was similar to other age-comparable populations, without regard for race or sex, whereas prevalence of total periodontitis (moderate and severe) among women of similar age and/or race was much higher. Predictive ability of questionnaire items assessed in the BWHS was similar to that in other studies.

  8. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  9. Implicit structural inversion of gravity data using linear programming, a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, A.T. van; Roy Chowdhury, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a regional scale gravity data set has been inverted to infer the structure (topography) of the top of the basement underlying sub-horizontal strata. We apply our method to this real data set for further proof of concept, validation and benchmarking against results from an earlier

  10. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  11. Validity of self-report of lipid medication use: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskara, Sahiti; Whitsel, Eric A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-reported lipid medication use in an epidemiological study. We studied medication self-reports compared with inventoried lipid medication containers at the fifth visit of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in 2011-2013 (n = 6370). To assess the validity of self-reports, we computed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. We used multiple logistic regression to determine whether validity varied by participant characteristics. Comparisons were made with visit 4 (n = 11,531), to determine if there was a change in validity as the pattern and types of lipid medication used changed over time. The prevalence of lipid medication use, according to medication containers was higher at visit 5 (56%) than visit 4 (14.3%). Statins were increasingly used. The percentage of participants reporting use/non-use accurately was 91.8% at visit 5, lower than visit 4 (97.3%). The unadjusted kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.83 (95% CI - 0.82 to 0.85) at visit 5 and 0.89 (95% CI - 0.88 to 0.90) at visit 4. Agreement was higher, compared with their counterparts, for women, younger and more educated participants, and those using fewer total medications. In this population sample, self-reported lipid medication use was highly accurate and therefore likely would be for similar epidemiological studies or clinical settings collecting this information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice.

  13. Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.; Schneider, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the construct validity and antecedents and consequences of the political skill construct. Design...

  14. Developing a Science Process Skills Test for Secondary Students: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzioglu, Burak; Demirdag, Baris; Akyildiz, Murat; Altun, Eralp

    2012-01-01

    Science process skills are claimed to enable an individual to improve their own life visions and give a scientific view/literacy as a standard of their understanding about the nature of science. The main purpose of this study was to develop a test for measuring a valid, reliable and practical test for Science Process Skills (SPS) in secondary…

  15. [Validation and reliability study of the parent concerns about surgery questionnaire: What worries parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés Muriel, Alberto; Campos Segovia, Ana; Ríos Gómez, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The study of mediating variables and psychological responses to child surgery involves the evaluation of both the patient and the parents as regards different stressors. To have a reliable and reproducible valid evaluation tool that assesses the level of paternal involvement in relation to different stressors in the setting of surgery. A self-report questionnaire study was completed by 123 subjects of both sexes, subdivided into 2populations, due to their relationship with the hospital setting. The items were determined by a group of experts and analysed using the Lawshe validity index to determine a first validity of content. Subsequently, the reliability of the tool was determined by an item-re-item analysis of the 2sub-populations. A factorial analysis was performed to analyse the construct validity with the maximum likelihood and rotation of varimax type factors. A questionnaire of paternal concern was offered, consisting of 21 items with a Cronbach coefficient of 0.97, giving good precision and stability. The posterior factor analysis gives an adequate validity to the questionnaire, with the determination of 10 common stressors that cover 74.08% of the common and non-common variance of the questionnaire. The proposed questionnaire is reliable, valid and easy-to-apply and is developed to assess the level of paternal concern about the surgery of a child and to be able to apply measures and programs through the prior assessment of these elements. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary care COPD patients compared with large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies: an UNLOCK validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarije L Kruis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS. There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in primary care. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the external validity of six LPCS (ISOLDE, TRISTAN, TORCH, UPLIFT, ECLIPSE, POET-COPD on which current guidelines are based, in relation to primary care COPD patients, in order to inform future clinical practice guidelines and trials. METHODS: Baseline data of seven primary care databases (n=3508 from Europe were compared to baseline data of the LPCS. In addition, we examined the proportion of primary care patients eligible to participate in the LPCS, based on inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Overall, patients included in the LPCS were younger (mean difference (MD-2.4; p=0.03, predominantly male (MD 12.4; p=0.1 with worse lung function (FEV1% MD -16.4; p<0.01 and worse quality of life scores (SGRQ MD 15.8; p=0.01. There were large differences in GOLD stage distribution compared to primary care patients. Mean exacerbation rates were higher in LPCS, with an overrepresentation of patients with ≥ 1 and ≥ 2 exacerbations, although results were not statistically significant. Our findings add to the literature, as we revealed hitherto unknown GOLD I exacerbation characteristics, showing 34% of mild patients had ≥ 1 exacerbations per year and 12% had ≥ 2 exacerbations per year. The proportion of primary care patients eligible for inclusion in LPCS ranged from 17% (TRISTAN to 42% (ECLIPSE, UPLIFT. CONCLUSION: Primary care COPD patients stand out from patients enrolled in LPCS in terms of gender, lung function, quality of life and exacerbations. More research is needed to determine the effect of pharmacological treatment in mild to moderate patients. We encourage future guideline makers to involve primary care

  17. The relation between computerized and paper-and-pencil mental rotation tasks: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Butler, Tracy; Cordero, Juan; Brake, Brandy; Silbersweig, David; Stern, Emily; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2006-08-01

    The present study aimed at validating a computerized mental rotation task developed for use in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies. Eighty-three females and 74 males completed the computerized task, two pencil-and-paper tests of mental rotation, and reported their high school grades in mathematics, English, and history. The computerized task involved the presentation of pairs of three-dimensional stimuli that differed in orientation by 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 degrees. Results showed significant gender differences in favor of males in the three main tasks, although gender interacted with angle of rotation in the computerized task. Evidence for concurrent validity was obtained in the form of significant correlations between performance on tasks relevant to mental rotation (paper and pencil tests and mathematics grades), whereas discriminant validity was demonstrated by a lack of correlation with tasks deemed irrelevant to mental rotation (English and history grades). These findings support the use of our computerized mental rotation task as a valid measure of mental rotation abilities in fMRI studies.

  18. Phd study of reliability and validity: One step closer to a standardized music therapy assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    The paper will present a phd study concerning reliability and validity of music therapy assessment model “Assessment of Parenting Competences” (APC) in the area of families with emotionally neglected children. This study had a multiple strategy design with a philosophical base of critical realism...... and pragmatism. The fixed design for this study was a between and within groups design in testing the APCs reliability and validity. The two different groups were parents with neglected children and parents with non-neglected children. The flexible design had a multiple case study strategy specifically...... with interplay of turns between parent and child as the case under study comparing clinical and non-clinical groups and looking for differences in patterns of interaction. The flexible design informed the fixed design and led to further valuable statistical analysis. The presenter will provide an overview...

  19. Measurement of predictive validity in violence risk assessment studies: a second-order systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay P; Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present review was to examine how predictive validity is analyzed and reported in studies of instruments used to assess violence risk. We reviewed 47 predictive validity studies published between 1990 and 2011 of 25 instruments that were included in two recent systematic reviews. Although all studies reported receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and the area under the curve (AUC) performance indicator, this methodology was defined inconsistently and findings often were misinterpreted. In addition, there was between-study variation in benchmarks used to determine whether AUCs were small, moderate, or large in magnitude. Though virtually all of the included instruments were designed to produce categorical estimates of risk - through the use of either actuarial risk bins or structured professional judgments - only a minority of studies calculated performance indicators for these categorical estimates. In addition to AUCs, other performance indicators, such as correlation coefficients, were reported in 60% of studies, but were infrequently defined or interpreted. An investigation of sources of heterogeneity did not reveal significant variation in reporting practices as a function of risk assessment approach (actuarial vs. structured professional judgment), study authorship, geographic location, type of journal (general vs. specialized audience), sample size, or year of publication. Findings suggest a need for standardization of predictive validity reporting to improve comparison across studies and instruments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Expert validation of a teamwork assessment rubric: A modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M; Hutchinson, Marie; Lohmann, Gui; Hastie, Carolyn R; Chaseling, Marilyn; O'Brien, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork is a 'soft skill' employability competence desired by employers. Poor teamwork skills in healthcare have an impact on adverse outcomes. Teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate courses. The TeamUP Rubric is a tool used to teach and evaluate undergraduate students' teamwork skills. Students also use the rubric to give anonymised peer feedback during team-based academic assignments. The rubric's five domains focus on planning, environment, facilitation, conflict management and individual contribution; each domain is grounded in relevant theory. Students earn marks for their teamwork skills; validity of the assessment rubric is critical. To what extent do experts agree that the TeamUP Rubric is a valid assessment of 'teamwork skills'? Modified Delphi technique incorporating Feminist Collaborative Conversations. A heterogeneous panel of 35 professionals with recognised expertise in communications and/or teamwork. Three Delphi rounds using a survey that included the rubric were conducted either face-to-face, by telephone or online. Quantitative analysis yielded item content validity indices (I-CVI); minimum consensus was pre-set at 70%. An average of the I-CVI also yielded sub-scale (domain) (D-CVI/Ave) and scale content validity indices (S-CVI/Ave). After each Delphi round, qualitative data were analysed and interpreted; Feminist Collaborative Conversations by the research team aimed to clarify and confirm consensus about the wording of items on the rubric. Consensus (at 70%) was obtained for all but one behavioural descriptor of the rubric. We modified that descriptor to address expert concerns. The TeamUP Rubric (Version 4) can be considered to be well validated at that level of consensus. The final rubric reflects underpinning theory, with no areas of conceptual overlap between rubric domains. The final TeamUP Rubric arising from this study validly measures individual student teamwork skills and can be used with

  1. [Reliability and validity studies of Turkish translation of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gülay; Yorulmaz, Orçun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and the validity of the Turkish translation of the Eysneck Personality Questionnaire Revised-abbreviated Form (EPQR-A) (Francis et al., 1992), which consists of 24 items that assess neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lying. The questionnaire was first translated into Turkish and then back translated. Subsequently, it was administered to 756 students from 4 different universities. The Fear Survey Inventory-III (FSI-III), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scales (RSES), and Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran (EMBU-C) were also administered in order to assess the questionnaire's validity. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity were subsequently evaluated. Factor analysis, similar to the original scale, yielded 4 factors; the neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and lie scales. Kuder-Richardson alpha coefficients for the extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie scales were 0.78, 0.65, 0.42, and 0.64, respectively, and the test-retest reliability of the scales was 0.84, 0.82, 0.69, and 0.69, respectively. The relationships between EPQR-A-48, FSI-III, EMBU-C, and RSES were examined in order to evaluate the construct validity of the scale. Our findings support the construct validity of the questionnaire. To investigate gender differences in scores on the subscales, MANOVA was conducted. The results indicated that there was a gender difference only in the lie scale scores. Our findings largely supported the reliability and validity of the questionnaire in a Turkish student sample. The psychometric characteristics of the Turkish version of the EPQR-A were discussed in light of the relevant literature.

  2. Measuring leprosy-related stigma - a pilot study to validate a toolkit of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Carin; Bandyopadhyay, Sudhakar; Gopal, Pala K; Van Brakel, Wim H

    2011-01-01

    Stigma negatively affects the quality of life of leprosy-affected people. Instruments are needed to assess levels of stigma and to monitor and evaluate stigma reduction interventions. We conducted a validation study of such instruments in Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, India. Four instruments were tested in a 'Community Based Rehabilitation' (CBR) setting, the Participation Scale, Internalised Scale of Mental Illness (ISMI) adapted for leprosy-affected persons, Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) for leprosy-affected and non-affected persons and the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale. We evaluated the following components of validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility and reliability to distinguish between groups. Construct validity was tested by correlating instrument scores and by triangulating quantitative and qualitative findings. Reliability was evaluated by comparing levels of stigma among people affected by leprosy and community controls, and among affected people living in CBR project areas and those in non-CBR areas. For the Participation, ISMI and EMIC scores significant differences were observed between those affected by leprosy and those not affected (p = 0.0001), and between affected persons in the CBR and Control group (p < 0.05). The internal consistency of the instruments measured with Cronbach's α ranged from 0.83 to 0.96 and was very good for all instruments. Test-retest reproducibility coefficients were 0.80 for the Participation score, 0.70 for the EMIC score, 0.62 for the ISMI score and 0.50 for the GSE score. The construct validity of all instruments was confirmed. The Participation and EMIC Scales met all validity criteria, but test-retest reproducibility of the ISMI and GSE Scales needs further evaluation with a shorter test-retest interval and longer training and additional adaptations for the latter.

  3. Concurrent validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI): a study of African American precollege students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Lamont A; Bridges, Brian K; Moore III, James L

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent validation procedures were employed, using a sample of African American precollege students, to determine the extent to which scale scores obtained from the first edition of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) were appropriate for diagnostic purposes. Data analysis revealed that 2 of the 10 LASSI scales (i.e., Anxiety and Test Strategies) significantly correlated with a measure of academic ability. These results suggested that scores obtained from these LASSI scales may provide valid assessments of African American precollege students’ academic aptitude. Implications for teachers, school counselors, and developmental studies professionals were discussed.

  4. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  5. Instrument development and validation of a quality scale for historical research papers (QSHRP): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacinta; Watson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    To report a pilot study for the development and validation of an instrument to measure quality in historical research papers. There are no set criteria to assess historical papers published in nursing journals. A three phase mixed method sequential confirmatory design. In 2012, we used a three-phase approach to item generation and content evaluation. In phase 1, we consulted nursing historians using an online survey comprising three open-ended questions and revised the items. In phase 2, we evaluated the revised items for relevance with expert historians using a 4-point Likert scale and Content Validity Index calculation. In phase 3, we conducted reliability testing of the instrument using a 3-point Likert scale. In phase 1, 121 responses were generated via the online survey and revised to 40 interrogatively phrased items. In phase 2, five items with an Item Content Validity Index score of ≥0·7 remained. In phase 3, responses from historians resulted in 100% agreement to questions 1, 2 and 4 and 89% and 78%, respectively, to questions 3 and 5. Items for the QSHRP have been identified, content validated and reliability tested. This scale improves on previous scales, which over-emphasized source criticism. However, a full-scale study is needed with nursing historians to increase its robustness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Assessment of motivational interviewing: a qualitative study of response process validity, content validity and feasibility of the motivational interviewing target scheme (MITS) in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberink, Riëtta; Boom, Saskia M; van Dijk, Nynke; Visser, Mechteld R M

    2017-11-21

    The Motivational Interviewing target Scheme (MITS) is an instrument to assess competency in Motivational Interviewing (MI) and can be used to assess MI in long and brief consultations. In this qualitative study we examined two sources of the Unified Model of Validity, the current standard of assessment validation, in the context of General Practice. We collected evidence concerning response process validity and content validity of the MITS in general practice. Furthermore, we investigated its feasibility. Assessing consultations of General Practitioners and GP-trainees (GPs), the assessors systematically noted down their considerations concerning the scoring process and the content of the MITS in a semi-structured questionnaire. Sampling of the GPs was based on maximum variation and data saturation was used as a stopping criterion. An inductive approach was used to analyse the data. In response to scoring problems the score options were adjusted and all consultations were assessed using the original and the adjusted score options. Twenty seven assessments were needed to reach data saturation. In most consultations, the health behaviour was not the reason for encounter but was discussed on top of discussing physical problems. The topic that was most discussed in the consultations was smoking cigarettes. The adjusted score options increased the response process validity; they were more in agreement with theoretical constructs and the observed quality of MI in the consultations. Concerning content validity, we found that the MITS represents the broad spectrum and the current understanding of MI. Furthermore, the MITS proved to be feasible to assess MI in brief consultations in general practice. Based on the collected evidence the MITS seems a promising instrument to measure MI interviewing in brief consultations. The evidence gathered in this study lays the foundation for research into other aspects of validation.

  7. Assessment of motivational interviewing: a qualitative study of response process validity, content validity and feasibility of the motivational interviewing target scheme (MITS in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riëtta Oberink

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Motivational Interviewing target Scheme (MITS is an instrument to assess competency in Motivational Interviewing (MI and can be used to assess MI in long and brief consultations. In this qualitative study we examined two sources of the Unified Model of Validity, the current standard of assessment validation, in the context of General Practice. We collected evidence concerning response process validity and content validity of the MITS in general practice. Furthermore, we investigated its feasibility. Methods Assessing consultations of General Practitioners and GP-trainees (GPs, the assessors systematically noted down their considerations concerning the scoring process and the content of the MITS in a semi-structured questionnaire. Sampling of the GPs was based on maximum variation and data saturation was used as a stopping criterion. An inductive approach was used to analyse the data. In response to scoring problems the score options were adjusted and all consultations were assessed using the original and the adjusted score options. Results Twenty seven assessments were needed to reach data saturation. In most consultations, the health behaviour was not the reason for encounter but was discussed on top of discussing physical problems. The topic that was most discussed in the consultations was smoking cigarettes. The adjusted score options increased the response process validity; they were more in agreement with theoretical constructs and the observed quality of MI in the consultations. Concerning content validity, we found that the MITS represents the broad spectrum and the current understanding of MI. Furthermore, the MITS proved to be feasible to assess MI in brief consultations in general practice. Conclusions Based on the collected evidence the MITS seems a promising instrument to measure MI interviewing in brief consultations. The evidence gathered in this study lays the foundation for research into other aspects of

  8. Validation study of the Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nurit Paz-Baruch

    2015-01-01

    The Actiotope Model of Giftedness regards giftedness as a product of the interaction between the individual and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of the Question-naire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) on 187 primary school students from Israel and to examine whether the educational and learning capitals of the students are associated with general intelligence and academic achievement. In the study correlations were found between social, infrastructur...

  9. A content validity study of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão, Jamilly da Silva; França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier de; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; Sousa, Francisco Stélio de; Batista, Joana D'arc Lyra; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to validate the content of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS for people with deafness Method: methodological development study, which involved 36 people with deafness and three LIBRAS specialists. The study was conducted in three stages: investigation of the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems, referred to by people with deafness, reported in a questionnaire; video recordings of how people with deafness express, through LIBRA, the signs, ...

  10. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: a validation study of an observational method.

    OpenAIRE

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Dijk, A.J. van; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a blouse or shirt. The study was carried out at occupational therapy departments in general hospitals, rehabilitation centres, and nursing homes. Patients diagnosed to have had a stroke in the left h...

  11. Extraction of tumor motion trajectories using PICCS-4DCBCT: A validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Zhihua; Chen Guanghong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As a counterpart of 4DCT in the treatment planning stage of radiotherapy treatment, 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) method has been proposed to verify tumor motion trajectories before radiation therapy treatment delivery. Besides 4DCBCT acquisition using slower gantry rotation speed or multiple rotations, a new method using the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) image reconstruction method and the standard 1-min data acquisition were proposed. In this paper, the PICCS-4DCBCT method was combined with deformable registration to validate its capability in motion trajectory extraction using physical phantom data, simulated human subject data from 4DCT and in vivo human subject data. Methods: Two methods were used to validate PICCS-4DCBCT for the purpose of respiratory motion delineation. The standard 1-min gantry rotation Cone Beam CT acquisition was used for both methods. In the first method, 4DCBCT projection data of a physical motion phantom were acquired using an on-board CBCT acquisition system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Using a deformable registration method, the object motion trajectories were extracted from both FBP and PICCS reconstructed 4DCBCT images, and compared against the programmed motion trajectories. In the second method, using a clinical 4DCT dataset, Cone Beam CT projections were simulated by forward projection. Using a deformable registration method, the tumor motion trajectories were extracted from the reconstructed 4DCT and PICCS-4DCBCT images. The performance of PICCS-4DCBCT is assessed against the 4DCT ground truth. The breathing period was varied in the simulation to study its effect on motion extraction. For both validation methods, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the maximum of the errors (MaxE) were used to quantify the accuracy of the extracted motion trajectories. After the validation, a clinical dataset was used to demonstrate the motion delineation capability of PICCS-4DCBCT for

  12. Pest occurrence model in current climate – validation study for European domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Svobodová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study yields detail validation of the pest occurrence models under current climate in wide European domain. Study organisms involve Cydia pomonella, Lobesia botrana, Ostrinia nubilalis, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Oulema melanopus, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Sitobion avenae. Method used in this study belongs to the category climate matching (CLIMEX model allowing the estimation of areas climatically favourable for species persistence based on the climatic parameters characterising the species development. In the process of model validation parameters were iteratively tested and altered to truly describe the pest presence. The modelled pests presence was verified by comparison of the observed pests occurrence with the number of generations in given modelled area. The notable component of the model parameterization was the sensitivity analyses testing the reaction of species development on changing meteorological items. Parameterization of the factors causing distribution patterns of study species was successful and modelled potential distributions of species correspond well to known core distribution areas for all of these species. This validation study is intended as an initial for forthcoming studies focused on the estimation of geographical shifts of selected pests in the conditions of climate change within the Europe.

  13. Validation studies of the DOE-2 Building Energy Simulation Program. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents many of the validation studies (Table 1) of the DOE-2 building energy analysis simulation program that have taken place since 1981. Results for several versions of the program are presented with the most recent study conducted in 1996 on version DOE-2.1E and the most distant study conducted in 1981 on version DOE-1.3. This work is part of an effort related to continued development of DOE-2, particularly in its use as a simulation engine for new specialized versions of the program such as the recently released RESFEN 3.1. RESFEN 3.1 is a program specifically dealing with analyzing the energy performance of windows in residential buildings. The intent in providing the results of these validation studies is to give potential users of the program a high degree of confidence in the calculated results. Validation studies in which calculated simulation data is compared to measured data have been conducted throughout the development of the DOE-2 program. Discrepancies discovered during the course of such work has resulted in improvements in the simulation algorithms. Table 2 provides a listing of additions and modifications that have been made to various versions of the program since version DOE-2.1A. One of the most significant recent changes in the program occurred with version DOE-2.1E. An improved algorithm for calculating the outside surface film coefficient was implemented. In addition, integration of the WINDOW 4 program was accomplished resulting in improved ability in analyzing window energy performance. Validation and verification of a program as sophisticated as DOE-2 must necessarily be limited because of the approximations inherent in the program. For example, the most accurate model of the heat transfer processes in a building would include a three-dimensional analysis. To justify such detailed algorithmic procedures would correspondingly require detailed information describing the building and/or HVAC system and energy plant parameters

  14. A validation study of new cryopreservation bags for implementation in a blood and marrow transplant laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Gregory J; Wilson, Emily; Isom, Scott; Hurd, David D

    2011-06-01

    A new cryopreservation bag for hematopoietic cell transplantation requires validation as a safe alternative to the bag currently being used in the laboratory. The new bag was validated using both laboratory and clinical criteria. Laboratory validation proceeded using paired samples of mononuclear cells processed using standard procedures. Cells cryopreserved in the new and old bags were compared for viability, cell counts, CD34 enumeration, colony-forming unit assays, and bag integrity. After completion of laboratory investigations, engraftment with the new bags was followed and compared to historical engraftment using the old bags. There were no significant differences between the old and new bags detected using laboratory studies. Bag integrity was equivalent. The validation data suggested impaired cell function after cryopreservation in the new bags, but there were no significant differences in engraftment potential using either material. Days to engraftment was longer using the new bags, but statistical analysis revealed an association with CD34 dose and not with cryopreservation bag type. The new bags were noninferior to the old bags. A change in cryopreservation bag type may appear to affect cell function and potentially affect engraftment. Multiple analyses may be needed to understand the effect of cell processing changes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-12-01

    Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric patients with CD initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Pediatric patients with CD were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodulators, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Most subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared with healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance.

  16. Reliability and validity study of Sino-nasal outcome test 22 (Thai version) in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumyongsatien, Jate; Yangsakul, Waralak; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Hopkins, Claire; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn

    2017-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of common health conditions that affects patients' health-related quality of life. Our purpose is to assess the reliability and validity of Thai-version of Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Permission for translation of SNOT-22 from English language to Thai language was obtained from the developer. The translation process was done based on the international standard of translation method. A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study and divided into two groups comprising of 50 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 30 healthy volunteers. Cronbach's α and Intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated for its reliability. Validity test was evaluated against VAS score, SF-36 (Thai version) questionnaire and CT scan (based on Lund-Mackay score). Responsiveness was assessed between pre-operative and post-operative scores in 34 patients. The Thai version of SNOT-22 showed good reliability according to high value of Cronbach's α coefficient ( r  = 0.929) and intraclass correlation coefficient ( r  = 0.935). It also showed good validity by its ability to differential the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis from normal ( p  reliability and validity, suitable for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms together with severity of the disease and response to treatment. Thai clinical trials registry TCTR20170320003. Date of registration 20/03/2017 (retrospectively registered).

  17. Standardization, Validity and Reliability Study of Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Maviş

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 (GAT-2 has been developed to show the presence of a language disorder ‘aphasia’ and to give the clinician implications for the accompanying speech disorders such as apraxia and dysarthria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report standardization, validity and reliability study of GAT-2. METHODS: : 10 healthy individuals were tested initially for the pilot study. 134 healthy individual was included to the standardization study and 30 individuals with aphasia and 11 individuals with right brain injury was included to the validation study. The inter group GAT-2 score differentiations and the effects of age, years of education, sex variances were observed. GAT-2 cut-off scores were calculated by the scores of healthy individuals. GAT-2 test-retest reliability and inter-observer reliability was calculated. RESULTS: Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were significantly different from the GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients, but not from right brain injured patients’. Healthy individuals’ GAT-2 scores were not affected from the sex, age variances but from years of education, so cut-off scores were calculated by this variance. GAT-2 scores of aphasic patients were not affected from age, sex and years of education. Test-retest and inter-observer reliability and internal consistency results showed that GAT-2 is a highly reliable aphasia screening test. CONCLUSION: GAT-2 was found to be a standardized, highly reliable and a valid aphasia test for Turkish stroke patients with aphasia

  18. Reliability and validity study of Persian modified version of MUSIC (musculoskeletal intervention center – Norrtalje questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Irene

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are a major health problem in the world. Self-reported questionnaires are a known method for estimating the prevalence of MSDs among the population. One of the studies concerning MSDs and their relation to work-related physical and psychosocial factors, as well as non-work-related factors, is the MUSIC-Norrtalje study in Sweden. In this study, the research group developed a questionnaire, which has been validated during its development process and is now considered a well-known instrument. The aim of this study is to validate the Persian version of this questionnaire. Methods The first step was to establish two expert panel groups in Iran and Sweden. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD method was used to detect questionnaire face and content validity. To detect questionnaire reliability, we used the test-retest method. Results Except for two items, all other questions that respondents had problems with in the focus group (20 of 297, had unclear translations; the ambiguity was related to the stem of the questions and the predicted answers were clear for the participants. The concepts of 'household/spare time' and 'physical activity in the workplace' were not understood by the participants of FGD; this has been solved by adding further descriptions to these phrases in the translation. In the test-retest study, the reliability coefficient was relatively high in most items (only 5 items out of 297 had an ICC or kappa below 0.7. Conclusion The findings from the present study provide evidence that the Persian version of the MUSIC questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument.

  19. Reliability and validity study of the Finnish version 2.0 of the oswestry disability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Ylinen, Jari; Salo, Petri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-02-15

    Prospective clinical validation study. The aims of this study were to translate into Finnish and culturally adapt and study the psycho-metric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.0. The ODI is one of the most commonly reported back-specific disability questionnaires. It is widely used both in clinical work and in medical studies. To date, no validated Finnish version of the ODI version 2.0 has been reported. The ODI version 2.0 was translated into the Finnish language. A total of 115 patients with back pain, referred by the primary care physician to the outpatient clinic of the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, were recruited for this study. The patients answered a questionnaire package that included the Finnish ODI 2.0, Back Pain Questionnaire for Visual Analogue Assessment (Million-VAS), Visual Analogue Scales of back and leg pain (VASback, VASleg), the Depressions Scale, and a question on their subjectively perceived health. The package was administered twice; 2 weeks before and at the arrival to the clinic. Reproducibility of the ODI was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-0.94) and the internal consistency was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81-0.90). Factor analysis showed that the ODI was loaded on 2 factors, which explained 51% of the total variance. In testing convergent validity ODI correlated with Million-VAS, r = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.84); VASback, r = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.32-0.62); and VAS leg, r = 0.41 (95% CI = 0.23-0.57). The Finnish ODI version 2.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument that showed psychometric properties comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it can be used in assessing the disability among Finnish-speaking patients with back pain for both clinical and scientific purposes.

  20. Implementation and validation of the condensation model for containment hydrogen distribution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravva, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: srini@aerb.gov.in [Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); NSAD, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); Iyer, Kannan N., E-mail: kiyer@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Gupta, S.K., E-mail: satishkumargupta46@gmail.com [NSAD, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); Gaikwad, Avinash J., E-mail: avinashg@aerb.gov.in [NSAD, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A condensation model based on diffusion was implemented in FLUENT. • Validation of a condensation model for the H{sub 2} distribution studies was performed. • Multi-component diffusion is used in the present work. • Appropriate grid and turbulence model were identified. - Abstract: This paper aims at the implementation details of a condensation model in the CFD code FLUENT and its validation so that it can be used in performing the containment hydrogen distribution studies. In such studies, computational fluid dynamics simulations are necessary for obtaining accurate predictions. While steam condensation plays an important role, commercial CFD codes such as FLUENT do not have an in-built condensation model. Therefore, a condensation model was developed and implemented in the FLUENT code through user defined functions (UDFs) for the sink terms in the mass, momentum, energy and species balance equations together with associated turbulence quantities viz., kinetic energy and dissipation rate. The implemented model was validated against the ISP-47 test of TOSQAN facility using the standard wall functions and enhanced wall treatment approaches. The best suitable grid size and the turbulence model for the low density gas (He) distribution studies are brought out in this paper.

  1. The Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START): A prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebker-White, Anja A; Bein, Kendall J; Dinh, Michael M

    2018-02-08

    The present study aims to prospectively validate the Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START) to predict ED disposition. This was a prospective validation study at two metropolitan EDs in Sydney, Australia. Consecutive triage encounters were observed by a trained researcher and START scores calculated. The primary outcome was patient disposition (discharge or inpatient admission) from the ED. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate area under curve of receiver operator characteristic (AUC ROC) for START scores as well as START score in combination with other variables such as frailty, general practitioner referral, overcrowding and major medical comorbidities. There were 894 patients analysed during the study period. The START score when applied to the data had AUC ROC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.77-0.83). The inclusion of other clinical variables identified at triage did not improve the overall performance of the model with an AUC ROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84) in the present study. The overall performance of the START tool with respect to model discrimination and accuracy has been prospectively validated. Further clinical trials are required to test the clinical effectiveness of the tool in improving patient flow and overall ED performance. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-\\'{a}-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  3. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-a-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  4. CROSS-STUDY RESEARCH ON UTILITY AND VALIDITY OF DRIVING SIMULATOR FOR DRIVER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Matowicki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving is one of the most ordinary and universal everyday tasks and, at the same time, one of the most complex and dangerous. It requires a full range of sensory, perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions, all of which can be affected by a wide range of stressors and experience levels. Therefore, exploring of human behaviour while controlling a vehicle is a crucial task in improving traffic safety. Experimental studies can always be conducted with on-road tests, however, using a simulator is safer and more cost-effective. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate if and under what conditions could a driving simulator provide sufficient results required for a proper study of driver behavior. It discusses its limits and advantages. Overall, the research reviewed in this paper indicates that simulator driving behaviour approximates (relative validity of speed and lateral position of vehicle on road, but does not exactly replicate (absolute validity, on-road driving behaviour.

  5. Translation of the Leisure Satisfaction Scale into French: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, Mary; Brown, G Ted; Rodrigues, Erika; McNally, Julie; Loo, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Few standardized instruments are available for clients who speak languages other than English. The purpose of the study was to present and describe the process of translating an English standardized assessment into another language. Using the translation/validation methodologies described by Haccoun (1987) and Vallerand (1989), the Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS) was translated into French and then statistically validated. All correlations between both language versions of the LSS were found to be significant at the 0.01 level. Confirmatory factor analysis results were positive. Study findings indicate that the Haccoun (1987) and Vallerand (1989) methodologies provide clinicians with another option for ensuring culturally sensitive and relevant evaluations. Further research is needed to globally assess the measurement properties of the French version of this instrument.

  6. Reliability and Validity Study of the Attitude towards Mathematics Instruments Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güney HACIÖMEROĞLU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish form of the Attitude Towards Mathematics Instrument Short Form developed by Lim and Chapman (2013. In this study, data gathered from 310 elementary students were utilized for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis to determine the structure of factor loading. The factor loading among the sub-scales were different from original. Confirmatory Factor analysis revealed that the model was acceptable. There were three sub-scales, value, self-confidence, enjoyment and motivation. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall instrument was calculated as .84, respectively. The adapted instrument includes three sub-scales: value (α=.91, self-confidence (α=.86, enjoyment and motivation (α=.82. Turkish adaptation of the questionnaire is valid and reliable and appropriate to use in Turkish culture.

  7. Assessment of motivational interviewing: a qualitative study of response process validity, content validity and feasibility of the motivational interviewing target scheme (MITS) in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberink, Riëtta; Boom, Saskia M.; van Dijk, Nynke; Visser, Mechteld R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Motivational Interviewing target Scheme (MITS) is an instrument to assess competency in Motivational Interviewing (MI) and can be used to assess MI in long and brief consultations. In this qualitative study we examined two sources of the Unified Model of Validity, the current

  8. Recognizing acute delirium as part of your routine [RADAR]: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Landreville, Philippe; McCusker, Jane; Monette, Johanne; Savoie, Maryse; Richard, Sylvie; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Although detection of delirium using the current tools is excellent in research settings, in routine clinical practice, this is not the case. Together with nursing staff, we developed a screening tool (RADAR) to address certain limitations of existing tools, notably administration time, ease-of-use and generalizability. The purpose of this study was not only to evaluate the validity and reliability of RADAR but also to gauge its acceptability among the nursing staff in two differen...

  9. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emrah Karadere

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test:A Study of Validity and Reliability Objective: The aim of our study is to research reliability and validity and to evaluate the usability of Turkish version of Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT in Turkish healty population. Method: 51 healty volunteers who work in Ankara Dıskapi Yildirim Beyazit Research and Training Hospital participated in this study. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT was translated into Turkish by three clinical good knowledge of English. Participants were given a sociodemographic data form, and RIAT were performed by clinicians. To test the reliability of the Turkish version of RIAT, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated and the halving method was used for the test. Results: The internal consistency of the Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT items, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient measurements of 0.73 was found to be statistically significant. Spearman-Brown coefficient that determines the reliability of the whole test r=0.74 was found. Kurtosis values of all the items was below 1.5 and the percentages in the second evaluation were mainly lower. At the same time, both change in belief between self produced RIAT options and given RIAT options (p=0.02, z=-2296 as well as changes in beliefs between related and unrelated items for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD difference (p=0.03, z=-2.199 were significant. Conclusion: The preliminary data obtained from the study of reliability and validity of the scale shows that ‘Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test’ supports reliability and validity in Turkish population.

  10. Injection Drug Use Quality of Life scale (IDUQOL: A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palepu Anita

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing measures of injection drug users' quality of life have focused primarily on health and health-related factors. Clearly, however, quality of life among injection drug users is impacted by a range of unique cultural, socioeconomic, medical, and geographic factors that must also be considered in any measure. The Injection Drug User Quality of Life (IDUQOL scale was designed to capture the unique and individual circumstances that determine quality of life among injection drug users. The overall purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of inferences made from the IDUQOL by examining the (a dimensionality, (b reliability of scores, (c criterion-related validity evidence, and (d both convergent and discriminant validity evidence. Methods An exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring in SPSS 12.0 was conducted to determine whether the use of a total score on the IDUQOL was advisable. Reliability of scores from the IDUQOL was obtained using internal consistency and one-week test-retest reliability estimates. Criterion-related validity evidence was gathered using variables such as stability of housing, sex trade involvement, high-risk injection behaviours, involvement in treatment programs, emergency treatment or overdose over the previous six months, hospitalization and emergency treatment over the subsequent six month period post data collection. Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was gathered using measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social desirability. Results The sample consisted of 241 injection drug users ranging in age from 19 to 61 years. Factor analysis supports the use of a total score. Both internal consistency (alpha = .88 and one-week test-retest reliability (r = .78 for IDUQOL total scores were good. Criterion-related, convergent, and discriminant validity evidence supports the interpretation of IDUQOL total scores as measuring a construct consistent with

  11. The HealthNuts population-based study of paediatric food allergy: validity, safety and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, N J; Koplin, J J; Martin, P E; Gurrin, L C; Thiele, L; Tang, M L; Ponsonby, A-L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of hospital admissions for food allergy-related anaphylaxis in Australia has increased, in line with world-wide trends. However, a valid measure of food allergy prevalence and risk factor data from a population-based study is still lacking. To describe the study design and methods used to recruit infants from a population for skin prick testing and oral food challenges, and the use of preliminary data to investigate the extent to which the study sample is representative of the target population. The study sampling frame design comprises 12-month-old infants presenting for routine scheduled vaccination at immunization clinics in Melbourne, Australia. We compared demographic features of participating families to population summary statistics from the Victorian Perinatal census database, and administered a survey to those non-responders who chose not to participate in the study. Study design proved acceptable to the community with good uptake (response rate 73.4%), with 2171 participants recruited. Demographic information on the study population mirrored the Victorian population with most the population parameters measured falling within our confidence intervals (CI). Use of a non-responder questionnaire revealed that a higher proportion of infants who declined to participate (non-responders) were already eating and tolerating peanuts, than those agreeing to participate (54.4%; 95% CI 50.8, 58.0 vs. 27.4%; 95% CI 25.5, 29.3 among participants). A high proportion of individuals approached in a community setting participated in a food allergy study. The study population differed from the eligible sample in relation to family history of allergy and prior consumption and peanut tolerance, providing some insights into the internal validity of the sample. The study exhibited external validity on general demographics to all births in Victoria. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Validation of analytical methods for the stability studies of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and validating studies were performed in this paper, with a view to using them in the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for children and adults. The most influential factors in the naproxen stability were determined, that is, the major degradation occurred in acid medium, oxidative medium and by light action. One high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was evaluated, which proved to be adequate to quantify naproxen in suppositories and was selective against degradation products. The quantification limit was 3,480 μg, so it was valid for these studies. Additionally, the parameters specificity for stability, detection and quantification limits were evaluated for the direct semi-aqueous acid-base method, which was formerly validated for the quality control and showed satisfactory results. Nevertheless, the volumetric methods were not regarded as stability indicators; therefore, this method will be used along with the chromatographic methods of choice, that is, thin-layer chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, to determine the degradation products

  13. Reliability and validity of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among urological patients: a Malaysian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, K F; Low, W Y; Razack, A H; Loh, C S

    2001-10-01

    This present study was undertaken to validate the English version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in urological patients. Validity and reliability were studied in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and patients without LUTS. Reliability was evaluated using the test-retest method and internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size in the pre-intervention versus post-intervention score in additional patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Internal consistency was excellent. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the 12 items with Cronbach's alpha value of 0.37-0.79, while total scores was 0.79 in the population study. Test-retest correlation coefficient for the 12 items score were highly significant. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.35-0.79). It showed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment. A high degree of significant level between baseline and post-treatment scores were observed across all 12 items in the treatment cohort but not in the control group. The GHQ-12 is suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in urological disorders.

  14. [French version of structured interviews for the Glasgow Outcome Scale: guidelines and first studies of validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, P; Carrière, H; Habonimana, D; Preux, P-M; Dumond, J-J

    2004-05-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is the most widely used outcome measure after traumatic brain injury. The GOS's reliability is improved by a structured interview. The two aims of this paper were to present a French version of the structured interview for the five-point Glasgow Outcome Scale and the extended eight-point GOS (GOSE) and to study their validity. The French version was developed using back-translation. Concurrent validity was studied by comparison with GOS/GOSE without structured interview. Inter-rater reliability was studied by comparison between assignments made by untrained head injury observers and trained head injury observers. Strength of agreement between ratings was assessed using the Kappa statistic. The French version and the guidelines for their use are given in the Appendix. Ratings were made for 25 brain injured patients and 25 relatives. Concurrent validity was good and inter-rater reliability was excellent. Using the structured interview for the GOS will give a more reliable assessment of the outcome of brain injured patients by French-speaking rehabilitation teams and a more precise assessment with the extended GOS.

  15. Injection Drug User Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL: Findings from a content validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palepu Anita

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life studies among injection drug users have primarily focused on health-related measures. The chaotic life-style of many injection drug users (IDUs, however, extends far beyond their health, and impacts upon social relationships, employment opportunities, housing, and day to day survival. Most current quality of life instruments do not capture the realities of people living with addictions. The Injection Drug Users' Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL was developed to reflect the life areas of relevance to IDUs. The present study examined the content validity of the IDUQOL using judgmental methods based on subject matter experts' (SMEs ratings of various elements of this measure (e.g., appropriateness of life areas or items, names and descriptions of life areas, instructions for administration and scoring. Methods Six SMEs were provided with a copy of the IDUQOL and its administration and scoring manual and a detailed content validation questionnaire. Two commonly used judgmental measures of inter-rater agreement, the Content Validity Index (CVI and the Average Deviation Mean Index (ADM, were used to evaluate SMEs' agreement on ratings of IDUQOL elements. Results A total of 75 elements of the IDUQOL were examined. The CVI results showed that all elements were endorsed by the required number of SMEs or more. The ADM results showed that acceptable agreement (i.e., practical significance was obtained for all elements but statistically significant agreement was missed for nine elements. For these elements, SMEs' feedback was examined for ways to improve the elements. Open-ended feedback also provided suggestions for other revisions to the IDUQOL. Conclusion The results of the study provided strong evidence in support of the content validity of the IDUQOL and direction for the revision of some IDUQOL elements.

  16. Online registration of monthly sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a reliability and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-05-01

    The current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sports, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record the monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. To assess the reliability, content validity and concurrent validity of the survey and to evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. 145 consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed 2 days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients was included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the 12th postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was a substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ=0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire.

  17. Measuring patient-centredness, the neglected outcome in fertility care: a random multicentre validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Empel, Inge W H; Aarts, Johanna W M; Cohlen, Ben J; Huppelschoten, Dana A; Laven, Joop S E; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Kremer, Jan A M

    2010-10-01

    High-quality fertility care should be effective and safe, but also patient-centred. However, a suitable instrument for measuring patient-centredness is lacking. This study aims to develop and validate an instrument that can reliably measure patient-centredness in fertility care: patient-centredness questionnaire-infertility (PCQ-infertility). The PCQ's content, addressing 53 care aspects, was generated by seven focus groups with 54 infertile patients. Besides background questions, the questionnaire included one 'experience item' and one 'importance item' for each care aspect. Thirty Dutch fertility clinics were invited to participate in the validation study. The questionnaire was sent at random to 1200 infertile couples. Psychometric tests included inter-item and reliability analyses. Importance scores were calculated. The discriminative power was determined using multilevel analysis. The questionnaire was completed by 888 infertile couples (net response 75%) from 29 clinics. The ultimate PCQ-infertility, comprising 46 items and seven subscales, appeared reliable and valid for measuring patient-centredness in fertility care. Of the seven subscales, 'communication' received the best ratings and 'continuity' the worst. 'Honesty and clearness on what to expect from fertility care' appeared most important to patients. Significant differences between clinics were found, even after case-mix adjustment. This study resulted in a valid, reliable and strongly discriminating instrument for measuring patient-centredness in fertility care. The PCQ-infertility can identify shortcomings on patient-centredness and can be adopted for quality improvement. Therefore, fertility care can now be monitored and benchmarked on patient-centredness, as well as on live birth and complication rates.

  18. Online registration of monthly sports participation after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a reliability and validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2013-01-01

    Background Current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sport, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. Objective To assess the reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity of the survey, and evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. Methods One hundred and forty-five consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed two days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients were included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the twelfth postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ = 0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. Conclusion The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. PMID:23645830

  19. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Justine M; Ko, Victoria; Adie, Sam; Gaskin, Clive; Walker, Richard; Harris, Ian A; Mittal, Rajat

    2011-04-18

    The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method') which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method') which requires estimation of the line of femur. Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects). Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs). Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Validity (referenced to radiographs): Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988), and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678). The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998). Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995) were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained for flexion compared to extension, and with the Marker compared to the Line of Femur Method

  20. Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Adaptation of Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire Version SRS-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrölä, Kati; Järvenpää, Salme; Ylinen, Jari; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Repo, Jussi Petteri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2017-06-15

    A prospective clinical study to test and adapt a Finnish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) questionnaire. The aim of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the validity of the adapted Finnish version of the SRS-30 questionnaire. The SRS-30 questionnaire has proved to be a valid instrument in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent and adult population with spine deformities in the United States. Multinational availability requires cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation and validation of the instrument. The SRS-30 was translated into Finnish using accepted methods for translation of quality-of-life questionnaires. A total of 274 adult patients with degenerative radiographic sagittal spinal disorder answered the questionnaire with sociodemographic data, RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire (RAND Corp. Health, Santa Monica, CA, US), Oswestry disability index, DEPS depression scale, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain scales within 2 weeks' interval. The cohort included patients with and without previous spine surgery. Internal consistency and validity were tested with Cronbach α, intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement, and Spearman correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The internal consistency of SRS-30 was good in both surgery and nonsurgery groups, with Cronbach α 0.853 (95% CI, 0.670 to 0.960) and 0.885 (95% CI, 0.854 to 0.911), respectively. The test-retest reproducibility ICC of the SRS-30 total and subscore domains of patients with stable symptoms was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.870-0.930) and 0.904 (95% CI, 0.871-0.929), respectively. The questionnaire had discriminative validity in the pain, self-image, and satisfaction with management domains compared with other questionnaires. The SRS-30 questionnaire proved to be valid and applicable in evaluating HRQoL in Finnish adult spinal deformity patients. It has two domains related to deformity

  1. Worst-case study for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents: Methodology validation of total organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado

    2015-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations containing a radionuclide in their composition, mostly intravenously administered, and therefore compliance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is essential and indispensable. Cleaning validation is a requirement of the current GMP, and consists of documented evidence, which demonstrates that the cleaning procedures are able to remove residues to pre-determined acceptance levels, ensuring that no cross contamination occurs. A simplification of cleaning processes validation is accepted, and consists in choosing a product, called 'worst case', to represent the cleaning processes of all equipment of the same production area. One of the steps of cleaning validation is the establishment and validation of the analytical method to quantify the residue. The aim of this study was to establish the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagent (LR) for labeling with 99m Tc, evaluate the use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as indicator of equipment cleaning used in the LR manufacture, validate the method of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC), and perform recovery tests with the product chosen as worst case. Worst case product's choice was based on the calculation of an index called 'Worst Case Index' (WCI), using information about drug solubility, difficulty of cleaning the equipment and occupancy rate of the products in line production. The products indicated 'worst case' was the LR MIBI-TEC. The method validation assays were performed using carbon analyser model TOC-Vwp coupled to an autosampler model ASI-V, both from Shimadzu®, controlled by TOC Control-V software. It was used the direct method for NPOC quantification. The parameters evaluated in the validation method were: system suitability, robustness, linearity, detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL), precision

  2. [Validation of a scale for adolescents (EBHAD): a pilot study in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechavarría, Rosa M; Martínez, Daniel; Rodríguez, José R

    2004-06-01

    This investigation presents the development and validation process of a scale whose principal purpose is to identify those areas in which one is required to achieve improved functioning and adequate emotional health resulting in improved sports performance with adolescent athletes. The "Hechavarria Wellness Scale for Adolescent Athletes" (HWSAA) was developed. The concept of wellness was measured utilizing the following 4 sub-scales measuring; depressive symptomatology, trait anxiety, self-esteem and social relations. A pilot study was undertaken with a universe of 149 adolescent athletes from both sexes with an average of 15.6 years old and residing within the different municipalities of Puerto Rico. The alpha coefficient reliability of the HWSAA and its' subscales fluctuated between 0.71 and 0.82. The results suggest that the HWSAA and its' subscales possess a psychometrically adequate internal consistency. This means that the instrument is valid and reliable for the sample utilized. We suggest further research with the HWSAA.

  3. Model of Market Orientation of High-Tech Firms in Germany: Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this validation study was to verify a four-factor model of market orientation on a sample of German high-tech companies in the manufacturing industry. A modified version of the measuring scale (MMOS, composed of twelve items, was used for measurement. The target group consisted of business and marketing managers (N = 374 who recorded their answers on a seven-point Likert scale. The main methods used to achieve the objectives were exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Having verified the psychometric properties of the instrument, I proceeded to confirm the hypothesis of a four-factor solution model. Reliability and validity of the measuring instrument was also examined, which allowed a confirmation of the second hypothesis. The research may serve as the evidence of the instrument suitability for measuring market orientation in European cultural conditions. To obtain results from other sectors, the author recommends further research replication using the MMOS instrument.

  4. Aggressive Attitudes in Middle Schools: A Factor Structure and Criterion-Related Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L; Cornell, Dewey G; Konold, Timothy R

    2015-08-01

    Student attitudes toward aggression have been linked to individual aggressive behavior, but the relationship between school-wide normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior poses some important measurement challenges that have not been adequately examined. The current study investigated the factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity of a six-item Aggressive Attitudes scale using a large sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students (n = 39,364) from 423 schools. Analytic procedures accounted for the frequently ignored modeling problems of clustered and ordinal data to provide more reliable and accurate model estimates and standard errors. The resulting second-order factor structure of the Aggressive Attitudes scale demonstrated measurement invariance across gender, grade, and race/ethnicity groups. Criterion-related validity was supported with eight student- and school-level indices of aggressive behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Three-factor structure for Epistemic Belief Inventory: A cross-validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leal-Soto

    Full Text Available Research on epistemic beliefs has been hampered by lack of validated models and measurement instruments. The most widely used instrument is the Epistemological Questionnaire, which has been criticized for validity, and it has been proposed a new instrument based in the Epistemological Questionnaire: the Epistemic Belief Inventory. The Spanish-language version of Epistemic Belief Inventory was applied to 1,785 Chilean high school students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in independent subsamples were performed. A three factor structure emerged and was confirmed. Reliability was comparable to other studies, and the factor structure was invariant among randomized subsamples. The structure that was found does not replicate the one proposed originally, but results are interpreted in light of embedded systemic model of epistemological beliefs.

  6. [Validation Study for Analytical Method of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons in 9 Kinds of Shellfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Shellfish poisons in spiked samples were extracted with methanol and 90% methanol, and were hydrolyzed with 2.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Purification was done on an HLB solid-phase extraction column. This method was validated in accordance with the notification of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result of the validation study in nine kinds of shellfish, the trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were 79-101%, less than 12 and 16%, respectively. The trueness and precision met the target values of notification.

  7. The COVA programme for the validation of computer codes for fast reactor containment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskin, N.E.; Lancefield, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The UKAEA and the Joint Research Centre, Euratom, Ispra are engaged in a collaborative experimental programme carrying out a series of small scale, well instrumented tests aimed at providing high quality data of the stresses, strains and loads occurring when a well characterized source is released within a fluid in a containment vessel. In the UK the data are being used to validate the computer codes ASTARTE and SEURBNUK which are used in studies of the response of the fast reactor primary containment system in the event of a hypothetical reactor excursion. This paper describes the UK experimental programme and the development of the low density explosive which is used as the energy source; the rationale of the code development programme is presented together with a report on the progress that has been made in validating the two codes against the experimental data. (Auth.)

  8. A Prospective Validation Study of a Rainbow Model of Integrated Care Measurement Tool in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Valentijn, Pim P; Bautista, Mary Ann C; Wei, Lim Yee; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2016-04-08

    The conceptual ambiguity of the integrated care concept precludes a full understanding of what constitutes a well-integrated health system, posing a significant challenge in measuring the level of integrated care. Most available measures have been developed from a disease-specific perspective and only measure certain aspects of integrated care. Based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which provides a detailed description of the complex concept of integrated care, a measurement tool has been developed to assess integrated care within a care system as a whole gathered from healthcare providers' and managerial perspectives. This paper describes the methodology of a study seeking to validate the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care measurement tool within and across the Singapore Regional Health System. The Singapore Regional Health System is a recent national strategy developed to provide a better-integrated health system to deliver seamless and person-focused care to patients through a network of providers within a specified geographical region. The validation process includes the assessment of the content of the measure and its psychometric properties. If the measure is deemed to be valid, the study will provide the first opportunity to measure integrated care within Singapore Regional Health System with the results allowing insights in making recommendations for improving the Regional Health System and supporting international comparison.

  9. Mesh refinement study and experimental validation for stretch bending of sheet metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M.; Kreissl, S.; Vuaille, L.; Möller, T.; Friebe, H.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    For sheet metal parts with small radii and large bending angles, the sheet metal forming simulation reaches their application limits. Alternatives are complex shell formulations and volume elements. For volume elements, the necessary number of elements over the thickness is important. Valid values are not available depending on discrete radii. Therefore in this work, a convergence study is performed using the example of an angular stretch bend test with a radius to thickness ratio of 1. For various states of mesh refinement, simulations are performed, various results are presented, analysed and discussed with regard to convergence behaviour to the necessary number of elements in thickness direction. Recommendations for suitable validation variables are derived. Based on the refinement study, a simulation model for an experimental validation is developed. The experiments are carried out in a sheet metal forming machine. Experimental angular stretch bend test with a punch radius of 1 mm are performed until failure and the strain distribution on the top side of the sheet is measured. Finally, simulation and experiments are compared based on the surface strain.

  10. Effort-reward imbalance at work and job dissatisfaction in Chinese healthcare workers: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yang, Wenjie; Cheng, Yawen; Siegrist, Johannes; Cho, Sung-Il

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the 23-item effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire and to analyze its association with job dissatisfaction in a sample of Chinese healthcare workers. A self-reported survey was conducted, in university hospitals of China, among 192 male and 608 female healthcare workers. Appropriate internal consistencies of the three scales: effort, reward, and overcommitment, were obtained. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the theoretically assumed structure of the ERI construct in men and women. Evidence of criterion validity was obtained from cross-correlations of the scales and from their correlations with gender, education and job dissatisfaction. Finally, all three scales were associated with an elevated odds ratio of job dissatisfaction, and the effect was strongest for the ERI ratio as predicted by theory. Based on the results of this study the Chinese version of the ERI questionnaire is considered a reliable and valid instrument for measuring psychosocial stress at work. It is applicable to Chinese working populations and, in particular, to the healthcare sector.

  11. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2016-01-01

    This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension (Fenson et al., 2000, 2007; Jackson-Maldonado, Marchman, & Fernald, 2013) and the Spanish Vocabulary Extension for use with parents from low-income homes and their 24- to 48-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children. Study participants were drawn from Early Head Start and Head Start collaborative programs in the Northeastern United States in which English was the primary language used in the classroom. All families reported Spanish or Spanish-English as their home language(s). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories as well as the researcher-designed Spanish Vocabulary Extension were used as measures of children's English and Spanish productive vocabularies. Findings revealed the forms' concurrent and discriminant validity, on the basis of standardized measures of vocabulary, as measures of productive vocabulary for this growing bilingual population. These findings suggest that parent reports, including our researcher-designed form, represent a valid, cost-effective mechanism for vocabulary monitoring purposes in early childhood education settings.

  12. Validation of internet-based self-reported anthropometric, demographic data and participant identity in the Food4Me study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anth...

  13. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  14. Quantifying Human Movement Using the Movn Smartphone App: Validation and Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Gemming, Luke; Monedero, Javier; Bolger, Linda; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann; Marsh, Samantha; Direito, Artur; Solenhill, Madeleine; Zhao, Jinfeng; Exeter, Daniel John; Vathsangam, Harshvardhan; Rawstorn, Jonathan Charles

    2017-08-17

    The use of embedded smartphone sensors offers opportunities to measure physical activity (PA) and human movement. Big data-which includes billions of digital traces-offers scientists a new lens to examine PA in fine-grained detail and allows us to track people's geocoded movement patterns to determine their interaction with the environment. The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the Movn smartphone app (Moving Analytics) for collecting PA and human movement data. The criterion and convergent validity of the Movn smartphone app for estimating energy expenditure (EE) were assessed in both laboratory and free-living settings, compared with indirect calorimetry (criterion reference) and a stand-alone accelerometer that is commonly used in PA research (GT1m, ActiGraph Corp, convergent reference). A supporting cross-validation study assessed the consistency of activity data when collected across different smartphone devices. Global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data were integrated with geographical information software to demonstrate the feasibility of geospatial analysis of human movement. A total of 21 participants contributed to linear regression analysis to estimate EE from Movn activity counts (standard error of estimation [SEE]=1.94 kcal/min). The equation was cross-validated in an independent sample (N=42, SEE=1.10 kcal/min). During laboratory-based treadmill exercise, EE from Movn was comparable to calorimetry (bias=0.36 [-0.07 to 0.78] kcal/min, t 82 =1.66, P=.10) but overestimated as compared with the ActiGraph accelerometer (bias=0.93 [0.58-1.29] kcal/min, t 89 =5.27, PDireito, Madeleine Solenhill, Jinfeng Zhao, Daniel John Exeter, Harshvardhan Vathsangam, Jonathan Charles Rawstorn. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 17.08.2017.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Newest Vital Sign: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamichi Kogure

    Full Text Available Health literacy (HL refers to the ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services, and is thus needed to make appropriate health decisions. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS is comprised of 6 questions about an ice cream nutrition label and assesses HL numeracy skills. We developed a Japanese version of the NVS (NVS-J and evaluated the validity and reliability of the NVS-J in patients with chronic pain. The translation of the original NVS into Japanese was achieved as per the published guidelines. An observational study was subsequently performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the NVS-J in 43 Japanese patients suffering from chronic pain. Factor analysis with promax rotation, using the Kaiser criterion (eigenvalues ≥1.0, and a scree plot revealed that the main component of the NVS-J consists of three determinative factors, and each factor consists of two NVS-J items. The criterion-related validity of the total NVS-J score was significantly correlated with the total score of Ishikawa et al.'s self-rated HL Questionnaire, the clinical global assessment of comprehensive HL level, cognitive function, and the Brinkman index. In addition, Cronbach's coefficient for the total score of the NVS-J was adequate (alpha = 0.72. This study demonstrated that the NVS-J has good validity and reliability. Further, the NVS-J consists of three determinative factors: "basic numeracy ability," "complex numeracy ability," and "serious-minded ability." These three HL abilities comprise a 3-step hierarchical structure. Adequate HL should be promoted in chronic pain patients to enable coping, improve functioning, and increase activities of daily living (ADLs and quality of life (QOL.

  16. Evaluation of physicians' professional performance: An iterative development and validation study of multisource feedback instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overeem Karlijn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors, associations between self and other evaluations, and the number of evaluations needed for reliable assessment of a physician based on the three instruments used for the multisource assessment of physicians' professional performance in the Netherlands. Methods This observational validation study of three instruments underlying multisource feedback (MSF was set in 26 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In total, 146 hospital-based physicians took part in the study. Each physician's professional performance was assessed by peers (physician colleagues, co-workers (including nurses, secretary assistants and other healthcare professionals and patients. Physicians also completed a self-evaluation. Ratings of 864 peers, 894 co-workers and 1960 patients on MSF were available. We used principal components analysis and methods of classical test theory to evaluate the factor structure, reliability and validity of instruments. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear mixed models to address other objectives. Results The peer, co-worker and patient instruments respectively had six factors, three factors and one factor with high internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha 0.95 - 0.96. It appeared that only 2 percent of variance in the mean ratings could be attributed to biasing factors. Self-ratings were not correlated with peer, co-worker or patient ratings. However, ratings of peers, co-workers and patients were correlated. Five peer evaluations, five co-worker evaluations and 11 patient evaluations are required to achieve reliable results (reliability coefficient ≥ 0.70. Conclusions The study demonstrated that the three MSF instruments produced

  17. Assessment of sedentary behaviors and transport-related activities by questionnaire: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitly Mensah

    2016-08-01

    leisure-related sitting-times (r = 0.19. Compared to contextualized logbook, STAQ estimates of TRA was higher for car (r = 0.65 than for active transport (r = 0.41. The questionnaire generally overestimated work- and leisure-related SB and sitting times, while it underestimated total and transport-related sitting times. Conclusions The STAQ showed acceptable reliability and a good ranking validity for assessment of context-specific SB and TRA. This instrument appears as a useful tool to study SB, TRA and PA in context in adults.

  18. Assessment of sedentary behaviors and transport-related activities by questionnaire: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Keitly; Maire, Aurélia; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Dugas, Julien; Charreire, Hélène; Weber, Christiane; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2016-08-09

    = 0.19). Compared to contextualized logbook, STAQ estimates of TRA was higher for car (r = 0.65) than for active transport (r = 0.41). The questionnaire generally overestimated work- and leisure-related SB and sitting times, while it underestimated total and transport-related sitting times. The STAQ showed acceptable reliability and a good ranking validity for assessment of context-specific SB and TRA. This instrument appears as a useful tool to study SB, TRA and PA in context in adults.

  19. Assessing the validity of road safety evaluation studies by analysing causal chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses how the validity of road safety evaluation studies can be assessed by analysing causal chains. A causal chain denotes the path through which a road safety measure influences the number of accidents. Two cases are examined. One involves chemical de-icing of roads (salting). The intended causal chain of this measure is: spread of salt --> removal of snow and ice from the road surface --> improved friction --> shorter stopping distance --> fewer accidents. A Norwegian study that evaluated the effects of salting on accident rate provides information that describes this causal chain. This information indicates that the study overestimated the effect of salting on accident rate, and suggests that this estimate is influenced by confounding variables the study did not control for. The other case involves a traffic club for children. The intended causal chain in this study was: join the club --> improve knowledge --> improve behaviour --> reduce accident rate. In this case, results are rather messy, which suggests that the observed difference in accident rate between members and non-members of the traffic club is not primarily attributable to membership in the club. The two cases show that by analysing causal chains, one may uncover confounding factors that were not adequately controlled in a study. Lack of control for confounding factors remains the most serious threat to the validity of road safety evaluation studies.

  20. Parameterization of rain induced surface roughness and its validation study using a third generation wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh Kumar, R.; Prasad Kumar, B.; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.

    2009-09-01

    The effect of raindrops striking water surface and their role in modifying the prevailing sea-surface roughness is investigated. The work presents a new theoretical formulation developed to study rain-induced stress on sea-surface based on dimensional analysis. Rain parameters include drop size, rain intensity and rain duration. The influences of these rain parameters on young and mature waves were studied separately under varying wind speeds, rain intensity and rain duration. Contrary to popular belief that rain only attenuates surface waves, this study also points out rain duration under certain condition can contribute to wave growth at high wind speeds. Strong winds in conjunction with high rain intensity enhance the horizontal stress component on the sea-surface, leading to wave growth. Previous studies based on laboratory experiments and dimensional analysis do not account for rain duration when attempting to parameterize sea-surface roughness. This study signifies the importance of rain duration as an important parameter modifying sea-surface roughness. Qualitative as well quantitative support for the developed formulation is established through critical validation with reports of several researchers and satellite measurements for an extreme cyclonic event in the Indian Ocean. Based on skill assessment, it is suggested that the present formulation is superior to prior studies. Numerical experiments and validation performed by incorporating in state-of-art WAM wave model show the importance of treating rain-induced surface roughness as an essential pre-requisite for ocean wave modeling studies.

  1. Power of experimental design studies for the validation of pharmaceutical processes: case study of a multilayer tablet manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, F; Guemguem, F; Dragan, C; Vergnault, G; Wehrlé, P

    2002-08-01

    Experimental design studies (EDS) are already widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug formulation or process optimization. Rare are the situations in which this methodology is applied for validation purposes. The power of this statistical tool, key element of a global validation strategy, is demonstrated for a multilayer tablet manufacturing process. Applied to the Geomatrix system generally composed of one compression and three granulation processes, time and strictness gains are non-negligible. Experimental design studies are not used in this work for modeling. Introduced at each important step of the process development, they allow for the evaluation of process ruggedness at pilot scale and specifications for full production. A demonstration of the complete control of key process parameters is given, identified throughout preliminary studies.

  2. Validation, Verification, and Testing Techniques Throughout the Life Cycle of a Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle validation, verification, and testing (VV&T) is extremely important for the success of a simulation study. This paper surveys current software VV&T techniques and current simulation model VV&T techniques and describes how they can all be applied throughout the life cycle of a simulation study. The processes and credibility assessment stages of the life cycle are described and the applicability of the VV&T techniques for each stage is stated. A glossary is provided to explicitly ...

  3. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. METHODS: Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded...... with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists....

  4. Collection, validation, and description of data for the Oak Ridge nuclear industry mortality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.; Reagan, J.; Cragle, D.; West, C.; Tankersley, W.; Frome, E.; Watson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In response to the continuing controversy over the long-term health effects of protracted occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation, a mortality study was initiated pooling data for all workers hired before December 31, 1982, and employed for at least 30 days by one of the three DOE facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Topics of discussion will include issues involving the collection and validation of this large, complex data set and characteristics of demographic and exposure data for the study cohort

  5. Can DMCO Detect Visual Field Loss in Neurological Patients? A Secondary Validation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ane Sophie; Steensberg, Alvilda Thougaard; la Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Unrecognized visual field loss is caused by a range of blinding eye conditions as well as serious brain diseases. The commonest cause of asymptomatic visual field loss is glaucoma. No screening tools have been proven cost-effective. Damato Multifixation Campimetry Online (DMCO), an inexpensive...... online test, has been evaluated as a future cost-beneficial tool to detect glaucoma. To further validate DMCO, this study aimed to test DMCO in a preselected population with neurological visual field loss. Methods : The study design was an evaluation of a diagnostic test. Patients were included...

  6. [Validity of the BVAQ: a study in eating disorder patients and controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborde, A-S; Berthoz, S; Perdereau, F; Godart, N; Corcos, M; Jeammet, P

    2004-01-01

    Alexithymia core features are the difficulties in identifying and describing feelings; the difficulties in distinguishing feelings from the bodily sensations of emotional arousal; an impaired symbolization, as evidenced by a paucity of fantasies and other imaginative activity; and a tendency to focus on external events rather than inner experience. Several measures of alexithymia have been developed, including interviewer-rated questionnaires and self-report questionnaires. Among the self-report questionnaires, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS-20) is the most commonly used, but it fails to measure all the core features of alexithymia. A recently developed instrument, the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ), allows the measurement of the alexithymia core features, as well as an additional one. It appeared to present good psychometric properties, notably the abbreviated BVAQ-form B. The results of recent studies comparing the psychometric properties of the TAS-20 and the BVAQ have recommended the BVAQ over the TAS-20. However, this questionnaire needed further validation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire -- form B (BVAQ-B) in a clinical sample of 59 eating disorder patients, as well as in 191 controls. The TAS-20 constituted the gold standard for the assessment of the BVAQ-B' convergent validity. To compare the concurrent validity of the BVAQ-B and the TAS-20, participants also completed several self-reports investigating different dimensions of emotion regulation capacities: the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-form Y), as well as the Chapman and Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales (PAS and SAS). One way analyses of variance were used for mean scores comparisons. Convergent validity was determined using Pearson coefficients of correlation. Results of the

  7. Postnatal psychiatric morbidity: a validation study of the GHQ-12 and the EPDS as screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Purificación; Ascaso, Carlos; Garcia-Esteve, Lluïsa; Aguado, Jaume; Torres, Anna; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2007-01-01

    To assess the validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in screening for the most common postnatal psychiatric morbidities (mood, anxiety and adjustment disorders). A two-phase cross-sectional study was designed. First, a sample of 1453 women visiting at 6 weeks postpartum completed the GHQ-12 and the EPDS questionnaires. Second, based upon EPDS outcomes, participants were stratified and randomly selected within each stratum for clinical evaluation [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)]. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used. The concurrent validity was satisfactory (0.80). At optimum cut-off scores, both GHQ-12 and EPDS yielded very good sensitivity (80; 85.5) and specificity (80.4; 85.3), respectively. ROC curves showed that the performance of the EPDS (AUC=0.933) is slightly superior to that of GHQ-12 (AUC=0.904). Both GHQ-12 and EPDS are valid instruments to detect postnatal depression as well as postnatal anxiety and adjustment disorders.

  8. Children's perceptions of physical activity environments captured through ecological momentary assessment: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Intille, Stephen S; Wolch, Jennifer; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-08-01

    This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to investigate whether children's perceptions of physical activity (PA) settings correspond with (1) parents' perceptions of neighborhood characteristics (convergent construct validity) and (2) children's level of PA in those settings (concurrent criterion validity). Low-to-middle income, ethnically-diverse children (N=108) (ages 9-13) living in Southern California participated in 8 days of EMA during non-school time. EMA measured current activity type (e.g., sports/exercise, TV watching) and perceptions of the current setting (i.e., vegetation, traffic, safety). The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Survey (NEWS) assessed parents' perceptions of neighborhood characteristics. EMA responses were time-matched to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (measured by accelerometer) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Data were collected in 2009-2010. Children's perceptions of vegetation and traffic in PA settings corresponded with parents' perceptions of the aesthetics (OR=2.21, 95% CI=1.04-4.73) and traffic (OR=2.64, 95% CI=1.31-5.30) in neighborhood environment, respectively. MVPA minutes were higher in settings perceived by children to have less traffic (β=3.47, pwork provides initial support for the construct and criterion validity of EMA-based measures of children's perceptions of their PA environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Adaptation of Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan SEZER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the validity and reliability of the Turkish adaptation ofAcceptance of Couple Violence Scale (ACVS. The data of research has been attainedfrom 474 (M =243, F=231 high school students who were attending 1st, 2nd and 3thclass and coming from middle socio-economic levels in Malatya. Acceptance of CoupleViolence Scale has 11 items, Likert type and 4 point response format. The constructvalidity of ACVS was conducted by using exploratory factor analysis and varimaxrotation. Single independent factor with the eigenvalue over 1.00 has been found. Thisfactor explained 44% of total variance. To test concurrent validity, correlations betweenscores on ACVS and Aggressiveness Questionnaire were calculated. There was asignificant relationship between scores on the two scales (r= .61. Cronbach alphacoefficient of the scale was found “.87”; test-retest correlation coefficient was “r=.80”.Item-total correlation co-efficiencies vary between “.52” and “.71”. Findings show thatACVS can be used with acceptable level of validity and reliability for high schoolstudents.

  10. The Feasibility and Validity of a Remote Pulse Oximetry System for Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective treatment for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, access to these services is limited especially in rural and remote areas. Telerehabilitation has the potential to deliver pulmonary rehabilitation programs to these communities. The aim of this study was threefold: to establish the technical feasibility of transmitting real-time pulse oximetry data, determine the validity of remote measurements compared to conventional face-to-face measures, and evaluate the participants’ perception of the usability of the technology. Thirty-seven healthy individuals participated in a single remote pulmonary rehabilitation exercise session, conducted using the eHAB telerehabilitation system. Validity was assessed by comparing the participant's oxygen saturation and heart rate with the data set received at the therapist’s remote location. There was an 80% exact agreement between participant and therapist data sets. The mean absolute difference and Bland and Altman’s limits of agreement fell within the minimum clinically important difference for both oxygen saturation and heart rate values. Participants found the system easy to use and felt confident that they would be able to use it at home. Remote measurement of pulse oximetry data for a pulmonary rehabilitation exercise session was feasible and valid when compared to conventional face-to-face methods.

  11. Validation of radiosterilization dose of human skin dressings for burnt treatment: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Due to the need for better materials to treat burnt patients, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) and the Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo Tissue Bank are collaborating for developing human skin dressings. Skin was procured from living donors, who surgically were performed a dermolipectomy. Exclusion criteria, stated by the Peruvian Organization for Transplant and Donation were observed. Glycerolized human skin dressings were processed at the tissue bank and sent to IPEN, where the gamma irradiation sterilizing dose was determined. The purpose of this work is to validate the radiation sterilization dose delivered to human skin dressings using the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A batch of human skin dressings was tested. Average values of bioburden present in ten samples was 30 UFC/item, obtaining a sub-sterilization dose of 4 kGy. Irradiations were performed in the GammacellExcel 220. Sterility tests performed fulfilled the requirements established by the Code, achieving a validated dose value of 19.7 kGy. This preliminary study, that should be repeated in two other batches of processed human skin, allows to diminish 25 kGy the sterilizing dose to the stated above dose value, in a frame of a quality assurance system that also comprises the processes held at tissue banks previous irradiation. It also permit the availability of these materials in Peruvian hospitals. (Author)

  12. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlik, Ales; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalova, Hana; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Koprivova, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Horacek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with 1-3% prevalence. OCD is characterized by recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions). The pathophysiology of OCD remains unclear, stressing the importance of pre-clinical studies. The aim of this article is to critically review a proposed animal model of OCD that is characterized by the induction of compulsive checking and behavioral sensitization to the D2/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole. Changes in this model have been reported at the level of brain structures, neurotransmitter systems and other neurophysiological aspects. In this review, we consider these alterations in relation to the clinical manifestations in OCD, with the aim to discuss and evaluate axes of validity of this model. Our analysis shows that some axes of validity of quinpirole sensitization model (QSM) are strongly supported by clinical findings, such as behavioral phenomenology or roles of brain structures. Evidence on predictive validity is contradictory and ambiguous. It is concluded that this model is useful in the context of searching for the underlying pathophysiological basis of the disorder because of the relatively strong biological similarities with OCD.

  13. Validation study of the pediatric allergic rhinitis quality of life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudi, Antigoni; Chrysochoou, Elisavet-Anna; Boyle, Robert J; Papastergiopulos, Antonis; Karantaglis, Nikolaos; Karagiannidou, Agathi; Xinias, Ioannis; Farmaki, Evangelia; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Kirvassilis, Fotios; Kourentas, Grigorios; Tsanakas, John; Warner, John O

    2016-06-01

    The Paediatric Allergic Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (Ped-AR-QoL) is the first tool developed for the assessment of health-related quality of life (QoL) in Greek children with allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of the current study was to validate the child and parent forms of the Ped-AR-QoL in children aged 6-14 years-old who suffered from AR and were followed in a pediatric allergy clinic. The Ped-AR-QoL, which was completed by 112 children and their parents, was correlated to the generic QoL questionnaire (Disabkids), which is already valid in Greece for children with chronic disorders, as well as with expert opinions on the severity of disease. The Ped-AR-QoL child and parent forms had very good internal consistency (α values of 0.797 and 0.872, respectively), while there was a moderate positive correlation of the disease-specific questionnaire with most of the subscales of the generic questionnaire. There has been a statistically significant association between the Ped-AR-QoL and the expert perception of disease severity. The Ped-AR-QoL had very good reliability and convergent validity when compared with the generic Disabkids QoL. The significance of the association between the disease-specific questionnaire and the expert opinion is an important finding validating the questionnaire. The Ped-AR-QoL may become a helpful tool which can be used in everyday clinical practice by clinicians and it may also be used for assessing therapeutic interventions in clinical trials.

  14. The Behavior Pain Assessment Tool for critically ill adults: a validation study in 28 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélinas, Céline; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Levin, Pavel; Azoulay, Elie

    2017-05-01

    Many critically ill adults are unable to communicate their pain through self-report. The study purpose was to validate the use of the 8-item Behavior Pain Assessment Tool (BPAT) in patients hospitalized in 192 intensive care units from 28 countries. A total of 4812 procedures in 3851 patients were included in data analysis. Patients were assessed with the BPAT before and during procedures by 2 different raters (mostly nurses and physicians). Those who were able to self-report were asked to rate their pain intensity and pain distress on 0 to 10 numeric rating scales. Interrater reliability of behavioral observations was supported by moderate (0.43-0.60) to excellent (>0.60) kappa coefficients. Mixed effects multilevel logistic regression models showed that most behaviors were more likely to be present during the procedure than before and in less sedated patients, demonstrating discriminant validation of the tool use. Regarding criterion validation, moderate positive correlations were found during procedures between the mean BPAT scores and the mean pain intensity (r = 0.54) and pain distress (r = 0.49) scores (P pain intensity and pain distress, accounting for 35% and 29% of their total variance, respectively. A BPAT cut-point score >3.5 could classify patients with or without severe levels (≥8) of pain intensity and distress with sensitivity and specificity findings ranging from 61.8% to 75.1%. The BPAT was found to be reliable and valid. Its feasibility for use in practice and the effect of its clinical implementation on patient pain and intensive care unit outcomes need further research.

  15. Development and Validation of the Motivations for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS) Questionnaire in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, Federica; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Understanding medical students' motivation to select medical studies is particularly salient to inform practice and policymaking in countries-such as India-where shortage of medical personnel poses crucial and chronical challenges to healthcare systems. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the motivation of medical students to select medical studies. A Motivation for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS) questionnaire was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique. The scale consisted of 12 items, 5 measuring intrinsic dimensions of motivations and 7 measuring extrinsic dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), validity, reliability and data quality checks were conducted on a sample of 636 medical students from six medical colleges of three North Indian states. The MSMS questionnaire consisted of 3 factors (subscales) and 8 items. The three principal factors that emerged after EFA were the scientific factor (e.g. research opportunities and the ability to use new cutting edge technologies), the societal factor (e.g. job security) and the humanitarian factor (e.g. desire to help others). The CFA conducted showed goodness-of-fit indices supporting the 3-factor model. The three extracted factors cut across the traditional dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and uncover a novel three-faceted motivation construct based on scientific factors, societal expectations and humanitarian needs. This validated instrument can be used to evaluate the motivational factors of medical students to choose medical study in India and similar settings and constitutes a powerful tool for policymakers to design measures able to increase selection of medical curricula.

  16. Development and Validation of the Motivations for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS Questionnaire in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Goel

    Full Text Available Understanding medical students' motivation to select medical studies is particularly salient to inform practice and policymaking in countries-such as India-where shortage of medical personnel poses crucial and chronical challenges to healthcare systems. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the motivation of medical students to select medical studies.A Motivation for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS questionnaire was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique. The scale consisted of 12 items, 5 measuring intrinsic dimensions of motivations and 7 measuring extrinsic dimensions. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, validity, reliability and data quality checks were conducted on a sample of 636 medical students from six medical colleges of three North Indian states.The MSMS questionnaire consisted of 3 factors (subscales and 8 items. The three principal factors that emerged after EFA were the scientific factor (e.g. research opportunities and the ability to use new cutting edge technologies, the societal factor (e.g. job security and the humanitarian factor (e.g. desire to help others. The CFA conducted showed goodness-of-fit indices supporting the 3-factor model.The three extracted factors cut across the traditional dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and uncover a novel three-faceted motivation construct based on scientific factors, societal expectations and humanitarian needs. This validated instrument can be used to evaluate the motivational factors of medical students to choose medical study in India and similar settings and constitutes a powerful tool for policymakers to design measures able to increase selection of medical curricula.

  17. Reliability and validity of telephonic Barthel Index: an experience from multi-centric randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Kumar, Amit; Misra, Shubham; Yadav, Arun K; Johri, Sarat; Sarkar, R S; Gorthi, S P; Hassan, K M; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Misra, Usha Kant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2018-03-01

    Telephonic Barthel Index (BI) assessment is less time-consuming and more feasible than a face-to-face interview. The aim of this study was to test the validity as well as reliability of the BI administered by telephone in comparison with face-to-face assessment in a multi-centric study. The study was conducted during the course of a randomized controlled trial in which 120 patients with subacute strokes from five teaching hospitals from different parts of India were recruited. Central telephonic follow-up and face-to-face assessment of BI and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 and 6 months were done by trained and certified blinded researchers. Kappa or weighted kappa (wK) was estimated. Sensitivity and specificity at various cutoff levels of telephonic BI were calculated. Concurrent validity of the telephonic BI was assessed by correlating it with the mRS and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scales (NIHSS) at 3 and 6 months. We observed high sensitivity and specificity at various cutoff levels of BI. Moderate to substantial agreement was observed between the two methods at 6 months wK 0.72 (95% CI 0.70-0.77). Item-wise and center-wise kappa also reflected substantial agreement. The study shows that telephonic assessment of activities of daily living with the BI in moderate to severely disabled stroke patients is valid and reliable compared to face-to-face assessment. Our study shows that telephonic assessment requires smaller sample size compared to face-to-face assessment of BI.

  18. Adaptation of My Classroom Activities Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Zülfikar DENİZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Student interest in class activities, their enjoyment of activity topics, their ability to make choices about the activity topics, and opportunities for students to challenge themselves during activities are among basic components that support their higher level learning. Properties of educational activities that make them interesting, enjoyable, and challenging while allowing students with choices are also among properties that are known to be necessary in all educational content, processes, and products within educational systems of the 21st century. Consequently, measuring these properties is also of great importance. The goal of this study is to perform the Turkish adaptation of the My Class Activities Scale, developed by Gentry and Gable (2001 in the United States and subsequently adapted to the Korean, Chinese, and Arabic languages. To this end, data was collected from 214 students attending 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades during the 2015-2016 academic year. As part of the validity study for the scale, the factor structure obtained from the original development of the scale was tested using the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA method. Moreover, item-total correlation and inter-dimensional correlation analyses were also performed as part of the validity study. In studying the reliability of the scale, the Cronbach-Alpha reliability coefficients were estimated (Cronbach alpha values ranged between 0.82-0.90. Based on the results, the factor structure of the scale was verified in parallel with the original development work for the scale. In conclusion, the validity and reliability of using the scale in Turkey was established, contributing a new scale adaptation to the Turkish literature for use in different studies.

  19. Predictability of Persistent Frequent Attendance in Primary Care: A Temporal and Geographical Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Frans T.; Brouwer, Henk J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van den Akker, Marjan; van Steenkiste, Ben; Mohrs, Jacob; Schene, Aart H.; van Weert, Henk C.; ter Riet, Gerben

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent attenders are patients who visit their general practitioner exceptionally frequently. Frequent attendance is usually transitory, but some frequent attenders become persistent. Clinically, prediction of persistent frequent attendance is useful to target treatment at underlying diseases or problems. Scientifically it is useful for the selection of high-risk populations for trials. We previously developed a model to predict which frequent attenders become persistent. Aim To validate an existing prediction model for persistent frequent attendance that uses information solely from General Practitioners’ electronic medical records. Methods We applied the existing model (N = 3,045, 2003–2005) to a later time frame (2009–2011) in the original derivation network (N = 4,032, temporal validation) and to patients of another network (SMILE; 2007–2009, N = 5,462, temporal and geographical validation). Model improvement was studied by adding three new predictors (presence of medically unexplained problems, prescriptions of psychoactive drugs and antibiotics). Finally, we derived a model on the three data sets combined (N = 12,539). We expressed discrimination using histograms of the predicted values and the concordance-statistic (c-statistic) and calibration using the calibration slope (1 = ideal) and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. Results The existing model (c-statistic 0.67) discriminated moderately with predicted values between 7.5 and 50 percent and c-statistics of 0.62 and 0.63, for validation in the original network and SMILE network, respectively. Calibration (0.99 originally) was better in SMILE than in the original network (slopes 0.84 and 0.65, respectively). Adding information on the three new predictors did not importantly improve the model (c-statistics 0.64 and 0.63, respectively). Performance of the model based on the combined data was similar (c-statistic 0.65). Conclusion This external validation study showed that

  20. Validation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Yu, Je-Chun; Nam, Ji-Ae

    2018-02-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is designed to measure the current level of depressive symptomatology in the general population. However, no review has examined whether the scale is reliable and valid among children and adolescents in Korea. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Korean form of the CES-D is valid in adolescents. Data were obtained from 1,884 adolescents attending grades 1-3 in Korean middle schools. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was evaluated by a correlation analysis between the CES-D and other scales. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency coefficient for the entire group was 0.88. The CES-D was positively correlated with scales that measure negative psychological constructs, such as the State Anxiety Inventory for Children, the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents, and the Reynold Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, but it was negatively correlated with scales that measure positive psychological constructs, such as the Korean version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2. The CES-D was examined by three-dimensional exploratory factor analysis, and the three-factor structure of the scale explained 53.165% of the total variance. The variance explained by factor I was 24.836%, that explained by factor II was 15.988%, and that explained by factor III was 12.341%. The construct validity of the CES-D was tested by confirmatory factor analysis, and we applied the entire group's data using a three-factor hierarchical model. The fit index showed a level similar to those of other countries' adolescent samples. The CES-D has high internal consistency and addresses psychological constructs similar to those addressed by other scales. The CES-D showed a three-factor structure in an exploratory factor analysis. The present

  1. Predictability of persistent frequent attendance in primary care: a temporal and geographical validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans T Smits

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent attenders are patients who visit their general practitioner exceptionally frequently. Frequent attendance is usually transitory, but some frequent attenders become persistent. Clinically, prediction of persistent frequent attendance is useful to target treatment at underlying diseases or problems. Scientifically it is useful for the selection of high-risk populations for trials. We previously developed a model to predict which frequent attenders become persistent. AIM: To validate an existing prediction model for persistent frequent attendance that uses information solely from General Practitioners' electronic medical records. METHODS: We applied the existing model (N = 3,045, 2003-2005 to a later time frame (2009-2011 in the original derivation network (N = 4,032, temporal validation and to patients of another network (SMILE; 2007-2009, N = 5,462, temporal and geographical validation. Model improvement was studied by adding three new predictors (presence of medically unexplained problems, prescriptions of psychoactive drugs and antibiotics. Finally, we derived a model on the three data sets combined (N = 12,539. We expressed discrimination using histograms of the predicted values and the concordance-statistic (c-statistic and calibration using the calibration slope (1 = ideal and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests. RESULTS: The existing model (c-statistic 0.67 discriminated moderately with predicted values between 7.5 and 50 percent and c-statistics of 0.62 and 0.63, for validation in the original network and SMILE network, respectively. Calibration (0.99 originally was better in SMILE than in the original network (slopes 0.84 and 0.65, respectively. Adding information on the three new predictors did not importantly improve the model (c-statistics 0.64 and 0.63, respectively. Performance of the model based on the combined data was similar (c-statistic 0.65. CONCLUSION: This external validation study showed that

  2. Reporting to Improve Reproducibility and Facilitate Validity Assessment for Healthcare Database Studies V1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley V; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Berger, Marc L; Brown, Jeffrey; de Vries, Frank; Douglas, Ian; Gagne, Joshua J; Gini, Rosa; Klungel, Olaf; Mullins, C Daniel; Nguyen, Michael D; Rassen, Jeremy A; Smeeth, Liam; Sturkenboom, Miriam

    2017-09-01

    Defining a study population and creating an analytic dataset from longitudinal healthcare databases involves many decisions. Our objective was to catalogue scientific decisions underpinning study execution that should be reported to facilitate replication and enable assessment of validity of studies conducted in large healthcare databases. We reviewed key investigator decisions required to operate a sample of macros and software tools designed to create and analyze analytic cohorts from longitudinal streams of healthcare data. A panel of academic, regulatory, and industry experts in healthcare database analytics discussed and added to this list. Evidence generated from large healthcare encounter and reimbursement databases is increasingly being sought by decision-makers. Varied terminology is used around the world for the same concepts. Agreeing on terminology and which parameters from a large catalogue are the most essential to report for replicable research would improve transparency and facilitate assessment of validity. At a minimum, reporting for a database study should provide clarity regarding operational definitions for key temporal anchors and their relation to each other when creating the analytic dataset, accompanied by an attrition table and a design diagram. A substantial improvement in reproducibility, rigor and confidence in real world evidence generated from healthcare databases could be achieved with greater transparency about operational study parameters used to create analytic datasets from longitudinal healthcare databases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Sleep quality, the neglected outcome variable in clinical studies focusing on locomotor system; a construct validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to general health and pain, sleep is highly relevant to judging the well-being of an individual. Of these three important outcome variables, however, sleep is neglected in most outcome studies. Sleep is a very important resource for recovery from daily stresses and strains, and any alteration of sleep will likely affect mental and physical health, especially during disease. Sleep assessment therefore should be standard in all population-based or clinical studies focusing on the locomotor system. Yet current sleep assessment tools are either too long or too specific for general use. Methods Based on a literature review and subsequent patient-based rating of items, an expert panel designed a four-item questionnaire about sleep. Construct validation of the questionnaire in a random sample of the German-speaking Swiss population was performed in 2003. Reliability, correlation, and tests for internal consistency and validity were analyzed. Results Overall, 16,634 (70% out of 23,763 eligible individuals participated in the study. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.72 to 0.87, and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83 indicates good internal consistency. Results show a moderate to good correlation between sleep disturbances and health perception, and between sleep disturbances and overall pain. Conclusions The Sleep Standard Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ-Sleep is a reliable and short tool with confirmed construct validity for sleep assessment in population-based observational studies. It is easy to administer and therefore suitable for postal surveys of the general population. Criterion validity remains to be determined.

  4. Conflict Resolution Styles Scale in Romantic Relationship: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to test the reliability and validity of the 'Conflict Resolution Styles Scale' (CRSS, which was developed by the researchers. For this aim, two studies have been conducted. In the first study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants who are either married or involved in romantic relationship. A large item pool was generated with the items developed from the interviews and the items developed by the authors after reviewing the related literature. Exploratory factor analysis with 200 dating participants (M= 23.13, SD = 2.96 revealed that four factor solution is suitable for the CRSS. These factors were named as negative conflict resolution style, positive conflict resolution style, subordination, and retreat. In order to confirm the factor structure of the scale, 140 married couples (280 individuals; M = 38.09, SD = 10.35 were participated to the second study. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the factor structure of the scale. The results of these analyses and the correlations with the related variables showed that CRSS was reliable and valid measurement tool in the assessment of the conflict resolution styles.

  5. Experimental Study of the Twin Turbulent Water Jets Using Laser Doppler Anemometry for Validating Numerical Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huhu; Lee Saya; Hassan, Yassin A.; Ruggles, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    The design of next generation (Gen. IV) high-temperature nuclear reactors including gas-cooled and sodium-cooled ones involves massive numerical works especially the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high cost of large-scale experiments and the inherent uncertainties existing in the turbulent models and wall functions of any CFD codes solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations necessitate the high-spacial experimental data sets for benchmarking the simulation results. In Gen. IV conceptual reactors, the high- temperature flows mix in the upper plenum before entering the secondary cooling system. The mixing condition should be accurately estimated and fully understood as it is related to the thermal stresses induced in the upper plenum and the magnitudes of output power oscillations due to any changes of primary coolant temperature. The purpose of this study is to use Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique to measure the flow field of two submerged parallel jets issuing from two rectangular channels. The LDA data sets can be used to validate the corresponding simulation results. The jets studied in this work were at room temperature. The turbulent characteristics including the distributions of mean velocities, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses were studied. Uncertainty analysis was also performed to study the errors involved in this experiment. The experimental results in this work are valid for benchmarking any steady-state numerical simulations using turbulence models to solve RANS equations. (author)

  6. Validity and reliability of the critical care pain observation tool: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kathleen Marie

    2013-12-01

    Critically ill patients are often not able to self-report the presence of pain. Currently there is no generally accepted assessment tool for this population. The Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) was developed for pain assessment of critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to replicate the findings of the Gelinas et al. (2006) CPOT reference study and examine the interrater reliability (IRR), discriminant validity (DV), and criterion validity (CV) of the CPOT. This quantitative study used a repeated measures design with a convenience sample of 21 postoperative open heart surgery patients cared for in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Testing for IRR in this sample showed a range of results resulting in fair to almost perfect IRR; the findings of this study suggest that the instrument's IRR is acceptable but variable. Testing for DV demonstrated a significant difference in mean scores between noxious (painful) and nonnoxious (nonpainful) procedures. Testing for CV showed a weak nonsignificant Spearman correlation of 0.26 (P process of translating the use of this instrument to the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Reliability and Validity of the Outcome Rating Scale: A Replication Study of a Brief Clinical Measure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bringhurst, David L; Watson, Curtis W; Miller, Scott D; Duncan, Barry L

    2004-01-01

    ... (Miller, Duncan, Brown, Sparks, AND Claud, 2003). This article reports the findings of an independent replication study evaluating the reliability and concurrent validity of the ORS as studied in a non-clinical sample...

  8. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Acceptance: A Validation Study Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Tan, Lynde

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a theory that is commonly used in commercial settings, to the educational context to explain pre-service teachers' technology acceptance. It is also interested in examining its validity when used for this purpose. It has found evidence that the TPB is a valid model to explain pre-service…

  9. Using Web-Based Questionnaires and Obstetric Records to Assess General Health Characteristics Among Pregnant Women: A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Schouten, N.P.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Roukema, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-reported medical history information is included in many studies. However, data on the validity of Web-based questionnaires assessing medical history are scarce. If proven to be valid, Web-based questionnaires may provide researchers with an efficient means to collect data on this

  10. A Validation Study of the National Assessment Instruments for Young English Language Learners in Norway and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Karmen; Moe, Eli

    2012-01-01

    This article is a validation study of two national large-scale tests that measure the language proficiency of 11/12 year-old English learners in Norway and Slovenia. Following the example of Alderson and Banerjee (2008), the authors of the article have employed the EALTA guidelines for good practice to validate the tests, and to formulate major…

  11. Initial Validation Study for a Scale Used to Determine Service Intensity for Itinerant Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, Rona L.; Darst, Shannon; Munro, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to begin validation of a scale that will be used by teachers of students with visual impairments to determine appropriate recommended type and frequency of services for their students based on identified student need. Methods: Validity and reliability of the Visual Impairment Scale of Service Intensity…

  12. An unattended device for sleep-related breathing disorders : Validation study in suspected obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucconi, M; FeriniStrambi, L; Castronovo, [No Value; Oldani, A; Smirne, S

    Portable devices for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are considered to be an acceptable alternative to polysomnography (PSG), but their validation is essential, The aim of our study was to validate a device specifically designed for OSA diagnosis. Twenty nine suspected OSA patients

  13. A Reliability and Validity of an Instrument to Evaluate the School-Based Assessment System: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Nor Hasnida Md

    2016-01-01

    A valid, reliable and practical instrument is needed to evaluate the implementation of the school-based assessment (SBA) system. The aim of this study is to develop and assess the validity and reliability of an instrument to measure the perception of teachers towards the SBA implementation in schools. The instrument is developed based on a…

  14. Developing the Blueprint for a General Surgery Technical Skills Certification Examination: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), German language version in Swiss university hospitals - a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number

  16. Pilot Validation Study of the European Association of Urology Robotic Training Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Alessandro; Ahmed, Kamran; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Novara, Giacomo; van der Poel, Henk; Mottrie, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    The development of structured and validated training curricula is one of the current priorities in robot-assisted urological surgery. To establish the feasibility, acceptability, face validity, and educational impact of a structured training curriculum for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), and to assess improvements in performance and ability to perform RARP after completion of the curriculum. A 12-wk training curriculum was developed based on an expert panel discussion and used to train ten fellows from major European teaching institutions. The curriculum included: (1) e-learning, (2) 1 wk of structured simulation-based training (virtual reality synthetic, animal, and cadaveric platforms), and (3) supervised modular training for RARP. The feasibility, acceptability, face validity, and educational impact were assessed using quantitative surveys. Improvement in the technical skills of participants over the training period was evaluated using the inbuilt validated assessment metrics on the da Vinci surgical simulator (dVSS). A final RARP performed by fellows on completion of their training was assessed using the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) score and generic and procedure-specific scoring criteria. The median baseline experience of participants as console surgeon was 4 mo (interquartile range [IQR] 0-6.5 mo). All participants completed the curriculum and were involved in a median of 18 RARPs (IQR 14-36) during modular training. The overall score for dVSS tasks significantly increased over the training period (p10 (scale 4-16) for all procedural steps using a generic dedicated scoring tool. In performance comparison using this scoring tool, the experts significantly outperformed the fellows (mean score for all steps 13.6 vs 11). The European robot-assisted urologic training curriculum is acceptable, valid, and effective for training in RARP. This study shows that a 12-wk structured training program including simulation

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Validation of a Biomass Hydrothermal Pretreatment Process - A Demonstration Scale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jakobsen, Jon Geest

    2015-01-01

    for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Several by-products are also formed, which disturb and act as inhibitors downstream. The objective of this study is to formulate and validate a large scale hydrothermal pretreatment dynamic model based on mass and energy balances, together with a complex conversion mechanism......Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a cost effective technology for second generation biorefineries. The process occurs in large horizontal and pressurized thermal reactors where the biomatrix is opened under the action of steam pressure and temperature to expose cellulose...

  18. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  19. Validation study by finite element method: the case of the Daniel Johnson Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lariviere, R.; Phat, T. M.; Poirier, C.; Thibeault, N.

    1997-01-01

    A structural study of the Daniel-Johnson multi-arch dam undertaken by Hydro-Quebec to determine the safest way of grouting the cracks at the base of some arches was described. A numerical model in the linear elastic domain was constructed. The model will be modified to incorporate other features such as the cracks at the base of arches, the cracks at the concrete-rock foundation contact area, and the restraining effect of downstream rock foundation. This paper highlights the quality assurance procedure related to model validation as recommended by the International Committee on Large Dams. 2 refs., 11 figs

  20. Validity study of the 16PF in terminal air traffic control work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karson, S.; O'Dell, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Personality test scores obtained in 1966 from the 16PF, Form A are compared with supervisory ratings on overall job ability made at least two years later on a sample of 510 terminal area journeymen controllers. Those rated above average were found to differ significantly from those rated below average in ability on one primary personality factor, namely, C (ego strength). Other factors which approached significance are also discussed. The present study represents an attempt to determine whether personality factor scores are valid over longer periods of time in successfully discriminating journeymen terminal controllers rated above and below average in overall ability by their supervisors

  1. Toward validating the Italian version of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory": a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Viotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to develop the Italian version of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI and to examine its psychometric properties within a sample of nursing staff.METHODThe study was cross-sectional and not randomized. The data were gathered using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 391 staff nurses employed in three hospitals in the Northern Region of Italy To evaluate burnout, the SBI and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered.RESULTSAn Exploratory Factor Analysis showed a four-factor structure close to the expected one. All Cronbach's alpha values were satisfactory. Furthermore, correlations support the concurrent validity.CONCLUSIONOverall, the results of this study provided evidence that the SBI is an adequate instrument to study burnout in the Italian nursing sample and indicated the feeling of guilt as an important dimension to gauge the structure of this phenomenon.

  2. Development and Validation of Acyclovir HPLC External Standard Method in Human Plasma: Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvadurai Muralidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of acyclovir in human plasma. The method involves a simple protein precipitation technique. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reverse phase C18 column using mixture of 5 mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (40 : 60, v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 290 nm. The retention time of acyclovir was 4.12 minutes. The method was validated and found to be linear in the range of 25.0–150.0 ng/mL. Validation studies were achieved by using the fundamental parameters, including accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and range, stability studies, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantitation (LOQ. It shows recovery at 91.0% which is more precise and accurate compared to the other method. These results indicated that the bioanalytical method was linear, precise, and accurate. The new bioanalytical method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic linearity study in human plasma.

  3. Estimating the predictive validity of diabetic animal models in rosiglitazone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, O E; Zsíros, N; Olsson, I A S

    2015-06-01

    For therapeutic studies, predictive validity of animal models - arguably the most important feature of animal models in terms of human relevance - can be calculated retrospectively by obtaining data on treatment efficacy from human and animal trials. Using rosiglitazone as a case study, we aim to determine the predictive validity of animal models of diabetes, by analysing which models perform most similarly to humans during rosiglitazone treatment in terms of changes in standard diabetes diagnosis parameters (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting glucose levels). A further objective of this paper was to explore the impact of four covariates on the predictive capacity: (i) diabetes induction method; (ii) drug administration route; (iii) sex of animals and (iv) diet during the experiments. Despite the variable consistency of animal species-based models with the human reference for glucose and HbA1c treatment effects, our results show that glucose and HbA1c treatment effects in rats agreed better with the expected values based on human data than in other species. Induction method was also found to be a substantial factor affecting animal model performance. The study concluded that regular reassessment of animal models can help to identify human relevance of each model and adapt research design for actual research goals. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. [The Italian version of the Attitudes Chocolate Questionnaire: a validation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitti, Francesca; Iannitelli, Angela; Mazza, Monica; Maraone, Annalisa; Zazzara, Francesca; Roselli, Valentina; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The aim of our study was to validate and to verify the reliability of the Italian version of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ) which evaluates different dimensions of chocolate craving experience. The Italian version of ACQ was administered to a sample consisting of 1609 adults, recruited among students of the University of L'Aquila and general population. The subjects also completed the Stress-Related Vulnerability Scale (SVS), which assesses the level of stress and social support received. This study showed a good degree of stability and internal consistency of the two-factor model, respectively represented by craving and sense of guilt, in comparison to previous ones. The scoring for both factors resulted greater in women than in men. Subjects of younger age and with lower Body Mass Index (BMI) achieved higher scores in relation to the craving dimension, while a positive correlation was observed between age and sense of guilt. Finally the total scoring at SVS and its subscales resulted significantly interrelated with the two factors. Our study confirms the validity and the reliability of the Italian version of the two-factors based ACQ scale and strongly underlines the association between perceived stress and dysfunctional approach to chocolate consumption.

  5. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  6. Analysis: including visually impaired participants in validation design studies of diabetes technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark; Blubaugh, Morgan

    2010-09-01

    In an article in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sherwyn Schwartz, M.D., presents a study to validate the design of the ClikSTAR® insulin pen from sanofi-aventis and demonstrates that the device can be used correctly by participants with diabetes. Concern with this article lies with the selection of participants, which was meant to reflect the intended audience for the insulin pen device but does not address the inclusion of visually impaired individuals, who comprise over 20% of the adult diabetes population. Visually impaired individuals need to be included as part of the intended audience for insulin administration technology, and manufacturers of these devices need to design their products for safe use by all people, including those who are visually impaired. The study demonstrated successful use of the ClikSTAR insulin pen in a population that did not include subjects with severe visual impairment. We believe that future validation studies for insulin administration technology should also include samples of visually impaired users and that visually impaired patients will embrace the use of insulin pens designed with their needs in mind. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  8. Validity and Reliability Study of the Korean Tinetti Mobility Test for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Hee Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Joong-Seok; Yun, Ji Young; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Younsoo; Kim, Ji Seon; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Park, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Jinyoung; Jang, Wooyoung

    2018-01-01

    Postural instability and gait disturbance are the cardinal symptoms associated with falling among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The Tinetti mobility test (TMT) is a well-established measurement tool used to predict falls among elderly people. However, the TMT has not been established or widely used among PD patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TMT for PD patients. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with PD were enrolled in this study. For the interrater reliability test, thirteen clinicians scored the TMT after watching a video clip. We also used the test-retest method to determine intrarater reliability. For concurrent validation, the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Berg Balance Scale, Timed-Up and Go test, 10-m walk test, and gait analysis by three-dimensional motion capture were also used. We analyzed receiver operating characteristic curve to predict falling. The interrater reliability and intrarater reliability of the Korean Tinetti balance scale were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The interrater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the Korean Tinetti gait scale were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The Korean TMT scores were significantly correlated with the other clinical scales and three-dimensional motion capture. The cutoff values for predicting falling were 14 points (balance subscale) and 10 points (gait subscale). We found that the Korean version of the TMT showed excellent validity and reliability for gait and balance and had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting falls among patients with PD.

  9. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrakaf S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and

  10. Water balance at an arid site: a model validation study of bare soil evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.L.; Campbell, G.S.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report contains results of model validation studies conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP). The model validation tests consisted of using unsaturated water flow models to simulate water balance experiments conducted at the Buried Waste Test Facility (BWTF) located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The BWTF is a lysimeter facility designed to collect field data on long-term water balance and radionuclide tracer movement. It has been operated by PNL for the NLLWMP since 1978. An experimental test case, developed from data collected at the BWTF, was used to evaluate predictions from different water flow models. The major focus of the validation study was to evaluate how the use of different evaporation models affected the accuracy of predictions of evaporation, storage, and drainage made by the whole model. Four evaporation models were tested including two empirical models and two mechanistic models. The empirical models estimate actual evaporation from potential evaporation; the mechanistic models describe water vapor diffusion within the soil profile and between the soil and the atmosphere in terms of fundamental soil properties, and transport processes. The water flow models that included the diffusion-type evaporation submodels performed best overall. The empirical models performed poorly in their description of evaporation and profile water storage during summer months. The predictions of drainage were supported quite well by the experimental data. This indicates that the method used to estimate hydraulic conductivity needed for the Darcian submodel was adequate. This important result supports recommendations for these procedures that were made previously based on laboratory results.

  11. Reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Women's Health Study physical activity questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Jin, Fan; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Liu, Dake; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    In this investigation, the authors evaluated the reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which was administered in a cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women aged 40-70 years. Reproducibility (2-year test-retest) was evaluated using kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Validity was evaluated by comparing Spearman correlations (r) for the SWHS PAQ with two criterion measures administered over a period of 12 months: four 7-day physical activity logs and up to 28 7-day PAQs. Women were recruited from the SWHS cohort (n = 200). Results indicated that the reproducibility of adolescent and adult exercise participation (kappa = 0.85 and kappa = 0.64, respectively) and years of adolescent exercise and adult exercise energy expenditure (ICC = 0.83 and ICC = 0.70, respectively) was reasonable. Reproducibility values for adult lifestyle activities were lower (ICC = 0.14-0.54). Significant correlations between the PAQ and criterion measures of adult exercise were observed for the first PAQ administration (physical activity log, r = 0.50; 7-day PAQ, r = 0.62) and the second PAQ administration (physical activity log, r = 0.74; 7-day PAQ, r = 0.80). Significant correlations between PAQ lifestyle activities and the 7-day PAQ were also noted (r = 0.33-0.88). These data indicate that the SWHS PAQ is a reproducible and valid measure of exercise behaviors and that it demonstrates utility in stratifying women by levels of important lifestyle activities (e.g., housework, walking, cycling).

  12. Reproducibility and validity of the Shanghai Men's Health Study physical activity questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Matthews, Charles E; Liu, Dake; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-05-15

    Reproducibility and validity of the physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Shanghai Men's Health Study (2003-2006, People's Republic of China) was evaluated in a random sample of 196 participants aged 40-74 years. Participants completed a PAQ at baseline and again 1 year later, 12 monthly 7-day physical activity recalls, and four quarterly 1-week physical activity logs. Reproducibility was evaluated by using the two PAQs and validity by comparing the PAQs with 1-year averages of the two criterion measures: 7-day physical activity recall and physical activity log. The PAQ had moderate to high reproducibility for measuring adult exercise participation (kappa = 0.60) and energy expenditure (r(s) = 0.68), nonexercise activities (correlation coefficients = 0.42-0.68), and total daily energy expenditure (r(s) = 0.68, kappa(quartiles) = 0.47). Correlations between the PAQ and criterion measures of adult exercise were 0.45 (7-day physical activity recall) and 0.51 (physical activity log) for the first PAQ and 0.62 (7-day physical activity recall) and 0.71 (physical activity log) for the second PAQ. Correlations between PAQ nonexercise activities and the physical activity log and 7-day physical activity recall were 0.31-0.86. Correlations for total energy expenditure were high (0.62-0.77). Results indicate that the Shanghai Men's Health Study PAQ has reasonable reproducibility and validity for classifying men by their level of exercise and nonexercise activities in this cohort.

  13. A validation study of lawless expectancy model on low-level rural black workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Edwards

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to validate the expectancy theory model propogated by Lawler(1971; 1973 on low level rural Black shop assistants in the Republic of Transkei. The criterion measure, performance, is measured by a performance appraisal instrument developed by the NIPR and the expectancy theory components by means of a translated version of the instrument which appears in the Michigan Organizational Assessment Package Part II. For a sample of 183 shop assistants from 10 organizations, the instrument yielded reliability coefficients ranging from 0,72 to 0,84. Evidence of validity was obtained by means of correlational analysis. A multiple correlation coefficient of R² = 0,29 was obtained. Further evidence of validity was found by means of maximum likelihood path analytic procedures. Opsomming Die geldigheid van Lawler se verwagtingsteorie vir landelike Swart winkelassistente in die Republiekvan Transkei word in die studie ondersoek. Die komponente van die verwagtingsteorie is gemeet deur 'n vertaalde weergawe van die Michigan Organizational Assessment Package (Part II, terwyl die kriterium, werksprestasie, beoordeel is deur middel van 'n prestasiebeoordelingsvraelys ontwikkel deur die NIPN. Met 'n steekproef van 183 winkelassistente uit 10 organisasies het die motiveringsvraelys betroubaarheidskoeffisiente gelewer van tussen 0,72 en 0,84. Met uitsondering van die E→ P komponent was al die korrelasies met die kriterium beduidend op die l%-peil en het gevarieer tussen 0,24 en 0,26 met 'n gekwadreerde meervoudige korrelasiekoeffisient van 0,29. Genoeg positiewe bewyse is in die studie verkry om met redelike sekerheid te aanvaar dat die verwagtingsteorie van toepassing gemaak kan word op lae-vlak landelike Swart workers.

  14. Indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in supermarkets: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Mackenzie, Tara; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2017-04-26

    In-store availability of healthy and unhealthy foods may influence consumer purchases. Methods used to measure food availability, however, vary widely. A simple, valid, and reliable indicator to collect comparable data on in-store food availability is needed. Cumulative linear shelf length of and variety within 22 healthy and 28 unhealthy food groups, determined based on a comparison of three nutrient profiling systems, were measured in 15 New Zealand supermarkets. Inter-rater reliability was tested in one supermarket by a second researcher. The construct validity of five simple indicators of relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods was assessed against this 'gold standard'. Cumulative linear shelf length was a more sensitive and feasible measure of food availability than variety. Four out of five shelf length ratio indicators were significantly associated with the gold standard (ρ = 0.70-0.75). Based on a non-significant difference from the 'gold standard' (d = 0.053 ± 0.040) and feasibility, the ratio of cumulative linear shelf length of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables versus soft and energy drinks, crisps and snacks, sweet biscuits and confectionery performed best for use in New Zealand supermarkets. Four out of the five shelf length ratio indicators of the relative availability of healthy versus unhealthy foods in-store tested could be used for future research and monitoring, but additional validation studies in other settings and countries are recommended. Consistent use of those shelf length ratio indicators could enhance comparability of supermarket food availability between studies, and help inform policies to create healthy consumer food retail environments.

  15. Is the inclinometer a valid measure of thoracic kyphosis? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Donald J; Rivett, Darren A; McKiernan, Sharmain; Weerasekara, Ishanka; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2018-03-06

    Radiographs are used to monitor thoracic kyphosis in individuals with certain pathologies (e.g. osteoporosis), exposing patients to potentially harmful radiation. Thus, other measures for monitoring the progression of thoracic kyphosis are desirable. The gravity-dependent inclinometer has been shown to be reliable but its validity as a measure of thoracic kyphosis has not been investigated. To determine the validity of the gravity-dependent (analogue) inclinometer for measuring thoracic kyphosis. Cross-sectional study. Participants (n=78) were recruited as part of a larger study of shoulder impingement syndrome. Healthy participants (n=39) were age and gender matched to the shoulder impingement syndrome group (n=39). Measurements of thoracic kyphosis using a gravity-dependent inclinometer were compared with modified Cobb angle results obtained from a sagittal view of lateral radiographs. A Bland-Altman plot assessed agreement. The Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression was used to determine the association between modified Cobb angles and inclinometer measurements. The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated good agreement. The Pearson correlation coefficient, r=0.62 (p<0.001), and linear regression model established a strong association between the thoracic kyphosis angle from the inclinometer readings and the modified Cobb angle measured from the radiographs (β=0.47, 95% CI 0.29, 0.65, p<0.001, R 2 =0.52, n=78). Age as a confounder was included in the model (β=0.35, 95% CI 0.19, 0.51, p<0.001). The gravity-dependent (analogue) inclinometer produces angles that are comparable to the modified Cobb angle obtained from radiographs, establishing its criterion validity as a safe clinical tool for measuring thoracic kyphosis. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Development and evaluation of 'neck pain and functional limitation scale': a validation study in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Joseph Henry; Choo, Chan Poh; Manaf, Mohd Rizal Abdul; Md Isa, Zaleha; Mohd Nordin, Nor Azlin; Das, Srijit

    2009-10-01

    There is a paucity of literature on validated outcome measurement tools for evaluation of neck pain and related disability in the Asian context. The main aim of the present study was to design a new tool called neck pain functional limitation scale (NPFLS) for measuring disability related to neck pain and observe its reliability, concurrent validity and criterion validity. This study was performed at the institutional hospital. A total of 157 subjects (neck pain group) and 25 control subjects (control group) without neck pain were recruited for this study. NPFLS was framed as a new tool for this study, which consisted of 5 domains - pain intensity, activities of daily living, social activities, functional activities and psychological factors. Neck Bournemouth questionnaire (NBQ) was used as a gold standard to measure the concurrent validity and criterion validity of the NPFLS. Criterion validity and concurrent validity between the neck Bournemouth questionnaire (NBQ) and NPFLS scores were tested statistically using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation test. The reliability was tested by examining the internal consistency to calculate the Cronbach's alpha value for each item in NPFLS. No significant difference between NPFLS and NBQ was observed using Mann-Whitney U Test, with P value greater than 0.05 (P= 0.557). Besides that, NPFLS had a high concurrent validity (r= 0.916) and good internal consistency with high Cronbach's alpha value of (r= 0.948), which demonstrated strong correlation between the items of NPFLS and NBQ. NPFLS demonstrated good reliability, high concurrent validity and criterion validity in this study. NPFLS can be used to assess neck pain and disability among patients with neck pain.

  17. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity Studies and Derivation of a Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Kenneth J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interrelated analyses were conducted with more than 4,000 college students to examine the reliability and validity of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and to develop and validate a short version of the scale. Results provide moderate support for the reliability and validity of both the TPQ and the short form. (SLD)

  18. The knowledge, efficacy, and practices instrument for oral health providers: a validity study with dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to

  19. Development of the headache activities of daily living index: initial validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Howard; Lawson, Gordon

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel instrument for assessing headache-related disability focusing solely on important activities of daily living. Part 1: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar, supplemented by hand searches in bibliographies to retrieve the original article for any instrument for the assessment of headache-related disability. Each instrument was evaluated for item categories, specific item content, measurement scale format for each item, and instructions to users. Together, these features constituted the construct validity of these instruments. Qualitative evaluations of these results were summarized with respect to the adequacy of each component. Psychometric features such as reliability and validity were not assessed. Part 2: An existing instrument for assessing self-rated disability, the Neck Disability Index, was modified for content and format and subjected to 2 rounds of clinician and patient review. Item contents and formats received final consensus, resulting in a 9-item instrument: the Headache Activities of Daily Living Index (HADLI). This instrument was tested in a sample of headache patients. Cronbach α and individual item correlations were obtained. Principal Components Analysis was performed. Part 1: The search identified 6 reports on 5 preexisting instruments for self-rating of headache-related disability. Problems in content were found in all instruments, especially relating to the lack of items for specific activities of daily living. Problems were noted in most of the instruments for scaling and instructions with respect to the effect of headache on activities of daily living. Part 2: The authors first identified suitable items from an existing instrument for self-rating of disability. These were supplemented by items drawn from the literature. A panel of 3 clinicians and 2 laypersons evaluated these items. Two more focus groups of 7 headache sufferers each reviewed the new instrument. After

  20. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method' which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method' which requires estimation of the line of femur. Setting: Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. Participants: 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects. Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Main outcomes: Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs. Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Results Validity (referenced to radiographs: Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988, and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998. Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995 were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained

  1. Validation and Algorithms Comparative Study for Microwave Remote Sensing of Snow Depth over China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, C J; Qiu, Y B; Shi, L J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, five different snow algorithms (Chang algorithm, GSFC 96 algorithm, AMSR-E SWE algorithm, Improved Tibetan Plateau algorithm and Savoie algorithm) were selected to validate the accuracy of snow algorithms over China. These algorithms were compared for the accuracy of snow depth algorithms with AMSR-E brightness temperature data and ground measurements on February 10-12, 2010. Results showed that the GSFC 96 algorithm was more suitable in Xinjiang with the RMSE range from 6.85cm to 7.48 cm; in Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. Improved Tibetan Plateau algorithm is superior to the other four algorithms with the RMSE of 5.46cm∼6.11cm and 6.21cm∼7.83cm respectively; due to the lack of ground measurements, we couldn't get valid statistical results over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the mean relative error (MRE) of the selected algorithms was ranging from 37.95% to 189.13% in four study areas, which showed that the accuracy of the five snow depth algorithms is limited over China

  2. Assessing South China (Guangzhou) High School Students' Views on Nature of Science: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Tzung-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Research on students' views on nature of science (VNOS) in Asian countries such as China is notably lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure South China high school students' VNOS. Based on the previously acquired qualitative data, the instrument included seven VNOS dimensions which reflect the crucial aspects of NOS indicated by the literature and/or the dominating ideology in China (i.e., Marxism). A sample (N = 604) was randomly divided into two groups used for exploratory analyses and confirmatory analyses. The results indicated that the instrument expressed satisfactory reliability and validity and the seven NOS dimensions could be explained by a higher-order dimension. That is, the data of this study supported the multi-dimensional framework that treats VNOS as comprising several more-or-less correlated dimensions. Two distinct dimensions, namely "Accumulative-Empirical Source" and "Pragmatic Justification" which have not been explicitly specified in the past literature, were found. In addition, the Chinese high school students generally held a constructivist/relativist-oriented view of all seven dimensions. Differences in gender and grade level were hardly observed in any dimension of the instrument. The findings are further discussed through a socio-cultural lens to enrich the current understanding of VNOS.

  3. Validation of Different Instruments for Caffeine Measurement Among Premenopausal Women in the BioCycle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Perkins, Neil J.; Ye, Aijun; Pollack, Anna Z.; Zhang, Cuilin; Porucznik, Christina A.; VanDerslice, James A.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Effects of caffeine on women's health are inconclusive, in part because of inadequate exposure assessment. In this study we determined 1) validity of a food frequency questionnaire compared with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) for measuring monthly caffeine and caffeinated beverage intakes; and 2) validity of the 24HDR compared with the prior day's diary record for measuring daily caffeinated coffee intake. BioCycle Study (2005–2007) participants, women (n = 259) aged 18–44 years from western New York State, were followed for 2 menstrual cycles. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at the end of each cycle, four 24HDRs per cycle, and daily diaries. Caffeine intakes reported for the food frequency questionnaires were greater than those reported for the 24HDRs (mean = 114.1 vs. 92.6mg/day, P = 0.01) but showed high correlation (r = 0.73, P caffeinated coffee intake in their 24HDRs compared with their corresponding diary days (mean = 0.51 vs. 0.80 cups/day, P caffeine and coffee exposures were highly correlated, absolute intakes differed significantly between measurement tools. These results highlight the importance of considering potential misclassification of caffeine exposure. PMID:23462965

  4. A Study of the Concurrent Validity between the Boxall Profile and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Couture

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish the level of concurrent validity between the Boxall Profile, a diagnostic instrument used by teachers and teaching assistants in nurture groups, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, a widely used screening instrument in the fields of education, mental health and social work. 202 children and adolescents attending nurture groups in England, aged 3-14 years, participated in the study. . These consisted of142 boys and 60 girls and came from 25 schools in 8 LEAs. School staff completed the Boxall Profile and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for all pupils. . The results show a high degree of concordance between the two instruments, with both measures appearing to identify similar behavioural characteristics in the same children. Scores in specific domains of the Boxall Profile are shown to predict performance on particular sub-scales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. These preliminary findings support the validity claims of the Boxall Profile, indicating that it is a reliable tool for both diagnostic and research purposes.

  5. Development and validation of an open source quantification tool for DSC-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordaliza, P M; Mateos-Pérez, J M; Montesinos, P; Guzmán-de-Villoria, J A; Desco, M; Vaquero, J J

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the development of an open source tool for the quantification of dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion studies. The development of this tool is motivated by the lack of open source tools implemented on open platforms to allow external developers to implement their own quantification methods easily and without the need of paying for a development license. This quantification tool was developed as a plugin for the ImageJ image analysis platform using the Java programming language. A modular approach was used in the implementation of the components, in such a way that the addition of new methods can be done without breaking any of the existing functionalities. For the validation process, images from seven patients with brain tumors were acquired and quantified with the presented tool and with a widely used clinical software package. The resulting perfusion parameters were then compared. Perfusion parameters and the corresponding parametric images were obtained. When no gamma-fitting is used, an excellent agreement with the tool used as a gold-standard was obtained (R(2)>0.8 and values are within 95% CI limits in Bland-Altman plots). An open source tool that performs quantification of perfusion studies using magnetic resonance imaging has been developed and validated using a clinical software package. It works as an ImageJ plugin and the source code has been published with an open source license. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Validation of different instruments for caffeine measurement among premenopausal women in the BioCycle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Porucznik, Christina A; VanDerslice, James A; Stanford, Joseph B; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Effects of caffeine on women's health are inconclusive, in part because of inadequate exposure assessment. In this study we determined 1) validity of a food frequency questionnaire compared with multiple 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) for measuring monthly caffeine and caffeinated beverage intakes; and 2) validity of the 24HDR compared with the prior day's diary record for measuring daily caffeinated coffee intake. BioCycle Study (2005-2007) participants, women (n = 259) aged 18-44 years from western New York State, were followed for 2 menstrual cycles. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire at the end of each cycle, four 24HDRs per cycle, and daily diaries. Caffeine intakes reported for the food frequency questionnaires were greater than those reported for the 24HDRs (mean = 114.1 vs. 92.6mg/day, P = 0.01) but showed high correlation (r = 0.73, P cups/day, P cup = 237 mL). Although caffeine and coffee exposures were highly correlated, absolute intakes differed significantly between measurement tools. These results highlight the importance of considering potential misclassification of caffeine exposure.

  8. The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kenneth S; Wong, Chi-Sum; Song, Lynda J

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the authors reviewed the definition of emotional intelligence (EI) and argued that El is conceptually distinct from personality. In Study 1, the authors showed that EI was related to yet distinct from personality dimensions and that it had incremental predictive power on life satisfaction. The authors examined the construct validity of self-reports and others' ratings of EI using two samples in Study 2. In a student sample, parents' ratings explained additional variance in the students' life satisfaction and feelings of powerlessness after controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions. In the work sample, peer ratings were found to be significant predictors of job performance ratings provided by supervisors after controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions. Other implications for future research on EI are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  9. [Critical reading of articles about diagnostic tests (part I): Are the results of the study valid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E

    2015-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, one of the most important skills a radiologist should have is the ability to analyze the diagnostic literature critically. This tutorial aims to present guidelines for determining whether primary diagnostic articles are valid for clinical practice. The following elements should be evaluated: whether the study can be applied to clinical practice, whether the technique was compared to the reference test, whether an appropriate spectrum of patients was included, whether expectation bias and verification bias were limited, the reproducibility of the study, the practical consequences of the study, the confidence intervals for the parameters analyzed, the normal range for continuous variables, and the placement of the test in the context of other diagnostic tests. We use elementary practical examples to illustrate how to select and interpret the literature on diagnostic imaging and specific references to provide more details. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of a low-cost EEG device for mood induction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Rey, Beatriz; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    New electroencephalography (EEG) devices, more portable and cheaper, are appearing on the market. Studying the reliability of these EEG devices for emotional studies would be interesting, as these devices could be more economical and compatible with Virtual Reality (VR) settings. Therefore, the aim in this work was to validate a low-cost EEG device (Emotiv Epoc) to monitor brain activity during a positive emotional induction procedure. Emotional pictures (IAPS) were used to induce a positive mood in sixteen participants. Changes in the brain activity of subjects were compared between positive induction and neutral conditions. Obtained results were in accordance with previous scientific literature regarding frontal EEG asymmetry, which supports the possibility of using this low-cost EEG device in future mood induction studies combined with VR.

  11. Validation of a clinical leadership qualities framework for managers in aged care: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Conway, Jane; Chenoweth, Lynn; Weise, Janelle; Thomas, Tamsin Ht; Williams, Anna

    2015-04-01

    To establish validity of a clinical leadership framework for aged care middle managers (The Aged care Clinical Leadership Qualities Framework). Middle managers in aged care have responsibility not only for organisational governance also and operational management but also quality service delivery. There is a need to better define clinical leadership abilities in aged care middle managers, in order to optimise their positional authority to lead others to achieve quality outcomes. A Delphi method. Sixty-nine experts in aged care were recruited, representing rural, remote and metropolitan community and residential aged care settings. Panellists were asked to rate the proposed framework in terms of the relevance and importance of each leadership quality using four-point Likert scales, and to provide comments. Three rounds of consultation were conducted. The number and corresponding percentage of the relevance and importance rating for each quality was calculated for each consultation round, as well as mean scores. Consensus was determined to be reached when a percentage score reached 70% or greater. Twenty-three panellists completed all three rounds of consultation. Following the three rounds of consultation, the acceptability and face validity of the framework was confirmed. The study confirmed the framework as useful in identifying leadership requirements for middle managers in Australian aged care settings. The framework is the first validated framework of clinical leadership attributes for middle managers in aged care and offers an initial step forward in clarifying the aged care middle manager role. The framework provides clarity in the breadth of role expectations for the middle managers and can be used to inform an aged care specific leadership program development, individuals' and organisations' performance and development processes; and policy and guidelines about the types of activities required of middle managers in aged care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genetic Variants and Hamstring Injury in Soccer: An Association and Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruskain, Jon; Celorrio, David; Barrio, Irantzu; Odriozola, Adrian; Gil, Susana M; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan R; Nozal, Raul; Ortuzar, Isusko; Lekue, Jose A; Aznar, Jose M

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with noncontact hamstring muscle injuries in elite soccer players and to create and validate a model to assess the risk of hamstring injury. A total of 107 elite male outfield players were prospectively followed for six seasons. Players were genotyped for 37 SNP previously investigated in relation to musculoskeletal injuries. The association of SNP, previous injury, age, level of play, position, and anthropometric data with 129 hamstring injuries (413 observations) was investigated in the discovery phase (2010-2015), and a multivariable Cox frailty model was created using forward selection. The model's discriminative ability was tested in the validation phase (2015-2016, 31 injuries, 98 observations) using Harrell's C index. Five SNP were found to be significantly associated with hamstring injury in a multivariable model: matrix metalloproteinase 3 rs679620 (A vs G, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.81), tenascin C rs2104772 (A vs T, HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.17-2.32), interleukin 6 rs1800795 (GG vs GC + CC, HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.11-2.53), nitric oxide synthase 3 rs1799983 (G vs T, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.01-1.79), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α rs11549465 (CC vs CT, HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.00-4.29). Age also entered the model (≥24 vs <24 yr, HR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.29-3.42). The model showed acceptable discrimination in the discovery phase (C index = 0.74), but not in the validation phase (C index = 0.52). Genetic variants appear to be involved in the etiology of hamstring injuries but were not found to have predictive value by themselves. Further research, increasing the number of genetic variants and including environmental factors in complex multifactorial risk models, is necessary.

  13. Simulation tests for cervical nonorganic signs: a study of face validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Howard; Proctor, Dan; Bakalovski, Dianna; Moreton, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the face validity of additional cervical nonorganic simulation tests. Four simulation tests were either selected from the literature or newly designed: simulated sitting trunk/shoulder rotation (SR; test no. 1), active vs passive cervical rotation (CR; test no. 2), Libman's test (LT; test no. 3) of pressure over the mastoid process, and side-lying passive shoulder abduction (SA; test no. 4). Three groups, 1 without neck pain (n = 44) and 2 with neck pain (n = 43 and 27), were formed. Outcome measures consisted of questions on provocation of pain (Yes/No) and appropriateness (Yes/No) as well as measurements of cervical rotation (goniometric) and pressure pain threshold (pressure algometer). Group test responses were evaluated and scored. A threshold of acceptance was established at 80% agreement for face validity. Ranges of rotation and pressure threshold values were analyzed with the Student t test. In nonneck pain subjects, all 4 tests were rated as nonpainful and 3 were rated as "appropriate" for neck pain examination (not SR). In neck pain subjects, this test and SA were rated as nonpainful, whereas LT was rated as painful in 26% of subjects. Only CR and LT were rated as "appropriate." In neck pain subjects, passive rotations exceeded actives by 10% to 14% (P = .000). On a second round of testing with a slightly modified method, SR and SA achieved acceptable "appropriateness." Once 2 tests were slightly modified, all 4 tests were found to have acceptable face validity. Further research into the reliability of these tests as well as into the combinations of these tests is warranted. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Serious Game for Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Status: Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques

    2016-05-27

    We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=-.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making.

  15. A Serious Game for Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Status: Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. Objective The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. Methods We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Results After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=–.339, P games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making. PMID:27234145

  16. Development of the Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Advanced Huntington's Disease: A Pilot Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Bodak, Rebeka

    2016-01-01

    Case studies of people with Huntington's disease (HD) report that music therapy provides a range of benefits that may improve quality of life; however, no robust music therapy assessment tools exist for this population. Develop and conduct preliminary psychometric testing of a music therapy assessment tool for patients with advanced HD. First, we established content and face validity of the Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Advanced HD (MATA-HD) through focus groups and field testing. Second, we examined psychometric properties of the resulting MATA-HD in terms of its construct validity, internal consistency, and inter-rater and intra-rater reliability over 10 group music therapy sessions with 19 patients. The resulting MATA-HD included a total of 15 items across six subscales (Arousal/Attention, Physical Presentation, Communication, Musical, Cognition, and Psychological/Behavioral). We found good construct validity (r ≥ 0.7) for Mood, Communication Level, Communication Effectiveness, Choice, Social Behavior, Arousal, and Attention items. Cronbach's α of 0.825 indicated good internal consistency across 11 items with a common focus of engagement in therapy. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) Intra-Class Coefficient (ICC) scores averaged 0.65, and a mean intra-rater ICC reliability of 0.68 was obtained. Further training and retesting provided a mean of IRR ICC of 0.7. Preliminary data indicate that the MATA-HD is a promising tool for measuring patient responses to music therapy interventions across psychological, physical, social, and communication domains of functioning in patients with advanced HD. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Predicting survival of de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asian women: systematic review and validation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Miao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Asia, up to 25% of breast cancer patients present with distant metastases at diagnosis. Given the heterogeneous survival probabilities of de novo metastatic breast cancer, individual outcome prediction is challenging. The aim of the study is to identify existing prognostic models for patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer and validate them in Asia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify prediction models for metastatic breast cancer. Models were validated in 642 women with de novo metastatic breast cancer registered between 2000 and 2010 in the Singapore Malaysia Hospital Based Breast Cancer Registry. Survival curves for low, intermediate and high-risk groups according to each prognostic score were compared by log-rank test and discrimination of the models was assessed by concordance statistic (C-statistic. RESULTS: We identified 16 prediction models, seven of which were for patients with brain metastases only. Performance status, estrogen receptor status, metastatic site(s and disease-free interval were the most common predictors. We were able to validate nine prediction models. The capacity of the models to discriminate between poor and good survivors varied from poor to fair with C-statistics ranging from 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.53 to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.60-0.66. CONCLUSION: The discriminatory performance of existing prediction models for de novo metastatic breast cancer in Asia is modest. Development of an Asian-specific prediction model is needed to improve prognostication and guide decision making.

  18. Validation of FSP Reactor Design with Sensitivity Studies of Beryllium-Reflected Critical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall

    2013-02-01

    The baseline design for space nuclear power is a fission surface power (FSP) system: sodium-potassium (NaK) cooled, fast spectrum reactor with highly-enriched-uranium (HEU)-O2 fuel, stainless steel (SS) cladding, and beryllium reflectors with B4C control drums. Previous studies were performed to evaluate modeling capabilities and quantify uncertainties and biases associated with analysis methods and nuclear data. Comparison of Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR)-20 benchmark experiments with the FSP design indicated that further reduction of the total design model uncertainty requires the reduction in uncertainties pertaining to beryllium and uranium cross-section data. Further comparison with three beryllium-reflected HEU-metal benchmark experiments performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) concluded the requirement that experimental validation data have similar cross section sensitivities to those found in the FSP design. A series of critical experiments was performed at ORCEF in the 1960s to support the Medium Power Reactor Experiment (MPRE) space reactor design. The small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were graphite- or beryllium-reflected assemblies of SS-clad, HEU-O2 fuel on a vertical lift machine. All five configurations were evaluated as benchmarks. Two of the five configurations were beryllium reflected, and further evaluated using the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities of SCALE 6.1. Validation of the example FSP design model was successful in reducing the primary uncertainty constituent, the Be(n,n) reaction, from 0.28 %dk/k to 0.0004 %dk/k. Further assessment of additional reactor physics measurements performed on the SCCA experiments may serve to further validate FSP design and operation.

  19. Review article: what makes a good healthcare quality indicator? A systematic review and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter; Shepherd, Michael; Wells, Susan; Le Fevre, James; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-04-01

    Indicators measuring aspects of performance to assess quality of care are often chosen arbitrarily. The present study aimed to determine what should be considered when selecting healthcare quality indicators, particularly focusing on the application to emergency medicine. Structured searches of electronic databases were supplemented by website searches of quality of care and benchmarking organisations, citation searches and discussions with experts. Candidate attributes of 'good' healthcare indicators were extracted independently by two authors. The validity of each attribute was independently assessed by 16 experts in quality of care and emergency medicine. Valid and reliable attributes were included in a critical appraisal tool for healthcare quality indicators, which was piloted by emergency medicine specialists. Twenty-three attributes were identified, and all were rated moderate to extremely important by an expert panel. The reliability was high: alpha = 0.98. Twelve existing tools explicitly stated a median (range) of 14 (8-17) attributes. A critical appraisal tool incorporating all the attributes was developed. This was piloted by four emergency medicine specialists who were asked to appraise and rank a set of six candidate indicators. Although using the tool took more time than implicit gestalt decision making: median (interquartile range) 190 (43-352) min versus 17.5 (3-34) min, their rankings changed after using the tool. To inform the appraisal of quality improvement indicators for emergency medicine, a comprehensive list of indicator attributes was identified, validated, developed into a tool and piloted. Although expert consensus is still required, this tool provides an explicit basis for discussions around indicator selection. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. An Automated Defect Prediction Framework using Genetic Algorithms: A Validation of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Murillo-Morera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is common for software projects to collect measurement data through development processes. With these data, defect prediction software can try to estimate the defect proneness of a software module, with the objective of assisting and guiding software practitioners. With timely and accurate defect predictions, practitioners can focus their limited testing resources on higher risk areas. This paper reports the results of three empirical studies that uses an automated genetic defect prediction framework. This framework generates and compares different learning schemes (preprocessing + attribute selection + learning algorithms and selects the best one using a genetic algorithm, with the objective to estimate the defect proneness of a software module. The first empirical study is a performance comparison of our framework with the most important framework of the literature. The second empirical study is a performance and runtime comparison between our framework and an exhaustive framework. The third empirical study is a sensitivity analysis. The last empirical study, is our main contribution in this paper. Performance of the software development defect prediction models (using AUC, Area Under the Curve was validated using NASA-MDP and PROMISE data sets. Seventeen data sets from NASA-MDP (13 and PROMISE (4 projects were analyzed running a NxM-fold cross-validation. A genetic algorithm was used to select the components of the learning schemes automatically, and to assess and report the results. Our results reported similar performance between frameworks. Our framework reported better runtime than exhaustive framework. Finally, we reported the best configuration according to sensitivity analysis.

  1. An approach to model validation and model-based prediction -- polyurethane foam case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2003-07-01

    Enhanced software methodology and improved computing hardware have advanced the state of simulation technology to a point where large physics-based codes can be a major contributor in many systems analyses. This shift toward the use of computational methods has brought with it new research challenges in a number of areas including characterization of uncertainty, model validation, and the analysis of computer output. It is these challenges that have motivated the work described in this report. Approaches to and methods for model validation and (model-based) prediction have been developed recently in the engineering, mathematics and statistical literatures. In this report we have provided a fairly detailed account of one approach to model validation and prediction applied to an analysis investigating thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. A model simulates the evolution of the foam in a high temperature environment as it transforms from a solid to a gas phase. The available modeling and experimental results serve as data for a case study focusing our model validation and prediction developmental efforts on this specific thermal application. We discuss several elements of the ''philosophy'' behind the validation and prediction approach: (1) We view the validation process as an activity applying to the use of a specific computational model for a specific application. We do acknowledge, however, that an important part of the overall development of a computational simulation initiative is the feedback provided to model developers and analysts associated with the application. (2) We utilize information obtained for the calibration of model parameters to estimate the parameters and quantify uncertainty in the estimates. We rely, however, on validation data (or data from similar analyses) to measure the variability that contributes to the uncertainty in predictions for specific systems or units (unit-to-unit variability). (3) We perform statistical

  2. Validation of an analytical method for quality control and stability study of 10 % Phenylephrine eyedrops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteagudo Licea, Raiza; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Botet Garcia, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Phenylephrine is used like mydiatric in eye examinations and other ophthalmic procedures. It is used as vasoconstrictor with local anesthetic agents. In present paper a high resolution liquid chromatography analytical method was validated to quality control and stability studies of 10 % Phenylephrine (eyedrops). Method was based in separation of active principle through a Lichrosorb RO-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) chromatography column with UV detection at 280 nm using a mobile phase composed by a non-gasified mixture of methanol distilled water (1:1) with 1.1 g of 1-sodium octane-sulphonate by liter adjusted to pH 3,0 with phosphoric acid at a flow speed of 1.0 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, accuracy, specific and exact in the interval of study concentrations

  3. Simulated dose reduction by adding artificial noise to measured raw data: A validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, M.; Gunnarsson, M.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify and validate a noise simulation tool called Dose Tutor (VAMP GmbH) in terms of level and texture of the simulated noise. By adding artificial noise to measured computed tomography (CT) raw data, a scan acquired with a lower dose (mAs) than the actual one can be simulated. A homogeneous polyethylene phantom and an anthropomorphic chest phantom were scanned for different mAs levels, tube voltages, slice thicknesses and reconstruction kernels. The simulated noise levels were compared with the noise levels in real transverse slice images actually acquired with corresponding mAs values. In general, the noise comparisons showed acceptable agreement in magnitude (<20% deviation in pixel standard deviation). Also, the calculated noise power spectra were similar, which indicates that the noise texture is correctly reproduced. In conclusion, this study establishes that the Dose Tutor might be a useful tool for estimating the dose reduction potential for CT protocols. (authors)

  4. Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Bendoyro, Maria Olga; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Fernandez, Juan Lugones; Garcia Borges, Lisandra; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval

  5. Validation Study of a Predictive Algorithm to Evaluate Opioid Use Disorder in a Primary Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Maneesh; Lee, Chee; Kantorovich, Svetlana; Tedtaotao, Maria; Smith, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opioid abuse in chronic pain patients is a major public health issue. Primary care providers are frequently the first to prescribe opioids to patients suffering from pain, yet do not always have the time or resources to adequately evaluate the risk of opioid use disorder (OUD). Purpose: This study seeks to determine the predictability of aberrant behavior to opioids using a comprehensive scoring algorithm (“profile”) incorporating phenotypic and, more uniquely, genotypic risk factors. Methods and Results: In a validation study with 452 participants diagnosed with OUD and 1237 controls, the algorithm successfully categorized patients at high and moderate risk of OUD with 91.8% sensitivity. Regardless of changes in the prevalence of OUD, sensitivity of the algorithm remained >90%. Conclusion: The algorithm correctly stratifies primary care patients into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories to appropriately identify patients in need for additional guidance, monitoring, or treatment changes. PMID:28890908

  6. Screening for trace explosives by AccuTOF™-DART®: an in-depth validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Dake, Jeffrey; Bridge, Candice

    2013-10-10

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry is finding increasing utility as a rapid analysis technique in a number of fields. In forensic science specifically, analysis of many types of samples, including drugs, explosives, inks, bank dye, and lotions, has been shown to be possible using these techniques [1]. This paper focuses on one type of ambient ionization mass spectrometry, Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS or DART), and its viability as a screening tool for trace explosives analysis. In order to assess viability, a validation study was completed which focused on the analysis of trace amounts of nitro and peroxide based explosives. Topics which were studied, and are discussed, include method optimization, reproducibility, sensitivity, development of a search library, discrimination of mixtures, and blind sampling. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique over other similar screening techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mastoid triangle for sex determination in adult Nigerian population: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Ajua, Christiana O; Didia, Blessing C

    2013-11-01

    In the quest for a simple, reliable technique to estimate the sex of human remains several novel metric skeletal indices have been reported. Only a few have been examined for utility in populations different from those in which they were developed. In this study, the mastoid process was evaluated for sex determination using 102 lateral cephalograms of a Nigerian sample of known age and sex. The asterion-mastoidale distance and mastoid triangular area were sexually dimorphic with mean values higher in males compared with females (p = 0.02). On analysis of the discriminant function, overall accuracy for sex classification was 55%. On cross-validation, the triangular area accurately identified 80% of females and 48% of males. The asterion-mastoidale distance was slightly more accurate at sexing the sample. The practical utility of the mastoid triangle area technique to differentiate sex in Nigerian populations is not supported by the results of this study. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. The Rorschach texture response: a construct validation study using attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassella, Michael J; Viglione, Donald J

    2009-11-01

    Using attachment theory, in this research, we explored the construct validity of the Rorschach (Exner, 1974) Texture (T) response as a measure of interpersonal closeness and contact. A total of 40 men and 39 women completed the Rorschach and 2 attachment inventories. Their romantic partners also completed an informant version of the attachment measures. Attachment styles were measured by factor scores involving both self-report and partner report. Results indicate that attachment theory, as a broad conceptual framework, is associated with T. Specifically, T = 1 is most closely associated with a secure attachment style, T > 1 with aspects of the preoccupied style, and T = 0 with aspects of the avoidant style and an absence of secure attachment. Needs for closeness and contact associated with T can be couched within an adult attachment theory, but in this study, we did not test for problematic aspects of insecure attachment. Gender is a complicating factor and deserves more study.

  9. Development and validation of a thin-layer chromatography method for stability studies of naproxen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar; Rodriguez Borges, Tania

    2011-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method was carried out to be applied to the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use. The factors which mostly influenced in the naproxen stability were determined, the major degradation occurred in oxidizing acid medium and by action of light. The possible formation of esters between the free carboxyl group present in naproxen and the glyceryl monoestereate present in the base was identified as one of the degradation paths in the new formulation. The results were satisfactory. A thin-layer chromatography-based method was developed as well as the best chromatographic conditions were selected. GF 254 silica gel plates and ultraviolet developer at 254 nm were employed. Three solvent systems were evaluated of which A made up of glacial acetic: tetrahydrofurane:toluene (3:9:90 v/v/v)allowed adequate resolution between the analyte and the possible degradation products, with detection limit of 1 μg. The use of the suggested method was restricted to the identification of possible degradation products just for qualitative purposes and not as final test. The method proved to be sensitive and selective enough to be applied for the stated objective, according to the validation results

  10. Validation study of the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetosphere model RAM-SCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Zhang, Jichun; Kistler, Lynn M.

    2012-03-01

    The validation of the magnetically self-consistent inner magnetospheric model RAM-SCB developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented here. The model consists of two codes: a kinetic ring current-atmosphere interaction model (RAM) and a 3-D equilibrium magnetic field code (SCB). The validation is conducted by simulating two magnetic storm events and then comparing the model results against a variety of satellite in situ observations, including the magnetic field from Cluster and Polar spacecraft, ion differential flux from the Cluster/CODIF (Composition and Distribution Function) analyzer, and the ground-based SYM-H index. The model prediction of the magnetic field is in good agreement with observations, which indicates the model's capability of representing well the inner magnetospheric field configuration. This provides confidence for the RAM-SCB model to be utilized for field line and drift shell tracing, which are needed in radiation belt studies. While the SYM-H index, which reflects the total ring current energy content, is generally reasonably reproduced by the model using the Weimer electric field model, the modeled ion differential flux clearly depends on the electric field strength, local time, and magnetic activity level. A self-consistent electric field approach may be needed to improve the model performance in this regard.

  11. Ecological Assessment Battery for Numbers (EABN) for brain-damaged patients: standardization and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, M; Tarabon-Prevost, C; Bayen, E; Robert, H; Bernard, B; Hurteaux, E; Pradat-Diehl, P

    2015-10-01

    Number-processing may be altered following brain injury and might affect the everyday life of patients. We developed the first ecological tool to assess number-processing disorders in brain-injured patients, the Ecological Assessment Battery for Numbers (EABN; in French, the BENQ). The aim of the present study was to standardize and validate this new tool. Standardization included 126 healthy controls equally distributed by age, sex and sociocultural level. First, 17 patients were evaluated by the EABN; then scores for a subgroup of 10 were compared with those from a French analytical calculation test, the Évaluation Clinique des Aptitudes Numériques (ECAN). The concordance between the EABN and the ECAN was analyzed to determine construct validity. Discrimination indexes were calculated to assess the sensitivity of the subtests. Standardization highlighted a major effect of sociocultural level. In total, 9 of 17 patients had a pathological EABN score, with difficulties in telling time, making appointments and reading numerical data. The results of both the EABN and ECAN tests were concordant (Kendall's w=0.97). Finally, the discriminatory power was good, particularly for going to the movies, cheque-writing and following a recipe: scores were>0.4. The EABN is a new tool to assess number-processing disorders in adults. This tool has been standardized and has good psychometric properties for patients with brain injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Distress Thermometer and its validity: a first psychometric study in Indonesian women with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Iskandarsyah

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. METHODS: First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Indonesia completed a standard socio-demographic form, the DT and the Problem List, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses identified an area under the curve = 0.81 when compared to the HADS cutoff score of 15. A cutoff score of 5 on the DT had the best sensitivity (0.81 and specificity (0.64. Patients who scored above this cutoff reported more problems in the practical, family, emotional, spiritual/religious and physical domains (30 out of 36 problems, p-value<0.05 than patients below the cutoff score. Patients at advanced stages of cancer experienced more emotional and physical problems. Patient's distress level was negatively correlated with overall quality of life, general health and all quality of life domains. CONCLUSIONS: The DT was found to be a valid tool for screening distress in Indonesian breast cancer patients. We recommend using a cutoff score of 5 in this population.

  13. All weather IASI single field-of-view retrievals: case studyvalidation with JAIVEx data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Zhou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric thermodynamic parameters, such as atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, cloud optical/microphysical properties, and surface properties are basic meteorological variables for weather forecasting. In addition, they are critical parameters in tropospheric chemistry studies. A physical, geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiances observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed to determine simultaneously surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A one-dimensional variational (1-D Var. multivariable inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation is used to iteratively improve a background state defined by eigenvector regression. This algorithm has been applied to data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on the EUMETSAT Metop-A satellite. The IASI retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx. JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS systems, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed – Interferometer (NAST-I, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  14. Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four-site cross-validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Van Loan, M; Fitzgerald, P I; Hodgdon, J A; Van Itallie, T B

    1988-01-01

    This study validated further the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method for body composition estimation. At four laboratories densitometrically-determined lean body mass (LBMd) was compared with BIA in 1567 adults (1069 men, 498 women) aged 17-62 y and with 3-56% body fat. Equations for predicting LBMd from resistance measured by BIA, height, weight, and age were obtained for the men and women. Application of each equation to the data from the other labs yielded small reductions in R values and small increases in SEEs. Some regression coefficients differed among labs but these differences were eliminated after adjustment for differences among labs in the subjects' body fatness. All data were pooled to derive fatness-specific equations for predicting LBMd: the resulting R values ranged from 0.907 to 0.952 with SEEs of 1.97-3.03 kg. These results confirm the validity of BIA and indicate that the precision of predicting LBM from impedance can be enhanced by sex- and fatness-specific equations.

  15. Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modeling in the NRC International Round Robin Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, Jonathan; Gunnars, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Weld residual stresses (WRS) have a large influence on the behavior of cracks growing under normal operation loads and on the leakage flow from a through-wall crack. Accurate prediction on weld residual stresses is important to make proper decisions when cracks in weld joints are detected. During the latest years, there has been a strong development in both analytical procedures to numerically determine WRS and experimental measurements of WRS. The USNRC (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has formed a program for validation of WRS predictions through comparison of numerically calculated residual stress fields in dissimilar welds measured by different methods. The present report describes the results of the project with special focus on the contribution from Inspecta Technology. Objectives: The principal objective of the project is to compare different WRS predictions for a dissimilar pipe weld with careful measurements on a mock-up weld. The results of the project will make it possible to make recommendations on computational procedures for WRS in dissimilar metal welds. Results: It is concluded that numerical analysis of weld residual stresses using the finite element method is very useful for the estimation of weld residual stresses in complex geometries and dissimilar metal welds. The validation study increases the understanding of uncertainties associated with different modeling approaches and helps to identify the most sensitive parameters

  16. An initial reliability and validity study of the Interaction, Communication, and Literacy Skills Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Choueifati, Nisrine; Purcell, Alison; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Robert; Munro, Natalie

    2014-06-01

    Early childhood educators (ECEs) have an important role in promoting positive outcomes for children's language and literacy development. This paper reports the development of a new tool, The Interaction Communication and Literacy (ICL) Skills Audit, and pilots its reliability and validity. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was examined by three speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Five skill areas relating to ECE language and literacy practice were rated. The face and content validity of the ICL Skills Audit was examined by expert SLPs (n = 8) and expert ECEs (n = 4) via questionnaire. The overall intra-rater reliability for the ICL Skills Audit was excellent with percentage close agreement (PCA) of 91-94. Inter-rater agreement was PCA 68-80. Expert SLPs and ECEs agreed that the content was comprehensive and practical. Based on this preliminary study, the ICL Skills Audit appears to be a promising tool that can be used by SLPs and ECEs in collaboration to measure the skills of ECEs in the areas of language and literacy support. Future psychometric and outcome research on the revised ICL Skills Audit is warranted.

  17. The Rehabilitation Activities Profile: a validation study of its use as a disability index with stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, C. A.; Jelles, F.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates the criterion, content, and construct validity of the Rehabilitation Activities Profile (RAP) in patients with stroke. This instrument is constructed for screening, monitoring, and prognosis purposes to assist clinical rehabilitation. It consists of 21 activities, covering the

  18. [Mental Health Recovery Star: features and validation study of the Italian version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placentino, Anna; Lucchi, Fabio; Scarsato, Gianpaolo; Fazzari, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Mental Health Recovery Star (MHRS) is an instrument that helps to assess recovery processes of mental health patients through a collaborative approach. The aim of the study is to describe the features of the instrument and to report the results of the Italian validation study. The study involved 117 users which were evaluated in two phases. Besides MRHS, HoNOS, WHOQoL-brief, GAF were used. Acceptability for users and key-workers of the instruments and its main psychometric properties, as test-retes (ICC) and concurrent validity (Pearson's correlation coefficient), were evaluated. MHRS showed to have temporal stability in all its areas. Significant correlations were found between the MHRS and the most closely related areas of the scales used. Inter-rater reliability were studied in an unsatisfactory way. MHRS was appreciated and easy to use. Collaborative evaluations were completed mostly in less than 45 minutes. MHRS is an acceptable tool for users and staff-members, distinguishing itself from the use of useful visual aids; helps to identify the patient's recovery path and supports a collaborative approach between user and operator. The results of the psychometric properties of the instrument appeared promising but not exhaustive. Although further efforts should be addressed to the implementation of such aspects of the instrument and reflections should be raised with respect to the traditional methods to detect the complex meaning of recovery (subjective-objective aspects), the valuable collaborative contribution of MHRS can not be denied in favoring the user's responsibility and supporting the professional worker in his role of case manager.

  19. Validation of the Filovirus Plaque Assay for Use in Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C. Shurtleff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A plaque assay for quantitating filoviruses in virus stocks, prepared viral challenge inocula and samples from research animals has recently been fully characterized and standardized for use across multiple institutions performing Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4 studies. After standardization studies were completed, Good Laboratory Practices (GLP-compliant plaque assay method validation studies to demonstrate suitability for reliable and reproducible measurement of the Marburg Virus Angola (MARV variant and Ebola Virus Kikwit (EBOV variant commenced at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID. The validation parameters tested included accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, stability of the virus stocks and system suitability. The MARV and EBOV assays were confirmed to be accurate to ±0.5 log10 PFU/mL. Repeatability precision, intermediate precision and reproducibility precision were sufficient to return viral titers with a coefficient of variation (%CV of ≤30%, deemed acceptable variation for a cell-based bioassay. Intraclass correlation statistical techniques for the evaluation of the assay’s precision when the same plaques were quantitated by two analysts returned values passing the acceptance criteria, indicating high agreement between analysts. The assay was shown to be accurate and specific when run on Nonhuman Primates (NHP serum and plasma samples diluted in plaque assay medium, with negligible matrix effects. Virus stocks demonstrated stability for freeze-thaw cycles typical of normal usage during assay retests. The results demonstrated that the EBOV and MARV plaque assays are accurate, precise and robust for filovirus titration in samples associated with the performance of GLP animal model studies.

  20. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Pombar, Miguel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, 28003, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  1. Ella-V and technology usage technology usage in an english language and literacy acquisition validation randomized controlled trial study

    OpenAIRE

    Roisin P. Corcoran; Steven M. Ross; Beverly J. Irby; Fuhui Tong; Rafael Lara-Alecio; Cindy Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of technology to provide virtual professional development (VPD) for teachers and to conduct classroom observations in a study of English Language Learner (ELL) instruction in grades K–3. The technology applications were part of a cluster randomized control trial (RCT) design for a federally funded longitudinal validation study of a particular program, English Language and Literacy Acquisition-Validation, ELLA- V, to determine its degree of impact on English oral l...

  2. Validating workplace performance assessments in health sciences students: a case study from speech pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Allison; McAllister, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Valid assessment of health science students' ability to perform in the real world of workplace practice is critical for promoting quality learning and ultimately certifying students as fit to enter the world of professional practice. Current practice in performance assessment in the health sciences field has been hampered by multiple issues regarding assessment content and process. Evidence for the validity of scores derived from assessment tools are usually evaluated against traditional validity categories with reliability evidence privileged over validity, resulting in the paradoxical effect of compromising the assessment validity and learning processes the assessments seek to promote. Furthermore, the dominant statistical approaches used to validate scores from these assessments fall under the umbrella of classical test theory approaches. This paper reports on the successful national development and validation of measures derived from an assessment of Australian speech pathology students' performance in the workplace. Validation of these measures considered each of Messick's interrelated validity evidence categories and included using evidence generated through Rasch analyses to support score interpretation and related action. This research demonstrated that it is possible to develop an assessment of real, complex, work based performance of speech pathology students, that generates valid measures without compromising the learning processes the assessment seeks to promote. The process described provides a model for other health professional education programs to trial.

  3. Replication Validity of Initial Association Studies: A Comparison between Psychiatry, Neurology and Four Somatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine; Boraud, Thomas; Munafo, Marcus; Gonon, François

    2016-01-01

    Context There are growing concerns about effect size inflation and replication validity of association studies, but few observational investigations have explored the extent of these problems. Objective Using meta-analyses to measure the reliability of initial studies and explore whether this varies across biomedical domains and study types (cognitive/behavioral, brain imaging, genetic and “others”). Methods We analyzed 663 meta-analyses describing associations between markers or risk factors and 12 pathologies within three biomedical domains (psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases). We collected the effect size, sample size, publication year and Impact Factor of initial studies, largest studies (i.e., with the largest sample size) and the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial studies were considered as replicated if they were in nominal agreement with meta-analyses and if their effect size inflation was below 100%. Results Nominal agreement between initial studies and meta-analyses regarding the presence of a significant effect was not better than chance in psychiatry, whereas it was somewhat better in neurology and somatic diseases. Whereas effect sizes reported by largest studies and meta-analyses were similar, most of those reported by initial studies were inflated. Among the 256 initial studies reporting a significant effect (p<0.05) and paired with significant meta-analyses, 97 effect sizes were inflated by more than 100%. Nominal agreement and effect size inflation varied with the biomedical domain and study type. Indeed, the replication rate of initial studies reporting a significant effect ranged from 6.3% for genetic studies in psychiatry to 86.4% for cognitive/behavioral studies. Comparison between eight subgroups shows that replication rate decreases with sample size and “true” effect size. We observed no evidence of association between replication rate and publication year or Impact Factor. Conclusion The differences in reliability

  4. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  5. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS-6): First validation study in Parkinson's disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Leire; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Martínez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Violante, Mayela; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Campos-Arillo, Víctor; Garretto, Nelida Susana; Arakaki, Tomoko; Álvarez, Mario; Pedroso-Ibáñez, Ivonne; Carvajal, Ana; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To explore the psychometric attributes of a new Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS-6) in a wide Spanish-speaking population with Parkinson's disease (PD). This was an international, cross-sectional study. Several rater-based and patient-reported outcomes measures for evaluation of PD (e.g., Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Motor) and other constructs (e.g., Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, Scale for Living with Chronic Illness) were applied together with the SLS-6. Acceptability, scaling assumptions, reliability, precision, and construct validity were tested. The study included 324 patients from five countries, with age (mean ± standard deviation) 66.67 ± 10.68 years. None of the SLS-6 items had missing values and all acceptability parameters fulfilled the standard criteria. Scaling assumptions allowed the calculation of a summary index from items 2 to 6, complementary to the global evaluation (item 1). For these five items, Cronbach's alpha was 0.85; the corrected item-total correlation 0.53-0.73; inter-item correlation, 0.45-0.70, with an item homogeneity index of 0.55. The standard error of measurement, based on Cronbach's alpha for a single observation, was 3.48. SLS-6 correlations were moderate to strong (rs ≥ 0.35) with the patient-reported outcomes and weak to moderate with the rater-based assessments used in the study. The SLS-6 total score was significantly different according to PD severity levels established according to Hoehn and Yahr staging, Clinical Impression of Severity Index, and Patient-Based Global Impression of Severity scale. The results suggest that SLS-6 is an easy, feasible, acceptable, consistent, precise and valid measure to evaluate satisfaction with life in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemotherapy effectiveness and mortality prediction in surgically treated osteosarcoma dogs: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A F; Nielen, M; Withrow, S J; Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Klungel, O H; Groenwold, R H H; Kirpensteijn, J

    2016-03-01

    Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month model, dogs with a relatively low risk of 5-month mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy treatment. In the present study, we externally validated these results using an independent cohort study of 794 dogs. External performance of our prediction models showed some disagreement between observed and predicted risk, mean difference: -0.11 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]-0.29; 0.08) for 5-month risk and 0.25 (95%CI 0.10; 0.40) for 1-year mortality risk. After updating the intercept, agreement improved: -0.0004 (95%CI-0.16; 0.16) and -0.002 (95%CI-0.15; 0.15). The chemotherapy by predicted mortality risk interaction (P-value=0.01) showed that the chemotherapy compared to no chemotherapy effectiveness was modified by 5-month mortality risk: dogs with a relatively lower risk of mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy. Chemotherapy effectiveness on 1-year mortality was not significantly modified by predicted risk (P-value=0.28). In conclusion, this external validation study confirmed that our multivariable risk prediction models can predict a patient's mortality risk and that dogs with a relatively lower risk of 5-month mortality seem to benefit most from chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and validation of a microfluidic device for blood-brain barrier monitoring and transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Giovanni Stefano; Occhetta, Paola; Saccani, Alessandra; Re, Francesca; Krol, Silke; Rasponi, Marco; Redaelli, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier models are highly relevant for drug screening and drug development studies, due to the challenging task of understanding the transport mechanism of drug molecules through the blood-brain barrier towards the brain tissue. In this respect, microfluidics holds potential for providing microsystems that require low amounts of cells and reagent and can be potentially multiplexed for increasing the ease and throughput of the drug screening process. We here describe the design, development and validation of a microfluidic device for endothelial blood-brain barrier cell transport studies. The device comprises of two microstructured layers (top culture chamber and bottom collection chamber) sandwiching a porous membrane for the cell culture. Microstructured layers include two pairs of physical electrodes, embedded into the device layers by geometrically defined guiding channels with computationally optimized positions. These electrodes allow the use of commercial electrical measurement systems for monitoring trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). We employed the designed device for performing preliminary assessment of endothelial barrier formation with murine brain endothelial cells (Br-bEnd5). Results demonstrate that cellular junctional complexes effectively form in the cultures (expression of VE-Cadherin and ZO-1) and that the TEER monitoring systems effectively detects an increase of resistance of the cultured cell layers indicative of tight junction formation. Finally, we validate the use of the described microsystem for drug transport studies demonstrating that Br-bEnd5 cells significantly hinder the transport of molecules (40 kDa and 4 kDa dextran) from the top culture chamber to the bottom collection chamber.

  8. An Instrument to Measure Maturity of Integrated Care: A First Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Lessons captured from interviews with 12 European regions are represented in a new instrument, the B3-Maturity Model (B3-MM). B3-MM aims to assess maturity along 12 dimensions reflecting the various aspects that need to be managed in order to deliver integrated care. The objective of the study was to test the content validity of B3-MM as part of SCIROCCO (Scaling Integrated Care into Context), a European Union funded project. Methods: A literature review was conducted to compare B3-MM’s 12 dimensions and their measurement scales with existing measures and instruments that focus on assessing the development of integrated care. Subsequently, a three-round survey conducted through a Delphi study with international experts in the field of integrated care was performed to test the relevance of: 1) the dimensions, 2) the maturity indicators and 3) the assessment scale used in B3-MM. Results: The 11 articles included in the literature review confirmed all the dimensions described in the original version of B3-MM. The Delphi study rounds resulted in various phrasing amendments of indicators and assessment scale. Full agreement among the experts on the relevance of the 12 B3-MM dimensions, their indicators, and assessment scale was reached after the third Delphi round. Conclusion and discussion: The B3-MM dimensions, maturity indicators and assessment scale showed satisfactory content validity. While the B3-MM is a unique instrument based on existing knowledge and experiences of regions in integrated care, further testing is needed to explore other measurement properties of B3-MM.

  9. [A Validation Study of the Modified Korean Version of Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire (K-ELW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Eon; Park, Eun-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Ethical Leadership at Work questionnaire (K-ELW) that measures RNs' perceived ethical leadership of their nurse managers. The strong validation process suggested by Benson (1998), including translation and cultural adaptation stage, structural stage, and external stage, was used. Participants were 241 RNs who reported their perceived ethical leadership using both the pre-version of K-ELW and a previously known Ethical Leadership Scale, and interactional justice of their managers, as well as their own demographics, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, reliability coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. SPSS 19.0 and Amos 18.0 versions were used. A modified K-ELW was developed from construct validity evidence and included 31 items in 7 domains: People orientation, task responsibility fairness, relationship fairness, power sharing, concern for sustainability, ethical guidance, and integrity. Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity were supported according to the correlation coefficients of the 7 domains with other measures. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that the modified K-ELW can be adopted in Korean nursing organizations, and reliable and valid ethical leadership scores can be expected.

  10. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M

    2017-06-02

    Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height

  11. The consumer quality index anthroposophic healthcare: a construction and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Evi B; Ong, Rob R S; Heybroek, Rachel; Delnoij, Diana M J; Baars, Erik W

    2014-04-02

    Accounting for the patients' perspective on quality of care has become increasingly important in the development of Evidence Based Medicine as well as in governmental policies. In the Netherlands the Consumer Quality (CQ) Index has been developed to measure the quality of care from the patients' perspective in different healthcare sectors in a standardized manner. Although the scientific accountability of anthroposophic healthcare as a form of integrative medicine is growing, patient experiences with anthroposophic healthcare have not been measured systematically. In addition, the specific anthroposophic aspects are not measured by means of existing CQ Indexes. To enable accountability of quality of the anthroposophic healthcare from the patients' perspective the aim of this study is the construction and validation of a CQ Index for anthroposophic healthcare. Construction in three phases: Phase 1. Determining anthroposophic quality aspects: literature study and focus groups. Phase 2. Adding new questions and validating the new questionnaire. Research population: random sample from 7910 patients of 22 anthroposophic GPs. survey, mixed mode by means of the Dillman method. Measuring instrument: experience questionnaire: CQ Index General Practice (56 items), added with 27 new anthroposophic items added and an item-importance questionnaire (anthroposophic items only). Factor analysis, scale construction, internal consistency (Chronbach's Alpha), inter-item-correlation, discriminative ability (Intra Class Correlation) and inter-factor-correlations. Phase 3. Modulation and selection of new questions based on results. Criteria of retaining items: general: a limited amount of items, statistical: part of a reliable scale and inter-item-correlation <0,7, and theoretical. Phase 1. 27 anthroposophic items. Phase 2. Two new anthroposophic scales: Scale AntroposophicTreatmentGP: seven items, Alpha=0,832, ICC=4,2 Inter-factor-correlation with existing GP-scales range from r=0

  12. The Portuguese long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) - a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Azevedo, Luís F; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; Nübling, Matthias; da Costa, José Torres

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are now widely recognised as one of the biggest challenges for occupational safety and health (OSH) and a major public health concern. The aim of this paper is to investigate the Portuguese long version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II), in order to analyse the psychometric properties of the instrument and to validate it. The Portuguese COPSOQ II was issued to a total of 745 Portuguese employees from both private and public organisations across several economic sectors at a baseline and then 2 weeks later. Methodological quality appraisal was based on COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) recommendations. An analysis of the psychometric properties of the long version of COPSOQ II (internal consistency, intraclass correlation coefficient, floor and ceiling effects, response rate, missing values, mean and standard deviation, exploratory factor analysis) was performed to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument. The COPSOQ II had a response rate of 60.6% (test) and a follow-up response rate of 59.5% (retest). In general, a Cronbach's alpha of the COPSOQ scales (test and retest) was above the conventional threshold of 0.70. The test-retest reliability estimated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed a higher reliability for most of the scales, above the conventional 0.7, except for eight scales. The proportion of the missing values was less than 1.3%, except for two scales. The average scores and standard deviations showed similar results to the original Danish study, except for eight scales. All of the scales had low floor and ceiling effects, with one exception . Overall, the exploratory factor analysis presented good results in 27 scales assuming a reflective measurement model. The hypothesized factor structure under a reflective model was not supported in 14 scales and for some but not all of these scales the explanation may be a formative

  13. Hyperemesis gravidarum in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway – a validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanes Åse

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valid registration of medical information is essential for the quality of registry-based research. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting, weight loss and electrolyte imbalance starting before 22nd gestational week. Given the fact that HG is a generally understudied disease which might have short- and long- term health consequences for mother and child, it is of importance to know whether potential misclassification bias influences the results of future studies. We therefore assessed the validity of the HG-registration in the in Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN using hospital records. Methods The sample comprised all women registered in MBRN with HG and who delivered at Ullevål and Akershus hospitals in 1.1.-31.3.1970, 1.4.-30.6.1986, 1.7.-30.9.1997 and 1.10.-31.12.2001. A random sample of 10 women per HG case, without HG according to MBRN, but who delivered during the same time periods at the same hospitals was also collected. The final sample included 551 women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV were estimated using strict and less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, indicating severe and mild HG, respectively. Hospital journals were used as gold standard. Results Using less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 83.9% (95% CI: 67.4-92.9, 96.0% (95% CI: 93.9-97.3, 55.3% (95% CI: 41.2-68.6 and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6, respectively. For strict diagnostic criteria, being hospitalised due to HG the corresponding values were 64% (95% CI: 38.8-87.2, 92% (95% CI: 90.2-94.6, 18.6% (95% CI: 10.2-31.9 and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6. Conclusions The results from our study are comparable to previous research on disease registration in MBRN, and show that MBRN can be considered valid for mild HG but not for severe HG.

  14. Hyperemesis gravidarum in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway – a validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Valid registration of medical information is essential for the quality of registry-based research. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting, weight loss and electrolyte imbalance starting before 22nd gestational week. Given the fact that HG is a generally understudied disease which might have short- and long- term health consequences for mother and child, it is of importance to know whether potential misclassification bias influences the results of future studies. We therefore assessed the validity of the HG-registration in the in Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) using hospital records. Methods The sample comprised all women registered in MBRN with HG and who delivered at Ullevål and Akershus hospitals in 1.1.-31.3.1970, 1.4.-30.6.1986, 1.7.-30.9.1997 and 1.10.-31.12.2001. A random sample of 10 women per HG case, without HG according to MBRN, but who delivered during the same time periods at the same hospitals was also collected. The final sample included 551 women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were estimated using strict and less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, indicating severe and mild HG, respectively. Hospital journals were used as gold standard. Results Using less strict diagnostic criteria of HG, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 83.9% (95% CI: 67.4-92.9), 96.0% (95% CI: 93.9-97.3), 55.3% (95% CI: 41.2-68.6) and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6), respectively. For strict diagnostic criteria, being hospitalised due to HG the corresponding values were 64% (95% CI: 38.8-87.2), 92% (95% CI: 90.2-94.6), 18.6% (95% CI: 10.2-31.9) and 99.0% (95% CI: 97.7-99.6). Conclusions The results from our study are comparable to previous research on disease registration in MBRN, and show that MBRN can be considered valid for mild HG but not for severe HG. PMID:23095718

  15. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Kee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI

  16. Developing of Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety Scale: ValidityReliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra DALKIRAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is intended to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning individual instrument performance anxiety of the students who are getting instrument training in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a onedimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.

  17. Validity test of purchasing power parity doctrine: An Indonesian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahabudin Sidiq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyze the doctrine purchasing power parity (PPP in Indonesia with the case study of the rupiah exchange rate to U.S. dollar. The autoregressive is used to estimate the relationship between the change of exchange rate and the difference Indonesia–USA inflation rate. The data used in this study are quarterly data obtained from the International Financial Statistics (IFS and Bank Indonesia (BI with the period 1997Q4-2013Q4. The exchange rate that used in this study is using the rate on rupiah to U S dollar. The price data used consumer price index in Indonesia and the United States with a base year of 2000. The results of this study show, that rupiah to the U.S. dollar is undervalued during the free floating exchange rate system and, the PPP doctrine to the case of the rupiah to the U.S. dollar is not valid in the period of this study.

  18. Primary Care COPD Patients Compared with Large Pharmaceutically-Sponsored COPD Studies : An UNLOCK Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, Annemarije L.; Stallberg, Bjorn; Jones, Rupert C. M.; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Lisspers, Karin; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Jan Willem H.; Chavannes, Niels H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Guideline recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are based on the results of large pharmaceutically-sponsored COPD studies (LPCS). There is a paucity of data on disease characteristics at the primary care level, while the majority of COPD patients are treated in

  19. An opportunistic validation of studies on the psychosocial benefits of blogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Moore, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted two studies on the characteristics of bloggers and the psychosocial effects of blogging, both published in CyberPsychology and Behavior. The publication of the first article attracted considerable multinational media attention with over 70 incidents of press coverage in the first 3 weeks after publication. As a consequence, commentary on the research emerged on 167 blogs in the same time period. Many of the comments surrounded the validity of the research findings, and thus an opportunity arose to re-evaluate the research outcomes based on the unsolicited responses posted by bloggers. This report outlines the methodology used to evaluate responses to the initial research, and discusses potential future applications of this approach.

  20. Genomic Biomarkers for Personalized Medicine: Development and Validation in Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Matsui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of high-throughput technologies has brought substantial advances to our understanding of the biology of many diseases at the molecular level and increasing expectations on the development of innovative molecularly targeted treatments and molecular biomarkers or diagnostic tests in the context of clinical studies. In this review article, we position the two critical statistical analyses of high-dimensional genomic data, gene screening and prediction, in the framework of development and validation of genomic biomarkers or signatures, through taking into consideration the possible different strategies for developing genomic signatures. A wide variety of biomarker-based clinical trial designs to assess clinical utility of a biomarker or a new treatment with a companion biomarker are also discussed.

  1. Digit Span as a measure of everyday attention: a study of ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Marnat, Gary; Baker, Sonya

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the WAIS-III Digit Span subtest to predict the everyday attention of 75 participants with heterogeneous neurological conditions who were administered the Digit Span subtest as well as the ecologically valid Test of Everyday Attention. In addition, the more visually oriented Picture Completion subtest along with the verbally loaded National Adult Reading Test were administered. Analysis indicated that, although Digit Span was a weak but statistically significant predictor of attentional ability (accounting for 12.7% of the unique variance). Picture Completion was a somewhat stronger predictor (accounting for 19% of the unique variance). The weak association of Digit Span and the Test of Everyday Attention, along with the finding that Picture Completion was a better predictor of performance on the Test of Everyday Attention, question the clinical utility of using Digit Span as a measure of everyday attention.

  2. Content validation of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator from the perspective of frail elderly. A qualitative explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jane; Lund, Hans; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    in content validation. AIM: To validate the Tilburg Frailty Indicator on content in relation to the physical, psychological and social domain by exploring the experience of daily life of community dwelling frail elderly. METHODS: The design was a qualitative content validation study. The participants were...... acutely admitted frail elderly discharged to home and interviewed one week after discharge. A deductive content analysis, with categories structured in advance, was performed. RESULTS: A total of 422 meaning units were extracted from the transcriptions; 131 units related to the physical domain, 106 units...

  3. Validation of the japanese version of the sarcoidosis health questionnaire: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihara Kensaku

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL has been reported in patients with sarcoidosis, there is currently no sarcoidosis-specific questionnaire in Japan. The 29-item Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ, originally developed in the United States, is the only sarcoidosis-specific HRQOL questionnaire currently available. The primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a Japanese version of the SHQ. Findings The SHQ was translated into Japanese following the forward-backward procedure. The reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the SHQ were examined. One hundred twenty-two Japanese patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were evaluated by the SHQ, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36, the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, chest radiography, an electrocardiogram, laboratory blood tests, pulmonary function tests, an echocardiogram, and assessments of dyspnea and depressive symptoms. The SHQ was found to have acceptable levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α values = 0.68 to 0.91. SHQ scores correlated significantly with scores on the SF-36 and SGRQ. The domain or total scores on the SHQ also significantly correlated with serum levels of the soluble interleukin-2 receptor, the percentage of the predicted forced vital capacity, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, dyspnea, and depressive symptoms. Also, the SHQ scores of patients who had one or two organ systems affected by sarcoidosis were significantly different from those of patients who had three or more organ systems involvement. Conclusions The Japanese version of the SHQ can be used to assess the HRQOL of patients with sarcoidosis.

  4. Validation of an Albuminuria Self-assessment Tool in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Rikki M; Woodward, Mark; Peralta, Carmen; Warnock, David G; Gutiérrez, Orlando; Shimbo, Daichi; Kramer, Holly; Katz, Ronit; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-05

    We previously developed an 8-item self-assessment tool to identify individuals with a high probability of having albuminuria. This tool was developed and externally validated among non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. We sought to validate it in a multi-ethnic cohort that also included Hispanics and Chinese Americans. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires and spot urine samples at a baseline examination in 2000-2002. The 8 items in the self-assessment tool include age, race, gender, current cigarette smoking, history of diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, and self-rated health. Of 6,814 community-dwelling adults aged 45-84 years participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), 6,542 were included in the primary analysis. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at baseline. Among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, the prevalence of albuminuria was 6.0%, 11.3%, 11.6%, and 10.8%, respectively. The c-statistic for discriminating participants with and without albuminuria was .731 (95% CI: .692, .771), .728 (95% CI: .687, .761), .747 (95% CI: .709, .784), and .761 (95% CI: .699, .814) for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, respectively. The self-assessment tool over-estimated the probability of albuminuria for non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but was well-calibrated for Hispanics and Chinese Americans. The albuminuria self-assessment tool maintained good test characteristics in this large multi-ethnic cohort, suggesting it may be helpful for increasing awareness of albuminuria in an ethnically diverse population.

  5. Using hospital discharge data for determining neonatal morbidity and mortality: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algert Charles S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread use of neonatal hospital discharge data, there are few published reports on the accuracy of population health data with neonatal diagnostic or procedure codes. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of using routinely collected hospital discharge data in identifying neonatal morbidity during the birth admission compared with data from a statewide audit of selected neonatal intensive care (NICU admissions. Methods Validation study of population-based linked hospital discharge/birth data against neonatal intensive care audit data from New South Wales, Australia for 2,432 babies admitted to NICUs, 1994–1996. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV with exact binomial confidence intervals were calculated for 12 diagnoses and 6 procedures. Results Sensitivities ranged from 37.0% for drainage of an air leak to 97.7% for very low birthweight, specificities all exceeded 85% and PPVs ranged from 70.9% to 100%. In-hospital mortality, low birthweight (≤1500 g, retinopathy of prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration, pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, selected major anomalies, any mechanical ventilation (including CPAP, major surgery and surgery for patent ductus arteriosus or necrotizing enterocolitis were accurately identified with PPVs over 92%. Transient tachypnea of the newborn and drainage of an air leak had the lowest PPVs, 70.9% and 83.6% respectively. Conclusion Although under-ascertained, routinely collected hospital discharge data had high PPVs for most validated items and would be suitable for risk factor analyses of neonatal morbidity. Procedures tended to be more accurately recorded than diagnoses.

  6. Validation of commercial Mas receptor antibodies for utilization in Western Blotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghi, Valeria; Fernández, Natalia Cristina; Gándola, Yamila Belén; Piazza, Verónica Gabriela; Quiroga, Diego Tomás; Guilhen Mario, Érica; Felix Braga, Janaína; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Dominici, Fernando Pablo; Muñoz, Marina Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Mas receptor (MasR) is a G protein-coupled receptor proposed as a candidate for mediating the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2-Ang (1-7) protective axis of renin-angiotensin system. Because the role of this receptor is not definitively clarified, determination of MasR tissue distribution and expression levels constitutes a critical knowledge to fully understanding its function. Commercially available antibodies have been widely employed for MasR protein localization and quantification, but they have not been adequately validated. In this study, we carried on an exhaustive evaluation of four commercial MasR antibodies, following previously established criteria. Western Blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry studies starting from hearts and kidneys from wild type (WT) mice revealed that antibodies raised against different MasR domains yielded different patterns of reactivity. Furthermore, staining patterns appeared identical in samples from MasR knockout (MasR-KO) mice. We verified by polymerase chain reaction analysis that the MasR-KO mice used were truly deficient in this receptor as MAS transcripts were undetectable in either heart or kidney from this animal model. In addition, we evaluated the ability of the antibodies to detect the human c-myc-tagged MasR overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Three antibodies were capable of detecting the MasR either by WB or by immunofluorescence, reproducing the patterns obtained with an anti c-myc antibody. In conclusion, although three of the selected antibodies were able to detect MasR protein at high expression levels observed in a transfected cell line, they failed to detect this receptor in mice tissues at physiological expression levels. As a consequence, validated antibodies that can recognize and detect the MasR at physiological levels are still lacking.

  7. Statistical validation of event predictors: A comparative study based on the field of seizure prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldwisch-Drentrup, Hinnerk; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Timmer, Jens; Schelter, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of events is of substantial interest in many research areas. To evaluate the performance of prediction methods, the statistical validation of these methods is of utmost importance. Here, we compare an analytical validation method to numerical approaches that are based on Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison is performed in the field of the prediction of epileptic seizures. In contrast to the analytical validation method, we found that for numerical validation methods insufficient but realistic sample sizes can lead to invalid high rates of false positive conclusions. Hence we outline necessary preconditions for sound statistical tests on above chance predictions.

  8. Effectiveness of strategies to increase the validity of findings from association studies: size vs. replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallischnigg Gerd

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capacity of multiple comparisons to produce false positive findings in genetic association studies is abundantly clear. To address this issue, the concept of false positive report probability (FPRP measures "the probability of no true association between a genetic variant and disease given a statistically significant finding". This concept involves the notion of prior probability of an association between a genetic variant and a disease, making it difficult to achieve acceptable levels for the FPRP when the prior probability is low. Increasing the sample size is of limited efficiency to improve the situation. Methods To further clarify this problem, the concept of true report probability (TRP is introduced by analogy to the positive predictive value (PPV of diagnostic testing. The approach is extended to consider the effects of replication studies. The formula for the TRP after k replication studies is mathematically derived and shown to be only dependent on prior probability, alpha, power, and number of replication studies. Results Case-control association studies are used to illustrate the TRP concept for replication strategies. Based on power considerations, a relationship is derived between TRP after k replication studies and sample size of each individual study. That relationship enables study designers optimization of study plans. Further, it is demonstrated that replication is efficient in increasing the TRP even in the case of low prior probability of an association and without requiring very large sample sizes for each individual study. Conclusions True report probability is a comprehensive and straightforward concept for assessing the validity of positive statistical testing results in association studies. By its extension to replication strategies it can be demonstrated in a transparent manner that replication is highly effective in distinguishing spurious from true associations. Based on the generalized TRP

  9. Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire for Assessing Women’s Reproductive History in Azar Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the validity and reliability of women’s reproductive history questionnaire which will be used in Azar Cohort study; a cohort that is conducted by Tabriz University of Medical Science in Shabestar county for identifying risk factors of no communicable diseases. Content and face validity were evaluated by ten experts in the field and quantified as content validity index (CVI and content validity ratio (CVR. To assess the reliability, using test-retest approach, kappa statistic was calculated for categorical variables and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used for the quantitative items. The calculated CVI and CVR were 0.91and 0.94, respectively. Reliability for all items was high. The ICC was 0.99 and kappa statistic was equal to 1. The final version of questionnaire was redesigned in 26 items with 7 subscales.

  10. International cross-cultural validation study of the Canadian haemophilia outcomes: kids' life assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, P J; Fischer, K; Holzhauer, S; Meunier, S; Altisent, C; Grainger, J D; Blanchette, V S; Burke, T A; Wakefield, C; Young, N L

    2015-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment is recognized as an important outcome in the evaluation of different therapeutic regimens for persons with haemophilia. The Canadian Haemophilia Outcomes-Kids' Life Assessment Tool (CHO-KLAT) is a disease-specific measure of HRQoL for 4 to 18-year-old boys with haemophilia. The purpose of this study was to extend this disease-specific, child-centric, outcome measure for use in international clinical trials. We adapted the North American English CHO-KLAT version for use in five countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The process included four stages: (i) translation; (ii) cognitive debriefing; (iii) validity assessment relative to the PedsQL (generic) and the Haemo-QoL (disease-specific) and (iv) assessment of inter and intra-rater reliability. Cognitive debriefing was performed in 57 boys (mean age 11.4 years), validation was performed in 144 boys (mean age 11.0 years) and reliability was assessed for a subgroup of 64 boys (mean age 12.0 years). Parents also participated. The mean scores reported by the boys were high: CHO-KLAT 77.0 (SD = 11.2); PedsQL 83.8 (SD = 11.9) and Haemo-QoL 79.6 (SD = 11.5). Correlations between the CHO-KLAT and PedsQL ranged from 0.63 in Germany to 0.39 in the Netherlands and Spain. Test-retest reliability (concordance) for child self-report was 0.67. Child-parent concordance was slightly lower at 0.57. The CHO-KLAT has been fully culturally adapted and validated for use in five different languages and cultures (in England, the Netherlands, France, Germany and Spain) where treatment is readily available either on demand or as prophylaxis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Validation study for crediting chlorine in criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuel disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of

  12. Validation Study for Crediting Chlorine in Criticality Analyses for US Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobes, Vladimir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management practices in the United States rely on dry storage systems that include both canister- and cask-based systems. The United States Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign is examining the feasibility of direct disposal of dual-purpose (storage and transportation) canisters (DPCs) in a geological repository. One of the major technical challenges for direct disposal is the ability to demonstrate the subcriticality of the DPCs loaded with SNF for the repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the DPCs may undergo degradation over time. Specifically, groundwater ingress into the DPC (i.e., flooding) could allow the system to achieve criticality in scenarios where the neutron absorber plates in the DPC basket have degraded. However, as was shown by Banerjee et al., some aqueous species in the groundwater provide noticeable reactivity reduction for these systems. For certain amounts of particular aqueous species (e.g., chlorine, lithium) in the groundwater, subcriticality can be demonstrated even for DPCs with complete degradation of the neutron absorber plates or a degraded fuel basket configuration. It has been demonstrated that chlorine is the leading impurity, as indicated by significant neutron absorption in the water that is available in reasonable quantities for the deep geological repository media under consideration. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the available integral experiments worldwide that could be used to validate DPC disposal criticality evaluations, including credit for chlorine. Due to the small number of applicable critical configurations, validation through traditional trending analysis was not possible. The bias in the eigenvalue of the application systems due only to the chlorine was calculated using TSURFER analysis and found to be on the order of 100 percent mille (1 pcm = 10-5 keff). This study investigated the design of a series of

  13. Validation and Calibration of Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics Multiscale Multiphysics Models - Subcooled Flow Boiling Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anh Bui; Nam Dinh; Brian Williams

    2013-09-01

    In addition to validation data plan, development of advanced techniques for calibration and validation of complex multiscale, multiphysics nuclear reactor simulation codes are a main objective of the CASL VUQ plan. Advanced modeling of LWR systems normally involves a range of physico-chemical models describing multiple interacting phenomena, such as thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, coolant chemistry, etc., which occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. To a large extent, the accuracy of (and uncertainty in) overall model predictions is determined by the correctness of various sub-models, which are not conservation-laws based, but empirically derived from measurement data. Such sub-models normally require extensive calibration before the models can be applied to analysis of real reactor problems. This work demonstrates a case study of calibration of a common model of subcooled flow boiling, which is an important multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon in LWR thermal hydraulics. The calibration process is based on a new strategy of model-data integration, in which, all sub-models are simultaneously analyzed and calibrated using multiple sets of data of different types. Specifically, both data on large-scale distributions of void fraction and fluid temperature and data on small-scale physics of wall evaporation were simultaneously used in this work’s calibration. In a departure from traditional (or common-sense) practice of tuning/calibrating complex models, a modern calibration technique based on statistical modeling and Bayesian inference was employed, which allowed simultaneous calibration of multiple sub-models (and related parameters) using different datasets. Quality of data (relevancy, scalability, and uncertainty) could be taken into consideration in the calibration process. This work presents a step forward in the development and realization of the “CIPS Validation Data Plan” at the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs to enable

  14. Physiotherapy Questionnaires App to Deliver Main Musculoskeletal Assessment Questionnaires: Development and Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Neto, Nestor Cavalcante; Lima, Yuri Lopes; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; Lima, Pedro Olavo De Paula; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2018-02-23

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) translate subjective outcomes into objective data that can be quantified and analyzed. Nevertheless, the use of PROs in their traditional paper format is not practical for clinical practice due to limitations associated with the analysis and management of the data. To address the need for a viable way to group and utilize the main functioning assessment tools in the field of musculoskeletal disorders, the Physiotherapy Questionnaires app was developed. This study aims to explain the development of the app, to validate it using two questionnaires, and to analyze whether participants prefer to use the app or the paper version of the questionnaires. In the first stage, the app for an Android operational system was developed. In the second stage, the aim was to select questionnaires that were most often used in musculoskeletal clinical practice and research. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) questionnaire were selected to validate the app. In total, 50 participants completed the paper and app versions of the AOFAS and 50 completed the FAOS. The study's outcomes were the correlation of the data between the paper and app versions as well as the preference of the participants between the two versions. The app was approved by experts after the adaptations of the layout for mobile phones and a total of 18 questionnaires were included in the app. Moreover, the app allows the generation of PDF and Excel files with the patients' data. In regards to validity, the mean of the total scores of the FAOS were 91.54% (SD 8.86%) for the paper version and 91.74% (SD 9.20%) for the app. There was no statistically significant differences in the means of the total scores or the subscales (P=.11-.94). The mean total scores for the AOFAS were 93.94 (SD 8.47) for the paper version and 93.96 (SD 8.48) for the app. No statistically significant differences were found for the total scores for the AOFAS

  15. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  16. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  17. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  18. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.\\ud \\ud Participants: 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer ...

  19. Chromogenic in situ hybridisation for the assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer: an international validation ring study

    OpenAIRE

    van de Vijver, Marc; Bilous, Michael; Hanna, Wedad; Hofmann, Manfred; Kristel, Petra; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Rüschoff, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Before any new methodology can be introduced into the routine diagnostic setting it must be technically validated against the established standards. To this end, a ring study involving five international pathology laboratories was initiated to validate chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) against fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a test for assessing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer. Methods Each...

  20. Development and validation of QRISK3 risk prediction algorithms to estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol; Brindle, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and validate updated QRISK3 prediction algorithms to estimate the 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease in women and men accounting for potential new risk factors.\\ud \\ud Design: Prospective open cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database.\\ud \\ud Participants: 1309 QResearch general practices in England: 981 practices were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 328 practices were used to validate the s...

  1. Development and validation of QDiabetes-2018 risk prediction algorithm to estimate future risk of type 2 diabetes: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To derive and validate updated QDiabetes-2018 prediction algorithms to estimate the 10 year risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women, taking account of potential new risk factors, and to compare their performance with current approaches.\\ud \\ud Design: Prospective open cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: Routinely collected data from 1457 general practices in England contributing to the QResearch database: 1094 were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 363 were used to valid...

  2. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  3. A Validated Phenotyping Algorithm for Genetic Association Studies in Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonett, Joseph M; Sohrab, Mahsa A; Pacheco, Jennifer; Armstrong, Loren L; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Smith, Maureen; Geoffrey Hayes, M; Fawzi, Amani A

    2015-08-10

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial, neurodegenerative disease, is a leading cause of vision loss. With the rapid advancement of DNA sequencing technologies, many AMD-associated genetic polymorphisms have been identified. Currently, the most time consuming steps of these studies are patient recruitment and phenotyping. In this study, we describe the development of an automated algorithm to identify neovascular (wet) AMD, non-neovascular (dry) AMD and control subjects using electronic medical record (EMR)-based criteria. Positive predictive value (91.7%) and negative predictive value (97.5%) were calculated using expert chart review as the gold standard to assess algorithm performance. We applied the algorithm to an EMR-linked DNA bio-repository to study previously identified AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using case/control status determined by the algorithm. Risk alleles of three SNPs, rs1061170 (CFH), rs1410996 (CFH), and rs10490924 (ARMS2) were found to be significantly associated with the AMD case/control status as defined by the algorithm. With the rapid growth of EMR-linked DNA biorepositories, patient selection algorithms can greatly increase the efficiency of genetic association study. We have found that stepwise validation of such an algorithm can result in reliable cohort selection and, when coupled within an EMR-linked DNA biorepository, replicates previously published AMD-associated SNPs.

  4. Evaluation of ideomotor apraxia in patients with stroke: a study of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Kurtulus; Unsal-Delialioglu, Sibel; Kurt, Murat; Altinok, Nermin; Ozel, Sumru

    2006-03-01

    This aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of an established ideomotor apraxia test when applied to a Turkish stroke patient population and to healthy controls. The study group comprised 50 patients with right hemiplegia and 36 with left hemiplegia, who had developed the condition as a result of a cerebrovascular accident, and 33 age-matched healthy subjects. The subjects were evaluated for apraxia using an established ideomotor apraxia test. The cut-off value of the test and the reliability coefficient between observers were determined. Apraxia was found in 54% patients with right hemiplegia (most being severe) and in 25% of left hemiplegic patients (most being mild). The apraxia scores for patients with right hemiplegia were found to be significantly lower than for those with left hemiplegia and for healthy subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with left hemiplegia and healthy subjects. It was shown that the ideomotor apraxia test could distinguish apraxic from non-apraxic subjects. The reliability coefficient among observers in the study was high and a reliability study of the ideomotor apraxia test was therefore performed.

  5. Cadaveric validation study of computational fluid dynamics model of sinus irrigations before and after sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, John R; Zhao, Kai; Doan, Ngoc; Khalili, Sammy; Lee, John Y K; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-04-01

    Investigations into the distribution of sinus irrigations have been limited by labor-intensive methodologies that do not capture the full dynamics of irrigation flow. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for sinonasal irrigations through a cadaveric experiment. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed on 2 fresh cadavers to open all 8 sinuses, including a Draf III procedure for cadaver 1, and Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies for cadaver 2. Computed tomography maxillofacial scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, from which CFD models were created. Blue-dyed saline in a 240-mL squeeze bottle was used to irrigate cadaver sinuses at 60 mL/second (120 mL per side, over 2 seconds). These parameters were replicated in CFD simulations. Endoscopes were placed through trephinations drilled through the anterior walls of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and sphenoid roofs. Irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses was graded both ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of nasal irrigation, and then compared with the CFD simulations. In both cadavers, preoperative and postoperative irrigation flow into maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses matched extremely well when comparing the CFD models and cadaver endoscopic videos. For cadaver 1, there was 100% concordance between the CFD model and cadaver videos, and 83% concordance for cadaver 2. This cadaveric experiment provided potential validation of the CFD model for simulating saline irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses before and after sinus surgery. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. Validation study of a computer-based open surgical trainer: SimPraxis(®) simulation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Linh N; Gupta, Priyanka; Poniatowski, Lauren H; Alanee, Shaheen; Dall'era, Marc A; Sweet, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have dramatically changed medical education, particularly in the era of work-hour restrictions, which increasingly highlights a need for novel methods to teach surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a novel, computer-based, interactive, cognitive simulator for training surgeons to perform pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Eight prostate cancer experts evaluated the content of the simulator. Contextual aspects of the simulator were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The experts and nine first-year residents completed a simulated PLND. Time and deviations were logged, and the results were compared between experts and novices using the Mann-Whitney test. Before training, 88% of the experts felt that a validated simulator would be useful for PLND training. After testing, 100% of the experts felt that it would be more useful than standard video training. Eighty-eight percent stated that they would like to see the simulator in the curriculum of residency programs and 56% thought it would be useful for accreditation purposes. The experts felt that the simulator aided in overall understanding, training indications, concepts and steps of the procedure, training how to use an assistant, and enhanced the knowledge of anatomy. Median performance times taken by experts and interns to complete a PLND procedure on the simulator were 12.62 and 23.97 minutes, respectively. Median deviation from the incorporated procedure pathway for experts was 24.5 and was 89 for novices. We describe an interactive, computer-based simulator designed to assist in mastery of the cognitive steps of an open surgical procedure. This platform is intuitive and flexible, and could be applied to any stepwise medical procedure. Overall, experts outperformed novices in their performance on the trainer. Experts agreed that the content was acceptable, accurate, and representative.

  7. Basic Laparoscopic Skills Assessment Study: Validation and Standard Setting among Canadian Urology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Y; Andonian, Sero; Pace, Kenneth T; Grober, Ethan

    2017-06-01

    As urology training programs move to a competency based medical education model, iterative assessments with objective standards will be required. To develop a valid set of technical skills standards we initiated a national skills assessment study focusing initially on laparoscopic skills. Between February 2014 and March 2016 the basic laparoscopic skill of Canadian urology trainees and attending urologists was assessed using 4 standardized tasks from the AUA (American Urological Association) BLUS (Basic Laparoscopic Urological Surgery) curriculum, including peg transfer, pattern cutting, suturing and knot tying, and vascular clip applying. All performances were video recorded and assessed using 3 methods, including time and error based scoring, expert global rating scores and C-SATS (Crowd-Sourced Assessments of Technical Skill Global Rating Scale), a novel, crowd sourced assessment platform. Different methods of standard setting were used to develop pass-fail cut points. Six attending urologists and 99 trainees completed testing. Reported laparoscopic experience and training level correlated with performance (p standard setting methods to define pass-fail cut points for all 4 AUA BLUS tasks. The 4 AUA BLUS tasks demonstrated good construct validity evidence for use in assessing basic laparoscopic skill. Performance scores using the novel C-SATS platform correlated well with traditional time-consuming methods of assessment. Various standard setting methods were used to develop pass-fail cut points for educators to use when making formative and summative assessments of basic laparoscopic skill. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real - time rt - pce studies of hydrogenperoxide signaling in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Han, B.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, J.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ ) acts as a signaling molecule modulating the expression of various genes in plants. However, the reference gene(s) used for gene expression analysis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ signaling is still arbitrary. A reliable result obtained by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes, whereas the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated and compared in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis upon different doses of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The results revealed that, in our experimental conditions, three novel reference genes (TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in both root and shoot tissues under oxidative stress. This conclusion was further confirmed by publicly available microarray data of methyl viologen and drought stress. In comparison with a single reference gene (EF-1a), the expression pattern of ZAT12 modulated by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, when using TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21 as multiple reference gene(s), was similar with the previous reports by using northern blotting. Thus, we proposed that these three reference genes might be good candidates for other researchers to include in their reference gene validation in gene expression studies under H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ related oxidative stress. (author)

  9. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Defensive Functioning Scale: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Cogan, Rosemary; Markova, Tsveti; Miller, Kristen; Mickens, Lavonda

    2011-01-01

    We assess the convergent and predictive validity of the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) with measures of life events, including childhood abuse and adult partner victimization; dimensions of psychopathology, including axis I (depressive) and axis II (borderline personality disorder) symptoms; and quality of object relations. One hundred and ten women from a university-based urban primary care clinic completed a research interview from which defense mechanisms were assessed. The quality of object relations was also assessed from interview data. The women completed self-report measures assessing depression, borderline personality disorder symptoms, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and adult partner physical and sexual victimization. Inter-rater reliability of the scoring of the DFS levels was good. High adaptive defenses were positively correlated with the quality of object relations and pathological defenses were positively correlated with childhood and adult victimization and symptom measures. Although major image distorting defenses were infrequently used, they were robustly correlated with all study variables. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, major image distorting defenses, depressive symptoms, and minor image distorting defenses significantly predict childhood victimization, accounting for 37% of the variance. In a second stepwise multiple regression analysis, borderline personality disorder symptoms and disavowal defenses combined to significantly predict adult victimization, accounting for 16% of the variance. The DFS demonstrates good convergent validity with axis I and axis II symptoms, as well as with measures of childhood and adult victimization and object relations. The DFS levels add nonredundant information to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition beyond axis I and axis II. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using 4D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Validate Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglino, Giovanni; Cosentino, Daria; Steeden, Jennifer A; De Nova, Lorenzo; Castelli, Matteo; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Pennati, Giancarlo; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can have a complementary predictive role alongside the exquisite visualization capabilities of 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. In order to exploit these capabilities (e.g., for decision-making), it is necessary to validate computational models against real world data. In this study, we sought to acquire 4D CMR flow data in a controllable, experimental setup and use these data to validate a corresponding computational model. We applied this paradigm to a case of congenital heart disease, namely, transposition of the great arteries (TGA) repaired with arterial switch operation. For this purpose, a mock circulatory loop compatible with the CMR environment was constructed and two detailed aortic 3D models (i.e., one TGA case and one normal aortic anatomy) were tested under realistic hemodynamic conditions, acquiring 4D CMR flow. The same 3D domains were used for multi-scale CFD simulations, whereby the remainder of the mock circulatory system was appropriately summarized with a lumped parameter network. Boundary conditions of the simulations mirrored those measured in vitro. Results showed a very good quantitative agreement between experimental and computational models in terms of pressure (overall maximum % error = 4.4% aortic pressure in the control anatomy) and flow distribution data (overall maximum % error = 3.6% at the subclavian artery outlet of the TGA model). Very good qualitative agreement could also be appreciated in terms of streamlines, throughout the cardiac cycle. Additionally, velocity vectors in the ascending aorta revealed less symmetrical flow in the TGA model, which also exhibited higher wall shear stress in the anterior ascending aorta.

  11. Validation of micro-computed tomography for occlusal caries detection: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÖZKAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods of caries detection, including the gold standard of histological examination, have certain disadvantages that must be addressed prior to validating any other diagnostic technique—current or new. Here we evaluated the validity of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT as an alternative gold-standard technique for caries detection. Sixty teeth with suspected occlusal caries were chosen from a pool of teeth extracted for orthodontic, periodontal, or surgical reasons. Identical reference points were marked on photographs taken for teeth and were used to evaluate each method. Dimensions of caries were assessed by two calibrated examiners using the ICDAS-II visual examination system, bitewing radiographs, and micro-CT. The teeth included in the study were selected randomly from solution before all measurements. For micro-CT, the device was set to 50 kV, 800 µA, pixel size 15 µm (at 1024 × 1024 resolution, and 1° rotation step. NRecon software (SkyScan was used to obtain reconstructed images. For each diagnostic method, results were compared with histology results using the McNemar test. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC analysis was also performed for each method (Z-test; p < 0.05. Besides showing a high correlation with histology results, micro-CT yielded the greatest values at the D3 threshold; moreover, accuracy and area under the ROC curve (AUC values were greatest at the D1threshold. Our results indicate that micro-CT performs as well as or better than histological examination for the purpose of comparing methods for caries detection.

  12. Validation of micro-computed tomography for occlusal caries detection: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Gökhan; Kanli, Aydan; Başeren, Nurdan Meserret; Arslan, Umut; Tatar, İlkan

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods of caries detection, including the gold standard of histological examination, have certain disadvantages that must be addressed prior to validating any other diagnostic technique-current or new. Here we evaluated the validity of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as an alternative gold-standard technique for caries detection. Sixty teeth with suspected occlusal caries were chosen from a pool of teeth extracted for orthodontic, periodontal, or surgical reasons. Identical reference points were marked on photographs taken for teeth and were used to evaluate each method. Dimensions of caries were assessed by two calibrated examiners using the ICDAS-II visual examination system, bitewing radiographs, and micro-CT. The teeth included in the study were selected randomly from solution before all measurements. For micro-CT, the device was set to 50 kV, 800 µA, pixel size 15 µm (at 1024 × 1024 resolution), and 1° rotation step. NRecon software (SkyScan) was used to obtain reconstructed images. For each diagnostic method, results were compared with histology results using the McNemar test. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed for each method (Z-test; p < 0.05). Besides showing a high correlation with histology results, micro-CT yielded the greatest values at the D3 threshold; moreover, accuracy and area under the ROC curve (AUC) values were greatest at the D1threshold. Our results indicate that micro-CT performs as well as or better than histological examination for the purpose of comparing methods for caries detection.

  13. Current status of thermohydraulic validation studies at CEA-Grenoble for the SIMMER-III code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, P.; Pigny, S.; Meignen, R.

    2000-01-01

    SIMMER-III (SIII) is a two-dimensional, three-velocity-field, multiphase, multicomponent, Eulerian, fluid-dynamics code coupled with a space- and energy-dependent neutron kinetics model, to investigate postulated core disruptive accidents in LMFRs. It is developed by PNC, Japan. The paper makes the synthesis of the SIII assessment performed at CEA-Grenoble since 1996, which covers a large variety of multiphase flows, from two-phase flow basic modelling to LMFR accident simulation experiments with real materials. Single bubbles or droplets equilibrium radii and velocities, air/water experiments in tubes, and comparisons with the literature, are used to qualify the interfacial area convection equation and the momentum exchange functions. Using the second order differencing scheme of the Navier-Stokes equation, a turbulence model for two-phase recirculating flows is implemented. It is successfully validated on an adiabatic air/water experiment, and on the Sebulon boiling pool simulation experiment, which is a box of water internally heated, with a cover gas, and cooled at the walls. The successful calculations of the SGI experiment and of a reactor scale case contribute to the code validation for LMFR expansion phase. Besides, the large scale UO2/sodium interactions of the Termos T1 experiment, and the UO2 boiling pool laterally cooled with sodium flow at the wall of the Scarabee BF2 experiment, is also studied with SIM Lastly, satisfying results are obtained with the calculation of the Scarabee APL3 slow pump run down without scram. It is shown that SIII is a state-of-the-art tool to simulate transient multiphase phenomena. The paper also discusses those areas, identified through these assessment calculations, which require further research and development. (author)

  14. The Study of Validity and Reliability of Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Ozkan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC was planned to measure its validity and reliability in Turkish women. The study was carried out on women registered at 21 Health Clinics associated with The Denizli Health Department. The clinics used in the study were divided into 3 socioeconomics levels, ie, low, middle and high. These classifications were made by evaluating the local residents’ socioeconomics levels using the randomly chosen statistics technique. After dividing the clinics according to this criteria, 3 different clinics were selected as subjects for the study. The 191 women formed the sample of the study. Inventory Of Functional Status After Childbirth and questionnaire which determined the sociodemographic characteristic and other variables of the women had been excluded in order to obtain data. Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged 0.83 for Household Activities, 0.66 for Social and Community Activities, 0.68 for Infant Care Responsibilities, 0.53 for Self-Care Activities, 0.67 for Occupational Activities, 0.75 for total IFSAC. Average corelations for the sub-scala item to subscale total scores ranged from 0.28 to 0.54 while subscale to total IFSAC score correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.79. Test-retest reability coefficients ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 and the total IFSAC score was 0.99. IFSAC subscale correlations ranged from –0.13 to 0.58. The relationship between the women’s length of marriage, the number of and births, the amount of social support recieved, their age and place of delivery, infant feeding methods and after childbirth functional status was established. It was also determined that as the number of postpartum weeks increased the women became more functional. According to results, The validity and reliability of IFSAC has been determined. Midwives, nurses and other health professionals may use the IFSAC to assess functional status following childbirth

  15. The Study of Validity and Reliability of Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Ozkan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study of Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC was planned to measure its validity and reliability in Turkish women. The study was carried out on women registered at 21 Health Clinics associated with The Denizli Health Department. The clinics used in the study were divided into 3 socioeconomics levels, ie, low, middle and high. These classifications were made by evaluating the local residents’ socioeconomics levels using the randomly chosen statistics technique. After dividing the clinics according to this criteria, 3 different clinics were selected as subjects for the study. The 191 women formed the sample of the study. Inventory Of Functional Status After Childbirth and questionnaire which determined the sociodemographic characteristic and other variables of the women had been excluded in order to obtain data. Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged 0.83 for Household Activities, 0.66 for Social and Community Activities, 0.68 for Infant Care Responsibilities, 0.53 for Self-Care Activities, 0.67 for Occupational Activities, 0.75 for total IFSAC. Average corelations for the sub-scala item to subscale total scores ranged from 0.28 to 0.54 while subscale to total IFSAC score correlations ranged from 0.22 to 0.79. Test-retest reability coefficients ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 and the total IFSAC score was 0.99. IFSAC subscale correlations ranged from –0.13 to 0.58. The relationship between the women’s length of marriage, the number of and births, the amount of social support recieved, their age and place of delivery, infant feeding methods and after childbirth functional status was established. It was also determined that as the number of postpartum weeks increased the women became more functional. According to results, The validity and reliability of IFSAC has been determined. Midwives, nurses and other health professionals may use the IFSAC to assess functional status following childbirth

  16. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  17. Validation Study of a General Subject-matter Interest Measure: The Individual Interest Questionnaire (IIQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome I. Rotgans

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion and relevance: The results suggest that the IIQ is a reliable and valid instrument to measure individual interest across different disciplines and demonstrated adequate predictive validity for cognitive engagement and on-task behaviors and attitudes. The IIQ fills the gap in the literature for a generic instrument to measure individual interest.

  18. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Frate, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Sustainable Development scale, a quantitative 20-item scale that measures Italian university students' attitudes toward sustainable development. A total of 484 undergraduate students completed the questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the scale was statistically…

  19. Person fit and criterion-related validity: an extension of the Schmitt, Cortina, and Whitney study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The effect on criterion-related validity of nonfitting response vectors (NRVs) on a predictor test was investigated. Using simulated data, it was shown that there was a substantial decrease in validity when the type of misfit was severe (i.e., guessing the correct answers to all test items), when

  20. Validation of Physical Activity Tracking via Android Smartphones Compared to ActiGraph Accelerometer: Laboratory-Based and Free-Living Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Grieco, Lauren; Rosenberger, Mary; Winter, Sandra J; Haskell, William; King, Abby C

    2015-04-15

    There is increasing interest in using smartphones as stand-alone physical activity monitors via their built-in accelerometers, but there is presently limited data on the validity of this approach. The purpose of this work was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 Android smartphones for measuring physical activity among midlife and older adults. A laboratory (study 1) and a free-living (study 2) protocol were conducted. In study 1, individuals engaged in prescribed activities including sedentary (eg, sitting), light (sweeping), moderate (eg, walking 3 mph on a treadmill), and vigorous (eg, jogging 5 mph on a treadmill) activity over a 2-hour period wearing both an ActiGraph and 3 Android smartphones (ie, HTC MyTouch, Google Nexus One, and Motorola Cliq). In the free-living study, individuals engaged in usual daily activities over 7 days while wearing an Android smartphone (Google Nexus One) and an ActiGraph. Study 1 included 15 participants (age: mean 55.5, SD 6.6 years; women: 56%, 8/15). Correlations between the ActiGraph and the 3 phones were strong to very strong (ρ=.77-.82). Further, after excluding bicycling and standing, cut-point derived classifications of activities yielded a high percentage of activities classified correctly according to intensity level (eg, 78%-91% by phone) that were similar to the ActiGraph's percent correctly classified (ie, 91%). Study 2 included 23 participants (age: mean 57.0, SD 6.4 years; women: 74%, 17/23). Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, PAndroid smartphone can provide comparable estimates of physical activity to an ActiGraph in both a laboratory-based and free-living context for estimating sedentary and MVPA and that different Android smartphones may reliably confer similar estimates.

  1. Instrument for assessing mobile technology acceptability in diabetes self-management: a validation and reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frandes M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mirela Frandes,1 Anca V Deiac,2 Bogdan Timar,1,3 Diana Lungeanu1,2 1Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 2Department of Mathematics, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, 3Third Medical Clinic, Emergency Hospital of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania Background: Nowadays, mobile technologies are part of everyday life, but the lack of instruments to assess their acceptability for the management of chronic diseases makes their actual adoption for this purpose slow.Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a survey instrument for assessing patients’ attitude toward and intention to use mobile technology for diabetes mellitus (DM self-management, as well as to identify sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life factors that affect them.Methods: We first conducted the documentation and instrument design phases, which were subsequently followed by the pilot study and instrument validation. Afterward, the instrument was administered 103 patients (median age: 37 years; range: 18–65 years diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM, who accepted to participate in the study. The reliability and construct validity were assessed by computing Cronbach’s alpha and using factor analysis, respectively.Results: The instrument included statements about the actual use of electronic devices for DM management, interaction between patient and physician, attitude toward using mobile technology, and quality of life evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.9 for attitude toward using mobile technology and 0.97 for attitude toward using mobile device applications for DM self-management. Younger patients (Spearman’s ρ=-0.429; P<0.001 with better glycemic control (Spearman’s ρ=-0.322; P<0.001 and higher education level (Kendall’s τ=0.51; P<0.001 had significantly more favorable attitude toward using mobile assistive applications for DM control. Moreover, patients with a higher quality of

  2. Nitrofuranyl Methyl Piperazines as New Anti-TB Agents: Identification, Validation, Medicinal Chemistry, and PK Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell screening of 20,000 drug-like small molecules led to the identification of nitrofuranyl methylpiperazines as potent anti-TB agents. In the present study, validation followed by medicinal chemistry has been used to explore the structure–activity relationship. Ten compounds demonstrated potent MIC in the range of 0.17–0.0072 μM against H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and were further investigated against nonreplicating and resistant (RifR and MDR) strains of MTB. These compounds were also tested for cytotoxicity. Among the 10 tested compounds, five showed submicromolar to nanomolar potency against nonreplicating and resistant (RifR and MDR) strains of MTB along with a good safety index. Based on their overall in vitro profiles, the solubility and pharmacokinetic properties of five potent compounds were studied, and two analogues, 14f and 16g, were found to have comparatively better solubility than others tested and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. This study presents the rediscovery of a nitrofuranyl class of compounds with improved aqueous solubility and acceptable oral PK properties, opening a new direction for further development. PMID:26487909

  3. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitker Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. Method We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. Results The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. Conclusion The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

  4. Gasification behavior of coal and woody biomass: Validation and parametrical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemi, Idowu; Janajreh, Isam; Arink, Thomas; Ghenai, Chaouki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical modeling and experimental diagnostics of entrained flow gasification. • Obtain the effect of gasification of Kentucky coal and wood waste. • Obtain the effect of equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature. • Kentucky coal produced higher gasification efficiency as compared to wood. • The gasification efficiency most sensitive to equivalence ratio. - Abstract: The entrained flow gasification of two feedstocks (Kentucky coal and woody biomass) have been investigated in this study both numerically and experimentally. Previously, there had been no study that investigated the centerline parameters during the experimental gasification of Kentucky coal and biomass utilizing drop tube reactor (DTR). These high quality centerline experiments provide enough data for high fidelity model development and used for an innovative gasifier design. This work investigates the gasification behavior of Kentucky coal and wood waste under different gasification parameters including equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature. The experimental study was conducted in the air-blown atmospheric DTR experimental facility at the Waste-2-Energy Laboratory at Masdar Institute. The measured centerline temperature, exit gas composition, and SEM images was obtained for model validation and to gain better insight into the gasification of the two different feedstock particles. The Lagrangian–Eulerian based numerical model predicted the experimental results reasonably. The effect of the fuel type on the gas composition along the centerline of the gasifier indicated that Kentucky coal attained higher gasification efficiency when compared to that of wood waste. Moreover, the gasification efficiency was most sensitive to the equivalence ratio.

  5. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  6. Columbia River Stock Identification Study; Validation of Genetic Method, 1980-1981 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, George B.; Teel, David J.; Utter, Fred M. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1981-06-01

    The reliability of a method for obtaining maximum likelihood estimate of component stocks in mixed populations of salmonids through the frequency of genetic variants in a mixed population and in potentially contributing stocks was tested in 1980. A data base of 10 polymorphic loci from 14 hatchery stocks of spring chinook salmon of the Columbia River was used to estimate proportions of these stocks in four different blind'' mixtures whose true composition was only revealed subsequent to obtaining estimates. The accuracy and precision of these blind tests have validated the genetic method as a valuable means for identifying components of stock mixtures. Properties of the genetic method were further examined by simulation studies using the pooled data of the four blind tests as a mixed fishery. Replicated tests with samples sizes between 100 and 1,000 indicated that actual standard deviations on estimated contributions were consistently lower than calculated standard deviations; this difference diminished as sample size increased. It is recommended that future applications of the method be preceded by simulation studies that will identify appropriate levels of sampling required for acceptable levels of accuracy and precision. Variables in such studies include the stocks involved, the loci used, and the genetic differentiation among stocks. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Exploring Stochastic Sampling in Nuclear Data Uncertainties Assessment for Reactor Physics Applications and Validation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasiliev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of uncertainties of various calculation results, caused by the uncertainties associated with the input nuclear data, is a common task in nuclear reactor physics applications. Modern computation resources and improved knowledge on nuclear data allow nowadays to significantly advance the capabilities for practical investigations. Stochastic sampling is the method which has received recently a high momentum for its use and exploration in the domain of reactor design and safety analysis. An application of a stochastic sampling based tool towards nuclear reactor dosimetry studies is considered in the given paper with certain exemplary test evaluations. The stochastic sampling not only allows the input nuclear data uncertainties propagation through the calculations, but also an associated correlation analysis performance with no additional computation costs and for any parameters of interest can be done. Thus, an example of assessment of the Pearson correlation coefficients for several models, used in practical validation studies, is shown here. As a next step, the analysis of the obtained information is proposed for discussion, with focus on the systems similarities assessment. The benefits of the employed method and tools with respect to practical reactor dosimetry studies are consequently outlined.

  8. Data collection, validation, and description for the Oak Ridge nuclear facilities mortality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.P.; Reagan, J.L.; Cragle, D.L.; West, C.M.; Tankersley, W.G.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the long-term health effects of protracted occupational exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation, a mortality study was initiated by pooling data for 118,588 workers hired between 1943 and 1982, at three Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with follow-up through 1984. Topics for this discussion will include issues involving the collection and validation of data for individuals in the study cohort, and characteristics of their demographic and radiation exposure data. Since the data were compiled between the late 1960s and the present under the direction of several principal investigators, it was essential to verify data precision and to understand how exposure data were generated prior to beginning any analysis. A stratified random sample of workers in the cohort was chosen for verification of their computerized data as it appeared in the database. Original source documents were reviewed to verify demographic data, as well as internal and external radiation exposure data. Extensive effort was expended to document the personal radiation monitoring policies and types of dosimeters used at each facility over the 42 years included in the study. Characteristics of internal and external exposure data by facility and year were examined by graphical methods with the intent of combining these monitoring data over time and across facilities

  9. Data handling and validation from Wisconsin's remote vehicle emissions sensing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendahl, Craig S.

    1995-05-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and Department of Transportation (WDOT) are conducting a joint study to determine the effectiveness of applying optical sensing techniques to vehicular emission monitoring. Two field studies using Remote Sensing Technologies, Inc. remote sensing equipment was conducted in 1993 and 1994. This paper describes the data handling and data validation activities of these studies, including identification of data elements. Data handling was performed by the same people who conducted the 180,000 vehicle emissions tests. A contemporary commercial spreadsheet from Borland International, Inc. was used to import the raw data from the remote sensor. The data was reviewed with the spreadsheet then moved into a Borland relational database product. The relational database permitted structured queries against databases of vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) data from WDOT, National Insurance Crime Bureau, and EnviroTest. We determined effective cut points for vehicles of different ages which delineated high-polluting vehicles (gross emitters) from vehicles in compliance. The I/M data was also used to intercompare the remote sensing results with traditional testing results. Remote sensing test results were then compared for errors of commission and omission with respect to I/M test. Ultimately, this remote sensing database technique could serve as a means for identifying gross emitters who would be required to visit an I/M facility for an out-of-cycle emissions test.

  10. Non-clinical models: validation, study design and statistical consideration in safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Towart, R; Authier, S; Gallacher, D J; Curtis, M J

    2010-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) focuses exclusively on safety pharmacology methods. This is the 7th year the Journal has published on this topic. Methods and models that specifically relate to methods relating to the assessment of the safety profile of a new chemical entity (NCE) prior to first in human (FIH) studies are described. Since the Journal started publishing on this topic there has been a major effort by safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and regulatory scientists within Industry (both large and small Pharma as well as Biotechnology companies) and also from Contract Research Organizations (CRO) to publish the surgical details of the non-clinical methods utilized but also provide important details related to standard and non-standard (or integrated) study models and designs. These details from core battery and secondary (or ancillary) drug safety assessment methods used in drug development programs have been the focus of these special issues and have been an attempt to provide validation of methods. Similarly, the safety pharmacology issues of the Journal provide the most relevant forum for scientists to present novel and modified methods with direct applicability to determination of drug safety-directly to the safety pharmacology scientific community. The content of the manuscripts in this issue includes the introduction of additional important surgical methods, novel data capture and data analysis methods, improved study design and effects of positive control compounds with known activity in the model. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validity of the WHO VAW study instrument for estimating gender-based violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias O; França, Ivan; Segri, Neuber José; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas

    2010-08-01

    To validate the instrument of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW) study on psychological, physical and sexual violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in several countries between 2000 and 2003, including Brazil. Representative random samples of women aged 15-49 years with intimate partners were selected, living in the city of São Paulo (n = 940) and in the Zona da Mata, Pernambuco (n = 1,188), southeastern and northeastern regions, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis on questions relating to violence was performed (four psychological, six physical and three sexual questions), with varimax rotation and creation of three factors. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to analyze the internal consistency. To validate through extreme groups, mean scores (0 to 13 points) for violence were tested in relation to the following outcomes: self-rated health, daily activities, presence of discomfort or pain, suicidal ideation or attempts, heavy alcohol consumption and presence of common mental disorders. Three factors were defined, with similar accumulated variance (0.6092 in São Paulo and 0.6350 in the Zona da Mata). For São Paulo, the first factor was determined by physical violence, the second by sexual violence and the third by psychological violence. For the Zona da Mata, the first factor was formed by psychological violence, the second by physical violence and the third by sexual violence. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.88 in São Paulo and 0.89 in the Zona da Mata. The mean scores for violence were significantly higher for less favorable outcomes, with the exception of suicide attempts in São Paulo. The instrument was shown to be adequate for estimating gender-based violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners and can be used in studies on this subject. It has high internal consistency and a capacity to discriminate between different forms of violence

  12. Validation of Health Event Capture in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieke, Amy L; Kieke, Burney A; Kopitzke, Sarah L; McClure, David L; Belongia, Edward A; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Greenlee, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    In this study, health event capture is broadly defined as the degree to which a group of people use a particular provider network as their primary source of health care services. The Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA) is a valuable resource for population-based health research, but the completeness of health event capture has not been validated in recent years. Our objective was to determine the current level of outpatient and inpatient health event capture by Marshfield Clinic (MC) facilities and affiliated hospitals for people living within MESA. A stratified sample survey with strata defined by MESA region (Central or North) and age group (central and northern Wisconsin, USA. 2,485 individuals participated of the 4,313 sampled cohort members residing in MESA Central (N=61,041) and MESA North (N=25,906) on February 22, 2011. A health care utilization survey was mailed to a random sample stratified by age group and MESA region. Telephone interviews were attempted for nonrespondents. The survey requested information on sources of outpatient care and overnight hospital admissions. Population proportions representing health event capture metrics and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with analytic weights applied to account for the survey design. Among those with an outpatient visit during the past 24 months, the most recent visit of an estimated 93% (95% CI, 91% - 94%) was at a MC facility. The most recent admission of an estimated 93% (95% CI, 90% - 96%) of those hospitalized in the past 24 months was at a hospital affiliated with MC. The proportion admitted to MC affiliated hospitals was higher for residents of MESA Central (97%) compared to MESA North (83%). A high proportion of outpatient visits and inpatient admissions in MESA Central and MESA North are accessible in the MC electronic health record. This pattern of high health event capture has been demonstrated since the inception of MESA in 1991. The results from this study

  13. Measuring family needs of people living with cancer. Portuguese validation and descriptive studies of the Family Inventory of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Neide P; Major, Sofia; Relvas, Ana P

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Family Inventory of Needs (FIN). The FIN aims to measure important family needs and their fulfilment by a healthcare team. This cross-sectional study involved a sample of 364 family members of cancer patients, recruited from three medical institutions and through online recruitment. Three instruments were used: a socio-demographic questionnaire, the FIN and the Brief Symptom Inventory - 18 (BSI-18). Construct validity and reliability were considered regarding the FIN's psychometric properties. The method used to determine construct validity was factor structure analysis (confirmatory factor analysis), inter-factor correlations (Spearman's rank correlation) and convergent validity (Spearman's rank correlation). To assess scale reliability, the FIN's internal consistency was evaluated (Cronbach's alpha coefficient). Descriptive and frequency statistics and tests to compare means were used to assess important needs and to what extent they were met. The four-factor structure of the FIN was confirmed. Thus, the FIN has four domains: Basic Information, Information on treatment and care, Support and Patient Comfort. Convergent validity with the BSI-18 was verified. Both subscales of the FIN and each domain exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. Family members also reported important needs that were not adequately met by healthcare professionals. The Portuguese version of the FIN seems to be a reliable and valid tool for identifying cancer patients' important family needs and to what extent these are met. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medico-legal reasoning in disability assessment: A focus group and validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rus M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions on disability pensions are based, among others, on medical reports. The way these medical assessments are performed is largely unclear. The aim of the study was to determine which grounds are used by social insurance physicians (SIPs in these assessments and to determine if the identification of these grounds can help improve the quality of assessments in social insurance practice. The article describes a focus group study and a questionnaire study with SIPs in four different countries. Method Using focus group discussions of SIPs discussing the same case in Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia (N = 29 we determined the arguments and underlying grounds as used by the SIP's. We used a questionnaire study among other SIPs (N = 60 in the same countries to establish a first validation of these grounds. Results Grounds in the focus groups were comparable between the countries studied. The grounds were also recognized by SIPs who had not participated in the focus groups. SIPs agreed most on grounds with regard to the claimant's health condition, and about the claimant's duty to explore rehabilitation and work resumption, but less on accepting permanent incapacity when all options for treatment were exhausted. Conclusion Grounds that SIPs use refer to a limited group of key elements of disability evaluation. SIPs interpret disability in social insurance according to the handicapped role and strive at making their evaluation fair trials. ICF is relevant with regard to the health condition and to the process of evaluation. Identification of grounds is a valuable instrument for controlling the quality of disability evaluation. The grounds also appear to be internationally comparable which may enhance scientific study in this area.

  15. The Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI-C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) is widely used in assessing students' learning and study strategies at both university and high school levels. The present study developed a Chinese version of LASSI (LASSI-C) and then further investigated the reliability, factor structure, and validity of LASSI-C scores, using a sample of 612…

  16. Reliability and validity of the photogrammetry for scoliosis evaluation: a cross-sectional prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Colombo, Alexandra S; João, Silvia M Amado

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of photogrammetry in measuring the lateral spinal inclination angles. Forty subjects (32 female and 8 males) with a mean age of 23.4 +/- 11.2 years had their scoliosis evaluated by radiographs of their trunk, determined by the Cobb angle method, and by photogrammetry. The statistical methods used included Cronbach alpha, Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficients, and regression analyses. The Cronbach alpha values showed that the photogrammetric measures showed high internal consistency, which indicated that the sample was bias free. The radiograph method showed to be more precise with intrarater reliabilities of 0.936, 0.975, and 0.945 for the thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar curves, respectively, and interrater reliabilities of 0.942 and 0.879 for the angular measures of the thoracic and thoracolumbar segments, respectively. The regression analyses revealed a high determination coefficient although limited to the adjusted linear model between the radiographic and photographic measures. It was found that with more severe scoliosis, the lateral curve measures obtained with the photogrammetry were for the thoracic and lumbar regions (R = 0.619 and 0.551). The photogrammetric measures were found to be reproducible in this study and could be used as supplementary information to decrease the number of radiographs necessary for the monitoring of scoliosis.

  17. The EC/HO international validation study on alternatives to the draize eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, M; Botham, P A; Bruner, L H; Spielmann, H

    1995-12-01

    This is the final report of the Management Team for a European Commission/British Home Office (EC/HO) validation study on alternatives to the Draize eye irritation test. The principal goal of the study was to establish whether one or more of nine non-animal tests could be used to replace the Draize test for all severely irritating materials (or those belonging to specific classes) or the animal test completely for chemicals with or without regard to chemical class. Sixty chemicals were independently selected, coded and supplied, then the data obtained in 37 laboratories were analysed independently. The results of comparisons between 27 alternative test index scores and the Modified Maximum Average Scores (MMASs) obtained in the Draize eye test were compared. Tables of results showing Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients and Spearman's rank coefficients for each laboratory are provided, and correlation matrices of alternative test index scores among the different groups of laboratories are shown for each endpoint. Scatterplots are provided, in which the alternative test scores obtained by the lead laboratories for the nine tests are plotted against the MMAS for the full set of chemicals and 12 surfactants. It is concluded that, with the possible exception of predicting the irritancy of surfactants, none of the nine tests met any of the four performance targets. Possible reasons for this outcome are discussed.

  18. Validation of a hairy roots system to study soybean-soybean aphid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Stephanie C.; Studham, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.

    2017-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is one of the main insect pests of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Genomics approaches have provided important data on transcriptome changes, both in the insect and in the plant, in response to the plant-aphid interaction. However, the difficulties to transform soybean and to rear soybean aphid on artificial media have hindered our ability to systematically test the function of genes identified by those analyses as mediators of plant resistance to the insect. An efficient approach to produce transgenic soybean material is the production of transformed hairy roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes; however, soybean aphids colonize leaves or stems and thus this approach has not been utilized. Here, we developed a hairy root system that allowed effective aphid feeding. We show that this system supports aphid performance similar to that observed in leaves. The use of hairy roots to study plant resistance is validated by experiments showing that roots generated from cotyledons of resistant lines carrying the Rag1 or Rag2 resistance genes are also resistant to aphid feeding, while related susceptible lines are not. Our results demonstrate that hairy roots are a good system to study soybean aphid-soybean interactions, providing a quick and effective method that could be used for functional analysis of the resistance response to this insect. PMID:28358854

  19. Cerebral Blood Flow Measurement Using fMRI and PET: A Cross-Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean J. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is the study of brain hemodynamics, and MR arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion imaging has gained wide acceptance as a robust and noninvasive technique. However, the cerebral blood flow (CBF measurements obtained with ASL fMRI have not been fully validated, particularly during global CBF modulations. We present a comparison of cerebral blood flow changes (ΔCBF measured using a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR ASL perfusion method to those obtained using H2O15 PET, which is the current gold standard for in vivo imaging of CBF. To study regional and global CBF changes, a group of 10 healthy volunteers were imaged under identical experimental conditions during presentation of 5 levels of visual stimulation and one level of hypercapnia. The CBF changes were compared using 3 types of region-of-interest (ROI masks. FAIR measurements of CBF changes were found to be slightly lower than those measured with PET (average ΔCBF of 21.5±8.2% for FAIR versus 28.2±12.8% for PET at maximum stimulation intensity. Nonetheless, there was a strong correlation between measurements of the two modalities. Finally, a t-test comparison of the slopes of the linear fits of PET versus ASL ΔCBF for all 3 ROI types indicated no significant difference from unity (P>.05.

  20. Validation of an experimental polyurethane model for biomechanical studies on implant supported prosthesis - tension tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Miyashiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The complexity and heterogeneity of human bone, as well as ethical issues, frequently hinder the development of clinical trials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the modulus of elasticity of a polyurethane isotropic experimental model via tension tests, comparing the results to those reported in the literature for mandibular bone, in order to validate the use of such a model in lieu of mandibular bone in biomechanical studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five polyurethane test specimens were divided into 3 groups of 15 specimens each, according to the ratio (A/B of polyurethane reagents (PU-1: 1/0.5, PU-2: 1/1, PU-3: 1/1.5. RESULTS: Tension tests were performed in each experimental group and the modulus of elasticity values found were 192.98 MPa (SD=57.20 for PU-1, 347.90 MPa (SD=109.54 for PU-2 and 304.64 MPa (SD=25.48 for PU-3. CONCLUSION: The concentration of choice for building the experimental model was 1/1.

  1. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  2. Mixture randomized item-response modeling: a smoking behavior validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J-P; Avetisyan, M; van der Palen, J

    2013-11-30

    Misleading response behavior is expected in medical settings where incriminating behavior is negatively related to the recovery from a disease. In the present study, lung patients feel social and professional pressure concerning smoking and experience questions about smoking behavior as sensitive and tend to conceal embarrassing or threatening information. The randomized item-response survey method is expected to improve the accuracy of self-reports as individual item responses are masked and only randomized item responses are observed. We explored the validation of the randomized item-response technique in a unique experimental study. Therefore, we administered a new multi-item measure assessing smoking behavior by using a treatment-control design (randomized response (RR) or direct questioning). After the questionnaire, we administered a breath test by using a carbon monoxide (CO) monitor to determine the smoking status of the patient. We used the response data to measure the individual smoking behavior by using a mixture item-response model. It is shown that the detected smokers scored significantly higher in the RR condition compared with the directly questioned condition. We proposed a Bayesian latent variable framework to evaluate the diagnostic test accuracy of the questionnaire using the randomized-response technique, which is based on the posterior densities of the subject's smoking behavior scores together with the breath test measurements. For different diagnostic test thresholds, we obtained moderate posterior mean estimates of sensitivity and specificity by observing a limited number of discrete randomized item responses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Is the corticomedullary index valid to distinguish human from nonhuman bones: a multislice computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2013-09-10

    The first step in the identification process of bone remains is to determine whether they are of human or nonhuman origin. This issue may arise when only a fragment of bone is available, as the species of origin is usually easily determined on a complete bone. The present study aims to assess the validity of a morphometric method used by French forensic anthropologists to determine the species of origin: the corticomedullary index (CMI), defined by the ratio of the diameter of the medullary cavity to the total diameter of the bone. We studied the constancy of the CMI from measurements made on computed tomography images (CT scans) of different human bones, and compared our measurements with reference values selected in the literature. The measurements obtained on CT scans at three different sites of 30 human femurs, 24 tibias, and 24 fibulas were compared between themselves and with the CMI reference values for humans, pigs, dogs and sheep. Our results differed significantly from these reference values, with three exceptions: the proximal quarter of the femur and mid-fibular measurements for the human CMI, and the proximal quarter of the tibia for the sheep CMI. Mid-tibial, mid-femoral, and mid-fibular measurements also differed significantly between themselves. Only 22.6% of CT scans of human bones were correctly identified as human. We concluded that the CMI is not an effective method for determining the human origin of bone remains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary histologic diagnosis using automated whole slide imaging: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukic Drazen M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only prototypes 5 years ago, high-speed, automated whole slide imaging (WSI systems (also called digital slide systems, virtual microscopes or wide field imagers are becoming increasingly capable and robust. Modern devices can capture a slide in 5 minutes at spatial sampling periods of less than 0.5 micron/pixel. The capacity to rapidly digitize large numbers of slides should eventually have a profound, positive impact on pathology. It is important, however, that pathologists validate these systems during development, not only to identify their limitations but to guide their evolution. Methods Three pathologists fully signed out 25 cases representing 31 parts. The laboratory information system was used to simulate real-world sign-out conditions including entering a full diagnostic field and comment (when appropriate and ordering special stains and recuts. For each case, discrepancies between diagnoses were documented by committee and a "consensus" report was formed and then compared with the microscope-based, sign-out report from the clinical archive. Results In 17 of 25 cases there were no discrepancies between the individual study pathologist reports. In 8 of the remaining cases, there were 12 discrepancies, including 3 in which image quality could be at least partially implicated. When the WSI consensus diagnoses were compared with the original sign-out diagnoses, no significant discrepancies were found. Full text of the pathologist reports, the WSI consensus diagnoses, and the original sign-out diagnoses are available as an attachment to this publication. Conclusion The results indicated that the image information contained in current whole slide images is sufficient for pathologists to make reliable diagnostic decisions and compose complex diagnostic reports. This is a very positive result; however, this does not mean that WSI is as good as a microscope. Virtually every slide had focal areas in which image quality (focus

  5. Use of applied theatre in health research dissemination and data validation: a pilot study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttaford, Maria; Bryanston, Claudette; Hundt, Gillian Lewando; Connor, Myles; Thorogood, Margaret; Tollman, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a pilot study of the use of applied theatre in the dissemination of health research findings and validation of data. The study took place in South Africa, as part of the Southern Africa Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI) and was based at the University/Medical Research Council Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (also known as the Agincourt Unit). The aim of SASPI was to investigate the prevalence of stroke and understand the social context of stroke. It was decided to use an applied theatre approach for validating the data and disseminating findings from the anthropological component of the study. The pilot study found that applied theatre worked better in smaller community groups. It allowed data validation and it elicited ideas for future interventions resulting from the health research findings. Evaluation methods of the impact of applied theatre as a vehicle for the dissemination and communication of research findings require further development. PMID:16322042

  6. Development and validation of filters for the retrieval of studies of clinical examination from Medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Badgett, Robert G; Pi, Mina; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K Ann; Ketchum, Andrea M; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-10-19

    Efficiently finding clinical examination studies--studies that quantify the value of symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of disease-is becoming increasingly difficult. Filters developed to retrieve studies of diagnosis from Medline lack specificity because they also retrieve large numbers of studies on the diagnostic value of imaging and laboratory tests. The objective was to develop filters for retrieving clinical examination studies from Medline. We developed filters in a training dataset and validated them in a testing database. We created the training database by hand searching 161 journals (n = 52,636 studies). We evaluated the recall and precision of 65 candidate single-term filters in identifying studies that reported the sensitivity and specificity of symptoms or signs in the training database. To identify best combinations of these search terms, we used recursive partitioning. The best-performing filters in the training database as well as 13 previously developed filters were evaluated in a testing database (n = 431,120 studies). We also examined the impact of examining reference lists of included articles on recall. In the training database, the single-term filters with the highest recall (95%) and the highest precision (8.4%) were diagnosis[subheading] and "medical history taking"[MeSH], respectively. The multiple-term filter developed using recursive partitioning (the RP filter) had a recall of 100% and a precision of 89% in the training database. In the testing database, the Haynes-2004-Sensitive filter (recall 98%, precision 0.13%) and the RP filter (recall 89%, precision 0.52%) showed the best performance. The recall of these two filters increased to 99% and 94% respectively with review of the reference lists of the included articles. Recursive partitioning appears to be a useful method of developing search filters. The empirical search filters proposed here can assist in the retrieval of clinical examination studies from Medline; however, because of

  7. Validation Study of CODES Dragonfly Network Model with Theta Cray XC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubarak, Misbah [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ross, Robert B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This technical report describes the experiments performed to validate the MPI performance measurements reported by the CODES dragonfly network simulation with the Theta Cray XC system at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF).

  8. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana S; Apperson, Michelle; Walker, Wynn L; Tian, Yingfang; Xu, Huichun; Adamczy, Peter; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, Da-Zhi; Ander, Bradley P; Liao, Isaac H; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Turner, Renee J; Jickling, Glen; Lit, Lisa; Sharp, Frank R

    2009-08-05

    Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT), 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS) and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder). The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  9. The self-assessment scale of cognitive complaints in schizophrenia: a validation study in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

    2009-10-08

    Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life.

  10. The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah Yasmine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria. Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS. Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction

  11. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

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    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  12. Risk scores for outcome in bacterial meningitis: Systematic review and external validation study.

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    Bijlsma, Merijn W; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Heymans, Martijn W; van der Ende, Arie; Tanck, Michael W T; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-11-01

    To perform an external validation study of risk scores, identified through a systematic review, predicting outcome in community-acquired bacterial meningitis. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1960 and August 2014. Performance was evaluated in 2108 episodes of adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis from two nationwide prospective cohort studies by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), the calibration curve, calibration slope or Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the distribution of calculated risks. Nine risk scores were identified predicting death, neurological deficit or death, or unfavorable outcome at discharge in bacterial meningitis, pneumococcal meningitis and invasive meningococcal disease. Most studies had shortcomings in design, analyses, and reporting. Evaluation showed AUCs of 0.59 (0.57-0.61) and 0.74 (0.71-0.76) in bacterial meningitis, 0.67 (0.64-0.70) in pneumococcal meningitis, and 0.81 (0.73-0.90), 0.82 (0.74-0.91), 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.84 (0.76-0.93), 0.85 (0.75-0.95), and 0.90 (0.83-0.98) in meningococcal meningitis. Calibration curves showed adequate agreement between predicted and observed outcomes for four scores, but statistical tests indicated poor calibration of all risk scores. One score could be recommended for the interpretation and design of bacterial meningitis studies. None of the existing scores performed well enough to recommend routine use in individual patient management. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study to confirm the reliability and construct validity of an organisational citizenship behaviour measure on a South African sample

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    Bright Mahembe

    2015-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary goal of the study was to validate the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS developed by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990 on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: Organisational citizenship behaviour is one of the important workplace outcomes. A psychometrically sound instrument is therefore required. Research design, approach and method: The sample consisted of 503 employees from the educational sector in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. The OCBS was used to measure organisational citizenship behaviour. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for the OCBS sub-scales. The first and second-order measurement models of the OCBS showed good fit. A competing one-factor model did not show good model fit. In terms of discriminant validity four of the five subdimensions correlated highly. Practical/managerial implications: Although the OCBS demonstrated some sound reliability coefficients and reasonable construct validity, the discriminant validity of four of the subscales raise some questions which future studies should confirm. The use of the instrument should help to continue to measure the much-needed extra-role behaviours that mirror an employee’s interest in the success of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the requirements of the Employment Equity Act (No. 55 of 1998 and the Amended Employment Equity Act of South Africa (Republic of South Africa, 1998; 2014. This promotes the use of reliable and valid instruments in South Africa by confirming the psychometric properties of the OCBS.

  14. Technical Guidance for Conducting ASVAB Validation/Standards Studies in the U.S. Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    DiFazio, 2006). The unified framework provides a context for thinking about ASVAB validation research. It outlines diverse validation objectives...that clearly map to the skills , and abilities, and knowledge necessary to perform the job and which, in turn, clearly map to the training for the job...observed sample correlation having occurred by chance and so we reject the null hypothesis. As is the case with all inferential statistics, the t

  15. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity

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    Salvador Chacón-Moscoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase

  16. Assessment of the nursing care product (APROCENF): a reliability and construct validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucolo, Danielle Fabiana; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2017-04-06

    to verify the reliability and construct validity estimates of the "Assessment of nursing care product" scale (APROCENF) and its applicability. this validation study included a sample of 40 (inter-rater reliability) and 172 (construct validity) assessments performed by nurses at the end of the work shift at nine inpatient services of a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Southeast. The data were collected between February and September/2014 with interruptions. Cronbach's alpha and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated, as well as the intraclass correlation and the weighted kappa index (inter-rater reliability). Exploratory factor analysis was used with principal component extraction and varimax rotation (construct validity). the internal consistency revealed an alpha coefficient of 0.85, item-item correlation ranging between 0.13 and 0.61 and item-total correlation between 0.43 and 0.69. Inter-rater equivalence was obtained and all items evidenced significant factor loadings. this research evidenced the reliability and construct validity of the scale to assess the nursing care product. Its application in nursing practice permits identifying improvements needed in the production process, contributing to management and care decisions. verificar as estimativas de confiabilidade e validade de construto da escala "Avaliação do produto do cuidar em enfermagem" (APROCENF) e sua aplicabilidade. este estudo de validação incluiu em sua amostra 40 (confiabilidade interavaliadores) e 172 (validade de construto) avaliações realizadas por enfermeiros ao final do turno de trabalho em nove unidades de internação de um hospital universitário do sudeste brasileiro. A coleta de dados ocorreu entre fevereiro e setembro de 2014 de forma interrupta. Foram calculados os coeficientes alfa de Cronbach e correlação de Spearman (consistência interna), a correlação intraclasse e Kappa ponderado (confiabilidade interavaliadores) e a análise fatorial exploratória foi

  17. Validation study of a computer-based open surgical trainer: SimPraxis® simulation platform

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    Tran LN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Linh N Tran,1 Priyanka Gupta,2 Lauren H Poniatowski,2 Shaheen Alanee,3 Marc A Dall’Era,4 Robert M Sweet21Department of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 2Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, CA, USABackground: Technological advances have dramatically changed medical education, particularly in the era of work-hour restrictions, which increasingly highlights a need for novel methods to teach surgical skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a novel, computer-based, interactive, cognitive simulator for training surgeons to perform pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND.Methods: Eight prostate cancer experts evaluated the content of the simulator. Contextual aspects of the simulator were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The experts and nine first-year residents completed a simulated PLND. Time and deviations were logged, and the results were compared between experts and novices using the Mann–Whitney test.Results: Before training, 88% of the experts felt that a validated simulator would be useful for PLND training. After testing, 100% of the experts felt that it would be more useful than standard video training. Eighty-eight percent stated that they would like to see the simulator in the curriculum of residency programs and 56% thought it would be useful for accreditation purposes. The experts felt that the simulator aided in overall understanding, training indications, concepts and steps of the procedure, training how to use an assistant, and enhanced the knowledge of anatomy. Median performance times taken by experts and interns to complete a PLND procedure on the simulator were 12.62 and 23.97 minutes, respectively. Median deviation from the incorporated procedure pathway for experts was 24.5 and was 89 for novices

  18. Human factors validation study of 3 mg sumatriptan autoinjector, for migraine patients

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    Brand-Schieber E

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Elimor Brand-Schieber,1 Sagar Munjal,1 Rajesh Kumar,1 Anthony D Andre,2 Will Valladao,2 Margarita Ramirez2 1Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Inc., Princeton, NJ, 2Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Background: Migraine pain relief is reported by more than 50% of patients who receive low dose (3 mg of sumatriptan. Currently, there is no two-step autoinjector of low-dose sumatriptan available on the market for acute migraine treatment. To fulfill this need, a fully assembled, single-dose, subcutaneous autoinjector (sumatriptan 3 mg; product-code DFN-11 was developed. The device allows for injection with a simple two-step, push-to-inject process and provides feedback of the injection activation, progress, and completion.Objective: To determine if DFN-11 autoinjector can be used correctly and safely by migraine patients.Methods and participants: A human factors validation study was conducted with 45 migraine patients (30 oral-only medications users; 15 injectable sumatriptan users who performed one unaided simulated injection. Two days prior, half the oral participants were briefly trained. All others were only given the device to inspect and written instructions to review. No injections were performed during the initial session. All participants received written instructions at the injection session.Results: All participants (45/45; 100% performed the injection without any errors. Objective measures included device removal from packaging, cap removal, expiration date check, ­inspection of fluid in window, identification of allowable injection site, proper device positioning, dose confirmation, and device disposal. All participants (45/45; 100% reported no difficulty administering the injection and no concerns about using the autoinjector during a severe migraine onset.Conclusion: The results showed that the DFN-11 autoinjector can be used with safe handling without patterns of confusion, failures, high-risk errors, wet injections, or

  19. The quest for a universal definition of polytrauma: a trauma registry-based validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Nerida E; D'Este, Catherine; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2014-10-01

    A pilot validation recommended defining polytrauma as patients with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score greater than 2 in at least two Injury Severity Score (ISS) body regions (2 × AIS score > 2). This study aimed to validate this definition on larger data set. We hypothesized that patients defined by the 2 × AIS score > 2 cutoff have worse outcomes and use more resources than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and that this would therefore be a better definition of polytrauma. Patients injured between 2009 and 2011, with complete documentation of AIS by New South Wales Trauma Registry and 16 years and older were selected. Age and sex were obtained in addition to outcomes of ISS, hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, and mortality. We compared demographic characteristics and outcomes between patients with ISS greater than 15 who did and did not meet the 2 × AIS score > 2 definition. We then undertook regression analyses (logistic regression for binary outcomes [ICU admission and death] and linear regression for hospital and ICU LOS) to compare outcomes for patients with and without 2 × AIS score > 2, adjusting for sex and age categories. In the adjusted analyses, patients with 2 × AIS score > 2 had twice the odds of being admitted to the ICU compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.8) and 1.7 times the odds of dying (95% CI, 1.4-2.0; p 2 also had a mean difference of 1.5 days longer stay in the hospital compared with those without 2 × AIS score > 2 (95% CI, 1.4-1.7) and 1.6 days longer ICU stay (95% CI, 1.4-1.8; p 2 had higher mortality, more frequent ICU admissions, and longer hospital and ICU stay than those without 2 × AIS score > 2 and represents a superior definition to the definitions for polytrauma currently in use. Diagnostic test/ criteria, level III.

  20. Sprint mechanics evaluation using inertial sensor-based technology: A laboratory validation study.

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    Setuain, I; Lecumberri, P; Ahtiainen, J P; Mero, A A; Häkkinen, K; Izquierdo, M

    2018-02-01

    Advances in micro-electromechanical systems have turned magnetic inertial measurement units (MIMUs) into a suitable tool for vertical jumping biomechanical evaluation. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether appropriate reliability and agreement reports could also be obtained when analyzing 20-m sprint mechanics. Four bouts of 20-m sprints were evaluated to determine whether the data provided by a MIMU placed at the lumbar spine could reliably assess sprint mechanics and to examine the validity of the MIMU sensor compared to force plate recordings. Maximal power (P 0 ), force (F 0 ), and velocity (V 0 ), as well as other mechanical determinants of sprint performance associated with the force-velocity, power-velocity, and ratio of forces-velocity, such as applied horizontal force loss (S fv ) and decrease in ratio of forces (D rf ), were calculated and compared between instrumentations. Extremely large-to-very large correlation levels between MIMU sensor-based sprint mechanics variables and force plate recordings were obtained (mean±SD, force plate vs MIMU; V 0, 8.61±0.85 vs 8.42±0.69; F 0 , 383±110 vs 391±103; P 0 , 873±246 vs 799±241; S fv, -44.6±12.7 vs -46.2±10.7), ranging from 0.88 to 0.94, except for D rf, which showed weak-to-moderate correlation level (r=.45; -6.32±1.08 vs -5.76±0.68). Step-averaged force values measured with both systems were highly corre