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Sample records for glycines soybean cyst

  1. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

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    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  2. [Endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean (Glycine soja) varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)].

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    Wu, Yunpeng; Shi, Fengyu; Hamid, M Imran; Zhu, Yingbo

    2014-08-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode(Heterodera glycines) , for deciphering the interactions of soybean cyst nematode with endophytic bacteria. After screening wild soybean varieties against race 3 of H. glycines, we investigated endophytic bacterial diversity in root tissues of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to H. glycines using 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Endophytic bacteria of wild soybean root belonged to 6 bacterial groups, the clones belonging to group Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the endophyte dominants in wild soybean with 46.8% and 13.6% of total clones, respectively. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Deincoccus-Thermus and Archaea were less represented. 18.8% of clone sequences were similar to those of uncultured bacteria in the environment. The bacterial diversity was higher in H. glycines-Resistant than -Susceptible wild soybean varieties, and the dominant group was different between H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties. Mesorhizobium tamadayense, Enterobacter ludwigii and Bacillus megaterium were the main bacterial groups in special operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of H. glycines-Resistant wild soybean variety. By 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, the diversity of dominant group of endophytic bacteria in root tissues has difference among H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties.

  3. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

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    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  4. First report of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, in New York

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    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), causing more than $1 billion in yield losses annually in the United States (Koenning and Wrather 2010). The SCN distribution map updated in 2014 showed that SCN were dete...

  5. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

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    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  6. A model plant pathogen from the kingdom Animalia: Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode.

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    Niblack, T L; Lambert, K N; Tylka, G L

    2006-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, adversely affects the production of soybean, Glycine max, in many areas of the world, particularly in the United States, where it is the most economically important soybean pathogen. Despite the availability of hundreds of H. glycines-resistant soybean cultivars, the nematode continues to be a major limiting factor in soybean production. The use of nonhost rotation and resistance are the primary means of reducing losses caused by the nematode, but each of these options has disadvantages. As a subject for study of nematode parasitism and virulence, H. glycines provides a useful model despite its obligately parasitic nature. Its obligately sexual reproduction and ready adaptation to resistant cultivars, formerly referred to as "race shift," presents an excellent opportunity for the study of virulence in nematodes. Recent advances in H. glycines genomics have helped identify putative nematode parasitism genes, which, in turn, will aid in the understanding of nematode pathogenicity and virulence and may provide new targets for engineering nematode resistance.

  7. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

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    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of the novel resistance QTL from G. soja could increase the durability of SCN-resistance in soybean cultivars, especially if major gene resistance breaks down.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

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    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L.; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  9. Spatiotemporal deep imaging of syncytium induced by the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

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    Ohtsu, Mina; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Kurihara, Daisuke; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2017-11-01

    Parasite infections cause dramatic anatomical and ultrastructural changes in host plants. Cyst nematodes are parasites that invade host roots and induce a specific feeding structure called a syncytium. A syncytium is a large multinucleate cell formed by cell wall dissolution-mediated cell fusion. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major soybean pathogen. To investigate SCN infection and the syncytium structure, we established an in planta deep imaging system using a clearing solution ClearSee and two-photon excitation microscopy (2PEM). Using this system, we found that several cells were incorporated into the syncytium; the nuclei increased in size and the cell wall openings began to be visible at 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Moreover, at 14 DAI, in the syncytium developed in the cortex, there were thickened concave cell wall pillars that resembled "Parthenon pillars." In contrast, there were many thick board-like cell walls and rarely Parthenon pillars in the syncytium developed in the stele. We revealed that the syncytia were classified into two types based on the pattern of the cell wall structures, which appeared to be determined by the position of the syncytium inside roots. Our results provide new insights into the developmental process of syncytium induced by cyst nematode and a better understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the syncytium in host roots.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

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    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja

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    Hengyou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5, a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30 were identified, with ten SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  12. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

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    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  13. Timecourse microarray analyses reveal global changes in gene expression of susceptible Glycine max (soybean) roots during infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode).

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    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Klink, Vincent P; Chouikha, Imed B; Beard, Hunter S; MacDonald, Margaret H; Meyer, Susan; Knap, Halina T; Khan, Rana; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2006-09-01

    Changes in gene expression within roots of Glycine max (soybean), cv. Kent, susceptible to infection by Heterodera glycines (the soybean cyst nematode [SCN]), at 6, 12, and 24 h, and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days post-inoculation were monitored using microarrays containing more than 6,000 cDNA inserts. Replicate, independent biological samples were examined at each time point. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using T-tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). These analyses allow the user to query the data in several ways without importing the data into third-party software. RT-PCR confirmed that WRKY6 transcription factor, trehalose phosphate synthase, EIF4a, Skp1, and CLB1 were differentially induced across most time-points. Other genes induced across most timepoints included lipoxygenase, calmodulin, phospholipase C, metallothionein-like protein, and chalcone reductase. RT-PCR demonstrated enhanced expression during the first 12 h of infection for Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and sucrose synthase. The stress-related gene, SAM-22, phospholipase D and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase were also induced at the early time-points. At 6 and 8 dpi there was an abundance of transcripts expressed that encoded genes involved in transcription and protein synthesis. Some of those genes included ribosomal proteins, and initiation and elongation factors. Several genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport were also more abundant. Those genes included glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and sucrose synthase. These results identified specific changes in gene transcript levels triggered by infection of susceptible soybean roots by SCN.

  14. Genome-wide association study of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) HG type 2.5.7 (race 1) resistance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.)

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    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Thus far, most of the commercial SCN-resistant soybean cultivars have been developed from very limited resistant germplasm resources. Overuse of these limited resistant sources has resulted in SCN race ...

  15. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

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    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-03-11

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.

  16. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

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    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  17. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots.

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    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-04-16

    Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes.

  18. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

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    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  19. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

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    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  20. Resistance of Soybean Cultivars to Heterodera glycines HG type 2.5 in Korea

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    Donggeun Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 soybean cultivars developed in Korea was screened against soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines HG type 2.5. Cysts developed on soybean cultivars ranged from 104 to 624 cysts per pot. There was no resistant cultivar but ‘Jangyeopkong’, ‘Saealkong’, ‘Miryangkong’, and ‘Mansukong’ were moderately resistant; 33 cultivars were moderately susceptible and the other cultivars were susceptible. ‘Jangyeopkong’, ‘Saealkong’, ‘Miryangkong’, and ‘Mansukong’ could be recommended for soybean fields infested with SCN until developing SCN resistant soybean.

  1. Control of Soybean Cyst Nematode by Chitinolytic Bacteria with Chitin Substrate

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    Tian, Honglin; Riggs, Robert D.; Crippen, Devany L.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four chitinolytic bacterial isolates from soybean fields in Arkansas were tested for suppression of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in a heat-treated silt loam soil amended with 0.6% (w/w) chitin in a greenhouse. Five isolates consistently reduced numbers of H. glycines compared to controls receiving neither chitin nor bacteria, or only chitin. Four of the five isolates interacted with the chitin substrate to enhance its effectiveness in reducing numbers of the nematode. The...

  2. The transcriptomic changes of Huipizhi Heidou (Glycine max), a nematode-resistant black soybean during Heterodera glycines race 3 infection.

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    Li, Shuang; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Jung, Ki-Hong; Chen, Lijie; Xuan, Yuanhu; Duan, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    Glycine max (soybean) is an extremely important crop, representing a major source of oil and protein for human beings. Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode, SCN) infection severely reduces soybean production; therefore, protecting soybean from SCN has become an issue for breeders. Black soybean has exhibited a different grade of resistance to SCN. However, the underlying mechanism of Huipizhi Heidou resistance against SCN remains elusive. The Huipizhi Heidou (ZDD2315) and race 3 of Heterodera glycines were chosen to study the mechanism of resistance via examination of transcriptomic changes. After 5, 10, and 15days of SCN infection, whole roots were sampled for RNA extraction, and uninfected samples were simultaneously collected as a control. 740, 1413, and 4925 genes were isolated by padj (p-value adjusted)<0.05 after 5, 10, and 15days of the infection, respectively, and 225 differentially expressed genes were overlapped at all the time points. We found that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 5, 10, and 15days after infection were involved in various biological function categories; in particular, induced genes were enriched in defense response, hormone mediated signaling process, and response to stress. To verify the pathways observed in the GO and KEGG enrichment results, effects of hormonal signaling in cyst-nematode infection were further examined via treatment with IAA (indo-3-acetic acid), salicylic acid (SA), gibberellic acid (GA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethephon, a precursor of ethylene. The results indicate that five hormones led to a significant reduction of J2 number in the roots of Huipizhi Heidou and Liaodou15, representing SCN-resistant and susceptible lines, respectively. Taken together, our analyses are aimed at understanding the resistance mechanism of Huipizhi Heidou against the SCN race 3 via the dissection of transcriptomic changes upon J2 infection. The data presented here will help further research on the basis of soybean and

  3. Biological control of Heterodera glycines by spore-forming plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on soybean.

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    Ni Xiang

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode on soybean production in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains for mortality of H. glycines J2 in vitro and for reducing nematode population density on soybean in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials. The major group causing mortality to H. glycines in vitro was the genus Bacillus that consisted of 92.6% of the total 663 PGPR strains evaluated. The subsequent greenhouse, microplot, and field trials indicated that B. velezensis strain Bve2 consistently reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP. Bacillus mojavensis strain Bmo3 suppressed H. glycines cyst and total H. glycines population density under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus safensis strain Bsa27 and Mixture 1 (Bve2 + Bal13 reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP in the field trials. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strains Bsssu2 and Bsssu3, and B. velezensis strain Bve12 increased early soybean growth including plant height and plant biomass in the greenhouse trials. Bacillus altitudinis strain Bal13 increased early plant growth on soybean in the greenhouse and microplot trials. Mixture 2 (Abamectin + Bve2 + Bal13 increased early plant growth in the microplot trials at 60 DAP, and also enhanced soybean yield at harvest in the field trials. These results demonstrated that individual PGPR strains and mixtures can reduce H. glycines population density in the greenhouse, microplot, and field conditions, and increased yield of soybean.

  4. Biological control of Heterodera glycines by spore-forming plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on soybean.

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    Xiang, Ni; Lawrence, Kathy S; Kloepper, Joseph W; Donald, Patricia A; McInroy, John A

    2017-01-01

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, is the most economically important plant-parasitic nematode on soybean production in the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains for mortality of H. glycines J2 in vitro and for reducing nematode population density on soybean in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials. The major group causing mortality to H. glycines in vitro was the genus Bacillus that consisted of 92.6% of the total 663 PGPR strains evaluated. The subsequent greenhouse, microplot, and field trials indicated that B. velezensis strain Bve2 consistently reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP. Bacillus mojavensis strain Bmo3 suppressed H. glycines cyst and total H. glycines population density under greenhouse conditions. Bacillus safensis strain Bsa27 and Mixture 1 (Bve2 + Bal13) reduced H. glycines cyst population density at 60 DAP in the field trials. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strains Bsssu2 and Bsssu3, and B. velezensis strain Bve12 increased early soybean growth including plant height and plant biomass in the greenhouse trials. Bacillus altitudinis strain Bal13 increased early plant growth on soybean in the greenhouse and microplot trials. Mixture 2 (Abamectin + Bve2 + Bal13) increased early plant growth in the microplot trials at 60 DAP, and also enhanced soybean yield at harvest in the field trials. These results demonstrated that individual PGPR strains and mixtures can reduce H. glycines population density in the greenhouse, microplot, and field conditions, and increased yield of soybean.

  5. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically ... sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst nematode .... Genomic DNA extraction and pooling for bulk segregant analysis. Genomic DNA was isolated ...

  6. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  7. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) plants mediated via whisker-supersonic (WSS) method. MM Khalafalla, HA El-Shemy, SM Rahman, M Teraishi, H Hasegawa, T Terakawa, M Ishimoto ...

  8. Identificatoin and confirmation of resistance against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in eight wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and use of aphid-resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars has been complicated by the presence of multiple virulent biotypes of the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura). Ultimately, a variety of unique resistance sources may be needed to develop cultivars with a broad spectr...

  9. Newly identified resistance to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in soybean plant introduction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-plant resistance is potentially efficacious in managing the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura), a major invasive pest in northern soybean-production regions of North America. However, development of aphid-resistant soybean has been complicated by the presence of virulent SA biotypes,...

  10. Induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max L.) breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max, L.) breeding is studied. Seed treatment with gamma-rays or methanesulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMs) is used in the following varieties: Parana, Santa Rosa, UFV-1, Foscarin 31 and IAC-8. The study to obtain resistance to the soybean bud blight virus and mutants resistant to rust was done. Early mutants are also researched. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Volume 10 No. 3 March 2010 2187 SOYBEAN (Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-03

    Mar 3, 2010 ... March 2010. 2187. SOYBEAN (Glycine max) COMPLEMENTATION AND THE ZINC STATUS. OF HIV AND AIDS AFFECTED CHILDREN IN SUBA DISTRICT, KENYA. Were GM*. 1. , Ohiokpehai O. 2. , Okeyo-Owuor JB. 3. ,. Mbagaya GM. 4. , Kimiywe J. 5. , Mbithe D. 6 and MM Okello. 7. Gertrude Were.

  12. Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abush Tesfaye

    Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low. Soil Phosphorus Tolerance. Abush Tesfaye1, Mwangi Githiri2, John Derera3 and Tolessa Debele4. 1Jimma Research Center, P.O.Box 192, Jimma, Ethiopia, 2Jomo Kenyatta University of and Technology,. Department of Horticulture, Nairobi, Kenya, 3Seed Co.

  13. Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones were reduced using plant cell preparations of Glycine max seeds (soybean). The biotransformation of five aromatic aldehydes in water, at room temperature afforded the corresponding alcohols in excellent yields varying from 89 to 100%. Two prochiral aromatic ...

  14. Loci and candidate genes conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode HG type 2.5.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Teng, Weili; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Cao, Guanglu; Li, Dongmei; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin

    2017-06-14

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines I,) is a major pest of soybean worldwide. The most effective strategy to control this pest involves the use of resistant cultivars. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genome-wide genetic architecture of resistance to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 1) in landrace and elite cultivated soybeans. A total of 200 diverse soybean accessions were screened for resistance to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 and genotyped through sequencing using the Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) approach with a 6.14-fold average sequencing depth. A total of 33,194 SNPs were identified with minor allele frequencies (MAF) over 4%, covering 97% of all the genotypes. Genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) revealed thirteen SNPs associated with resistance to SCN HG Type 2.5.7. These SNPs were distributed on five chromosomes (Chr), including Chr7, 8, 14, 15 and 18. Four SNPs were novel resistance loci and nine SNPs were located near known QTL. A total of 30 genes were identified as candidate genes underlying SCN resistance. A total of sixteen novel soybean accessions were identified with significant resistance to HG Type 2.5.7. The beneficial alleles and candidate genes identified by GWAS might be valuable for improving marker-assisted breeding efficiency and exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance.

  15. OCCURRENCE OF SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Heterodera glvcines IN VIANÓPOLIS AND IN RIO VERDE (GO OCORRÊNCIA DO NEMATÓIDE DE CISTO DA SOJA (Heterodera glycines NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE VIANÓPOLIS E RIO VERDE (GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmarcos de Carvalho Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines was found in Goiás State in Chapadão do Céu in 1991-1992. Until 1996-1997, this nematode had spread all over six towns of Goiás State. Samples of soil were collected in Vianópolis and Rio Verde in 1997-1998. Samples from Vianópolis were collected in seed production fields and analised in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of Escola de Agronomia — Universidade Federal de Goiás. Samples collected in Rio Verde were analised in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of ESUCRV - FESURV where the race 3 of H. glycines was identified. Up to now there are eight towns in Goiás State with H. glycines occurrence.

    KEY-WORDS: Glycine max; Heterodera glycines.

    O nematóide de cisto da soja (Heterodera glycines foi encontrado no Estado de Goiás, em Chapadão do Céu, em 1991-1992. Até 1996-1997, este nematóide encontrava-se espalhado por seis cidades do Estado de Goiás. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em Vianópolis e Rio Verde, em 1997-1998. As amostras de Vianópolis foram coletadas em campos de produção de sementes e

  16. Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkemoi, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Weed Compete for limited growth factors with crop plants. This result in loss of crop vigour and hence reduces crop yields. A study was conducted in 1997 and 2001 to evaluate the use of herbicides and hand hoeing for weed control in soybeans. Crop establishment was by hand planting. The herbicides were applied using CP3 Knap sack sprayer calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 150l/ha. Hand weeding treatment were done as appropriate. The trial layout was randomised complete block design with four replications in both years. The tested herbicides did not satisfactorily control the weeds present at the experimental site in both years. Hand weeding on the other hand gave good control of the weeds which were reflected in high soybean yields. In these trials yields were negatively correlated with the number of weeds present. The tested herbicides alone appeared to be inadequate in controlling weeds in soybean. Compared with the weed-free treatment a single application of soil-applied or post-emergence herbicides did not control a broad spectrum of weeds and reduced soybean yields. It can also be inferred that soybean yield losses are minimised if they are kept weed free for at most 6 weeks after emergence

  17. Genetic diversity of rhg1 and Rhg4 loci in wild soybeans resistant to soybean cyst nematode race 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C P; Wang, Y J; Zhao, H K; Zhang, L; Wang, Y M; Liu, X D; Zhong, X F; Dong, Y S

    2016-06-10

    Over-utilization of germplasms that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in soybean breeding programs can lead to genetic vulnerability in resistant cultivars. Resistant wild soybean (Glycine soja) is considered an invaluable gene source for increasing the genetic diversity of SCN resistance. In this study, we genotyped 23 G. soja accessions that are resistant to SCN race 3 for polymorphisms in the resistance genes, rhg1, Rhg4, and SHMT, and investigated their genetic relationship with eight Glycine max resistant cultivars. We identified 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 DNA insertion-deletions (InDels), of which 70 SNPs and 8 InDels were found in rhg1, 9 SNPs were found in Rhg4, and 10 SNPs and 3 InDels were found in SHMT. Nucleotide diversity was π = 0.00238 and θ = 0.00235, and haplotype diversity was 1.000. A phylogenetic tree comprising four clusters was constructed using sequence variations of the 23 G. soja and 8 G. max resistant accessions. Five G. soja accessions in subcluster A2, and four G. soja accessions in cluster B were genetically distant from G. max genotypes. Eight resistance-associated SNPs in the three resistance genes formed nine haplotypes in total. G. soja resistant accessions had different haplotypes (H2, H4, H5, H6, H7, and H8) compared with those of G. max (H1, H3, and H9). These results provide vital information on the use of wild soybeans for broadening the genetic base of SCN resistance.

  18. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean. © ISBR, EDP Sciences.

  19. Environmental adaptation in wild soybeans (Glycine soja) across their native geographic range in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive variation and the forces that shape this diversity in natural populations are long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. The wild soybean (Glycine soja), from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout a dive...

  20. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  1. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  3. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Grene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants.

  4. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  5. Evaluation of proteases and protease inhibitors in Heterodera glycines cysts obtained from laboratory and field populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteases and proteases inhibitors were evaluated in a number of preparations of Heterodera glycines cysts obtained from glasshouse cultures (GH) and field (LR) populations. Using a FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide substrate pools that detect 4 endoprotease types (aspartic, cysteine, meta...

  6. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Koenning, Stephen R; Davis, Eric L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Mitchum, Melissa G; Sit, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines) from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC) and Missouri (MO). The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO). Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst), but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  7. Chemical and Mechanical Control of Soybean (Glycin max L. Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate effects of the various concentrations of two herbicides of the trifluralin and Imazethapyr and weeding on weeds control, yield and yield components of soybean (Glycin max L., an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agriculture Land of Ghravolhaji Village in Kallale district of Golestan province in 2014. Treatments consisted of planting soybean under weeding, without weeding and application of trifluralin and Imazethapyr as 100% trifluralin, 75% trifluralin + 25% Imazethapyr, 50% trifluralin + 50% Imazethapyr, 25% trifluralin + 75% Imazethapyr, 100% pursuit, 100% Imazethapyr + 25% trifluralin, 25% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin, 100% Imazethapyr + 50% trifluralin and 50% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin. density of each weed, their total density and inhibition percentage were measured. Results showed that the effect of chemical weed control on all traits measured, except seed number per pot, 1000 seed weight, content of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, were significant. The highest leaf area, plant height, number of pods per plant, aerial plant dry weight, seed number per plant and seed weight per plant were observed in the treatment of the 100% Imazethapyr (238.67 cm2, weeding (57.69 cm, both treatments of weeding (33.10 and 25% Imazethapyr +100% trifluralin (28.3, both treatment of weeding (163.92 g and 100%  Imazethapyr (163.70 g, weeding (67.10 seed per plant, both treatment of weeding and 100%  Imazethapyr + 50% trifluralin (10.27 seed per plant respectively. The highest seed yield was obtained from weeding treatment (2383 kg/h. Based on the results, the highest content of protein and chlorophyll b in soybean were obtained from weeding treatment. The highest inhibition percentage of weeds was found in the additional treatment of 50% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin (75.19 and 100% Imazethapyr + 25% trifluralin (72.86. The lowest and highest total phenols content and

  8. Effects of long-term storage on the quality of soybean, Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, is one of the five most important legumes in the tropics and provides the protein eaten by most people in the region. One of the major constraints to soybean production is that the seed quality deteriorates rapidly during storage. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of some storage ...

  9. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size ( 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  10. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  11. Economic Injury Levels for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the Soybean Aphid Tolerant KS4202 Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Werle, Lia; Baldin, Edson L L; Fischer, Hillary D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Hunt, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive species from Asia that has been the major economic insect pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, since 2000. While use of soybeans expressing antibiosis and antixenosis is a well-studied strategy to manage this pest, aphid-tolerant soybeans remain underexplored. This study examined the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CAD) and yield loss in the tolerant soybean KS4202 during two growing seasons to determine the economic injury levels (EILs) for soybean aphids on KS4202. Soybean aphid infestations were initiated during the soybean reproductive stages. A range of CAD treatments (3,000-45,000 CADs) were applied during the growing seasons. Aphid populations reached 45,000 CAD in 2011 and 38,000 CAD in 2013 in plots that were not treated with insecticides. It was estimated that the population doubling time was 9.4 d. In infested plots, soybean yield was reduced by 1.4-13.3%, equivalent to a 3.1% yield loss for every 10,000 CAD. Overall, most CAD treatments did not affect yield parameters, although CAD > 39,000 caused a significant reduction in most yield parameters. The EILs calculated for KS4202 ranged from 526 to 2,050 aphids/plant, which were approximately 2.5-fold higher when compared to EILs previously calculated for susceptible soybean. The adoption of soybean aphid tolerant soybean with higher EILs may help mitigate treatment delay problems by lengthening the treatment lead-time and possibly reduce the number of insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-04-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  13. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Mrinal, E-mail: mrinal1854@yahoo.co.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Das, Amit K. [Department of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India); Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  14. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  15. THE IMPACT OF SOYBEAN AND CORN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT ON SOYBEAN APHID POPULATIONS APHIS GLYCINES (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE AND SOYBEAN GROWTH PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural management cropping systems play an important role in affecting a crop plant’s ability to tolerate or resist insect pests.  Field studies were conducted to examine the effect of two strategies management systems: fertilizer treatment and intercropping soybean with corn on soybean  aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura population and soybean growth  and yield parameters. The intercropping treatments were: soybean alone; 2:1 soybean/corn intercrop; and 3:1 soybean/corn intercrop. While the soil fertility treatments were the combination of NPK (urea 100 kg ha-1 + SP-36 200 kg ha-1 + KCl 200 kg ha-1 levels, dolomite (4 ton ha-1, compost  (10 ton ha-1, and chicken manure (10 ton ha-1.  The results of the first study showed that the intercropping soybean with corn  significantly reduced the population density of soybean aphids. However, there were no significant effects of intercropping systems on soybean growth (plant height and yield (number seed per pod and  thousand seed weight performances except on the number of soybean pods per plant. Meanwhile, the result of the second study indicated that soil fertilizer treatments had  a significant effect on the soybean plant characteristics: leaf numbers; pod numbers; and plant height.  Combining  intercropping methods and soil fertilizer management offer an opportunity to protect the soybean plants by natural and sustainable pest management.

  16. Screening of Soybean (Glycine max L.) Advanced Lines under Organic Management in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kir, Alev; Karagul, Eylem Tugay; Buyukkileci, Ceylan; Kalin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The breeding research of soybean (Glycine max L.) began with advanced lines of “Soybean Breeding Project” supported by MFAL-GDAR in 2013 under organic management for comparing grain legume crops of organic breeding programme of COBRA (Coordinating Organic Plant Breeding Activities for Diversity) project because of priority for this species to be produced organically in Turkey for organic sector at Organic Open Field Experimental Area of AARI located in the Mediterranean Region. Main objective...

  17. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L Ruark

    Full Text Available Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC and Missouri (MO. The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2, and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO. Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst, but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  18. Roasted soybeans (glycine max. (l) merril) for lactating dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Nelcy Madruga de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Soybeans were roasted in an experimental roaster during 2 or 3 minutes either at 380 or 490 ºC air temperature and kept or not for 30 minutes under steeping. The heat treatment effects on soybeans were evaluated in a first trial through two different procedures: a) after 16 hours of an “in situ” ruminal incubation period, all heat treated soybeans showed an increased (P0,05). In a second trial, soybeans roasted at 380 ºC, during 2 minutes and kept under steeping were included in isonitrogenou...

  19. Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Xia; Wu, Mian; Ma, Fang-Fang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome. This work revealed that wild soybeans in China also act as important SMV hosts and play a role in the transmission and diversity of SMVs.

  20. Quality and yield response of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merrill) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, plants droughted during the vegetative stage of development produced the highest yield per unit of irrigation water applied (that is, irrigation water use efficiency). This research results will be useful for maximizing soybean production and/or seed quality when irrigation water is limited. Key words: Glycine max, ...

  1. Gamma radiation effect on the anatomical structure of soybean (Glycine max. Merr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikuningputra, W.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma radiation effects on soybean plant (Glycine max. Merr) have been studied by using radiation doses of 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 Krad. Investigation is carried out after each treatment. It proves that each treatment causes different morphological changes on leaves, stems, roots, and fibres of the treated plants. (SMN)

  2. Genetic variability in soybean ( Glycine max L.) for low soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the genetic variability of soybean genotypes under low soil phosphorus (P) conditions provides an understanding of the genetic potential of the genotypes to improve the crop for low P tolerance. The study was designed objectively to estimate the extent of genetic variability of soybean genotypes for low P ...

  3. Transcriptomic variation in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway genes in soybean (Glycine spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jungmin; Kim, Myoyeon; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Taeyoung; Yoon, Min Young; Lee, Jayern; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kang, Young-Gyu; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, John Hwan; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2018-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins are oligomeric or polymeric end products of flavonoid metabolic pathways starting with the central phenylpropanoid pathway. Although soybean (Glycine spp.) seeds represent a major source of nutrients for the human diet, as well as components for the cosmetics industry as a result of their high levels of flavonoid metabolites, including isoflavonoids, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, the genetic regulatory mechanisms underlying proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in soybean remain unclear. We evaluated interspecific and intraspecific variability in flavonoid components in soybean using 43 cultivars, landraces and wild soybean accessions. We performed transcriptomic profiling of genes encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis using three soybean genotypes, Hwangkeum (elite cultivar), IT109098 (landrace) and IT182932 (wild accession), in seeds. We identified a Glycine max landrace, IT109098, with a proanthocyanidin content as high as that of wild soybean. Different homologous genes for anthocyanidin reductase, which is involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, were detected as differentially expressed genes between IT109098 and IT182932 compared to Hwangkeum. We detected major differences in the transcriptional levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin among genotypes beginning at the early stage of seed development. The results of the present study provide insights into the underlying genetic variation in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis among soybean genotypes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  5. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  6. Replenishment of Cultivated Soybean Varietes Market (Glycine hispida Maxim, Moench..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There provided ways of using valuable protein crop, soybean, as well as its production worldwide growth rates during recent years, possibility and necessity of attaching to the crop a strategic importance in our State and the tasks and outlooks of soybeanrecourses generation. A complete description of new soybean varieties listed in the Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine has also been provided.

  7. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between two RIL populations derived from Peking x 7605 under two ecological sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchun; Guo, Na; Zhao, Jinming; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ran; Ding, Hui; Zhao, Weiguo; Gai, Junyi; Xing, Han

    2016-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is a plant-parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically devastating pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most effective control method. To understand SCN resistance in different environments, two recombinant-inbred lines (RILs) populations NJ(RN)P7 (217 F 2:8:11 lines) and JN(RN)P7 (248 F 2:7:9 lines) were developed from the cross of the cultivars Peking x 7605 in Nanjing and Jinan, respectively, and examined in this study. Peking is resistant to SCN race 1 (HG types 2.5.7), while 7605 is highly susceptible. Chi-square test of frequency distribution of families' female index (FI) showed that resistance to SCN was significantly different between NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. Three recessive genes conditioned the inheritance of resistance to SCN race 1 in both populations, but significant difference was detected for the mean of FI on two populations (DM= -16.68, Presistance to SCN. By analysing the variation of phenotype, the genetic structure of the two populations was determined to be different. The inheritance and variation of resistance were confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. For the two populations, 10 SSR markers showed polymorphism of resistant and susceptible DNA bulks. Some markers associated with the resistance of SCN races 1, 2, 3 and 5, and two markers, Satt163 and Satt309, reportedly related to rgh1 were detected both in NJ(RN)P7 and JN(RN)P7 populations. The results support the view that a disease acts as a selective force on plant resistance characteristics, which may alter the relative fitness of resistance alleles.

  8. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  9. Reaction of some selected soybean varieties ( Glycine max (L) Merril)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In nematode endemic ecological zones, TGX-1985 – 8F is therefore recommended as it proved to contain some specialized genes that conferred a higher level of tolerance against root- knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Key Words: Glycine max, root – knot nematode, Dominant loci, Mi – 1.2, leucine zipper and R ...

  10. Intersubgeneric hybridization between Glycine max and G. tomentella: production of F₁, amphidiploid, BC₁, BC₂, BC₃, and fertile soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R J; Nelson, R L

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes methods for unlocking genetic treasure from wild perennial Glycine species of Australia for soybean improvement. The genetic resources of the ca. 26 species of the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine have not been exploited to broaden the genetic base of soybean (Glycine max; 2n = 40). The objectives of this study were to develop methods for producing F1, amphidiploid, BC1, BC2, BC3, and fertile soybean plants from crosses of soybean and the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine species, in order to utilize the subgenus Glycine germplasm in soybean breeding. Soybean cultivars were hybridized with six accessions of 78-chromosome G. tomentella as well as one accession each of 40-chromosome G. tomentella, G. argyrea and G. latifolia. They were chosen because they exhibit resistance to soybean rust. We were successful in producing fertile soybean from soybean cv. 'Dwight' and 78-chromosome G. tomentella accession PI 441001, while other hybrids were discontinued either at F1 or amphidiploid stage. The F1 seeds aborted prior to reaching maturity, so developing seeds from 19 to 21 day old pods were cultured aseptically in various media formulations. Seed maturation and multiple embryo generation media were developed. F1 plants with shoots and roots (2n = 59) were transplanted to pots in greenhouse. Amphidiploid (2n = 118) plants were backcrossed to 'Dwight'. BC1 (2n = 79) plants were propagated through in vitro and 43 mature BC2F1 seeds were harvested. Fifteen surviving BC2F1 plants were morphologically distinct, sterile, and had chromosome numbers ranging 2n = 56-59. Chromosome numbers of the BC3F1 plants ranged 2n = 40-49. Derived fertile soybeans were first planted in the field in 2008 and are being evaluated for yield, resistance to pathogens and pests and tolerance to salt through material transfer agreement.

  11. Characterization of storage proteins in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds using proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Xu, Chenping; Bae, Hanhong; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M

    2006-04-19

    A combined proteomic approach was applied for the separation, identification, and comparison of two major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with three different immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips was an effective method to separate a large number of abundant and less-abundant storage proteins. Most of the subunits of beta-conglycinin were well-separated in the pH range 3.0-10.0, while acidic and basic glycinin polypeptides were well-separated in pH ranges 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-11.0, respectively. Although the overall distribution pattern of the protein spots was similar in both genotypes using pH 3.0-10.0, variations in number and intensity of protein spots were better resolved using a combination of pH 4.0-7.0 and pH 6.0-11.0. The total number of storage protein spots detected in wild and cultivated genotypes was approximately 44 and 34, respectively. This is the first study reporting the comparison of protein profiles of wild and cultivated genotypes of soybean seeds using proteomic tools.

  12. Population structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja) in China: implications from microsatellite analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yinghui; Huang, Hongwen; Qiu, Lijuan; Wang, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja), a native species of East Asia, is the closest wild relative of the cultivated soybean (G. max) and supplies valuable genetic resources for cultivar breeding. Analyses of the genetic variation and population structure of wild soybean are fundamental for effective conservation studies and utilization of this valuable genetic resource. In this study, 40 wild soybean populations from China were genotyped with 20 microsatellites to investigate the natural population structure and genetic diversity. These results were integrated with previous microsatellite analyses for 231 representative individuals from East Asia to investigate the genetic relationships of wild soybeans from China. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 43·92 % of the molecular variance occurred within populations, although relatively low genetic diversity was detected for natural wild soybean populations. Most of the populations exhibited significant effects of a genetic bottleneck. Principal co-ordinate analysis, construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree and Bayesian clustering indicated two main genotypic clusters of wild soybean from China. The wild soybean populations, which are distributed in north-east and south China, separated by the Huang-Huai Valley, displayed similar genotypes, whereas those populations from the Huang-Huai Valley were different. The previously unknown population structure of the natural populations of wild soybean distributed throughout China was determined. Two evolutionarily significant units were defined and further analysed by combining genetic diversity and structure analyses from Chinese populations with representative samples from Eastern Asia. The study suggests that during the glacial period there may have been an expansion route between south-east and north-east China, via the temperate forests in the East China Sea Land Bridge, which resulted in similar genotypes of wild soybean populations from these regions. Genetic

  13. QTL underlying resistance to two HG types of Heterodera glycines found in soybean cultivar 'L-10'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongxia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivars to populations of cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines I. was complicated by the diversity of HG Types (biotypes, the multigenic nature of resistance and the temperature dependence of resistance to biotypes. The objective here was to identify QTL for broad-spectrum resistance to SCN and examine the transcript abundances of some genes within the QTL. Results A Total of 140 F5 derived F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs were advanced by single-seed-descent from a cross between 'L-10' (a soybean cultivar broadly resistant to SCN and 'Heinong 37' (a SCN susceptible cultivar. Associated QTL were identified by WinQTL2.1. QTL Qscn3-1 on linkage group (LG E, Qscn3-2 on LG G, Qscn3-3 on LG J and Qscn14-1 on LG O were associated with SCN resistance in both year data (2007 and 2008. Qscn14-2 on LG O was identified to be associated with SCN resistance in 2007. Qscn14-3 on LG D2 was identified to be associated with SCN resistance in 2008. Qscn14-4 on LG J was identified to be associated with SCN resistance in 2008. The Qscn3-2 on LG G was linked to Satt309 (less than 4 cM, and explained 19.7% and 23.4% of the phenotypic variation in 2007 and 2008 respectively. Qscn3-3 was less than 5 cM from Satt244 on LG J, and explained 19.3% and 17.95% of the phenotypic variations in 2007 and 2008 respectively. Qscn14-4 could explain 12.6% of the phenotypic variation for the SCN race 14 resistance in 2008 and was located in the same region as Qscn3-3. The total phenotypic variation explained by Qscn3-2 and Qscn3-3 together was 39.0% and 41.3% in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Further, the flanking markers Satt275, Satt309, Sat_350 and Satt244 were used for the selection of resistant lines to SCN race 3, and the accuracy of selection was about 73% in this RIL population. Four genes in the predicted resistance gene cluster of LG J (chromosome 16 were successfully cloned by RT-PCR. The transcript

  14. Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, 87.5% of the farmers were in their active age, and 81.7% utilized their personal saving as a major source of finance for production. The result of the production function analysis indicated that 87.21% of the variation in the output of soybean is explained for by the independent variables. Resource-use efficiency ...

  15. Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abush Tesfaye

    worldwide importance as food and market crop. This is mainly because of its high ... The application of inorganic P fertilizers is one of the possibilities for addressing the problem of low P availability. However ...... Soybean Research Conference held in Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, 1-5 March, 2004. Tong, X.J., X. Yan, Y.G. Lu, ...

  16. Screening Soybean ( Glycine max (L) Merril) lines for morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out during the first and second seasonsofl997 at Namnlonge Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute {NAAR I) to determine whether there were some soybean varieties in the NAARI germplasm which were resistant to the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula and to establish the basis ...

  17. Soybean performance ( Glycine max (L) Merr ) on tropical soils with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of soil types, nitrogen and phosphorus application on the yield, and nodulation and nutrient uptake of soybean grown on tropical soils. Results showed that forest soils produced higher dry matter yield, pod number, seed number, nodule number, and nodule weight at 6 and 12 ...

  18. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Soybean / Glycine Max / Meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, an experiment was carried out using twenty-four yearling male Black Head Ogaden sheep with an initial body weight of 12.95 ± 1.79 kg (mean ± SD) to evaluate the effect of different levels of soybean meal supplementation to natural pasture hay on feed intake, digestibility, average daily body weight gain, and ...

  20. Intercrop performance of different varieties of soybean (Glycine Max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... (TGX 1894-3E, medium maturing variety), gave the highest grain yield of Soybean and fresh tuber yield of cassava at 12MAP,. Key words: ... basic component of cropping systems in many areas of south eastern Nigeria. ... and aquatic environment, increased soil acidity and highly selective transport or ...

  1. QTL mapping of antixenosis resistance to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius) in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Nobuhiko; Kaga, Akito; Shimizu, Takehiko; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kono, Yuhi; Takahashi, Motoki

    2017-01-01

    The common cutworm (CCW; Spodoptera litura Fabricius) is a serious herbivorous insect pest of soybean (Glycine max) in Asia and Oceania. Previously, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CCW-antibiosis-resistance, CCW-1 and CCW-2, and antixenosis-resistance, qRslx1 and qRslx2, in the cultivar 'Himeshirazu'. The effects of these QTLs are useful in the breeding of CCW-resistant cultivars. In this study, we conducted an antixenosis bioassay on CCW using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a wild soybean (Glycine soja) and the leading cultivar 'Fukuyutaka' to identify CCW-resistance genes in G. soja. The QTL analysis revealed six and four novel antixenosis-resistance QTLs in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Among them, the QTLs on chromosomes 2 and 7, designated qRslx4 and qRslx3, respectively, were stably detected in both years. qRslx3 exhibited the largest effect in both years, suggesting that qRslx3 can be exploited in the breeding of CCW-resistant soybean. Furthermore, qRslx3 and qRslx4 can be used, along with previously reported QTLs from 'Himeshirazu', to enhance the CCW-resistance of soybean cultivars because their chromosomal positions are unique. These new CCW-resistance QTLs from G. soja should play important roles in the breeding of CCW-resistant soybean cultivars.

  2. Phylogeny, gene structures, and expression patterns of the ERF gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Chen, Ming; Chen, Xueping; Xu, Zhaoshi; Guan, Shan; Li, Lian-Cheng; Li, Aili; Guo, Jiaming; Mao, Long; Ma, Youzhi

    2008-01-01

    Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2/ERF domain were identified from 63 676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean Gene Index database. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in soybean ERF proteins were analysed, and compared with those of Arabidopsis and rice. The members of the soybean ERF family were divided into 12 subgroups, similar to the case for Arabidopsis. AP2/ERF domains were conserved among soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many soybean-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression analysis showed that nine unigenes belonging to six ERF family subgroups were induced by both biotic/abiotic stresses and hormone treatment, suggesting that they were involved in cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress-responsive signalling pathways. Overexpression of two full-length genes from two different subgroups enhanced the tolerances to drought, salt stresses, and/or pathogen infection of the tobacco plants. These results will be useful for elucidating ERF gene-associated stress response signalling pathways in soybean. PMID:18832187

  3. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, P.; Rehman, S. U.; Ju, H. J.; Jung, H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  4. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  5. Studying Plant–Insect Interactions with Solid Phase Microextraction: Screening for Airborne Volatile Emissions Response of Soybeans to the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshuang Cai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects trigger plants to release volatile compounds that mediate the interaction with both pest and beneficial insects. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines induces soybean (Glycine max leaves to produce volatiles that attract predators of the aphid. In this research, we describe the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME for extraction of volatiles from A. glycines-infested plant. Objectives were to (1 determine if SPME can be used to collect soybean plant volatiles and to (2 use headspace SPME-GC-MS approach to screen compounds associated with A. glycines-infested soybeans, grown in the laboratory and in the field, to identify previously known and potentially novel chemical markers of infestation. A total of 62 plant volatiles were identified, representing 10 chemical classes. 39 compounds had not been found in previous studies of soybean volatile emissions. 3-hexen-1-ol, dimethyl nonatriene, indole, caryophyllene, benzaldehyde, linalool, methyl salicylate (MeSA, benzene ethanol, and farnesene were considered herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. For reproductive field-grown soybeans, three compounds were emitted in greater abundance from leaves infested with A. glycines, cis-3-hexen-1-ol acetate, MeSA and farnesene. In summary, SPME can detect the emission of HIPVs from plants infested with insect herbivores.

  6. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from glycine soja 85-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2001. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management of aphids. Two novel aphid-resistant loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from the Glycine soja accession 85-32, were previously detected in a 1...

  7. Induced mutation for the improvement of soybean (Glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asencion, A.B.; Lapade, A.G.; Grafia, A.O.; Barrida, A.C.; Veluz, A.M.; Marbella, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    A study on the use of gamma radiation in the induction of mutations in eight varieties of soybean was conducted. The radiosensitivity of the seeds of both local and introduced soybean varieties was determined. The effects of gamma radiation in the M1 generation were evaluated. Percentage germination was not affected by doses of 200 and 250 Gy gamma radiation in all the eight soybean varieties. No significant differences in seedling height were observed at 200 Gy and the control except for the 250 Gy in BPI-Sy4, PSB-Sy4 and PSB-Sy5. In the Vietnamese varieties, significant differences in seedling height were obtained in doses of 200, 250 Gy and the control except for the variety AKO 6. There was significant difference in plant height of mature plants between the control and treatment dose of 250 Gy in varieties DT 95 and AKO 6. Likewise, significant differences in mature plant height were noted between the control and those at 250 Gy in local varieties BPI-Sy4, PSB-Sy5 and NSIC-Sy8. The number of days to flower was not affected by gamma radiation in both the local and introduced varieties. There were significant differences in the number of pods per plant between the control and a low dose of 200 Gy in Vietnamese variety DT 96 and the local varieties PSB-Sy4, PSB-Sy5 and NSIC-Sy8. The 3 types of chlorophyll mutation induced by gamma rays in the local varieties were: chlorina, striatia,and spotted yellow. Only chlorina mutant was induced in the introduced varieties. Desirable mutants that are early and high yielding were selected. Results of the drought tolerance tests indicated that the number of days to flowering of the control and 8 varieties was not affected by the duration of irrigation withdrawals 20,30,40 and 50 days after planting. Significant differences in seed weight among the different varieties were noted only in 20 and 30 day irrigation withdrawal treatment. When the effects of the different treatments were analyzed on a per variety bases, some of the

  8. Likelihood assessment for gene flow of transgenes from imported genetically modified soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr.) to wild soybean (Glycine sojaSeib. et Zucc.) in Japan as a component of environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; McPherson, Marc A; Comstock, Bradley A; Stojšin, Duška; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2017-09-01

    Environmental risk assessment is required for genetically modified (GM) crops before their import into Japan. Annual roadside monitoring along transportation routes from ports to processing facilities for GM soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) have been requested as a condition of import only approval because of lack of information on the likelihood of persistence of imported GM soybean for food, feed and processing and the potential for transfer of transgenes into wild soybean ( Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) through gene flow under the Japanese environment. The survey of soybean seeds, plants and wild soybean populations were conducted along transportation routes from unloading ports to processing facilities that provided data to help quantify actual exposure. The survey indicated that the opportunities for co-existence and subsequent crossing between wild soybean populations and imported soybean are highly unlikely. Together the survey results and the comprehensive literature review demonstrated low exposure of imported GM soybean used for food, feed and processing in Japan. This evaluation of exposure level is not specific to particular GM soybean event but can apply to any GM soybean traits used for food, feed and processing if their weediness or invasiveness are the same as those of the conventional soybean.

  9. Genome-wide association study for flowering time, maturity dates and plant height in early maturing soybean (Glycine max) germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Nelson, Randall L; Wang, Xianzhi; Wu, Jixiang; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Soybean (Glycine max) is a photoperiod-sensitive and self-pollinated species. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM), duration of flowering-to-maturity (DFTM) and plant height (PH) are crucial for soybean adaptability and yield. To dissect the genetic architecture of these agronomically important traits, a population consisting of 309 early maturity soybean germplasm accessions was genotyped with the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K BeadChip and phenotyped in multiple environments. ...

  10. Genome-wide association study, genomic prediction and marker-assisted selection for seed weight in soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B.; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Key message Twenty-two loci for soybean SW and candidate genes conditioning seed development were identified; and prediction accuracies of GS and MAS were estimated through cross-validation and validation with unrelated populations. Abstract Soybean (Glycine max) is a major crop for plant protein and oil production, and seed weight (SW) is important for yield and quality in food/vegetable uses of soybean. However, our knowledge of genes controlling SW remains limited. To better understand the...

  11. Correlations between traits in soybean (Glycine max L.) naturally infected with Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, B; Serafim, F; Nogueira, A P O; Hamawaki, O T; de Sousa, L B; Hamawaki, R L

    2015-12-22

    Soybean (Glycine max L.)-breeding programs aim to develop cultivars with high grain yields and high tolerance to Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi). Considering that the traits targeted for breeding are mainly quantitative in nature, knowledge of associations between traits allows the breeder to formulate indirect selection strategies. In this study, we investigated phenotypic, genotypic, and environmental correlations between the agronomic traits of soybean plants naturally infected with P. pachyrhizi, and identified agronomic traits that would be useful in indirectly selecting soybean genotypes for high yields. The study was conducted on the Capim Branco Farm, Uberlândia, Brazil, with 15 soybean genotypes, which were cultivated in a completely randomized block design with four replications. Fourteen phenotypic traits were evaluated using the GENES software. The phenotypic and genotypic correlations were positive and of a high magnitude between the total number of pods and the number of pods with two or three grains, indicating that the total number of pods is a useful trait for the indirect selection of soybean genotypes for high grain yields. Strong environmental correlations were found between plant height at blooming and maturity and grain yield and yield components.

  12. SoyNet: a database of co-functional networks for soybean Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Lee, Insuk

    2017-01-04

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a legume crop with substantial economic value, providing a source of oil and protein for humans and livestock. More than 50% of edible oils consumed globally are derived from this crop. Soybean plants are also important for soil fertility, as they fix atmospheric nitrogen by symbiosis with microorganisms. The latest soybean genome annotation (version 2.0) lists 56 044 coding genes, yet their functional contributions to crop traits remain mostly unknown. Co-functional networks have proven useful for identifying genes that are involved in a particular pathway or phenotype with various network algorithms. Here, we present SoyNet (available at www.inetbio.org/soynet), a database of co-functional networks for G. max and a companion web server for network-based functional predictions. SoyNet maps 1 940 284 co-functional links between 40 812 soybean genes (72.8% of the coding genome), which were inferred from 21 distinct types of genomics data including 734 microarrays and 290 RNA-seq samples from soybean. SoyNet provides a new route to functional investigation of the soybean genome, elucidating genes and pathways of agricultural importance. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Use of remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial statistics to assess spatio-temporal population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean yield quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Antonio Jose De Araujo

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is an important source of oil and protein worldwide, and soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is among the most important yield-limiting factors in soybean production worldwide. Early detection of SCN is difficult because soybean plants infected by SCN often do not exhibit visible symptoms. It was hypothesized, however, that reflectance data obtained by remote sensing from soybean canopies may be used to detect plant stress caused by SCN infection. Moreover, reflectance measurements may be related to soybean growth and yield. Two field experiments were conducted from 2000 to 2002 to study the relationships among reflectance data, quantity and quality of soybean yield, and SCN population densities. The best relationships between reflectance and the quantity of soybean grain yield occurred when reflectance data were obtained late August to early September. Similarly, reflectance was best related to seed oil and seed protein content and seed size when measured during late August/early September. Grain quality-reflectance relationships varied spatially and temporally. Reflectance measured early or late in the season had the best relationships with SCN population densities measured at planting. Soil properties likely affected reflectance measurements obtained at the beginning of the season and somehow may have been related to SCN population densities at planting. Reflectance data obtained at the end of the growing season likely was affected by early senescence of SCN-infected soybeans. Spatio-temporal aspects of SCN population densities in both experiments were assessed using spatial statistics and regression analyses. In the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons, spring-to-fall changes in SCN population densities were best related to SCN population densities at planting for both experiments. However, within-season changes in SCN population densities were best related to SCN population densities at harvest for both experiments in

  14. Soybean Pl 494182: A new source of more durable resistance to nematode populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the United States and worldwide. In 2012, SCN reduced yields in the U.S. by an estimated $1 billion. These losses have been contained at a stable level with the use of resistan...

  15. A Technique for Evaluating Heterodera glycines Development in Susceptible and Resistant Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrendt, J M; Lewis, S A; Shipe, E R

    1992-03-01

    A technique was developed to evaluate Heterodera glycines development in susceptible and resistant soybean. Roots of 3-day-old soybean were exposed to infective juveniles of H. glyci.nes in sand for 8 hours followed by washing and transfer to hydroponic culture. The cotyledons and apical meristem were removed and plants were maintained under constant light, which resulted in a dwarfed plant system. After 15 or 20 days at 27 C, nematodes were rated for development. Emerged males were sieved from the culture water and females were counted directly from the roots. Nematodes remaining in the roots were rated for development after staining and clearing the tissues. The proportion of nematodes at each stage of development and the frequency of completed molts for each stage were calculated from these data. This technique showed that resistance to H. glycines was stage related and did not affect males and females equally in all resistant hosts. The resistance of plant introduction PI 209332 primarily affected development of third and fourth-stage juveniles; 'Pickett' mainly affected second and third-stage juveniles, whereas PI 89772 affected all stages. Male development was markedly affected in PI 89772 and 'Pickett' but not in PI 209332.

  16. HERITABILITAS, NISBAH POTENSI, DAN HETEROSIS KETAHANAN KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merrill TERHADAP SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyimas Sa’diyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  17. Radiation induced mutagenesis in soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakode, M.M.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Patil, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of gamma rays (10, 20 and 30 kR) on some biological parameter in M1 generation and frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutations in five cultivars of soybean viz. JS-8021, JS-335, JS- 7105, Monetta and PKV -1 have been studied. A dose dependant decrease was noticed in most of the characters like root length, shoot length, germination, plant height, plant survival and pollen sterility. While seedling height, number of seeds per pod and number of branches per plant were not affected significantly. The highest frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutations was noticed in variety JS-8021 in which 20 different gene loci for various characters were mutated. However variety JS- 7105 showed less radio sensitive response for different traits in which only 12 different loci were mutated. While JS-335, monetta and PKV-I showed moderate response to frequency and spectrum of various mutations. These varieties showed differential response to radio sensitivity, some useful mutations included, high yielding mutant in 20 kR, non shattering mutant in 30 kR and vine type mutant in 10 kR in variety monetta. Extra early type, erect and high branched type mutant were recorded with high frequency in 10 and 20 kR respectively in variety JS-8021. In general, 20 kR dose was found more effective in all the varieties studied. (author)

  18. A genome-wide association study of seed composition traits in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Changbao; Chen, Charles Y; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-01-05

    Cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is a major agricultural crop that provides a crucial source of edible protein and oil. Decreased amounts of saturated palmitic acid and increased amounts of unsaturated oleic acid in soybean oil are considered optimal for human cardiovascular health and therefore there has considerable interest by breeders in discovering genes affecting the relative concentrations of these fatty acids. Using a genome-wide association (GWA) approach with nearly 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we investigated the genetic basis of protein, oil and all five fatty acid levels in seeds from a sample of 570 wild soybeans (Glycine soja), the progenitor of domesticated soybean, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these seed composition traits. We discovered 29 SNPs located on ten different chromosomes that are significantly associated with the seven seed composition traits in our wild soybean sample. Eight SNPs co-localized with QTLs previously uncovered in linkage or association mapping studies conducted with cultivated soybean samples, while the remaining SNPs appeared to be in novel locations. Twenty-four of the SNPs significantly associated with fatty acid variation, with the majority located on chromosomes 14 (6 SNPs) and seven (8 SNPs). Two SNPs were common for two or more fatty acids, suggesting loci with pleiotropic effects. We also identified some candidate genes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism and regulation. For each of the seven traits, most of the SNPs produced differences between the average phenotypic values of the two homozygotes of about one-half standard deviation and contributed over 3% of their total variability. This is the first GWA study conducted on seed composition traits solely in wild soybean populations, and a number of QTLs were found that have not been previously discovered. Some of these may be useful to breeders who select for increased protein/oil content or altered fatty acid ratios

  19. Nutrient Management practices for enhancing Soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-05-01

    La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimientode la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del rendimiento que la salinidad por sulfatos. Los granos de soya son una gran fuente de energía que contienen 40 % de proteína y 19 % de aceite. El éxito del manejo de nutrientes es maximizar la productividad del cultivo mientras se minimizan los impactos ambientales. Las prácticas de manejo de nutrientes balanceadas y reguladas en el tiempo contribuyen a un crecimiento sostenido del rendimiento y la calidad, influencian la salud de las plantas y reducen los riesgos ambientales. Una nutrición balanceada con fertilizantes minerales puede ayudar en el manejo integrado de plagas para reducir los daños causados por las infestaciones de pestes y enfermedades y reducir los insumos requeridos para su control. Una fertilización balanceada genera mayores ganancias para los agricultores, no necesariamente por reducción de los insumos. El papel de la educación y la extensión en la difusión del conocimiento actual sobre manejo de nutrientes es crucial, desafiante y continuo.

  20. THE EFFECT OF SOME RHIZOBACTERIAN STRAINS ON SOLUBLE PROTEINS CONTENT IN SOYBEANS (GLYCINE MAX L. MERR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Now it is an accepted fact that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can increase the productivity of several crops. The main objective of the present study was to find if there are any differences in protein content in the seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. MERR.. Using spectrophotometric methods for analyzing the protein contents and electrophoretic methods for qualitative analysis it was observed that no major modifications occur in protein spectrum. Looking at the quantitative side there was a small improvement in protein quantity.

  1. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  2. Mapping novel aphid resistance QTL from wild soybean, Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Bales, Carmille; Gu, Cuihua; DiFonzo, Chris; Li, Ming; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry; Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Dechun

    2017-09-01

    Two novel QTLs conferring aphid resistance were mapped and validated on soybean chromosomes 8 and 16, respectively. Closely linked markers were developed to assist breeding for aphid resistance. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a highly destructive pest for soybean production. E08934, a soybean advanced breeding line derived from the wild soybean Glycine soja 85-32, has shown strong resistance to aphids. To dissect the genetic basis of aphid resistance in E08934, a mapping population (070020) consisting of 140 F 3 -derived lines was developed by crossing E08934 with an aphid-susceptible line E00003. This mapping population was evaluated for aphid resistance in a greenhouse trial in 2010 and three field trials in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The broad-sense heritability across the field trials was 0.84. In the mapping population 070020, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected as significantly associated with aphid resistance, and designated as Rag6 and Rag3c, respectively. Rag6 was mapped to a 10.5 centiMorgan (cM) interval between markers MSUSNP08-2 and Satt209 on chromosome 8, explaining 19.5-46.4% of the phenotypic variance in different trials. Rag3c was located at a 7.5 cM interval between markers MSUSNP16-10 and Sat_370 on chromosome 16, explaining 12.5-22.9% of the phenotypic variance in different trials. Rag3c had less resistance effect than Rag6 across all the trials. Furthermore, Rag6 and Rag3c were confirmed in two validation populations with different genetic backgrounds. No significant interaction was detected between Rag6 and Rag3c in either the mapping population or the validation populations. Both Rag6 and Rag3c were indicated as conferring antibiosis resistance to aphids by a no-choice test. The new aphid-resistance gene(s) derived from the wild germplasm G. soja 85-32 are valuable in improving soybeans for aphid resistance.

  3. Genetic control of soybean (Glycine max) yield in the absence and presence of the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Aliny Simony; Toledo, José Francisco Ferraz de; Arias, Carlos Alberto Arrabal; Godoy, Cláudia Vieira; Soares, Rafael Moreira; Moreira, José Ubirajara Vieira; Pierozzi, Pedro Henrique Braga; Vidigal, Maria Celeste Gonçalves; Oliveira, Marcelo Fernandes de

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most important crops in Brazil and continuously generates demands for production technologies, such as cultivars resistant to diseases. In recent years, the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd 1914) has caused severe yield losses and the development of resistant cultivars is the best means of control. Understanding the genetic control and estimating parameters associated with soybean (Glycine max) resistance to P. pachyrhizi will provide essential ...

  4. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  5. Ecological aspects study of replacement intercropping patterns of Soybean (Glycine max L. and Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Ahmadvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L. and millet (Panicum miliaceum L. replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20 was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.

  6. Soybean Glycine Max L Merill Promiscuity Reaction To Indigenous Bradyrhizobia inoculation In Some Ghanaian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanuel Y. Klogo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For many tropical countries particularly in Africa Biological Nitrogen Fixation BNF continues to be the most promising alternative or supplement to the use of chemical Nitrogen fertilizers for sustainable Agriculture. In contrast to cowpea that nodulate profusely in tropical soilswith the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the American-type soybean in similar environments has largely depended on inoculating bradyrhizobia into the soil. The development of the Tropical Glycine Cross TGx soybean varieties by IITA has made it possible for these promiscuous varieties to nodulate with the naturally occurring strains belonging to the cowpea Bradyrhizobiumspp. The Most Probable Number MPN technique was used to determine the bradyrhizobial population in these soils. Eighty four Bradyrhizobium isolates obtained from randomly selected nodules on soybean were assessed for effectiveness in nitrogen fixation. Three of the most effective isolates were used in inoculation studies carried out in the greenhouse atthe University of Ghana-Legonon three promiscuous soybean varieties Anidaso TGx 813-6D TGx 1903-8F and TGx 1448-2E and a non- promiscuous genotype Davis in three Ghanaian soil series Toje Chromic cambisols Chichiwere Dystricfluvisol and Bekwai Ferric acrisols. There were tremendous inoculation responses in these soils for both the promiscuous and non-promiscuous cultivars with even the promiscuous ones responding better to inoculation than the non-promiscuous Davis. Inoculation gave rise to significant increases in nodule number nodule dry weight shoot dry weight and total nitrogen accumulation compared to the uninoculated control even intheChichiwere soil series which harboured the highestpopulation of indigenous bradyrhizobia suggesting that the populations of the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia in these soils were either not highly competitive or sufficient for optimum nodulation and nitrogen fixation. For

  7. NR2B GENE EXPRESSION CHANGE IN WISTAR RAT PRACTICING AEROBIC EXERCISE COMPARING TO SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX OR PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI INTAKES AND SOYBEAN AND PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI COMPOSITION INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Murniati Tarawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between nutrition and brain memory. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory study conducted during the period of June 2011 to July 2012 at the Biomedical and Biochemistry laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The subjects were 56 8-week-old male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200–250 grams which were divided into 8 groups with different treatments. The treatment groups received no exercise or exercise and soybean (Glycine max, Phyllanthus niruri, or combination of both. Results: NR2B gene expression changes found is described as follows: (1 without practicing exercise (3.8 and after exercise (4.6; (2 Glycine max minus exercise (2.86 and Glycine max and exercise (3.17; (3 Phyllanthus niruri minus exercises (4.7 and Phyllanthus niruri and exercise (4.9; and (4 Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination minus exercise (3.14 and Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination and exercise (4.83. Conclusions: This study determines that exercises and Phyllanthus niruri intake enhance NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max inhibits the NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination, both with and without practicing exercises, enhance NR2B gene expressions. Therefore, practicing exercise and Phyllanthus niruri intake might cause brain cell apoptosis while Glycine max intake inhibits brain cell apoptosis.

  8. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.):soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean:cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, MS. Rotation sequences were; continuous soybean, continuous cotton...

  9. Global transcriptome profiling of wild soybean (Glycine soja) roots under NaHCO3 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Bai, Xi; Lv, De-Kang; Guo, Dianjing; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua

    2010-07-26

    Plant roots are the primary site of perception and injury for saline-alkaline stress. The current knowledge of saline-alkaline stress transcriptome is mostly focused on saline (NaCl) stress and only limited information on alkaline (NaHCO3) stress is available. Using Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip, we conducted transcriptional profiling on Glycine soja roots subjected to 50 mmol/L NaHCO3 treatment. In a total of 7088 probe sets, 3307 were up-regulated and 5720 were down-regulated at various time points. The number of significantly stress regulated genes increased dramatically after 3 h stress treatment and peaked at 6 h. GO enrichment test revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in signal transduction, energy, transcription, secondary metabolism, transporter, disease and defence response. We also detected 11 microRNAs regulated by NaHCO3 stress. This is the first comprehensive wild soybean root transcriptome analysis under alkaline stress. These analyses have identified an inventory of genes with altered expression regulated by alkaline stress. The data extend the current understanding of wild soybean alkali stress response by providing a set of robustly selected, differentially expressed genes for further investigation.

  10. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts. - Highlights: ► Investigated the germination rate and the sprouts length after irradiation. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the antioxidants of the soybean sprouts. ► Evaluated the visual and olfactory quality of irradiated samples.

  11. Major QTLs associated with green stem disorder insensitivity of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shimada, Shinji; Hajika, Makita; Hirata, Kaori; Takahashi, Koji; Nagaya, Taiko; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Maekawa, Tomiya; Sayama, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Ishimoto, Masao; Tanaka, Junichi

    2014-12-01

    Green stem disorder (GSD) is one of the most serious syndromes affecting soybean (Glycine max) cultivation in Japan. In GSD, stems remain green even when pods mature. When soybean plants develop GSD, seed surfaces are soiled by tissue fluid and seed quality is deteriorated during machine harvesting. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for GSD insensitivity using recombinant inbred lines (RILs; n = 154) derived from a cross between an insensitive line ('Touhoku 129') and a sensitive leading cultivar ('Tachinagaha') during a 6-year evaluation. Three effective QTLs were detected. The influences of these QTLs were in the following order: qGSD1 (LG_H) > qGSD2 (LG_F) > qGSD3 (LG_L). At these three QTLs, 'Touhoku 129' genotypes exhibited more GSD insensitivity than 'Tachinagaha' genotypes. The lower incidence of GSD for 'Touhoku129' was attributable primarily to these three QTLs because RILs harboring a 'Touhoku 129' genotype at the three QTLs exhibited a GSD incidence similar to that of 'Touhoku 129.' Although a limitation of this study is that only one mapping population was evaluated, this QTL information and the flanking markers of these QTLs would be effective tools for resolving GSD in soybean breeding programs.

  12. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  13. Nitrate and ammonium influxes in soybean (Glycine max) roots : Direct comparison of N-13 and N-15 tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, DT; Gojon, A; Saker, LR; Wiersema, PK; Purves, JV; Tillard, P; Arnold, GM; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Stulen, [No Value

    We compared influxes and internal transport in soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Kingsoy) of labelled N from external solutions where either ammonium or nitrate was labelled with the stable isotope N-15 and the radioactive isotope N-13. The objective was to see whether mass spectrometric

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on s...

  15. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  16. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  17. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  18. EFEITO DE DOSES CRESCENTES DE CALCÁRIO SOBRE A POPULAÇÃO DE Heterodera glycines EM SOJA EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING ON Heterodera glycines POPULATION IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Porta Cattini

    2007-09-01

    ,000 eggs. The number of H. glycines females on soybean roots, and cysts/100 cm3 were evaluated. The number of females was reduced as liming doses increased up to 3.03 t.ha-1, showing quadratic response. The number of cysts reduced linearly as liming doses were reduced.

    KEY-WORDS: Cyst nematode; soil management; liming.

  19. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  20. Genetic variants in root architecture-related genes in a Glycine soja accession, a potential resource to improve cultivated soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Song, Li; Qiu, Dan; Maldonado Dos Santos, Joao V; Chai, Chenglin; Joshi, Trupti; Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Vuong, Tri D; Murphy, Mackensie; Krampis, Konstantinos; Tucker, Dominic M; Biyashev, Ruslan; Dorrance, Anne E; Maroof, M A Saghai; Xu, Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-02-25

    Root system architecture is important for water acquisition and nutrient acquisition for all crops. In soybean breeding programs, wild soybean alleles have been used successfully to enhance yield and seed composition traits, but have never been investigated to improve root system architecture. Therefore, in this study, high-density single-feature polymorphic markers and simple sequence repeats were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing root system architecture in an inter-specific soybean mapping population developed from a cross between Glycine max and Glycine soja. Wild and cultivated soybean both contributed alleles towards significant additive large effect QTLs on chromosome 6 and 7 for a longer total root length and root distribution, respectively. Epistatic effect QTLs were also identified for taproot length, average diameter, and root distribution. These root traits will influence the water and nutrient uptake in soybean. Two cell division-related genes (D type cyclin and auxin efflux carrier protein) with insertion/deletion variations might contribute to the shorter root phenotypes observed in G. soja compared with cultivated soybean. Based on the location of the QTLs and sequence information from a second G. soja accession, three genes (slow anion channel associated 1 like, Auxin responsive NEDD8-activating complex and peroxidase), each with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism mutation were identified, which may also contribute to changes in root architecture in the cultivated soybean. In addition, Apoptosis inhibitor 5-like on chromosome 7 and slow anion channel associated 1-like on chromosome 15 had epistatic interactions for taproot length QTLs in soybean. Rare alleles from a G. soja accession are expected to enhance our understanding of the genetic components involved in root architecture traits, and could be combined to improve root system and drought adaptation in soybean.

  1. Isoflavones profiling of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms and their correlations with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Inmyoung; Yu, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Young-Sang; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-06-15

    The isoflavone diversity (44 varieties) of the soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, from China, Japan, and Korea was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profiles of 12 isoflavones identified from the grains were subjected to data-mining processes, including partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Although PLS-DA did not reveal significant differences among extracts of soybean from 3 countries, the results clearly show that the variation between varieties was low. The CS02554 variety was separate from the others in the first 2 principal components of PLS-DA. HCA of these phytochemicals resulted in clusters derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Daidzin, genistin, and glycitin contents were significantly correlated with their respective malonyl glycoside contents. Daidzein content correlated positively with genistein content (r=0.8189, P<0.0001). The CS02554 variety appears to be a good candidate for future breeding programs, as it contains high levels of isoflavone compounds. These results demonstrate the use of metabolite profiling combined with chemometrics as a tool for assessing the quality of food and identifying metabolic links in biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-07-01

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

  3. Effect of Drought Stress on Yield and Yield Components of Determinate Soybean (Glycine max (L Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdipour

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought Stress on branch and main stem yield and yield components of determinate soybean [Glycin max L. Merr], was evaluated in factorial experiment on completely randomized design with four replications at the Greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty of Shahr-e- Kord UniverSity in 2005. The experimental factors were three determinate soybean cultivars (Hutcheson, Brim and Stonewall and three drought stress levels; control; irrigate at 50% (S1; and at 25% available water (S2. Drought stress did not decrease grain yield of the main stem but decreased it in the branches severely. The highest grain yield of main stem and its contribution to total grain yield were obtained to be6.53gr, and 65.23%, for S2 and 6.21gr, 44.23% for S1 and 5.98gr, 36.04% for control treatments respectively. The highest grain yield of the branches and their contribution to total grain yield in control, S1 and S2  were obtained to be 10.61gr, 63.95%; 7.83gr, 55.76%; and 3.48gr, 34.76% respectively. Number of grains per branch was highly correlated with their grain yield , total grain yield , branch length and branch number (p

  4. Glycine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the use of precise ion accelerators for medical purposes, it becomes ever more important to understand the interaction of biomolecules with fast ions.  Glycine is both a protein component and a model biomolecule, and is thus an important test system.    In this report, we discu...

  5. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Jain

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70-90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in

  7. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max) seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kovinich, Nik; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Miki, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max) seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT) and brown (irT) soybean (Glycine max) were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase) found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identifie...

  8. Soybean (Glycine max) WRINKLED1 transcription factor, GmWRI1a, positively regulates seed oil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yuhong; Dong, Zhimin; Meng, Fanfan; Sun, Xingmiao; Fan, Xuhong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Soybean is the world's most important leguminous crop producing high-quality protein and oil. Elevating oil accumulation in soybean seed is always many researchers' goal. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) encodes a transcription factor of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP) family that plays important roles during plant seed oil accumulation. In this study, we isolated and characterized three distinct orthologues of WRI1 in soybean (Glycine max) that display different organ-specific expression patterns, among which GmWRI1a was highly expressed in maturing soybean seed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrid experiments demonstrated that the GmWRI1a protein was capable of binding to AW-box, a conserved sequence in the proximal upstream regions of many genes involved in various steps of oil biosynthesis. Transgenic soybean seeds overexpressing GmWRI1a under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter showed the increased total oil and fatty acid content and the changed fatty acid composition. Furthermore, basing on the activated expressions in transgenic soybean seeds and existence of AW-box element in the promoter regions, direct downstream genes of GmWRI1a were identified, and their products were responsible for fatty acid production, elongation, desaturation and export from plastid. We conclude that GmWRI1a transcription factor can positively regulate oil accumulation in soybean seed by a complex gene expression network related to fatty acid biosynthesis.

  9. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent-Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Okhumode H

    2017-04-02

    Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)-one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean ( Glycine max ) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg -1 d -1 ) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants ( Glycine max ) based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs) before discharge into the environment.

  10. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mishra G, Kumar N, Giri K, Pandey S, Kumar R. 2014. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 45-48. In field experiments, the effect of selected fungicides and bioagents on number of soil microorganisms and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill was investigated. The results showed that some of the crop protections preparations applied in the experiment (as seed dressing increased the populations of the examined microorganisms after the harvest of crops. Maximum counts of bacteria were recorded with Thiomethaxam at 3 g kg-1 while Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1 showed the highest population of fungi, Actinomycetes, B. japonicum, PSB and Pseudomonas. The highest straw and grain yields of 3241.6 and 1439.4 kg ha-1, respectively, were recorded with Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1.

  11. The receptor like kinase at Rhg1-a/Rfs2 caused pleiotropic resistance to sudden death syndrome and soybean cyst nematode as a transgene by altering signaling responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srour Ali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I., or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS, was a recent, regional, pest. This study examined the role of a receptor like kinase (RLK GmRLK18-1 (gene model Glyma_18_02680 at 1,071 kbp on chromosome 18 of the genome sequence within the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus in causing resistance to SCN and SDS. Results A BAC (B73p06 encompassing the Rhg1/Rfs2 locus was sequenced from a resistant cultivar and compared to the sequences of two susceptible cultivars from which 800 SNPs were found. Sequence alignments inferred that the resistance allele was an introgressed region of about 59 kbp at the center of which the GmRLK18-1 was the most polymorphic gene and encoded protein. Analyses were made of plants that were either heterozygous at, or transgenic (and so hemizygous at a new location with, the resistance allele of GmRLK18-1. Those plants infested with either H. glycines or F. virguliforme showed that the allele for resistance was dominant. In the absence of Rhg4 the GmRLK18-1 was sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to both root and leaf symptoms of SDS caused by F. virguliforme and provided partial resistance to three different populations of nematodes (mature female cysts were reduced by 30–50%. In the presence of Rhg4 the plants with the transgene were nearly classed as fully resistant to SCN (females reduced to 11% of the susceptible control as well as SDS. A reduction in the rate of early seedling root development was also shown to be caused by the resistance allele of the GmRLK18-1. Field trials of transgenic plants showed an increase in foliar susceptibility to insect herbivory. Conclusions The inference that soybean has

  12. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N-2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N-2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  13. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y.B.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  14. Ensifer shofinae sp. nov., a novel rhizobial species isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sheng Hui; Li, Zhao Hu; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Chen, Wen Feng

    2017-04-01

    Two bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of soybean were characterized phylogenetically as members of a distinct group in the genus Ensifer based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. They were also verified as a separated group by the concatenated sequence analyses of recA, atpD and glnII (with similarities ≤93.9% to the type strains for defined species), and by the average nucleotide identities (ANI) between the whole genome sequence of the representative strain CCBAU 251167 T and those of the closely related strains in Ensifer glycinis and Ensifer fredii (90.5% and 90.3%, respectively). Phylogeny of symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) grouped these two strains together with some soybean-nodulating strains of E. fredii, E. glycinis and Ensifer sojae. Nodulation tests indicated that the representative strain CCBAU 251167 T could form root nodules with capability of nitrogen fixing on its host plant and Glycine soja, Cajanus cajan, Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris and Astragalus membranaceus, and it formed ineffective nodules on Leucaena leucocephala. Strain CCBAU 251167 T contained fatty acids 18:1 ω9c, 18:0 iso and 20:0, differing from other related strains. Utilization of l-threonine and d-serine as carbon source, growth at pH 6.0 and intolerance of 1% (w/v) NaCl distinguished strain CCBAU 251167 T from other type strains of the related species. The genome size of CCBAU 251167 T was 6.2Mbp, comprising 7,581 predicted genes with DNA G+C content of 59.9mol% and 970 unique genes. Therefore, a novel species, Ensifer shofinae sp. nov., is proposed, with CCBAU 251167 T (=ACCC 19939 T =LMG 29645 T ) as type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium oxalate crystal production and density at different phenological stages of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) from the southeast of the Pampean Plain, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Borrelli, Natalia L.; Benvenuto, María Laura; Osterrieth, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Glycine max L. (soybean) is one of the major crops of the world. Although the process of biomineralisation has been reported in some organs of soybean, we now report the description and quantification of calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs of soybean during its life cycle, as they act as an important source of calcium to the soil, once the harvesting is finished. • Through diaphanisation, cross-sectioning, optical and scanning electron microscopy analysi...

  16. 15N- and [13C]NMR Determination of Utilization of Glycine for Synthesis of Storage Protein in the Presence of Glutamine in Developing Cotyledons of Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokut, Thomas A.; Varner, Joseph E.; Schaefer, Jacob; Stejskal, Edward O.; McKay, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Solid-state 15N- and [13C] NMR have been used to measure quantitatively the utilization of glycine in the presence of glutamine for the synthesis of storage protein in immature cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Elf) in culture. The presence of an equal molar amount of glycine in the medium causes a decrease in the use of glutamine-amide nitrogen. Glycine nitrogen is incorporated extensively into peptide bonds (in amounts greater than what would be expected if it appeared solely in glycine residues), but is used sparingly for synthesis of histidine ring residues, guanidino nitrogen residues of arginine, and lysine residues. The modest use of glycine carbon in protein synthesis does not parallel the use of glycine nitrogen. PMID:16662199

  17. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-10-01

    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  18. Comparative phytochemical profiling of different soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr) genotypes using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Salem S; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Harty, Ehab H; Ammar, Megahed H; Farooq, Muhammad; Migdadi, Hussein M

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the proximate, phenolic and flavonoids contents and phytochemicals present in seeds of twenty four soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr) genotypes to explore their nutritional and medicinal values. Crude protein composition ranged between 35.63 and 43.13% in Argentinian and USA (Clark) genotypes, respectively. Total phenolic content varied from 1.15 to 1.77 mg GAE/g, whereas flavonoids varied from 0.68 to 2.13 mg QE/g. The GC-MS analysis resulted identification of 88 compounds categorized into aldehydes (5), ketones (13), alcohols (5), carboxylic acids (7), esters (13), alkanes (2), heterocyclic compounds (19), phenolic compound (9), sugar moiety (7) ether (4) and amide (3), one Alkene and one fatty acid ester. Indonesian genotypes (Ijen and Indo-1) had the highest phenolic compounds than others genotype having antioxidant activities, while the Australian genotype contains the maximum in esters compounds. The major phytocompounds identified in majority of genotypes were Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 1,2-cyclopentanedione and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The presence of phytochemicals with strong pharmacological actions like antimicrobial and antioxidants activities could be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study further set a platform for isolating and understanding the characteristics of each compound for it pharmacological properties.

  19. iTRAQ protein profile analysis of developmental dynamics in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Fengmin; Wang, Jinghua; Zheng, Zhi; Yin, Changcheng; Chen, Hao; Shi, Ainong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Mengchen

    2017-01-01

    Zao5241 is an elite soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] line and backbone parent. In this study, we employed iTRAQ to analyze the proteomes and protein expression profiles of Zao5241 during leaf development. We identified 1,245 proteins in all experiments, of which only 45 had been previously annotated. Among overlapping proteins between three biological replicates, 598 proteins with 2 unique peptides identified were reliably quantified. The protein datasets were classified into 36 GO functional terms, and the photosynthesis term was most significantly enriched. A total of 113 proteins were defined as being differentially expressed during leaf development; 41 proteins were found to be differently expressed between two and four week old leaves, and 84 proteins were found to be differently expressed between two and six week old leaves, respectively. Cluster analysis of the data revealed dynamic proteomes. Proteins annotated as electron carrier activity were greatly enriched in the peak expression profiles, and photosynthesis proteins were negatively modulated along the whole time course. This dataset will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to understanding photosynthetic development.

  20. Suppression of extracellular invertase inhibitor gene expression improves seed weight in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofei; Su, Tao; Han, Mei; Wei, Lai; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xue, Yongguo; Wei, Hongbin; Du, Yejie; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) play multiple functions in plant growth. As well as depending on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, there is growing evidence that CWI and VI are also subject to post-translational control by small inhibitory proteins. Despite the significance of this, genes encoding inhibitors, their molecular and biochemical properties, and their potential roles in regulating seed production have not been well documented in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, two invertase inhibitor isoforms, GmCIF1 and GmC/VIF2, were characterized to possess inhibitory activities in vitro via heterologous expression. Transcript analyses showed that they were predominantly expressed in developing seeds and in response to ABA. In accordance with this, surveys of primary targets showed subcellular localizations to the apoplast in tobacco epidermis after expressing YFP-fusion constructs. Investigations using RNAi transgenic plants demonstrated marked elevations of CWI activities and improvements in seed weight in conjunction with higher accumulations of hexoses, starch, and protein in mature seeds. Further co-expression analyses of GmCIF1 with several putative CWI genes corroborated the notion that GmCIF1 modulation of CWI that affects seed weight is mainly contingent on post-translational mechanisms. Overall, the results suggest that post-translational elevation of CWI by silencing of GmCIF1 expression orchestrates the process of seed maturation through fine-tuning sucrose metabolism and sink strength.

  1. EFFECTS OF ZEOLITE AND CADMIUM ON GROWTH AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahmoodabadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available   There are areas in the world which are polluted by trace metals some of which may not be degraded by biotic process. Some of these metals might enter into surface and/or underground water resources thus causing serious human and animal health problems. In recent years, natural amendments, such as the use of zeolite, have been widely used to address trace metals contamination. In the present study the effect of zeolite on the growth and nodulation of soybean (Glycine max L. was evaluated. Treatments consisted on factorial combination of three levels of zeolite (0, 2 and 5 g kg-1 and three levels of cadmium (0, 10 and 50 mg kg-1. Cadmium application significantly decreased shoot and root dry weight while its concentration in plant parts was increased. In addition, cadmium application decreased number and dry weight of nodules, and N, K, and Mn concentrations. On the other hand, zeolite application markedly increased number and dry weight of nodules and N, P, K concentrations in shoot, Mn and Cu concentrations in shoot and root. The results from the present study can be used for predicting the efficiency of zeolite application for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  2. Comparative phytochemical profiling of different soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes using GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proximate, phenolic and flavonoids contents and phytochemicals present in seeds of twenty four soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes to explore their nutritional and medicinal values. Crude protein composition ranged between 35.63 and 43.13% in Argentinian and USA (Clark genotypes, respectively. Total phenolic content varied from 1.15 to 1.77 mg GAE/g, whereas flavonoids varied from 0.68 to 2.13 mg QE/g. The GC–MS analysis resulted identification of 88 compounds categorized into aldehydes (5, ketones (13, alcohols (5, carboxylic acids (7, esters (13, alkanes (2, heterocyclic compounds (19, phenolic compound (9, sugar moiety (7 ether (4 and amide (3, one Alkene and one fatty acid ester. Indonesian genotypes (Ijen and Indo-1 had the highest phenolic compounds than others genotype having antioxidant activities, while the Australian genotype contains the maximum in esters compounds. The major phytocompounds identified in majority of genotypes were Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 1,2-cyclopentanedione and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The presence of phytochemicals with strong pharmacological actions like antimicrobial and antioxidants activities could be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study further set a platform for isolating and understanding the characteristics of each compound for it pharmacological properties.

  3. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Z. Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.. The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1 were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1 also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1.

  4. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  5. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Faridul; Bhuiyan, M A H; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Soybean plants require high amounts of nitrogen, which are mainly obtained from biological nitrogen fixation. A field experiment was conducted by soybean (Glycine max) genotypes, growing two varieties (Shohag and BARI Soybean6) and two advanced lines (MTD10 and BGM02026) of soybean with or without Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation. Soybean plants of all genotypes inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 produced greater nodule numbers, nodule weight, shoot and root biomass, and plant height than non-inoculated plants. Similarly, inoculated plants showed enhanced activity of nitrogenase (NA) enzyme, contributing to higher nitrogen fixation and assimilation, compared to non-inoculated soybean plants in both years. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 also showed higher pod, stover, and seed yield than non-inoculated plants. Therefore, Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 established an effective symbiotic relationship with a range of soybean genotypes and thus increased the nodulation, growth, and yield of soybean grown in gray terrace soils in Bangladesh.

  6. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  7. Genome-wide association study, genomic prediction and marker-assisted selection for seed weight in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-two loci for soybean SW and candidate genes conditioning seed development were identified; and prediction accuracies of GS and MAS were estimated through cross-validation and validation with unrelated populations. Soybean (Glycine max) is a major crop for plant protein and oil production, and seed weight (SW) is important for yield and quality in food/vegetable uses of soybean. However, our knowledge of genes controlling SW remains limited. To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the trait and explore marker-based breeding approaches, we conducted a genome-wide association study in a population of 309 soybean germplasm accessions using 31,045 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and estimated the prediction accuracy of genomic selection (GS) and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for SW. Twenty-two loci of minor effect associated with SW were identified, including hotspots on Gm04 and Gm19. The mixed model containing these loci explained 83.4% of phenotypic variation. Candidate genes with Arabidopsis orthologs conditioning SW were also proposed. The prediction accuracies of GS and MAS by cross-validation were 0.75-0.87 and 0.62-0.75, respectively, depending on the number of SNPs used and the size of training population. GS also outperformed MAS when the validation was performed using unrelated panels across a wide range of maturities, with an average prediction accuracy of 0.74 versus 0.53. This study convincingly demonstrated that soybean SW is controlled by numerous minor-effect loci. It greatly enhances our understanding of the genetic basis of SW in soybean and facilitates the identification of genes controlling the trait. It also suggests that GS holds promise for accelerating soybean breeding progress. The results are helpful for genetic improvement and genomic prediction of yield in soybean.

  8. Yields and Yield Components of Maize (Zea Mays L. and Soybean (Glycine Max as Affected by Different Tillage Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaternjak Ivka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the experiment station of the Krizevci College of Agriculture, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max grown in rotation under five different methods of tillage were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of maize and soybean. The results and the determined number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean show that more favorable conditions for germination are in variants where ploughing performed in the autumn (variants C, D and E. During a four-year study, the minimum number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean was found in variant A. The dry season in panicle stage of maize in 2006 has lowered yields compared to 2008, and the drought in 2007 during the seed-filling period reduced the yield and the 1000 kernel weight of soybean compared with 2009 in all variants of tillage methods. The highest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant B. During 2006, with the unfavorable weather conditions, the lowest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant E with intensive tillage treatment. The highest yield of soybean was recorded in variant E, but there were no statistically significant differences compared to variants with the reduction of additional tillage interventions (variant B, C and D. With respect to maize grain and soybean seed yield, variant A was the lowest. Considering the achieved yields of maize grain, there is a possibility of reducing additional tillage interventions, whilst for achieving higher yield of soybean seed intensive tillage is recommended.

  9. Effects of different boiling time of soybean ( Glycine max (L) merril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted with Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) fingerlings fed soybean boiled at different periods. The period treatment variations were unboiled soybean as control (T1); soybean seeds boiled for 20 minutes (T2); 30 minutes (T3); 40 minutes (T4) and for 50 minutes (T5). The soybean seeds so ...

  10. Physiological responses of three soybean species (Glycine soja, G. gracilis, and G. max cv. Melrose) to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Song, Jinhui; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two. Most of the morphological parameters for roots from the W8 plants were also increased, including total length, specific root length, and surface area. However, the average root diameter for W8 was significantly lower than that of either SW18 or 'Melrose' soybeans. In response to salinity, photosynthesis was suppressed to a greater extent in 'Melrose' than in W8. The relatively higher tolerance shown by W8 plants was also associated with lower levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and relative electrical conductivity, but higher activities by superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as more free proline and glycine betaine. In addition, the W8 plants contained less Na + and Cl - , but more K + , and they had a higher K + /Na + ratio in their leaves and roots when compared with either SW18 or 'Melrose' plants. Therefore, the W8 genotype performs better in terms of seedling growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological indexes. These findings provide guidance for developing new soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to salt stress. Our data also contribute to the knowledge base for plant salt tolerance as a tool for increasing the yields of other crops in high-salinity soils.

  11. Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Song, Qijian; Mujacic, Ibro; Luo, Yan; Chen, Charles Y; Li, Changbao; Kjemtrup, Susanne; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how various evolutionary factors interact to affect the population structure of diverse species, especially those of ecological and/or agricultural importance such as wild soybean (Glycine soja). G. soja, from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout diverse habitats in East Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, and China). Here, we utilize over 39,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 99 ecotypes of wild soybean sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. A STRUCTURE analysis identified four genetic groups that largely corresponded to the geographic regions of central China, northern China, Korea, and Japan, with high levels of admixture between genetic groups. A canonical correlation and redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors contributed 23.6% to population differentiation, much more than that for geographic factors (6.6%). Precipitation variables largely explained divergence of the groups along longitudinal axes, whereas temperature variables contributed more to latitudinal divergence. This study provides a foundation for further understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in this ecologically and agriculturally important species.

  12. EFEITO DO ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL (BENZOTHIADIAZOLE, COMO INDUTOR DE RESISTÊNCIA SISTÊMICA EM SOJA (Glycine max cv. FTCRISTALINA, SOBRE Heterodera glycines EFFECT OF ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL (BENZOTHIADIAZOLE, AS A SOYBEAN SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE INDUCTOR, ON Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Martini

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">The systemic acquired resistance is an important self defense mechanism of plants against diseases and it can occur naturally or be induced with chemical products. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzothiadiazole on the induction of resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, at Escola de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Goias, in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 6 replications. Inoculum consisted of race 4 of H. glycines naturally infested soil, from Chapadão do Céu county. The soybean cv. FT-Cristalina was used for all experiment. Treatments were as follows: 1 control; 2 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.15 g/l foliar spray; 3 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.30 g/l foliar spray; 4 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.15 g/l soil drench; 5 acibenzolar-Smethyl 0.30 g/l soil drench. Treatments were applied 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing. At the end of the crop cycle, evaluations were made on number of H. glycines females on roots, number of cysts per 100 cm3 of soil, and number of eggs per cyst. Significatly differences were not observed between treatments although fewer females occurred when the product was applied as a soil drench and, when it was applied as a soil drench at the higher concentration, on viable cysts in soil.

    KEY-WORDS: Systemic acquired resistance; benzothiadiazole; soybean cyst nematode.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Juan; Li Xihong; Fan Xuetong; Tang Yao; Xiao Yao; Wan Sen

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation. - Highlights: ► The objective of this study concerns the elimination of microbial load factors at different radiation dose (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy). ► Investigated the degradation of the gamma irradiation on the reduction of flatulence-causing. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the isoflavone and tocopherol contents of the soybeans. ► Evaluated the effect of the gamma irradiation on the sensory properties of soybeans.

  14. Supraoptimal carbon dioxide effects on growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Siegriest, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tightly closed environments used for human life support in space, carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures can reach 500 to 1000 Pa, which may be supraoptimal or toxic to plants used for life support. To study this, soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. McCall and Pixie] were grown for 90 days at 50, 100, 200, and 500 Pa partial pressure CO2 (500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 ppm). Plants were grown using recirculating nutrient film technique with a 12-h photoperiod, a 26 degrees C/20 degrees C thermoperiod, and approximately 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Seed yield and total biomass were greatest at 100 Pa for cv. McCall, suggesting that higher CO2 levels were supraoptimal. Seed yield and total biomass for cv. Pixie showed little difference between CO2 treatments. Average stomatal conductance of upper canopy leaves at 50 Pa CO2 approximately 500 Pa > 200 Pa > 100 Pa. Total water use over 90 d for both cultivars (combined on one recirculating system) equalled 822 kg water for 100 Pa CO2, 845 kg for 50 Pa, 879 kg for 200 Pa, and 1194 kg for 500 Pa. Water use efficiences for both cultivars combined equalled 3.03 (g biomass kg-1 water) for 100 Pa CO2, 2.54 g kg-1 for 200 Pa, 2.42 g kg-1 for 50 Pa, and 1.91 g kg-1 for 500 Pa. The increased stomatal conductance and stand water use at the highest CO2 level (500 Pa) were unexpected and pose interesting considerations for managing plants in a tightly closed system where CO2 concentrations may reach high levels.

  15. Characterization of an Acidic Chitinase from Seeds of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain leng...

  16. Soybean (Glycine max) SWEET gene family: insights through comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Prince, Silvas; Nicander, Bjorn; Zhao, Mingzhe; Sonah, Humira; Song, Li; Lin, Li; Chaudhary, Juhi; Liu, Yang; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-07-11

    SWEET (MtN3_saliva) domain proteins, a recently identified group of efflux transporters, play an indispensable role in sugar efflux, phloem loading, plant-pathogen interaction and reproductive tissue development. The SWEET gene family is predominantly studied in Arabidopsis and members of the family are being investigated in rice. To date, no transcriptome or genomics analysis of soybean SWEET genes has been reported. In the present investigation, we explored the evolutionary aspect of the SWEET gene family in diverse plant species including primitive single cell algae to angiosperms with a major emphasis on Glycine max. Evolutionary features showed expansion and duplication of the SWEET gene family in land plants. Homology searches with BLAST tools and Hidden Markov Model-directed sequence alignments identified 52 SWEET genes that were mapped to 15 chromosomes in the soybean genome as tandem duplication events. Soybean SWEET (GmSWEET) genes showed a wide range of expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of public transcriptome data and expression profiling using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that a majority of the GmSWEET genes were confined to reproductive tissue development. Several natural genetic variants (non-synonymous SNPs, premature stop codons and haplotype) were identified in the GmSWEET genes using whole genome re-sequencing data analysis of 106 soybean genotypes. A significant association was observed between SNP-haplogroup and seed sucrose content in three gene clusters on chromosome 6. Present investigation utilized comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequencing approaches and provided a systematic description of soybean SWEET genes and identified putative candidates with probable roles in the reproductive tissue development. Gene expression profiling at different developmental stages and genomic variation data will aid as an important resource for the soybean research

  17. Evaluation of the Protective Role of Glycine max Seed Extract (Soybean Oil) in Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Anand; Jothivel, Nandhakumar; Das, Saibal; Swapna, A; Albert, Alice Padmini; Barnwal, Preeti; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-09-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of Glycine max seed extract (soybean oil) against gentamicin- and rifampicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare its effects with those of vitamin E, which has well-established antioxidant and nephroprotective effects. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 150-210 g) were divided into 10 groups. The first five groups were treated for 14 consecutive days with normal saline (5 ml/kg, by mouth [p.o.]); gentamicin (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.]); gentamicin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) + vitamin E (250 mg/kg p.o.); gentamicin (80 mg/kg i.p.) + soybean oil (2.5 ml/kg p.o.); and gentamicin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) + soybean oil (5 ml/kg p.o.), respectively. For the next five groups, the same group allocation was done, but gentamicin was replaced with rifampicin (1 g/kg i.p.). Various biomarkers for nephrotoxicity in serum and urine were evaluated along with histopathological examination of kidneys. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done following Tukey's multiple comparison test; p < .05 was considered significant. Soybean oil in both doses significantly (p < .005) decreased serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, urea, uric acid and urine volume, kidney weight, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, and total protein and significantly (p < .005) increased serum total protein and urine creatinine in gentamicin- and rifampicin-treated animals, exhibiting nephroprotective effects. Soybean oil also showed strong antioxidant effects, causing significant (p < .005) increase in kidney homogenate catalases, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and significant (p < .005) decrease in lipid peroxidase in gentamicin- and rifampicin-treated animals. Soybean oil demonstrated good nephroprotective activity due to antioxidant effects.

  18. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean) differing in drought resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; do Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella

    2012-01-01

    The legume Glycine max (soybean) plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH) from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16) and tolerant (Embrapa 48). A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes) are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY) related to tolerance to abiotic stress. PMID:22802718

  19. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  20. Genetic control of soybean (Glycine max yield in the absence and presence of the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Simony Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the most important crops in Brazil and continuously generates demands for production technologies, such as cultivars resistant to diseases. In recent years, the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd 1914 has caused severe yield losses and the development of resistant cultivars is the best means of control. Understanding the genetic control and estimating parameters associated with soybean (Glycine max resistance to P. pachyrhizi will provide essential information for cultivar selection. We investigated quantitative genetic control of P. pachyrhizi and estimated parameters associated to soybean yield in the absence and presence of this phytopathogen. Six cultivars and their 15 diallel derived F2 and F3 generations were assessed in experiments carried out in the absence and presence of P. pachyrhizi. The results indicated that soybean yield in the presence and absence of P. pachyrhizi is controlled by polygenes expressing predominantly additive effects that can be selected to develop new cultivars resistant or tolerant to P. pachyrhizi. These cultivars may prove to be a useful and more durable alternative than cultivars carrying major resistance genes.

  1. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  2. Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandula, Vijay K; Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Poston, Daniel H

    2007-05-02

    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, (2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism for differential resistance to glyphosate among GR soybean varieties, and (3) the extent of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR canola and to correlate metabolism to injury from AMPA. GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant dry weight) values for GR (Asgrow 4603RR) and non-GR (HBKC 5025) soybean were 22.8 kg ae ha-1 and 0.47 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR soybean exhibiting a 49-fold level of resistance to glyphosate as compared to non-GR soybean. Differential reduction in chlorophyll by glyphosate was observed between GR soybean varieties, but there were no differences in shoot fresh weight reduction. No significant differences were found between GR varieties in metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA, and in shikimate levels. These results indicate that GR soybean varieties were able to outgrow the initial injury from glyphosate, which was previously caused at least in part by AMPA. GR50 values for GR (Hyola 514RR) and non-GR (Hyola 440) canola were 14.1 and 0.30 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR canola exhibiting a 47-fold level of resistance to glyphosate when compared to non-GR canola. Glyphosate did not cause reduction in chlorophyll content and shoot fresh weight in GR canola, unlike GR soybean. Less glyphosate (per unit leaf weight) was recovered in glyphosate-treated GR canola as compared to glyphosate-treated GR soybean. External application of AMPA caused similar injury in both GR and non-GR canola. The presence of a bacterial glyphosate oxidoreductase gene in GR canola contributes to breakdown of glyphosate to AMPA. However, the AMPA from glyphosate breakdown could have been metabolized to nonphytotoxic metabolites before causing injury

  3. Identification and colonization of endophytic fungi from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Chapaval Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 297 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1728 leaf and stem fragments collected about twenty and forty days after germination from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril plants grown in the field and a greenhouse. The fungi belonged to eight groups, six dematiaceous genera (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Drechslera and Scopulariopsis and the non-dematiaceous genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium along with some Mycelia sterilia.. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and number of isolates obtained from greenhouse and field-grown plants, with more isolates being obtained from the latter. No difference was found in the number of fungi isolated from leaves and stems irrespective of where the plants was grown. For was field-grown plants, the number of isolates decreased as the plants aged and more fungi were found in tissues near the soil, while for greenhouse-grown plants the number of isolates increased as the plants aged but in this case no more fungi were isolated from those tissues nearer the soil. These results could have biotechnological relevance for the biological control of pests or plant growth promotion.A partir de 1728 fragmentos de hastes e folhas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. provenientes de plantas do campo e de casa de vegetação, coletadas cerca de 20 e 40 dias após a germinação das sementes, 297 fungos endofíticos foram isolados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Scopulariopsis, Drechslera (todos dematiáceos além de Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces e Mycelia sterilia. Foram detectadas diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas entre os isolados, em relação a micobiota de hospedeiros provenientes do campo e de casa de vegetação com maior frequência de fungos isolados de plantas no campo em comparação com as de casa de vegeta

  4. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  5. The Effect of Ferrous Nano-oxide Particles on Physiological Traits and Nutritional Compounds of Soybean ( Glycine max L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhbaglou, Roghayyeh; Sedghi, Mohammad; Fathi-Achachlouie, Bahram

    2018-02-19

    Soybean (Glycine max L.) seed contains amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral elements, which protein and lipid have been known as a main part for soybean's trade value. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of ferrous nano-oxide particles on nutritional compounds of soybean seed, an experiment with 5 treatments and 3 replications was conducted as a randomized complete block design. Treatments were 5 concentrations of ferrous nano-oxide particles including 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1 which were sprayed 3 times at 4 and 8 leaves stage and pod initiation. Lipid and protein contents, fatty acids profile, some of mineral elements such as Fe, Mg, Ca and P, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content were determined. Results showed that solution containing ferrous nano-oxide particles had significant effect on nutritional compounds of soybean seed (P<0.01) compared to control. The highest content of lipid and protein (25.4 and %33.8, respectively) observed by applying 0.75 g L-1 of ferrous nano-oxide and the lowest content was also in control. Changes in the trends of fatty acids profile (palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids), some of mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Ca and P) and chlorophyll contents were similar to lipid and protein levels which by increasing in concentration of ferrous nano-oxide from 0 to 0.75 g L-1 all measured parameters also increased, but reduction in all parameters was observed in concentration from 0.75 to 1 g L-1. In conclusion, application of 0.75 to 1 g L-1 ferrous nano-oxide had the best effect on the nutrient composition of soybean seed.

  6. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  7. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  8. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  9. Arabidopsis Novel Glycine-Rich Plasma Membrane PSS1 Protein Enhances Disease Resistance in Transgenic Soybean Plants1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Sumit, Rishi; Srivastava, Subodh K.; Yang, Yang; Swaminathan, Sivakumar

    2018-01-01

    Nonhost resistance is defined as the immunity of a plant species to all nonadapted pathogen species. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia-0 is nonhost to the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium virguliforme that are pathogenic to soybean (Glycine max). Previously, we reported generating the pss1 mutation in the pen1-1 genetic background as well as genetic mapping and characterization of the Arabidopsis nonhost resistance Phytophthora sojae-susceptible gene locus, PSS1. In this study, we identified six candidate PSS1 genes by comparing single-nucleotide polymorphisms of (1) the bulked DNA sample of seven F2:3 families homozygous for the pss1 allele and (2) the pen1-1 mutant with Columbia-0. Analyses of T-DNA insertion mutants for each of these candidate PSS1 genes identified the At3g59640 gene encoding a glycine-rich protein as the putative PSS1 gene. Later, complementation analysis confirmed the identity of At3g59640 as the PSS1 gene. PSS1 is induced following P. sojae infection as well as expressed in an organ-specific manner. Coexpression analysis of the available transcriptomic data followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction suggested that PSS1 is coregulated with ATG8a (At4g21980), a core gene in autophagy. PSS1 contains a predicted single membrane-spanning domain. Subcellular localization study indicated that it is an integral plasma membrane protein. Sequence analysis suggested that soybean is unlikely to contain a PSS1-like defense function. Following the introduction of PSS1 into the soybean cultivar Williams 82, the transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance to F. virguliforme, the pathogen that causes sudden death syndrome. PMID:29101280

  10. Cytotoxic and molecular impacts of allelopathic effects of leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus on soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abdelmigid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus trees litter plays a crucial role in structuring plant populations and regulating crop quality. To help characterize the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus plantations and understand the interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations, we performed two different genomic approaches to determine soybean (Glycine max crop plant response to biotic stress induced by leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus trees. For assessing cell death, a qualitative method of DNA fragmentation test (comet assay was employed to detect cleavage of the genomic DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments and help to characterize the apoptotic event among the experimental samples. In addition, quantitative method of genome analysis at the transcriptional level also was conducted to investigate the expression responses of soybean genome to allelochemicals. Expression of specific genes, which are responsible for the breakdown of proteins during programmed cell death PCD (cysteine proteases and their inhibitors, was examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR. Results of both conducted analyses proved significant genetic effects of Eucalyptus leaf residues on soybean crop genome, revealed by steady increase in DNA damage as well as variation in the transcript levels of cysteine proteases and inhibitors. Further detailed studies using more sensitive methods are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus plantations on crops.

  11. Inorganic phosphorus along with biofertilizers improves profitability and sustainability in soybean (Glycine max–potato (Solanum tuberosum cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Munda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to assess role of phosphorus (P fertilization on economics, energy efficiency, P use indices and soil P balance in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril]–potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cropping system during 2008–09 and 2009–10. Treatments in soybean as main plots consisted of two sources and two levels of phosphorus with or without biofertilizers [phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, PSB and arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM]. Three levels of P were applied to potato as subplots. System productivity was calculated in terms of soybean equivalent yield and found to be better with biofertilizers treated plots. When applied in combination with biofertilizers, 50% recommended dose of P (RDP as diammonium phosphate (DAP recorded B:C ratio at par with 100% RDP. Direct application of 100% RDP to potato resulted in significantly higher returns, enhancing the net returns. Application of biofertilizers alone increased the energy use efficiency over no biofertilizer application. Irrespective of source (DAP or rock phosphate treatments with biofertilizers had improved P use indices and apparent soil P balance even at 50% RDP. This indicates the role of biofertilizers in P solubilization and making it available to plant. Biofertilizers application can help cutting down the fertilizer P application in soybean–potato cropping system without any considerable reduction in yield and economic returns. Keywords: AM, B:C ratio, P use indices, PSB, Rock phosphate, Agronomic use efficiency

  12. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark

    2016-02-10

    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  13. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  14. Development of a highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Zhihui; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Tzitzikas, E.; Ma, Zhengqiang; Visser, R.G.F.

    2005-01-01

    A highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis was developed in soybean. Seeds of soybean cv. White hilum pretreated with TDZ formed multiple bud tissue(s) (MBT) at the cotyledonary nodes. MBT initiation occurred only if the axillary buds were not removed from the cotyledonary node. The best

  15. Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Pei; Weber, Jonas Felix; Gerhards, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress.

  16. Environmental assessment of organic soybean (Glycine max.) imported from China to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Yu-Hui, Qiao; Van, Luo

    2010-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has increased the demand for environmental impact assessments during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic soybeans produced in China and imported to Denmark were identified in a case study using a life cycle assessment approach....... Furthermore, environmental impacts of organic and conventional soybeans at farm gate were compared in the case study. The total global warming potential (GWP) per ton organic soybeans imported to Denmark revealed that 51% came from transportation and 35% from the farm level. Comparing organic and conventional...... soybean at farm gate showed that GWP, non-renewable energy use, acidification and eutrophication was lower per ton organic soybeans, whereas land use was slightly higher....

  17. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  18. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  19. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O 3 ] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O 3 ] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  20. Fumonisins and fungi in dry soybeans (Glycine Max L.) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laura P; Savi, Geovana D; Santos, Karolina; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-06-01

    This survey reports the occurrence of fumonisins (FBs) and fungi in dry soybeans sold for human consumption. The variation levels were 138-1495 µg kg(-1) and 178-552 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and FB2, respectively. In addition, potentially toxigenic fungi as Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera were isolated in the samples. These can be considered as indicator-toxin and can produce considerable amounts of mycotoxins. Despite FB presence in the soybeans for human consumption, there is no legal regulation. Therefore, it is important to emphasise the need for frequent monitoring of these contaminants in soybeans.

  1. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative of fungi colonizing soybeans (Glycine max L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta

    The aim of study was to analyse the qualitative and quantitative composition of fungi in soybeans on RBCA, YpSs, and DG18 culture media at 25, 37 and 45°C. The analysis included 15 samples of soybeans. The highest number of mould species (23) were isolated on RBCA at 25°C, followed by xerophilic species (20) on DG18 at 25°C, and mesophilic (13) and thermophilic species (4) on YpSs medium at 37° and 45°C, respectively. Ninety-five strains belonging to 40 species were isolated from soybean samples. The predominant species were Penicillium chrysogenum and Eurotium herbariorum. This study revealed new species of mycobiota not previously isolated from soybeans.

  2. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on early growth of soybean (Glycine mac (L). Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Yulidar

    2015-01-01

    Increase my in domestic soybean production is one of the government's program to reduce dependence on imported soybeans and soybean efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in 2015. An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of gamma ray irradiation of of 60 Cobalt on early growth of soybean seed. Variety Denna 2 varieties have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Ps Jumat PAIR-BATAN. Plant growth from each doses is proved to be varied. From germination viability on the third day, the highest percentage of seedling with leaves is on 100 Gy dose (73.75%), and 7, 14 and 21 day the lowest is on dose 400 Gy. (author)

  3. Genetic characteristics of soybean resistance to HG type 0 and HG type 1.2.3.5.7 of the cyst nematode analyzed by genome-wide association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Cao, Guanglu; Wang, Yan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Teng, Weili; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Dongmei; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-08-13

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is one of the most fatal pests of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide and causes huge loss of soybean yield each year. Multiple sources of resistance are urgently needed for effective management of SCN via the development of resistant cultivars. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to SCN HG Type 0 (race 3) and HG Type 1.2.3.5.7 (race 4) in landraces and released elite soybean cultivars mostly from China. A total of 440 diverse soybean landraces and elite cultivars were screened for resistance to SCN HG Type 0 and HG Type 1.2.3.5.7. Exactly 131 new sources of SCN resistance were identified. Lines were genotyped by SNP markers detected by the Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) approach. A total of 36,976 SNPs were identified with minor allele frequencies (MAF) > 4% that were present in 97% of all the genotypes. Genome-wide association mapping showed that a total of 19 association signals were significantly related to the resistance for the two HG Types. Of the 19 association signals, eight signals overlapped with reported QTL including Rhg1 and Rhg4 genes. Another eight were located in the linked regions encompassing known QTL. Three QTL were found that were not previously reported. The average value of female index (FI) of soybean accessions with resistant alleles was significantly lower than those with susceptible alleles for each peak SNP. Disease resistance proteins with leucine rich regions, cytochrome P450s, protein kinases, zinc finger domain proteins, RING domain proteins, MYB and WRKY transcription activation families were identified. Such proteins may participate in the resistant reaction to SCN and were frequently found in the tightly linked genomic regions of the peak SNPs. GWAS extended understanding of the genetic architecture of SCN resistance in multiple genetic backgrounds. Nineteen association signals were

  4. Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Xin, Can; Zhao, Ya; Feng, Bing; He, Congfen; Dong, Yinmao; Fang, Yun; Wei, Shaomin

    2013-01-16

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  5. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  6. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections. Copyright © 2016 Anderson et al.

  7. Comprehensive phenolic composition analysis and evaluation of Yak-Kong soybean (Glycine max) for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles C; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ji Seung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Chang Yong

    2017-11-01

    Yak-Kong (YK) (Glycine max), a small black soybean cultivar with a green embryo, was evaluated for functional constituents with a focus on atherosclerosis prevention. In comparison to common yellow and black soybean cultivars, YK contains significantly higher concentrations of antioxidants, particularly in its seed coat. A comprehensive phenolic composition analysis revealed that proanthocyanidins were the major phenolic group in YK. In contrast to other proanthocyanidin-rich foods, YK was rich in bioavailable proanthocyanidins (with a degree of polymerization ≤3) specifically with A-type dimers. Significant concentrations of phloridzin and coumestrol were also exclusively found in YK seed coat and the embryo, respectively. Extracts of both the proanthocyanidin-rich seed coat and isoflavonoid-rich embryo of YK attenuated adhesion of THP-1 to LPS-stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that they are important sources of coronary heart disease-preventive phenolics. YK has promising potential for further development as a functional food source targeted at atherosclerosis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antagonistic endophytic bacteria associated with nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) and plant growth-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, LongFei; Xu, YaJun; Lai, XinHe

    2017-10-13

    A total of 276 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in 14 sites in Henan Province, China. The inhibitory activity of these bacteria against pathogenic fungus Phytophthora sojae 01 was screened in vitro. Six strains with more than 63% inhibitory activities were further characterized through optical epifluorescence microscopic observation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, potential plant growth-promoting properties analysis, and plant inoculation assay. On the basis of the phylogeny of 16S rRNA genes, the six endophytic antagonists were identified as belonging to five genera: Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, and Bacillus. The strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DD161 had the strongest inhibitory activity (71.14%) against the P. sojae 01, which caused morphological abnormal changes of fungal mycelia; such changes include fracture, lysis, formation of a protoplast ball at the end of hyphae, and split ends. Except for Ochrobactrum haematophilum DD234, other antagonistic strains showed the capacity to produce siderophore, indole acetic acid, and nitrogen fixation activity. Regression analysis suggested a significant positive correlation between siderophore production and inhibition ratio against P. sojae 01. This study demonstrated that nodule endophytic bacteria are important resources for searching for inhibitors specific to the fungi and for promoting effects for soybean seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Selection for later flowering in soybean (Glycine max L.Merrill F2 populations cultivated under short day conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio Carlos Baião de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Several different selection strategies were used to estimate expected gain of days to flowering and other related characters in two F2 soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill populations. The sample originated from crosses of lines whose seeds do not contain the three lipoxygenase isozymes with the commercially cultivated IAC-12. IAC-12 is a gene carrier for an extended juvenile period. This study was conducted during the winter of 1994 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The plants were grown under natural photoperiod. One population was grown in a heated greenhouse, and the other in the field under natural temperature conditions. Lower temperatures early in the field planting caused a delay in flowering. Delayed flowering caused a broader amplitude in all characters evaluated, and resulted in higher selection gains for the field-grown plants than for the greenhouse-grown plants. Direct selection for number of flowering days proved to be efficient for improving this character in both populations. Gains were also obtained for other characters. Interactions of temperature and photoperiod and temperature and genotypes affected soybean flowering time and produced alterations in other correlated agronomic characters, including productivity.

  11. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  12. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on soybean (Glycine max L.) germination and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati, F.; Sutarno; Sas, M. G. A.; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    Narrow genetic diversity is a main problem restricting the progress of soybean breeding. One way to improve genetic diversity of plant is through mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of different dose of gamma rays as induced mutagen on physiological, morphological, and anatomical markers during seed germination and seedling growth of soybean. Seeds of soybean cultivars Dering-1 were irradiated with 11 doses of gamma rays (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280, and 2560 Gy [Gray]. The research design was arranged in a completely randomized block design in three replicates. Results showed that soybean seed exposed at high doses (640, 1280, and 2560 Gy) did not survive more than 20 days, the doses were then removed from anatomical evaluation. Higher doses of gamma rays siginificantly reduced germination percentage at the first count and final count, coefficient of germination velocity, germination rate index, germination index, seedling height and seedling root length, and significantly increased mean germination time, first day of germination, last day of germination, and time spread of germination. However, the effects of gamma rays were varies for density, width, and length of stomata. The LD50 obtained based on survival percentage was 314.78 Gy. It can be concluded that very low and low doses of gamma rays (5-320 Gy) might be used to study the improvement of soybean diversity.

  13. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Robert P; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Cary, Troy R; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha(-1) year(-1), and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. PsVPS1, a dynamin-related protein, is involved in cyst germination and soybean infection of Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Li

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant immunity. However, the mechanism by which oomycete pathogens deliver effector proteins during plant infection remains unknown. In this report, we characterized a Phytophthora sojae vps1 gene. This gene encodes a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar protein sorting gene vps1 that mediates budding of clathrin-coated vesicles from the late Golgi, which are diverted from the general secretory pathway to the vacuole. PsVPS1-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation and were viable but had reduced extracellular protein activity. The PsVPS1-silenced mutants showed impaired hyphal growth, and the shapes of the vacuoles were highly fragmented. Silencing of PsVPS1 affected cyst germination as well as the polarized growth of germinated cysts. Silenced mutants showed impaired invasion of susceptible soybean plants regardless of wounding. These results suggest that PsVPS1 is involved in vacuole morphology and cyst development. Moreover, it is essential for the virulence of P. sojae and extracellular protein secretion.

  15. Whole-genome sequencing and intensive analysis of the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Sunghoon; Van, Kyujung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo; Lee, Yong-Seok; Park, Daeui; Ma, Jianxin; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shin, Jin Hee; Jang, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Do; Liu, Wei Xian; Chaisan, Tanapon; Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2010-12-21

    The genome of soybean (Glycine max), a commercially important crop, has recently been sequenced and is one of six crop species to have been sequenced. Here we report the genome sequence of G. soja, the undomesticated ancestor of G. max (in particular, G. soja var. IT182932). The 48.8-Gb Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina-GA) short DNA reads were aligned to the G. max reference genome and a consensus was determined for G. soja. This consensus sequence spanned 915.4 Mb, representing a coverage of 97.65% of the G. max published genome sequence and an average mapping depth of 43-fold. The nucleotide sequence of the G. soja genome, which contains 2.5 Mb of substituted bases and 406 kb of small insertions/deletions relative to G. max, is ∼0.31% different from that of G. max. In addition to the mapped 915.4-Mb consensus sequence, 32.4 Mb of large deletions and 8.3 Mb of novel sequence contigs in the G. soja genome were also detected. Nucleotide variants of G. soja versus G. max confirmed by Roche Genome Sequencer FLX sequencing showed a 99.99% concordance in single-nucleotide polymorphism and a 98.82% agreement in insertion/deletion calls on Illumina-GA reads. Data presented in this study suggest that the G. soja/G. max complex may be at least 0.27 million y old, appearing before the relatively recent event of domestication (6,000∼9,000 y ago). This suggests that soybean domestication is complicated and that more in-depth study of population genetics is needed. In any case, genome comparison of domesticated and undomesticated forms of soybean can facilitate its improvement.

  16. ESTIMATION OF SOYBEAN SEED (Glycine max L. Merr DETERIORATION DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Noviana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ing the behavior and deterioration of soybean seed and to predict seed viability during storage in controlled conditions. The experiment used completely randomized design with two levels of variety which nested in storage period with four replications. Two varieties were Dering-1 and Detam 2 that storage in controlled condition at temperature of 19 up to 22 °C and 64 up to 67 percent of relative humidity for six months. The seeds were evaluated for moisture content, protein, peroxide value, electrical conductivity and seed viability. During the deterioration the moisture content, peroxide, electrical conductivity increased while protein content and germination declined. Deterioration model of soybeans can be used to predict the decline of soybean seeds during the controlled storage.

  17. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-09

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Environment on the Biomass Composition of Soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tamara; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Osmark, Veronika; McHale, Leah K; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2017-08-16

    Factors including genetics, fertilization, and climatic conditions, can alter the biomass composition of soybean seeds, consequently impacting their market value and usage. This study specifically determined the content of protein and oil, as well as the composition of proteinogenic amino acids and fatty acids in seeds from 10 diverse soybean cultivars grown in four different sites. The results highlighted that different environments produce a different composition for the 10 cultivars under investigation. Specifically, the levels of oleic and linoleic acids, important contributors to oil stability, were negatively correlated. Although the protein and oil contents were higher in some locations, their "quality" was lower in terms of composition of essential amino acids and oleic acid, respectively. Finally, proteinogenic histidine and glutamate were the main contributors to the separation between Central and Northern growing sites. Taken together, these results can guide future breeding and engineering efforts aiming to develop specialized soybean lines.

  19. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max) Using Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangxiong; Li, Huihui; Fan, Xuhong; Huang, Wen; Yang, Jiyu; Li, Candong; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Guo, Yong; Chang, Ruzhen; Wang, Dechun; Wang, Shuming; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2016-01-01

    The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for number of days to flowering (ETF), number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM), and number of days to maturity (ETM) using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding.

  20. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max Using Association Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxiong Liu

    Full Text Available The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL for number of days to flowering (ETF, number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM, and number of days to maturity (ETM using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding.

  1. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  2. Effect of various solvent on the specific amino acids of black soybean (Glycine soja) sprout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetro, B.; Slamet, A.; Wazyka, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of various solvent extractions on the specific amino acids as small peptide or free amino acids that was contained in the extract after removal of the macromolecule protein of black soybean sprouts. The experimental design of this research was randomized complete design with one factor, which was the three various solvent, i.e. hexane, ethanol and water. The black soybean seed was germinated for 36 h. The small peptide and free amino acids of black soybean sprout were isolated at 3 various of solvents extraction, and then the macromolecule proteins in the extracts were precipitated at the pH 4. The extracts of black soybean sprout after removal of the macromolecule protein were analysed by HPLC to determine the profile of amino acids for stimulation of insulin secretion. The result of this research showed that the extracts contained the small peptide and free amino acid for stimulation of insulin secretion. The best solvent extraction was water that was due to the content of Leu, Arg, Ala, Phe, Ile, and Lys of water extract was higher than hexane and ethanol extracts.

  3. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  4. Soybean (Glycine max L. Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin increased NKS 51-T8 yield by 23% in 2010 while in 2011 the yield of HBK 5025 was increased 14% over the unsprayed check. No yield response was noted with pyraclostrobin on any soybean cultivar. Only prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to either NKS 51-T8 or DP5335 in 2010 resulted in a net increase in dollars per hectare over the unsprayed check of the respective cultivar. In 2011, under extremely dry conditions, all fungicides with the exception of prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to HBK 5025 resulted in a net decrease in returns over the unsprayed check.

  5. Polygenic Inheritance of Canopy Wilting in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As water demand for agriculture exceeds water availability, cropping systems need to become more efficient in water usage, such as deployment of cultivars that sustain yield under drought conditions. Soybean cultivars differ in how quickly they wilt during water-deficit stress, and this trait may l...

  6. Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.E.; Ebel, J.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a β-1,3-[ 3 H] glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent K/sub d/ value for β-glucan elicitor binding is ≅ 0.2 x 10 -6 M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies the [ 3 H]glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched β-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay

  7. Effect of cadmium on soybean ( Glycine max L) growth and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , an experiment was performed in sand culture using Hoagland nutrient solution. At the time of sowing, different cadmium level that is 0, 4, 8 and 16 mg kg-1 sand was created using Cd (NO3)2. Soybean shoots and root lengths shoot and root ...

  8. Allelic differentiation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K J; Takahata, Y; Kono, Y; Kaizuma, N

    2008-08-01

    Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) has several polymorphic types, which are controlled by co-dominant multiple alleles at a single locus. Of these types, Tia and Tib are predominant types, and there are nine differences in amino acids between Tia and Tib. Recently, an intermediate transitional type (Tibi5) between them was detected. However, other transitional types have not been detected despite surveys of many cultivated and wild soybeans. One of the reasons why other transitional variants have not been found is inferred to be due to the difficulty of the detection of SKTI protein variants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To detect novel variants of SKTI, nucleotide sequence analysis in addition to PAGE was carried out. Four new variants were found from many Japanese wild soybeans. Of these variants, three (designated as Tiaa1, Tiaa2, Tiab1) were detected through gene sequence analysis on wild soybeans having the same electrophoretic mobility as Tia, and one (Tig) was detected through PAGE. The Tig variant showed a slightly lower electrophoretic mobility than Tic. The nucleotide sequences of Tig were identical to those of Tib except for one T-->C transitional mutation at position +340. The sequences of Tiaa1 and Tiaa2 genes were identical to those of Tia with the exception of a G-->A mutation at position +376 and a T-->C mutation at +404, respectively. The sequence of Tiab1 differed from Tia by three nucleotides: C-->A at position +331, T-->C at +459 and A-->G at +484. Of the three nucleotide changes, two were common to Tiab1, Tibi5 and Tib, suggesting that Tiab1 is an intermediate transitional type between Tia and Tib. Our results suggest that Tib type has been differentiated through a series of mutations from Tia before the domestication of cultivated soybean.

  9. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  10. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  11. Barcode System for Genetic Identification of Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merrill] Cultivars Using InDel Markers Specific to Dense Variation Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Su-Jeong; Hwang, Tae-Young; Park, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Yu-Young; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Dongwoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Hong, Su-Young; Song, Yun-Ho; Koo, Bon-Cheol; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    For genetic identification of soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, co-dominant and relatively abundant. Despite their biological importance, the investigation of InDels with proven quality and reproducibility has been limited. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a dense variation block (dVB) with non-random recombination due to many variations. Firstly, 2,274 VBs were mined by analyzing whole genome data in six soybean cultivars (Backun, Sinpaldal 2, Shingi, Daepoong, Hwangkeum, and Williams 82) for transferability to dVB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, 73,327 putative InDels in the dVB regions were identified for the development of soybean barcode system. Among them, 202 dVB-specific InDels from all soybean cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the markers were assessed in 147 soybean cultivars, and the soybean barcode system that allows a clear distinction among soybean cultivars is also detailed. In addition, the changing of the dVBs in a chromosomal level can be quickly identified due to investigation of the reshuffling pattern of the soybean cultivars with 27 maker sets. Especially, a backcross-inbred offspring, "Singang" and a recurrent parent, "Sowon" were identified by using the 27 InDel markers. These results indicate that the soybean barcode system enables not only the minimal use of molecular markers but also comparing the data from different sources due to no need of exploiting allele binning in new varieties.

  12. Synchrotron micro-imaging of soybean (Glycine max) leaves grown from magnetoprimed seeds - Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, A.; Guruprasad, K. N.; Kataria, S.; Agrawal, A. K.; Singh, B.; Sarkar, P. S.; Shripathi, T.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2016-05-01

    The novel phase contrast technique (PCI) based on refractive index variations has been utilized in this work to image soft tissues like plant leaves. The feasibility study of synchrotron micro-imaging to assess the changes in the soybean leaf vascular structure was conducted for plants grown after magnetic field treatment of seeds. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with Static Magnetic Field of different strengths 150 mT and 200 mT for 1 hour to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on leaf vascular structures, which has links with plant growth and productivity. The plants emerged after magnetic field treatment on seeds showed enhancement in the growth and leaf parameters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leaf venation has been performed using PCI technique to study this enhancement in the leaf structure.

  13. Entomofauna associated to soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] in direct seeding and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahis Cruz Limonte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research work was to investigate the effect of the direct seeding and conventional tillage of soybean on the incidence of plagues and natural enemies. The study was carried out on the farm “Día y Noche” of the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “28 de Octubre” (UBPC, for its Spanish acronym, and in the Laboratories of the Agricultural Research Center of Central University of Las Villas. Field experiments were conducted on an Inceptisol, since November 2013 to May 2014. The soybean cultivar Incasoy – 27 was used. The insects in relation to the development stages of the plant were identified and quantified. In both systems 10 species of phytophagous insects and one of entomophagous insects were quantified; Hedylepta indicata L. stands out with more presence in the direct seeding, while Diabrotica balteata LeConte and the species belong to the family Pentatomidae caused most damage to the plants in conventional tillage.

  14. Effect of the ingestion of soybeans derivatives (Glycine max) on rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Soybean derivatives were tested in rat through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and two semichronic experiments of 16 and 29 days. The acute essay were realized with Total Extract (TEs) obtained from Defated Soybean Flour by precipitation in an aqueous medium and posteriorly in acetone. The percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake by 100 gr. of rat was decreased by the Total Autoclaved Extract administered by gastric tube after 6 and 24 hours. The Total Extract, without previous autoclaving showed effect on the gland after 6 hours and lost its activity 24 hours after its administration. TEs obtained from Comercial Soybean Products as: Proteic Concentrate, Tosted Flour and Milk also provoked a decrease in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake after 24 hours by 100 gr. of rat. The semichronic experiments were realized with Soybean fraction products, which were incorporated to experimental diet. The first of 16 days, showed a reduction in percentage of iodide ( 131 I) uptake by 10mg of thyroid and an increase of the triiodothyronine-binding capacity of rat serm. In the second of 29 days an increase was observed in the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake by 10mg of thyroid, caused by the factor in study and no alteration of seric hormones. The thyroid hormones and their precursors were also assayed and an increase of monoiodotyrosine (MIT), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) was noted, as well as a decrease of diiodotyrosine (DIT) and inorganic iodine. An increase in the MIT/DIT ratio and decrease in T 3 /T 4 ratio, were observed. In preliminary physicochemical tests, the fraction sephadex G-25 showed a positive reaction for ninhidrin, Molish and flavenoids [pt

  15. Material embodiment and energy flows as efficiency indicators of soybean (Glycine max) production in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romanelli,Thiago L.; Nardi,Hudson de S.; Saad,Filipe A.

    2012-01-01

    As the requirement for agriculture to be environmentally suitable there is a necessity to adopt indicators and methodologies approaching sustainability. In Brazil, biodiesel addition into diesel is mandatory and soybean oil is its main source. The material embodiment determines the convergence of inputs into the crop. Moreover, the material flows are necessary for any environmental analysis. This study evaluated distinct production scenarios, and also conventional versus GMO crops, through th...

  16. Morphological study on the gamma radiation effect on soybean (Glycine max Merr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurtjahjo.

    1976-01-01

    Soybean seeds of 1 3 4 5 var. were irradiated with 0, 10, 15, and 20 Krad, of gamma rays. The result of these treatment are as follows: (1) At treatment within 10 Krad of gamma rays, some of the plant growth changed from determinate type to indeterminate type. (2) The treatment within 15 and 20 Krad of gamma rays results in four different kinds of leaf size and shape. (author)

  17. Comprehensive analysis of the soybean (Glycine max GmLAX auxin transporter gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin eChai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in regulation of plant growth and development as well as plant responses to abiotic stresses. This is mainly achieved through its uneven distribution in plants via a polar auxin transport process. Auxin transporters are major players in polar auxin transport. The AUXIN RESISTANT 1 ⁄ LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX auxin influx carriers belong to the amino acid permease family of proton-driven transporters and function in the uptake of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. In this study, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the soybean AUX⁄LAX (GmLAX gene family, including phylogenic relationships, chromosome localization, and gene structure, were carried out. A total of 15 GmLAX genes, including seven duplicated gene pairs, were identified in the soybean genome. They were distributed on 10 chromosomes. Despite their higher percentage identities at the protein level, GmLAXs exhibited versatile tissue-specific expression patterns, indicating coordinated functioning during plant growth and development. Most GmLAXs were responsive to drought and dehydration stresses and auxin and abscisic acid (ABA stimuli, in a tissue- and/or time point- sensitive mode. Several GmLAX members were involved in responding to salt stress. Sequence analysis revealed that promoters of GmLAXs contained different combinations of stress-related cis-regulatory elements. These studies suggest that the soybean GmLAXs were under control of a very complex regulatory network, responding to various internal and external signals. This study helps to identity candidate GmLAXs for further analysis of their roles in soybean development and adaption to adverse environments.

  18. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  19. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  20. Association mapping for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jutao; Guo, Na; Lei, Jun; Li, Lihong; Hu, Guanjun; Xing, Han

    2014-08-01

    Association mapping is a powerful high-resolution mapping tool for complex traits. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae. In this study, we evaluated a total of 214 soybean accessions by the hypocotyl inoculation method, and 175 were susceptible. The 175 susceptible accessions were then evaluated for P. sojae partial resistance using slant board assays. The 175 accessions were screened with 138 SSR markers that generated 730 SSR alleles. A subset of 495 SSR loci with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 was used for association mapping by the Tassel general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) programmes. This soybean population could be divided into two subpopulations and no or weak relatedness was detected between pairwise accessions. Four SSR alleles, Satt634-133, Satt634-149, Sat_222-168 and Satt301-190, associated with partial resistance to P. sojae were detected by both GLM and MLM methods. Of these identified markers, one marker, Satt301, was located in regions where P. sojae resistance QTL have been previously mapped using linkage analysis. The identified markers will help to understand the genetic basis of partial resistance, and facilitate future marker-assistant selection aimed to improve resistance to P. sojae and reduce disease-related mortality in soybean.

  1. Biochemical Responses of Two Soybean (Glycine max Varieties to Aluminum Stress in Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Davarpanah Moghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most widespread form of metal toxicity to plants in soil acids, initially causing inhibition of root elongation and blocks absorption of water and nutrients. According to this fact that soybean has been widely used in industry, this study investigated the effects of aluminum toxicity on biochemical factors in two varieties of Williams and Katoul of soybean plant. The study was carried out in a randomized design with aluminium (0, 200, 500, 700 µM treatments and four replications in hydroponic culture. Results of biochemical tests showed that aluminum reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and reduced sugars in both cultivars of soybean. The proline content decreased with increasing aluminum in var. williams, but at var. katoul increased. It seems that G. max var. katoul suffers less than var. Williams. As regards, proline accumulation under Al stress to be generally higher in G. max var. katoul; hence, these results suggest that var. katoul is more resistant than var. Williams.

  2. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  3. Transpiration response of 'slow-wilting' and commercial soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes to three aquaporin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Sinclair, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The slow-wilting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype, PI 416937, exhibits a limiting leaf hydraulic conductance for transpiration rate (TR) under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD). This genotype has a constant TR at VPD greater than 2 kPa, which may be responsible for its drought tolerance as a result of soil water conservation. However, the exact source of the hydraulic limitation between symplastic and apoplastic water flow in the leaf under high VPD conditions are not known for PI 416937. A comparison was made in the TR response to aquaporin (AQP) inhibitors between PI 416937 and N01-11136, a commercial genotype that has a linear TR response to VPD in the 1-3.5 kPa range. Three AQP inhibitors were tested: cycloheximide (CHX, a de novo synthesis inhibitor), HgCl(2), and AgNO(3). Dose-response curves for the decrease in TR following exposure to each inhibitor were developed. Decreases in TR of N01-11136 following treatment with inhibitors were up to 60% for CHX, 82% for HgCl(2), and 42% for AgNO(3). These results indicate that the symplastic pathway terminating in the guard cells of these soybean leaves may be at least as important as the apoplastic pathway for water flow in the leaf under high VPD. While the decrease in TR for PI 416937 was similar to that of N01-11136 following exposure to CHX and HgCl(2), TR of PI 416937 was insensitive to AgNO(3) exposure. These results indicate the possibility of a lack of a Ag-sensitive leaf AQP population in the slow-wilting line, PI 416937, and the presence of such a population in the commercial line, N01-11136.

  4. Transpiration response of ‘slow-wilting’ and commercial soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes to three aquaporin inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Sinclair, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The slow-wilting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype, PI 416937, exhibits a limiting leaf hydraulic conductance for transpiration rate (TR) under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD). This genotype has a constant TR at VPD greater than 2 kPa, which may be responsible for its drought tolerance as a result of soil water conservation. However, the exact source of the hydraulic limitation between symplastic and apoplastic water flow in the leaf under high VPD conditions are not known for PI 416937. A comparison was made in the TR response to aquaporin (AQP) inhibitors between PI 416937 and N01-11136, a commercial genotype that has a linear TR response to VPD in the 1–3.5 kPa range. Three AQP inhibitors were tested: cycloheximide (CHX, a de novo synthesis inhibitor), HgCl2, and AgNO3. Dose–response curves for the decrease in TR following exposure to each inhibitor were developed. Decreases in TR of N01-11136 following treatment with inhibitors were up to 60% for CHX, 82% for HgCl2, and 42% for AgNO3. These results indicate that the symplastic pathway terminating in the guard cells of these soybean leaves may be at least as important as the apoplastic pathway for water flow in the leaf under high VPD. While the decrease in TR for PI 416937 was similar to that of N01-11136 following exposure to CHX and HgCl2, TR of PI 416937 was insensitive to AgNO3 exposure. These results indicate the possibility of a lack of a Ag-sensitive leaf AQP population in the slow-wilting line, PI 416937, and the presence of such a population in the commercial line, N01-11136. PMID:19969533

  5. Identification and mapping of resistance genes to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, G A F; Alves, D P; Oliveira, J C; Brommonschenke, S H

    2016-08-05

    The goal of this study was to study resistance inheritance in the soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A to the Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolate PPUFV02, and map the resistance gene(s) identified using microsatellite markers. Crosses between PI 594767-A and the susceptible cultivar 'Conquista' gave rise to the segregating subpopulations 26C-2 and 26C-5, which in the F2 generation were evaluated for their reactions to PPUFV02. In addition, analyses with microsatellite markers linked to the Rpp1-Rpp5 loci were also performed. The segregation pattern obtained in 26C-2 revealed that resistance was governed by a recessive gene; a 1:2:1 segregation pattern was observed in 26C-5, indicating control by a gene with partial dominance. This variability may have been caused because environmental conditions, particularly temperature, when 26C-5 was assessed were unfavorable for pathogen development, allowing the phenotypic expression of heterozygous alleles in PI 594767-A. A resistance gene was located in the soybean linkage group G, in the genomic region between Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 that contains the Rpp1 locus. Resistance in PI 594767-A is probably conferred by a new Rpp1 gene allele, because this accession has a haplotype for Sct_187r2 and Sat_064, which differs from haplotypes of accessions that also contain resistance alleles that map the Rpp1 locus. The use of Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 will facilitate the introgression of the resistance allele from PI 594767-A and its pyramiding with other resistance genes into genotypes with superior agronomic characteristics, in order to obtain cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to P. pachyrhizi.

  6. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  7. Utilization of nitrogen by soybean (Glycine max) influenced by the addition of sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, R.; Saito, S.M.T.

    1982-01-01

    N 2 -fixation in soybean and soil-N and 15 N-urea utilization where studied in a glasshouse. Doses of fertilizer were 0, 40 and 80 kgN/ha added either to cultivated - or virgin soil, where sugar cane bagasse was also added (20 ton/ha). Non-nodulating soybean was used as a control to determine the absorption of the three N-sources: soil, fertilizer and N 2 -fixation. The N-immobilization effect caused by bagasse addition was observed even after a pre-incubation period of 40 days, being greater in the cultivated than in the soil without organic matter. Accumulations of N, P and S where also smaller in these plants. Additions of N were not sufficient to equal the values observed in soils without organic matter. Addition of 40 kgN/ha showed a sinergistic and positive effect on treatments that had N-immobilization, reinforcing the idea that starter doses of N are necessary for maximization of nodulation and N 2 -fixation in soybean, in soils with low N. N 2 -fixation contributed with mean values of 54% and 84% N, respectively, in the aerial part and pools in non-treated soil. When bagasse was added, the percentages of N 2 -fixed increased, however in smaller amounts, showing a necessity of different sources of N to increase the total N in plant. The greatest N 2 -fixation (48,6 kgN/ha) was found in the cultivated soil, where only bagasse had been added. (M.A.) [pt

  8. Salt Stess On Soybean Glycine Max L Merr Improving Salt Stress Tolerance Through Seed Priming

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    Maman Suryaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seeds rapidly deteriorate or loss of viability and vigor especially in stress conditions including by saline. This study was aimed to obtain the best seed viability and vigor of soybean treated by seed priming under salt stress. This study used a randomized completely block design with factorial pattern. First factor was the saline stress of NaCl concentration C which consisted of three levels c0 0 0.5 c1 c2 1.Second factor was the treatment of seed priming P that consisted of 4 levels p0 hydropriming p1 osmopriming p2 matripriming p3 vitamin priming. The experiment was repeated three times. Data collected consisted of germination capacity germination rate hypocotyl and epicotyl length the weight of seedling and the electrical conductivity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Duncans multiple range test at 5 percent. The results showed that osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming improved total germination and germination rate of soybean seeds under salinity stress while seed priming with hydropriming caused significantly the reduction of germination total and germination rate in salinity stress of 1 percent. Increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent caused a reduction in hypocotyl and epicotyl length different with osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming that produced hypocotyl and epicotyl longer than hydropriming. In all seed primings increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent lowered the weight of seedlings and most drastic reduction of seedling weight occurred in seeds treated with hydropriming. Among seed priming treatments osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming were more able to reduce membrane leakage compared to hydropriming as indicated by lower electrical conductivity rates contributing the increase in tolerance to salt stress and high in seed viability and vigor.

  9. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

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    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (≤2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans.

  10. Evolution and structural diversification of Nictaba-like lectin genes in food crops with a focus on soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Sofie; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2017-03-01

    The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba -like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored. Furthermore, this study included domain organization analysis, searching for orthologous genes in the legume family and transcript profiling of the Nictaba -like lectin genes in soybean. Using a combination of BLASTp, InterPro analysis and hidden Markov models, the genomes of Medicago truncatula , Cicer arietinum , Lotus japonicus , Glycine max , Cajanus cajan , Phaseolus vulgaris , Theobroma cacao , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum tuberosum , Coffea canephora , Oryza sativa , Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor , Musa acuminata and Elaeis guineensis were searched for Nictaba -like genes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using RAxML and additional protein domains in the Nictaba-like sequences were identified using InterPro. Expression analysis of the soybean Nictaba -like genes was investigated using microarray data. Nictaba -like genes were identified in all studied species and analysis of the duplication events demonstrated that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the Nictaba gene family in angiosperms. The single-domain Nictaba protein and the multi-domain F-box Nictaba architectures are ubiquitous among all analysed species and microarray analysis revealed differential expression patterns for all soybean Nictaba-like genes. Taken together, the comparative genomics data contributes to our understanding of the Nictaba -like gene family in species for which the occurrence of Nictaba domains had not

  11. A plastidial localization and origin of L-glutamate dehydrogenase in a soybean cell culture. [Glycine max

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadula, S.K.; Shargool, P.D. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada))

    1991-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.3.) was studied in SB3 soybean (Glycine max) cells using subcellular fractionation techniques. Compounds that inhibit protein synthesis either on 80s or 70s ribosomes were also used to give a preliminary idea of which subcellular fraction is involved in GDH synthesis. It was found that whereas cycloheximide and puromycin considerably reduced the total amount of protein synthesized by the cells, they did not appear to inhibit the synthesis of GDH. In the presence of chloramphenicol, both GDH activity and protein level in the cells were considerably reduced, suggesting that this enzyme was synthesized in organelles and not in the cytosol. Streptomycin, which inhibits plastid protein synthesis, also inhibited synthesis of GDH, indicating that a fraction of GDH activity was plastidial in origin. This is supported by the data on subcellular distribution of the enzyme, which showed that a major fraction of GDH is found in the plastidial fraction, although some activity is found associated with the mitochondrial fraction also. Since a major fraction of GDH activity was found in the plastidial fraction, the authors studied protein synthesis using isolated plastids and {sup 35}S-methionine. Using antibodies raised against purified GDH, they identified a {sup 35}S-labeled 41-kilodalton polypeptide synthesized by plastids as GDH.

  12. Characterization of an acidic chitinase from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max (L Merr Tainan No. 3.

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    Ya-Min Chang

    Full Text Available Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3 as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3 by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5, and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min-1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides.

  13. Characterization of an acidic chitinase from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5), and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min-1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides.

  14. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

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    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  15. Resistance of Glycine tomentella to soybean leaf rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi in relation to ploidy level and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, D J; Burdon, J J; Brown, A H

    1992-04-01

    Accessions of five diploid and five tetraploid isozymically defined groups of Glycine tomentella collected from throughout the species range in Australasia were scored for resistance to three separate isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean leaf rust. Resistance levels were found to be high (>75%) in most of the groups. While resistance levels differed among groups, the overall levels in polyploids were similar to those in diploids. Geographical patterns of resistance and susceptibility to P. pachyrhizi indicate that two regions of susceptibility exist. The highest proportion of susceptible accessions occurs in the Kimberley Plateau region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, while another region of susceptibility is found in the Townsville/Cairns region of Queensland. Results from genetic crosses between accessions within two forms of the tetraploids indicate that in the aneuploid form (2n = 78), resistance to P. pachyrhizi was under the control of a single dominant gene, whereas in a second group of tetraploids (2n=80), resistance was controlled by two or three gene loci.

  16. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of sari tempe formulated from import soybean (glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Andriani, Martina; Sari, Intan Indriana; Angwar, Mukhamad; Nurhayati, Rifa; Khasanah, Yuniar; Wiyono, Tri

    2017-01-01

    Tempe is traditional Indonesian food made from Rhizopus sp. fermentation of soybean. The aims of this research are to know the effect of the addition of water and CMC to nutritional and sensory characteristics of the sari tempe formulated from import soybean. The experimental design used in this study is entirely randomized design (CRD), which consists of two factors: variations addition of water with tempe (1:3, 1:5 and 1:7) and the variation of the addition of CMC concentration (0.05%; 0,10% and 0.15%). Sensory data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. If it showed significant results, then it is continued by real difference test using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level α = 0.05. The results showed the best formula of sari tempe was F6 with 1:5 water ratio and 0.15% CMC concentration. Folate content and vitamin B6 decreased while processing sari tempe respectively 10.3 times and 2.7 times. Whereas, the vitamin B12 content is increased by 1.7 times. The best formula of sari tempe contains 90.96 % water content; 0.08 % ash content; 0.36 % fat content; 23.41 ppm vitamin B6; 337.49 ppm vitamin B12 and 17.31 ppm folate.

  17. Large Homogeneous Genome Regions (Isochores in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.

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    Jenna Lynn Woody

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of plant genomes, while slowly being characterized and defined, is still composed primarily of regions of undefined function. Many eukaryotic genomes contain isochore regions, mosaics of homogeneous GC content that can abruptly change from one neighboring isochore to the next. Isochores are broken into families which are characterized by their GC levels. We identified 4,339 compositionally distinct domains and 331 of these were identified as Long Homogeneous Genome Regions (LHGRs. We assigned these to four families based on finite mixture models of GC content. We then characterized each family with respect to exon length, gene content, and transposeable elements. The LHGR pattern of soybeans is unique in that while the majority of the genes within LHGRs are found within a single LHGR family with a narrow GC-range (Family B, that family is not the highest in GC content as seen in vertebrates and invertebrates. Instead Family B has a mean GC content of 35%. The range of GC content for all LHGRs is 16-59% GC which is a larger range than what is typical of vertebrates. This is the first study in which LHGRs have been identified in soybeans and the functions of the genes within the LHGRs have been analyzed.

  18. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  19. Plant regeneration from cotyledons of mature soybean (Glycine max L.) Wilis cultivar using gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, D.; Ratna, R.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean Wilis cultivar was efficiently regenerated in vitro via somatic embryogenesis. Cotyledonary explants were excised from mature germinating seeds. Seeds were germinated on agar solution and on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Cotyledonary nodes from both germinating seeds were excised and cultured on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Age of seedlings had a remarkable influence on shoot regeneration. Cotyledon from seeds germinated on agar solution with light gave better result in shoot regeneration compare with those germinated in darkness. The highest number of regenerants per explants (5 shoots) was produced by cotyledon from seeds germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate in darkness. The seeds of soybean were exposed to gamma-rays doses 10 Gy then germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate did not improve the number of plant regeneration. Only 5-day-old seedlings from seeds were exposed to gamma-rays dose 30 Gy could improve the number of shoot regeneration, one of the cotyledonary node treated produced 21 regeneration shoots

  20. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: A guide to the soybean transcriptome

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    Severin Andrew J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of transcriptomes. It can determine the expression level of transcripts with a dynamic range of over six orders of magnitude from multiple tissues, developmental stages or conditions. Patterns of gene expression provide insight into functions of genes with unknown annotation. Results The RNA Seq-Atlas presented here provides a record of high-resolution gene expression in a set of fourteen diverse tissues. Hierarchical clustering of transcriptional profiles for these tissues suggests three clades with similar profiles: aerial, underground and seed tissues. We also investigate the relationship between gene structure and gene expression and find a correlation between gene length and expression. Additionally, we find dramatic tissue-specific gene expression of both the most highly-expressed genes and the genes specific to legumes in seed development and nodule tissues. Analysis of the gene expression profiles of over 2,000 genes with preferential gene expression in seed suggests there are more than 177 genes with functional roles that are involved in the economically important seed filling process. Finally, the Seq-atlas also provides a means of evaluating existing gene model annotations for the Glycine max genome. Conclusions This RNA-Seq atlas extends the analyses of previous gene expression atlases performed using Affymetrix GeneChip technology and provides an example of new methods to accommodate the increase in transcriptome data obtained from next generation sequencing. Data contained within this RNA-Seq atlas of Glycine max can be explored at http://www.soybase.org/soyseq.

  1. The interaction of salicylic acid and Ca(2+) alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tu; You, Jiangfeng; Kong, Lingnan; Yu, Miao; Liu, Minghui; Yang, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Both calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and salicylic acid (SA) influence various stress responses in plants. In acidic soils, aluminum (Al) toxicity adversely affects crop yield. In this study, we determined the influences of Ca(2+) and SA on root elongation, Al accumulation, and citrate secretion in soybean plant. We also investigated the activity of antioxidative enzymes in Al-exposed soybean roots. Root elongation was severally inhibited when the roots were exposed to 30 μM Al. The Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was ameliorated by Ca(2+) and SA but aggravated by Ca(2+) channel inhibitor (VP), CaM antagonists (TFP), Ca(2+) chelator (EGTA), and SA biosynthesis inhibitor (PAC). Furthermore, 1.0 mM CaCl2 and 10 μM SA reduced the accumulation of Al in roots, but their inhibitors stimulated the accumulation of Al in roots. Citrate secretion from these roots increased with the addition of either 1.0 mM CaCl2 or 10 μM SA but did not increase significantly when treated with higher Ca(2+) concentration. Enzymatic analysis showed that Ca(2+) and SA stimulated the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in Al-treated roots. In addition, SA restored the inhibition of Ca(2+) inhibitors on root elongation and Al content. Thus, both Ca(2+) and SA contribute to Al tolerance in soybean. Furthermore, Ca(2+) supplements rapidly increased Al-induced accumulation of free-SA or conjugated SA (SAG), while Ca(2+) inhibitors delayed the accumulation of SA for more than 8 h. Within 4 h of treatment, SA increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in Al-treated roots, and upregulated the expression of four genes that possibly encode calmodulin-like (CML) proteins. These findings indicate that SA is involved in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways in Al tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

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    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  3. Genetic analysis of soybean resistance to Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines

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    Vanoli Fronza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genetic control of soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS, a 5 x 5 diallel with the F2 generation, without the reciprocals, was carried out in a greenhouse. The following parents were used: Forrest, MG/BR-46 (Conquista, IAC-4, FT-Cristalina, and FT-Estrela. The first two cultivars are more resistant to SDS than IAC-4, which is considered to be moderately resistant to SDS, and the last two cultivars are highly susceptible. The fungus was inoculated with three colonized sorghum grains placed at the bottom of the holes with two soybean seeds. Single plants were evaluated between 14 and 37 days after emergency based on foliar severity symptoms (1-5 of SDS. The disease incidence and a disease index were also calculated for each plot (clay pots with five plants each. The analysis for severity and disease index was performed only with the data of the 37th day after emergence. Additive and dominant genetic effects were detected by Jinks-Hayman's analysis, but the dominant genetic effects were higher. The genetic parameters estimated indicated that the average degree of dominance showed the presence of overdominance; at least three loci or genic blocks that exhibited dominance were responsible for the genetic control of SDS resistance; the estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities were moderate (0.48 to 0.62, but in the broad-sense they were higher (0.90 to 0.95, thus reinforcing the presence of dominance effects; and the resistance to SDS was controlled mostly by dominant alleles. Five microsatellite markers (Satt163, Satt309, Satt354, Satt371 and Satt570, reported as linked to five QRLs of the SDS, were used to genotype the parents and showed the possibility of occurrence of multiallelism in those loci, but this evidence did not invalidate the fitting of the data to the Jinks-Hayman's model.

  4. Soybean (Glycine max L.) N-Turnover Effects on Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    A lysimeter N-experiment was carried out over a period of three years (1986-1988) in Hungary on a slightly calcareous Ramann sandy-loam brown forest soil. In a trial without seed inoculation, the effect of N-fertiliser was studied on yield and N-uptake and the mineral (NO3+ NO2 ) N-content of 0-90 cm soil-layer of soybean. On the given soil with regulated optimal water supply the highest quantity of 200 kg/ha N-dose seemed to give alredy over-fertilization and lowered in its tendency the grain and pod yield. About one third of the dry matter production without roots and foliage at harvest was given by the grain yield, which ranged between 1.8-5.4 t/ha, depending on the treatment applied and on years. The N-content was accumulated chiefly in the grain, its concentration exceeded about 7-10 times the N-content of roots and stalk. The half of the total N-uptake, on an average 102-256 kg/ha, was built in the grain. The highest N-yield = 631 kg/ha was achieved in 1988 by 150 kg/ha N-fertilization per year. In the first years the N-uptake of the plants agreed with the total supply (mineral reserve of soil + given in the form of fertilizer + precipitation N), while in the 3th year a double amount was recorded. The mineral reserve of N in the soil did not decrease at the end of the trial. Presumably, the soil of soybean in monoculture lost gradually its "Rhisobium japonicum sterility", the biological N-fixation increased with the time. In the first years without seed inoculation however, soybean may be in need of N-fertilization. Key Words: soybean, nitrogen, sustainable agriculture Introduction Soya is an important crop and is now grown all over the world (Márton et al. 1998, Márton et al. 1998, Kádár and Márton 1999, Márton and Kádár 1999, Márton and Kádár 1998). This crop originated in the Far East and has been grown in China for more than four thousand years. It has for long been regarded as one of the five sacred grains with rice, wheat, barley and millet

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  6. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Nitrate on Nodule and Root Growth of Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Saito

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of combined nitrogen, especially nitrate, to soybean plants is known to strongly inhibit nodule formation, growth and nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we measured the effects of supplying 5 mM nitrate on the growth of nodules, primary root, and lateral roots under light at 28 °C or dark at 18 °C conditions. Photographs of the nodulated roots were periodically taken by a digital camera at 1-h intervals, and the size of the nodules was measured with newly developed computer software. Nodule growth was depressed approximately 7 h after the addition of nitrate under light conditions. The nodule growth rate under dark conditions was almost half that under light conditions, and nodule growth was further suppressed by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. Similar results were observed for the extending growth rate of the primary root as those for nodule growth supplied with 5 mM nitrate under light/dark conditions. In contrast, the growth of lateral roots was promoted by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. The 2D-PAGE profiles of nodule protein showed similar patterns between the 0 and 5 mM nitrate treatments, which suggested that metabolic integrity may be maintained with the 5 mM nitrate treatment. Further studies are required to confirm whether light or temperature condition may give the primary effect on the growth of nodules and roots.

  8. Fungi and bacteria inventory on soybean (Glycine max (L.) merill) planting media applied by local microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhsan, Ni'matuljannah; Vionita

    2017-02-01

    An experiment aimed to determine the effect of application of several types of local microorganisms (MOL) and the number of doses to the development of fungi and bacteria on soybean planting media, have been conducted in Samarinda for 3 (three) months. Factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design and repeated three times, was used in this experiment. The first factor was the type of MOL consisted of cow dung (m1), snails (m2), banana peel (m3) and bamboo roots (m4), and the second factor was the dose MOL zero mL (d0), 100 mL (d1), 200 mL (d2), 300 mL (d3), 400 mL (d4) analyzed with Anova and Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5%. Fungi and bacteria contained in the local microorganisms (cow dung, snails, banana peel and bamboo root) are: fungus Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., cellulotic and lignolitic bacteria. An increase in the type and amount of fungus is happened for some genus. The dominant bacteria in the planting medium is a gram-negative bacteria. Cow dung seemed the best source at the dosages level of 400 ml.

  9. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Ag nanoparticle exposure on p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation by Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Glycine max (soybean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Xing, Baoshan; Newman, Lee A; Ma, Xingmao; White, Jason C

    2013-01-15

    The effect of nanoparticle (NP), bulk, or ionic Ag exposure on dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; DDT metabolite) accumulation by Glycine max L. (soybean) and Cucurbita pepo L. (zucchini) was investigated. The plants were grown in 125-mL jars of vermiculite amended with 500 or 2000 mg/L of bulk or NP Ag; ion controls at 5 and 20 mg/L were established. During 19 d of growth, plants were amended with solution containing 100 ng/mL of p,p'-DDE. Total shoot p,p'-DDE levels in non-Ag exposed G. max and C. pepo were 500 and 970 ng, respectively; total root DDE content was 13,700 and 20,300 ng, respectively. Ag decreased the p,p'-DDE content of G. max tissues by up to 40%, with NP exposure resulting in less contaminant uptake than bulk Ag. Total Ag content of exposed G. max ranged from 50.5 to 373 μg; NP-exposed plants had 1.9-2.2 times greater overall Ag than corresponding bulk particle treatments and also significantly greater relative Ag transport to shoot tissues. Bulk and NP Ag at 500 mg/L suppressed DDE uptake by C. pepo by 21-29%, although Ag exposure at 2000 mg/L had no impact on contaminant uptake. Similar to G. max , C. pepo whole plant Ag content ranged from 50.5 to 182 μg, with tissue element content generally being greater for NP exposed plants. These findings show that the Ag may significantly alter the accumulation and translocation of cocontaminants in agricultural systems. Notably, the cocontaminant interactions vary both with Ag particle size (NP vs bulk) and plant species. Future investigations will be needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the cocontaminant interactions and assess the impact on overall exposure and risk.

  11. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Phansak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca. 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating. A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%, and for oil in 25 (52%, of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg–1 and R2 values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed.

  12. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  13. Impact of long-term cropping of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] on soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babujia, Letícia Carlos; Silva, Adriana Pereira; Nakatani, André Shigueyoshi; Cantão, Mauricio Egidio; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] occupies about 80 % of the global area cropped with this legume, the majority comprising the glyphosate-resistant trait (Roundup Ready(®), GR or RR). However, concerns about possible impacts of transgenic crops on soil microbial communities are often raised. We investigated soil chemical, physical and microbiological properties, and grain yields in long-term field trials involving conventional and nearly isogenic RR transgenic genotypes. The trials were performed at two locations in Brazil, with different edaphoclimatic conditions. Large differences in physical, chemical and classic microbiological parameters (microbial biomass of C and N, basal respiration), as well as in grain production were observed between the sites. Some phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria), classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Actinomycetales, Solibacteres) and orders (Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, Myxococcales, Pseudomonadales), as well as some functional subsystems (clustering-based subsystems, carbohydrates, amino acids and protein metabolism) were, in general, abundant in all treatments. However, bioindicators related to superior soil fertility and physical properties at Londrina were identified, among them a higher ratio of Proteobacteria:Acidobacteria. Regarding the transgene, the metagenomics showed differences in microbial taxonomic and functional abundances, but lower in magnitude than differences observed between the sites. Besides the site-specific differences, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chlorophyta were higher in the transgenic treatment, as well as sequences related to protein metabolism, cell division and cycle. Although confirming effects of the transgenic trait on soil microbiome, no differences were recorded in grain yields, probably due to the buffering capacity associated with the high taxonomic and functional microbial diversity observed in all treatments.

  14. Effect of cobalt-60 gamma irradiation on viability of soybean (glycine max. l) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addai, Isaac Kwahene

    2001-12-01

    The rapid rate of deterioration and low viability of soybean seeds particularly in storage is a major constraint to its production in the subtropical and tropical areas. Various approaches have been made to solve this problem but they have centred mainly on the control of the environment. Experimental mutagenesis is one of the ways by which genetic variability could be created to serve as basis for selection. In this study, induced mutations were used to create genetic variation and mutants with improved storability selected to provide a more lasting solution to this problem. Seeds of three soybean varieties - Gmx 92-6-10, Gmx 92-5-4E and TGX 87D- 1303 were subjected to four (4) months ambient storage and three accelerated ageing tests. The germination percentages computed 7 days after planting showed that 20% ethanol solution better mimicked ambient storage than 20% methanol solution and the 75°C hot water. In the radiation dosage response studies, dry seeds containing 10% moisture from the three varieties were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy doses of 60Co gamma rays at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and sown. The 250 Gy dose reduced both germination percentage and plant height by about 50% relative to the control and was used as the dosage appropriate for induced mutations for the varieties. Five thousand M2 plants were harvested and screened individually for improved storability using 20% ethanol solution, storing threshed seeds at ambient condition and storing seeds in pods also at ambient conditions. The 20% ethanol solution was less effective in selecting putative in mutants compared to the two ambient storage screening methods, but could be used as an initial screening method. The variety Gmx 92-6-10 was generally considered to give the greatest response to irradiation because it produce the largest proportion of putative mutant improved storability in two out of the three screening methods used at the M2 generation. Since TGX 87D 1

  15. Induced mutation and radiation sensitivity in vitro culture of soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, C.; Alikamanoglu, S.; Yalcin, S.

    1999-01-01

    In our research, the seeds of J-357 soybean variety were irradiated with 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 Gy of gamma rays. Callus and meristem cultures were established from the primary leaves and apical meristem of 5-day-old seeding from the irradiation seeds. The average callus fresh weight formed at the cultures were determined on the 30th day and GR 50 dose which reduces the callus fresh weight at the rate 50% in accordance with control was found as 250 Gy. The regenerated plants from meristem cultures were determined on the 28th day and LD 50 dose which decreases the regenerated plant percentage at the 50% in accordance with control was found as 220 Gy. Cytological investigation was done at the callus and meristem cultures obtained from both irradiated seeds and explants. At the seed and explant irradiations, gamma radiation dose between the ranges 50 to 200 Gy and 5 to 25 Gy; respectively were used. Observations were done at mitotic anaphase in the samples taken from meristem and callus cultures. In anaphase, two types of cytological aberrations, bridge and fragments were determined. The regenerated plants were grown in the climate chamber and the seeds were taken from each M1 plant and chlorophyll mutants were determined in M2 generation. The radiosensitivity of the meristem cultures established by irradiated seeds from view of plant regenerations and plant number which is taken seed was evaluated by comparing with the results of meristem cultures established from the irradiated explant from the point of in vitro mutation studies

  16. Identification of Alternaria alternata Mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and Their Cytotoxic Effects to Soybean (Glycine max Cell Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Rodrigues-Filho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This present work describes the application of liquid chromatograpy-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1, alternariol (2, 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3, and alternariol monomethyl ether (4, were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max cell cultures as a model. EC50 values which range from 0.11 (±0.02 to 4.69 (±0.47 μM showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds.

  17. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medic ago Sativa L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohamad, A.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of 20% increase of UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) and two cultivars of soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Mer) under field conditions have been investigated. The increase of UVB dose ranged between 1.746 and 7.112 J/cm 2 during experiment. The results showed that soybean yield decrease by 16% and 31% in A. 3803 and A. 2522 cultivars respectively, under UVB exposure. The dry weight and leaf area were sensitive in the A. 3803 cultivar, while they were tolerant in the A. 2522 cultivar. Alfalfa response to UVB varied during the different stages of growth, whereas the yield was 12% less in the exposed plants. (author). 21 refs., 17 tabs

  18. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  19. Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain ORS285 Is Capable of Forming Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules on Soybeans (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Eric; Xu, Lei; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gargani, Daniel; Gully, Djamel

    2013-01-01

    The ability of photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains ORS285 and ORS278 to nodulate soybeans was investigated. While the nod gene-deficient ORS278 strain induced bumps only on soybean roots, the nod gene-containing ORS285 strain formed nitrogen-fixing nodules. However, symbiotic efficiencies differed drastically depending on both the soybean genotype used and the culture conditions tested. PMID:23354704

  20. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling under heat and drought treatments of HSP70 gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Hong-Kun; Dong, Qian-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Yu-Min; Li, Hai-Yun; Xing, Guo-Jie; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Previous studies have made great efforts in the functional analysis of individual family members, but there has not yet been an overall analysis or expression profiling of the HSP70 gene family in soybeans (Glycine max L.). In this study, an investigation of the soybean genome revealed 61 putative HSP70 genes, which were evaluated. These genes were classified into eight sub-families, denoted I-VIII, based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each sub-family, the constituent parts of the gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. These GmHSP70 genes were distributed unequally on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. The analysis of the expression profiles showed that 53 of the 61 GmHSP70 genes were differentially expressed across the 14 tissues. However, most of the GmHSP70s were differentially expressed in a tissue-specific expression pattern. Furthermore, the expression of some of the duplicate genes was partially redundant, while others showed functional diversity. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the 61 soybean HSP70 genes confirmed their stress-inducible expression patterns under both drought and heat stress. These findings provide a thorough overview of the evolution and modification of the GmHSP70 gene family, which will help to determine the functional characteristics of the HSP70 genes in soybean growth and development.

  1. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  2. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  3. Variability of Soybean [Glycine max (L Merr] Growth in Relation to Chemical Properties of Ultisol from East Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wijanarko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic dry land in Lampung is potential for soybean development area. Low soybean yield in farmer level is one offactor causing its’ low competitiveness. Soil fertility is the main constrain related to low yield of soybean. Objectiveof the research was to diagnose a cause of poor soybean growth on dry land Ultisol at Sukadana sub District, EastLampung District. Soil and soybean plant samples were collected from farmers’ field at Sukadana ilir village duringplanting season April – July year 2010. Plant and soil samples were taken when soybean at R1 stage (starting tobloom using stratified random sampling method. The result showed that variability of soybean growth on Ultisol atSukadana, East Lampung related to variability of soil pH, exchangeable Al, exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg. The poorsoybean growth was due to low soil pH, high exchangeable Al, low exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg.

  4. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  5. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  6. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  7. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the PIN auxin transporter gene family in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqin; Chai, Chenglin; Valliyodan, Babu; Maupin, Christine; Annen, Brad; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-11-16

    The plant phytohormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, which largely depends on its uneven distribution in plant tissues. Transmembrane proteins of the PIN family are auxin efflux facilitators. They play a key role in polar auxin transport and are associated with auxin asymmetrical distribution in plants. PIN genes have been characterized in several plant species, while comprehensive analysis of this gene family in soybean has not been reported yet. In this study, twenty-three members of the PIN gene family were identified in the soybean genome through homology searches. Analysis of chromosome distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the soybean PIN genes indicated nine pairs of duplicated genes and a legume specific subfamily. Organ/tissue expression patterns and promoter activity assays of the soybean PINs suggested redundant functions for most duplicated genes and complementary and tissue-specific functions during development for non-duplicated genes. The soybean PIN genes were differentially regulated by various abiotic stresses and phytohormone stimuli, implying crosstalk between auxin and abiotic stress signaling pathways. This was further supported by the altered auxin distribution under these conditions as revealed by DR5::GUS transgenic soybean hairy root. Our data indicates that GmPIN9, a legume-specific PIN gene, which was responsive to several abiotic stresses, might play a role in auxin re-distribution in soybean root under abiotic stress conditions. This study provided the first comprehensive analysis of the soybean PIN gene family. Information on phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, protein profiles and expression profiles of the soybean PIN genes in different tissues and under various abiotic stress treatments helps to identity candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes and/or environmental stress conditions. Our study advances our understanding of plant responses to abiotic stresses

  8. The Difference of Photosynthetic Responses to the Cadmium Stress Between a Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) and a Cultivated Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhongcai; Gao, Huiyuan

    2017-09-01

    The effects of Cd on a halophyte of Doingying wild soybean (DY-03262) were studied by comparing it with a cultivated soybean (SN-11) via investigating photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence and Cd concentrations in leaves after treatment with different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, and 100 μM) for 10 days. There were no significant differences in photosynthetic rate (P N ), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (Φ PSII ), stomatal conductance (g s ), and photochemical quenching (qP) between the both soybean species without Cd treatment, but they decreased greater in DY-03262 than that in SN-11 leaves after Cd treatment. The study demonstrated that the decrease in P N were significantly correlated with Cd concentrations in the leaves of both soybeans species. The greater decreases in photosynthetic activity of the DY-03262 were due to the higher Cd concentrations in its leaves.

  9. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-03-08

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes.

  10. Biokinetic Analysis and Metabolic Fate of 2,4-D in 2,4-D-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Joshua J; Simpson, David M; Peterson, Mark A; Riechers, Dean E

    2017-07-26

    The Enlist weed control system allows the use of 2,4-D in soybean but slight necrosis in treated leaves may be observed in the field. The objectives of this research were to measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist (E, resistant) and non-AAD-12 transformed (NT, sensitive) soybeans. The adjuvant from the Enlist Duo herbicide formulation (ADJ) increased 2,4-D uptake (36%) and displayed the fastest rate of uptake (U 50 = 0.2 h) among treatments. E soybean demonstrated a faster rate of 2,4-D metabolism (M 50 = 0.2 h) compared to NT soybean, but glyphosate did not affect 2,4-D metabolism. Metabolites of 2,4-D in E soybean were qualitatively different than NT. Applying 2,4-D-ethylhexyl ester instead of 2,4-D choline (a quaternary ammonium salt) eliminated visual injury to E soybean, likely due to the time required for initial de-esterification and bioactivation. Excessive 2,4-D acid concentrations in E soybean resulting from ADJ-increased uptake may significantly contribute to foliar injury.

  11. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Phytophthora sojae via association analysis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihong; Guo, Na; Niu, Jingping; Wang, Zili; Cui, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jutao; Zhao, Tuanjie; Xing, Han

    2016-06-01

    Phytophthora sojae is an oomycete soil-borne plant pathogen that causes the serious disease Phytophthora root rot in soybean, leading to great loss of soybean production every year. Understanding the genetic basis of this plant-pathogen interaction is important to improve soybean disease resistance. To discover genes or QTLs underlying naturally occurring variations in soybean P.sojae resistance, we performed a genome-wide association study using 59,845 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified from re-sequencing of 279 accessions from Yangtze-Huai soybean breeding germplasm. We used two models for association analysis. The same strong peak was detected by both two models on chromosome 13. Within the 500-kb flanking regions, three candidate genes (Glyma13g32980, Glyma13g33900, Glyma13g33512) had SNPs in their exon regions. Four other genes were located in this region, two of which contained a leucine-rich repeat domain, which is an important characteristic of R genes in plants. These candidate genes could be potentially useful for improving the resistance of cultivated soybean to P.sojae in future soybean breeding.

  12. Identification of large variation in the photosynthetic induction response among 37 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes that is not correlated with steady-state photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, M A; Tanaka, Y; Kim, S Y; Huber, S C; Sakoda, K; Shiraiwa, T

    2017-03-01

    Irradiance continuously fluctuates during the day in the field. The speed of the induction response of photosynthesis in high light affects the cumulative carbon gain of the plant and could impact growth and yield. The photosynthetic induction response and its relationship with the photosynthetic capacity under steady-state conditions (P max ) were evaluated in 37 diverse soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes. The induction response of leaf photosynthesis showed large variation among the soybean genotypes. After 5 min illumination with strong light, genotype NAM23 had the highest leaf photosynthetic rate of 33.8 µmol CO 2 m -2  s -1 , while genotype NAM12 showed the lowest rate at 4.7 µmol CO 2 m -2  s -1 . Cumulative CO 2 fixation (CCF) during the first 5 min of high light exposure ranged from 5.5 mmol CO 2 m -2 for NAM23 to 0.81 mmol CO 2 m -2 for NAM12. The difference in the induction response among genotypes was consistent throughout the growth season. However, there was no significant correlation between CCF and P max among genotypes suggesting that different mechanisms regulate P max and the induction response. The observed variation in the induction response was mainly attributed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activation, but soybean lines differing in the induction response did not differ in the leaf content of Rubisco activase α- and β-proteins. Future studies will be focused on identifying molecular determinants of the photosynthetic induction response and determining whether this trait could be an important breeding target to achieve improved growth of soybeans in the field.

  13. In situ synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping and speciation of CeO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles in soil cultivated soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Andrews, Joy Cooke; Cotte, Marine; Rico, Cyren; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Ge, Yuan; Priester, John H; Holden, Patricia Ann; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2013-02-26

    With the increased use of engineered nanomaterials such as ZnO and CeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs), these materials will inevitably be released into the environment, with unknown consequences. In addition, the potential storage of these NPs or their biotransformed products in edible/reproductive organs of crop plants can cause them to enter into the food chain and the next plant generation. Few reports thus far have addressed the entire life cycle of plants grown in NP-contaminated soil. Soybean ( Glycine max ) seeds were germinated and grown to full maturity in organic farm soil amended with either ZnO NPs at 500 mg/kg or CeO₂ NPs at 1000 mg/kg. At harvest, synchrotron μ-XRF and μ-XANES analyses were performed on soybean tissues, including pods, to determine the forms of Ce and Zn in NP-treated plants. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed no presence of ZnO NPs within tissues. However, μ-XANES data showed O-bound Zn, in a form resembling Zn-citrate, which could be an important Zn complex in the soybean grains. On the other hand, the synchrotron μ-XANES results showed that Ce remained mostly as CeO₂ NPs within the plant. The data also showed that a small percentage of Ce(IV), the oxidation state of Ce in CeO₂ NPs, was biotransformed to Ce(III). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of CeO₂ and Zn compounds in the reproductive/edible portion of the soybean plant grown in farm soil with CeO₂ and ZnO NPs.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC 50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  15. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  16. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max) seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovinich, Nik; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Miki, Brian

    2011-07-29

    The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max) seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT) and brown (irT) soybean (Glycine max) were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase) found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1) from the seed coat of black (iRT) soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT) seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT) tissue.In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT) or the brown (irT) seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (iso)flavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin biosynthesis in vitro and expression

  17. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  18. Mapping of yellow mosaic virus (YMV) resistance in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) through association mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhupender; Talukdar, Akshay; Verma, Khushbu; Bala, Indu; Harish, G D; Gowda, Sarmrat; Lal, S K; Sapra, R L; Singh, K P

    2015-02-01

    Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) is a serious disease of soybean. Resistance to YMV was mapped in 180 soybean genotypes through association mapping approach using 121 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and four resistance gene analogue (RGA)-based markers. The association mapping population (AMP) (96 genotypes) and confirmation population (CP) (84 genotypes) was tested for resistance to YMV at hot-spot consecutively for 3 years (2007-2009). The genotypes exhibited significant variability for YMV resistance (P 0.15, and >0.25, respectively. The 4 RGA-based markers showed no association with YMV resistance. Two SSR markers, Satt301 and GMHSP179 on chromosome 17 were found to be in significant LD with YMV resistance. Contingency Chi-square test confirmed the association (P resistance in soybean. This is the first report of its kind in soybean.

  19. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  20. Selection individual on mutant genotype of soybean (Glycine maxl.merrill) in m5 generation based on resistance of stem rot disease Athelia rolfsii (curzi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, M.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Safni, I.

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to obtain selected individuals on soybean plant Glycine max L. (Merrill) in M5 generation based on high production character and tolerance of stem rot disease Athelia rolfsii (Curzi). This research was conducted in Plant Disease Laboratory and experimental field Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, Indonesia. This research was conducted from December 2016 to June 2017. The treatments were 15 mutant lines genotypes and Anjasmoro variety. The results showed that some lines mutant genotypes can gave the good agronomic appearance character than Anjasmoro variety on inoculation treatment of stem rot disease. Selection performed on population M5 producesselected individuals with tolerance of stem rot disease from 100 and 200 Gy population.

  1. Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Dewi; Lee, Hoonsoo; Lohumi, Santosh; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-01

    The viability of seeds is important for determining their quality. A high-quality seed is one that has a high capability of germination that is necessary to ensure high productivity. Hence, developing technology for the detection of seed viability is a high priority in agriculture. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is one of the most popular devices among other vibrational spectroscopies. This study aims to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to determine the viability of soybean seeds. Viable and artificial ageing seeds as non-viable soybeans were used in this research. The FT-NIR spectra of soybean seeds were collected and analysed using a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify viable and non-viable soybean seeds. Moreover, the variable importance in projection (VIP) method for variable selection combined with the PLS-DA was employed. The most effective wavelengths were selected by the VIP method, which selected 146 optimal variables from the full set of 1557 variables. The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR spectral analysis with the PLS-DA method that uses all variables or the selected variables showed good performance based on the high value of prediction accuracy for soybean viability with an accuracy close to 100%. Hence, FT-NIR techniques with a chemometric analysis have the potential for rapidly measuring soybean seed viability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  3. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA) accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR) gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  4. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. sprouts germinated under red light irradiation induce disease resistance against bacterial rotting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    Full Text Available Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs, including red (650-660, far red (720-730 and blue (440-450 nm or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were composed of soybean sprouts germinated in darkness. After germination under different conditions for 5 days, the soybean sprouts were inoculated with P. putida 229 and the disease incidence was observed for 5 days. The sprouts exposed to red light showed increased resistance against P. putida 229 relative to those grown under other conditions. Soybean sprouts germinated under red light accumulated high levels of salicylic acid (SA accompanied with up-regulation of the biosynthetic gene ICS and the pathogenesis- related (PR gene PR-1, indicating that the resistance was induced by the action of SA via de novo synthesis of SA in the soybean sprouts by red light irradiation. Taken together, these data suggest that only the narrow range of red light can induce disease resistance in soybean sprouts, regulated by the SA-dependent pathway via the de novo synthesis of SA and up-regulation of PR genes.

  5. Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans (Glycine max L.) MON 87708 and MON 87708 × MON 89788 Are Compositionally Equivalent to Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary; Bickel, Anna; Mannion, Rhonda; Bell, Erin; Harrigan, George G

    2017-09-13

    Herbicide-tolerant crops can expand both tools for and timing of weed control strategies. MON 87708 soybean has been developed through genetic modification and confers tolerance to the dicamba herbicide. As part of the safety assessment conducted for new genetically modified (GM) crop varieties, a compositional assessment of MON 87708 was performed. Levels of key soybean nutrients and anti-nutrients in harvested MON 87708 were compared to levels of those components in a closely related non-GM variety as well as to levels measured in other conventional soybean varieties. From this analysis, MON 87708 was shown to be compositionally equivalent to its comparator. A similar analysis conducted for a stacked trait product produced by conventional breeding, MON 87708 × MON 89788, which confers tolerance to both dicamba and glyphosate herbicides, reached the same conclusion. These results are consistent with other results that demonstrate no compositional impact of genetic modification, except in those cases where an impact was an intended outcome.

  6. Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2011-06-01

    A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Establishment of in vitro soybean aphids, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a tool to facilitate studies of aphid symbionts, plant-insect interactions and insecticide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunadi, Andika; Bansal, Raman; Finer, John J; Michel, Andy

    2017-06-01

    Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials. For initiation and maintenance of in vitro aphid colonies, single aphids were inoculated onto single in vitro seedlings. After three rounds of transfer of 'clean' aphids to fresh in vitro seedlings, contamination was no longer observed, and aphids performed equally well when compared with those reared on detached leaves. The addition of the insecticides thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole to the culture medium confirmed uptake and caused significant mortality to the in vitro aphids. The use of the antimicrobial mixture removed the associated bacteria Arsenophonus but retained Buchnera and Wolbachia within the in vitro aphids. The in vitro aphid system is a novel and highly useful tool to understand insecticidal efficacy and expand our knowledge of tritrophic interactions among plants, insects and symbionts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Han, Xiangdong; Zhan, Ge; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Yongjun; Wu, Cunxiang

    2015-08-31

    The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD) and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD). Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  10. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  11. Resistance to Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in transgenic soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar IAS5 expressing a modified Cry1Ac endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Schenkel Homrich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryos of the commercial soybean (Glycine max cultivar IAS5 were co-transformed using particle bombardment with a synthetic form of the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin crystal protein gene cry1Ac, the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and the hygromycin resistance gene hpt. Hygromycin-resistant tissues were proliferated individually to give rise to nine sets of clones corresponding to independent transformation events. The co-bombardment resulted in a co-transformation efficiency of 44%. Many histodifferentiated embryos and 30 well-developed plants were obtained. Twenty of these plants flowered and fourteen set seeds. The integration and expression of the cry1Ac, gusA and hpt transgenes into the genomes of a sample of transformed embryos and all T0, T1, T2 and T3 plants were confirmed by Gus activity, PCR, Southern and western blot, and ELISA techniques. Two T0 plants out of the seven co-transformed plants produced seeds and were analyzed for patterns of integration and inheritance until the T3 generation. Bioassays indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in soybean.

  12. EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON NODULE PRIMORDIA OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max Merrill IN ACID SOILS IN RHIZOTRON EXPERIMENTS

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    Setiyo Hadi Waluyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To clarify whether P had a direct or indirect effect on the nodulation  process of soybean grown in acid soils from Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia, a series of rhizotron experiments, with special attention given to formation of nodule primordia, was conducted at Laboratory of  Microbiology, Wageningen University in 1998-2000. It was shown that Ca and P were essential nutrients for root growth, nodule formation, and growth of soybean in the acid soils (Oxisols. Ca increased root growth, number of nodule primordia, nodules, and growth of the soybean plant. This positive effect of Ca was increased considerably by the application of P. Ca and P have a synergistic effect on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of soybean in acid soils. Ca is important for the establishment of nodules, whilst P is essential for the development and function of the formed nodules. P increased number of nodule primordia, thus it also has an important role in the initiation of nodule formation. From this study, it can be concluded that Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of soybean in the acid soils of Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

  13. Changes in Amino Acid Profile in Roots of Glyphosate Resistant and Susceptible Soybean (Glycine max) Induced by Foliar Glyphosate Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Carlos Alberto; Cantarelli, Miguel Angel; Camiña, José Manuel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2017-10-11

    Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was made to soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acid analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increase of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from the major pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (2D PCA and 3D PCA) allowed different groups to be identified and discriminated based on the soybean genetic origin, showing the amino acid responses on susceptible and resistant varieties. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that the increase of Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, and Ser in susceptible varieties would be related to the deregulation of C and N metabolism, as well as changes in the growth mechanisms regulated by Ser.

  14. Induction of soybean resistance to bacterial pustule disease (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines) by rhizobacteria and organic material treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaeruni, A.; Johan, E. A.; Wijayanto, T.; Taufik, M.; Syafar, A. A. R.; Kade Sutariati, G. A.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of different formulations and types of organic matter in improving yield and resistance of soybean plants to bacterial pustule disease. The study was prepared based on a randomized block design with a factorial pattern. The first factor was the application of rhizobacterial formulation (biofresh), ie F0 = without the application of rhizobacteria, F1 = application of biofresh in solid formulation, and F2 = application of biofresh in liquid formulation. The second factor was the application of organic materials, namely B1 = compost of soybean litter + cow dung, B2 = compost of rice straw + cow dung, B3 = compost of soybean litter + rice straw + cow dung. Observation of disease severity and soybean yield was conducted on five sample plants in each treatment. The results showed that the treatment of biological agent biofresh in solid formulation combined with compos of soybean litter, was the best treatment in increasing plant resistance to bacterial pustule disease and seed weight. Plant resistance induction occurred systemically characterized by salicylic acid increase of 0.3 mg and peroxidase increase of 0.07 unit / mL in the sample plants.

  15. Potential production and growth analysis of local variety and Americana variety of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumakud, M.Y.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Soybean needs high radiation intensity for photosynthesis process; therefore 100 percent of the sunlight are needed. Due to increasing the soybean production, the environment factor such as climate, soil and management are needed. One of the environment factor that influence the growth and dry matter production is radiation. This research done was to see the potential production of local variety and Americana variety by observing the total radiation absorption, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Therefore the objective of this research was to know the potential production in tropic area in soybean. If the production is mainly determined by the high growth rate or the length of phase linear or both of them also by the efficiency of radiation that received by the plant. The method of this research was carried out by using completed randomized design, with three replications. The result showed that the growth and the production of soybean are determined by growth rate (Cm) and the length of growth linear (tm). Dry matter of soybean is determined by growth rate instead of the length of growth linear, for efficiency of radiation are not significant. Pod formation is determined by the growth rate, content of pods is determined by the length of linear growth

  16. Stability of soybean aphid resistance in soybean across different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is the most important insect pest posing a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grain production in the United States. Soybean cultivars with resistance are currently being deployed to aid in management of the pest. Temperature has been reported to ...

  17. Physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max. L. seeds during to processing Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja (Glycine max. L. durante o beneficiamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Alessandro Devilla

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing is an important phase in the seed industry. It encompasses important steps to attain seed quality and high performance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seed cultivars during important steps of that process. A completely randomized design in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement with four replicates was used. Samples of three soybean cultivars (Vencedora, Emgopa 313, Luziânia - non transgenic and one genetically modified – Valiosa were drawn in five points of the processing chain: 1º - seed dryer; 2º – bucket elevator number 1; 3º – bucket elevator number 2; 4º - bucket elevator number 3; and 5º – seed spiral separator. The following tests were performed: germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and tetrazolium (viability and vigor. Results obtained indicated that seeds from cultivars Emgopa-313, Luziânia and Valiosa - RR presented physiological quality higher than Vencedora, in all stages of processing. To cultivar seeds of Vencedora, the number of elevators mug during the stages of drying and processing time increased the percentage of mechanical damage to seed.Na busca de sementes de alto padrão de qualidade, a fase de beneficiamento configura-se como importante etapa. Objetivou com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cultivares de soja durante o processo de beneficiamento. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro cultivares de soja (Vencedora, Emgopa-313, Luziânia – não transgênicas e Valiosa – transgênica coletadas em cinco pontos de amostragem (1º – secador; 2º – elevadores de caneca número 1; 3º – elevadores de caneca número 2; 4º – elevadores de caneca número 3 e 5º – espiral. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada pelos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira

  18. Fine-mapping of QTLs for individual and total isoflavone content in soybean (Glycine max L.) using a high-density genetic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhandong; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Zhuwen; Liu, Xinguo; Ma, Qibin; Xia, Qiuju; Zhang, Gengyun; Mu, Yinghui; Nian, Hai

    2018-03-01

    Fifteen stable QTLs were identified using a high-density soybean genetic map across multiple environments. One major QTL, qIF5-1, contributing to total isoflavone content explained phenotypic variance 49.38, 43.27, 46.59, 45.15 and 52.50%, respectively. Soybeans (Glycine max L.) are a major source of dietary isoflavones. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying isoflavone content, and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population comprised of 196 F 7:8-10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, Huachun 2 × Wayao) was utilized to evaluate individual and total isoflavone content in plants grown in four different environments in Guangdong. A high-density genetic linkage map containing 3469 recombination bin markers based on 0.2 × restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing (RAD-seq) technology was used to finely map QTLs for both individual and total isoflavone contents. Correlation analyses showed that total isoflavone content, and that of five individual isoflavone, was significantly correlated across the four environments. Based on the high-density genetic linkage map, a total of 15 stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with isoflavone content across multiple environments were mapped onto chromosomes 02, 05, 07, 09, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, and 19. Further, one of them, qIF5-1, localized to chromosomes 05 (38,434,171-39,045,620 bp) contributed to almost all isoflavone components across all environments, and explained 6.37-59.95% of the phenotypic variance, especially explained 49.38, 43.27, 46.59, 45.15 and 52.50% for total isoflavone. The results obtained in the present study will pave the way for a better understanding of the genetics of isoflavone accumulation and reveals the scope available for improvement of isoflavone content through marker-assisted selection.

  19. Determination of the genetic diversity of vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] using EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gu-wen; Xu, Sheng-chun; Mao, Wei-hua; Hu, Qi-zan; Gong, Ya-ming

    2013-04-01

    The development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) provided a useful tool for investigating plant genetic diversity. In the present study, 22 polymorphic EST-SSRs from grain soybean were identified and used to assess the genetic diversity in 48 vegetable soybean accessions. Among the 22 EST-SSR loci, tri-nucleotides were the most abundant repeats, accounting for 50.00% of the total motifs. GAA was the most common motif among tri-nucleotide repeats, with a frequency of 18.18%. Polymorphic analysis identified a total of 71 alleles, with an average of 3.23 per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.144 to 0.630, with a mean of 0.386. Observed heterozygosity (Ho) values varied from 0.0196 to 1.0000, with an average of 0.6092, while the expected heterozygosity (He) values ranged from 0.1502 to 0.6840, with a mean value of 0.4616. Principal coordinate analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the accessions could be assigned to different groups based to a large extent on their geographic distribution, and most accessions from China were clustered into the same groups. These results suggest that Chinese vegetable soybean accessions have a narrow genetic base. The results of this study indicate that EST-SSRs from grain soybean have high transferability to vegetable soybean, and that these new markers would be helpful in taxonomy, molecular breeding, and comparative mapping studies of vegetable soybean in the future.

  20. Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethann R. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed emerges early in the season in Nebraska, USA and is competitive with soybean; therefore, preplant herbicides are important for effective control. Glyphosate has been used as a preplant control option; however, confirmation of glyphosate-resistant (GR common ragweed in Nebraska necessitates evaluating other herbicide options. The objectives of this study were to (1 evaluate the efficacy of preplant (PP herbicides followed by (fb glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor applied post-emergence (POST for control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean; (2 their effect on common ragweed density, biomass, and soybean yield; and (3 the partial economics of herbicide programs. A field experiment was conducted in a grower's field infested with GR common ragweed in Gage County, Nebraska, USA in 2015 and 2016. Preplant herbicide programs containing glufosinate, paraquat, 2,4-D, dimethenamid-P, cloransulam-methyl, or high rates of flumioxazin plus chlorimuron-ethyl provided 90–99% control of common ragweed at 21 d after treatment (DAT. The aforementioned PP herbicides fb a POST application of glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor controlled GR common ragweed 84–98% at soybean harvest, reduced common ragweed density (≤20 plants m−2 and biomass by ≥93%, and secured soybean yield 1,819–2,158 kg ha−1. The PP fb POST herbicide programs resulted in the highest gross profit margins (US$373–US$506 compared to PP alone (US$91 or PRE fb POST programs (US$158. The results of this study conclude that effective and economical control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean is achievable with PP fb POST herbicide programs.

  1. NR2B GENE EXPRESSION CHANGE IN WISTAR RAT PRACTICING AEROBIC EXERCISE COMPARING TO SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX) OR PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI INTAKES AND SOYBEAN AND PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI COMPOSITION INTAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Vita Murniati Tarawan; Diah Dhianawaty; Muhamad Nurhalim Shahib

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between nutrition and brain memory. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory study conducted during the period of June 2011 to July 2012 at the Biomedical and Biochemistry laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The subjects were 56 8-week-old male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200–250 grams which were divided into 8 groups with different treatments. The treatment groups received no exercise or exercise and soybean...

  2. SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO: SOJA [Glycine max (L.] CONSORCIADA COM Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.] INTERCROPPED WITH Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel da Silva Barros

    2011-01-01

    vagem, número de grãos por planta, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade; e 2 B. decumbens: composição química das plantas, além do acúmulo de matéria seca, em cinco épocas de amostragens. Os sistemas de manejo do solo influenciaram o estande de plantas e a concentração de P, Cu, Fe e Zn, na soja, além do S, na Brachiaria decumbens. O sistema plantio direto apresentou maior produtividade de grãos e produção de fitomassa de B. decumbens, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Largo (AL.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; integração lavoura-pecuária; cultivo mínimo.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems on the soybean yield components intercropped or not with Metabolomic Profiling of Soybeans (Glycine Max L.) Reveals Importance of Sugar and Nitogen Metabolisms under Drought and Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean, an important legume crop, is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen in the alterations of metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. A global metabolomics approach can b...

  3. Metabolism variation and better storability of dark- versus light-coloured soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Qin, Wen-Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Deng, Jun-Cai; Iqbal, Nasir; Liu, Wei-Guo; Du, Jun-Bo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-15

    The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and β-glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gamma-ray induction of a mutant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] line lacking all seed lipoxygenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajika, Makita; Suda, Ikuo; Sakai, Shinji; Takahashi, Masakazu

    1997-01-01

    Induction of a soybean line lacking all isozymes of seed lipoxygenase was attempted using γ-radiation and of 1,813 seeds in M 3 generation, only one was identified as a seed lacking all the isozymes by SDS-PAGE. This line did not present any physiological abnormality over 10 generations or more (M 4 -M 14 ) and no significant influence of the enzyme on the agricultural traits was observed during the performance test in fields. In the resistance test against insect pests, significant differences were not found among the varieties and the lines tested. These results suggest that deletion of all lipoxygenase isozymes would not affect the soybean production in practice. The lipoxygenase activity was not detected in the leaves as well as the seeds of this line, suggesting that this enzyme are not indispensable for the soybean growth. The validity of this line in food processing fields was examined through determining the levels of hexanal production and DETBA. This line was found able to improve the taste of soybean cookies and use in combination with other materials as flour, egg, etc. because the line has no lipoxygenase activity. (M.N.)

  5. Effectiveness of fast neutrons irradiation for the stimulation and induction of genetic changes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodkiewicz, T.; Sodkiewicz, W.

    1999-01-01

    Air-dry seeds of soybean cv. Warszawska were irradiated with fast neutrons (Nf) using the U-120 cyclotron (at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow) at the doses of 500, 1000, 1500 R. Additionally, each of the irradiation doses was combined with the selected effective chemical mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea - in three concentrations: 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mM, to evaluate synergistic effect of these two different mutagenic agents. The results showed some of protection effect of radiation on the level of somatic damage of soybean plants. In addition, the phenomenon of the 'delaying effect' was noted, because the protection effect of fast neutron radiation in the combined treatments with chemomutagen was observed in the emergence and plant survival in the M 2 generation as well. From the point of view of genetic changes induced in the soybean genome, the most effective dose of fast neutron irradiation was 500 R. The number of soybean mutants with earlier ripening obtained (in comparison with original 'mother' variety) at this irradiation dose was higher, than with the highest effective concentration of chemical mutagen (1.0 -1.5 mM MNUA). (author)

  6. Quantification of leaf pigments in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) based on wavelet decomposition of hyperspectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate prediction of leaf pigments from spectral reflectance is important because it allows non-destructive, rapid assessment of crop-N status under field conditions. Canopy reflectance and leaf pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids concentration) were measured on 385 field grown soybean genotypes...

  7. High angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of Alcalase-digested green soybean (Glycine max) hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Mohamad Ariff; Hashim, Siti Nadia; Chay, Shyan Yea; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Zarei, Mohammad; Muhammad, Kharidah; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid

    2018-04-01

    As a protein-rich, underutilized crop, green soybean could be exploited to produce hydrolysates containing angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. Defatted green soybean was hydrolyzed using four different food-grade proteases (Alcalase, Papain, Flavourzyme and Bromelain) and their ACE inhibitory activities were evaluated. The Alcalase-generated green soybean hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC 50 : 0.14 mg/mL at 6 h hydrolysis time) followed by Papain (IC 50 : 0.20 mg/mL at 5 h hydrolysis time), Bromelain (IC 50 : 0.36 mg/mL at 6 h hydrolysis time) and Flavourzyme (IC 50 : 1.14 mg/mL at 6 h hydrolysis time) hydrolysates. The Alcalase-generated hydrolysate was profiled based on its hydrophobicity and isoelectric point using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and isoelectric point focusing (IEF) fractionators. The Alcalase-generated green soybean hydrolysate comprising of peptides EAQRLLF, PSLRSYLAE, PDRSIHGRQLAE, FITAFR and RGQVLS, revealed the highest ACE inhibitory activity of 94.19%, 99.31%, 92.92%, 101.51% and 90.40%, respectively, while their IC 50 values were 878 μM, 532 μM, 1552 μM, 1342 μM and 993 μM, respectively. It can be concluded that Alcalase-digested green soybean hydrolysates could be exploited as a source of peptides to be incorporated into functional foods with antihypertensive activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis genes encoding salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-related proteins confers partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) an...

  9. Calcium oxalate crystal production and density at different phenological stages of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) from the southeast of the Pampean Plain, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, N; Benvenuto, M L; Osterrieth, M

    2016-11-01

    Glycine max L. (soybean) is one of the major crops of the world. Although the process of biomineralisation has been reported in some organs of soybean, we now report the description and quantification of calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs of soybean during its life cycle, as they act as an important source of calcium to the soil, once the harvesting is finished. Through diaphanisation, cross-sectioning, optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the organs, morphology, size and location of the crystals were identified. In addition, crystal density (n° crystals·mm -2 ) and the input of crystals to soil (n° crystals·ha -1 ) were calculated. Soybean produced prismatic calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs, generally associated with vascular bundles, resulting in a potencial transfer to the soil of 81.4 x 10 7 crystals·ha -1 throughout its life cycle. Pods were the organs with higher calcium oxalate crystal production (1112.7 ± 384.6 crystals·mm -2 ), but with the smaller size (12.3 ± 2.1 μm long). However, cotyledons were the organs that produce the larger crystals (21.3 ± 3.5 μm long), but in lesser amounts (150.9 ± 64.4 crystals·mm -2 ). In leaves, although crystal size did not differ from vegetative to reproductive stage (14.5 ± 4.2 and 14.5 ± 4 μm in length, respectively), the crystal density increased (293.2 and 409 crystals·mm -2 , respectively). These results will contribute to knowledge of the amount of calcium oxalate crystals involved in the process of Ca recycling through cultivated vegetation in fields from humid plains at medium latitudes, which therefore have biological, botanical, biogeochemical and pedological relevance. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungang Xu

    Full Text Available Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN, a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max, due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs, in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional

  11. The Effect of using Quail Litter Biochar on Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Production Efecto del uso de Biocarbón de Lecho de Codorniz en la Producción de Soya (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochars can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and crop yield. The objective of this research was to study the plant growth, yield, yield components, and seed quality, including nutrients and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg, in the soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merr. and soil. The experiment was conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 in a greenhouse located in the Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The research comprised six treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Quail litter biochar (QLB at rates of 0, 24.6, 49.2, 73.8, 98.4 and 123 g per pot mixture were provided to soybean cv. Chiang Mai 60. The results showed that QLB could be used as a soil fertility improvement and amendment for soybean production with an optimum rate of 98.4 g per pot mixture, which gave the best performance in terms of the number of nodes, height, DM accumulation, total yield, and seed quality. After the experiment, the nutrient contents in the soil increased as the QLB content increased, but the heavy metal residues in the leaves and seeds did not change. However, QLB at levels higher than 98.4 g per pot mixture is not advisable because QLB is alkaline in nature, which may affect soil pH.El biocarbón puede usarse como enmienda para mejorar las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue el estudio del crecimiento de la planta, rendimiento y sus características, así como la calidad de semilla, incluyéndose el estudio de nutrientes y metales pesados (Pb, Cd y Hg en la planta de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. y el suelo. La experimentación se realizó en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Dan Khun Thot, provincia de Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia, entre septiembre del 2010 y enero del 2011. La investigación constó de seis tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones en un diseño completamente al azar. Se administró biocarbón de lecho de

  12. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

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    Celestina Alflen Klahold

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg

  13. Studies on HG Type of Heterodera glycines in Korea

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    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen soybean cyst nematode (SCN (Heterodera glycines populations collected in Korea were examined in their HG type by their reproductivity on 7 Plant Introduction indicators for the identification of HG type. Six HG types were identified, HG type 0, 2, 5, 2.5, 1.2.7, and 2.5.7. HG type 2.5 was the most frequent (4 samples, 30.8%, followed by HG type 2.5.7 (3 samples, 23.0%. About 76.9% of SCN populations were reproduced on PI 88788, followed by PI 209332 (61.5%, PI 548316 (‘Cloud’ (30.8%, and PI 548402 (‘Peking’ (7.7%. No population could reproduce on PI 90763, PI 437654, thus, they could be used for resistant source for developing SCN resistant soybean in Korea.

  14. Introgression of null allele of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor through marker-assisted backcross breeding in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranna, Shivakumar; Verma, Khushbu; Talukdar, Akshay; Lal, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Mukherjee, Keya

    2016-07-12

    Presence of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) in soybean seeds necessitates pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour for its inactivation before using it in food and feed products. The heat treatment not only enhances processing costs of the soy-based foods and feeds but also affects seed-protein quality and solubility. Genetic elimination of KTI is an important and effective approach. Therefore, molecular marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) approach was adopted for genetic elimination of KTI from two popular soybean genotypes, DS9712 and DS9814. PI542044, an exotic germplasm line was used as donor of the kti allele which inhibits functional KTI peptide production. Foreground selection for the kti allele was performed with three closely linked SSR markers while background selection was done with 93 polymorphic SSR markers. Plants in the BC1F1 generation were found to recover 70.4-87.63 % and 60.26-73.78 % of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) of DS9712 and DS9814, respectively. Similarly, selected plants in the BC2F1 generation had 93.01-98.92 % and 83.3-91.67 % recovery of their respective RPGs. Recombinant selection was performed so as to identify plants with minimal linkage drag. Biochemical analysis of the seeds of the selected plants (ktikti) confirmed absence of KTI peptides in the seeds. Phenotypically, the selected plants were comparable to the respective recurrent parent in yield and other traits. MABB approach helped in speedy development of 6 KTI free breeding lines of soybean. Such lines will be suitable for the farmers and the soybean industries to use in production of soy-based foods and feeds without pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour. It would contribute towards wider acceptability of soy-based foods and feeds.

  15. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Sprouts Germinated under Red Light Irradiation Induce Disease Resistance against Bacterial Rotting Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Radhika; Park, Euiho; Lee, Se-Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Specific wavelengths of light can exert various physiological changes in plants, including effects on responses to disease incidence. To determine whether specific light wavelength had effects on rotting disease caused by Pseudomonas putida 229, soybean sprouts were germinated under a narrow range of wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs), including red (650-660), far red (720-730) and blue (440-450 nm) or broad range of wavelength from daylight fluorescence bulbs. The controls were co...

  16. Compositional variability in conventional and glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties grown in different regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Berman, Kristina H; Breeze, Matthew L; Nemeth, Margaret A; Oliveira, Wladecir S; Braga, Daniella P V; Berger, Geraldo U; Harrigan, George G

    2011-11-09

    The compositions of a diverse range of commercially available conventional and genetically modified (GM; glyphosate-tolerant) soybean varieties from maturity groups 8 and 5, respectively, grown in the northern and southern soybean regions of Brazil during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons were compared. Compositional analyses included measurement of essential macro- and micronutrients, antinutrients, and selected secondary metabolites in harvested seed as well as measurement of proximates in both forage and harvested seed. Statistical comparisons utilized a mixed analysis of variance model to evaluate the relative contributions of growing season, soybean growing region, production site, phenotype (GM or conventional), and variety. The study highlighted extensive variability in the overall data set particularly for components such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and isoflavones. There were few differences between the GM and non-GM populations, and most of the variability in the data set could be attributed to regional and variety differences. Overall, the results were consistent with the expanding literature on the lack of any meaningful impact of transgene insertion on crop composition.

  17. Effect of foliar application of chitosan and salicylic acid on the growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, Y.; Sembiring, M.

    2018-02-01

    Elicitors such as chitosan and salicylic acid could be used not only to increase isoflavone concentration of soybean seeds, but also to increase the growth and seed yield. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of foliar application of elicitor compounds (i.e. chitosan, and salicylic acid)on the growth of two soybean varieties under dry land conditions. Experimental design was a randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was soybean varieties (Wilis and Devon). The second factor was foliar application of elicitors consisted of without elicitor; chitosan at V4 (four trifoliate leaves are fully developed); chitosan at R3 (early podding); chitosan at V4 and R3; salicylic acid at V4; salicylic acid at R3 and salicylic acid at V4 and R3. Parameters observed was plant height at 2-7 week after planting (WAP), shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The results suggest that the Wilis variety had higher plant height 7 WAP than Devon. The foliar application of chitosan increased the plant height at 7 WAP, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The foliar application of chitosan at V4 and R3 on Devon variety increased shoot dry weight.

  18. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  19. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans.

  1. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two races of Heterodera glycines at different developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is an important pest of soybeans. Although resistance is available against this nematode, selection for virulent races can occur, allowing the nematode to overcome the resistance of cultivars. There are abundant field populations, however, little is known about their genetic diversity. In order to elucidate the differences between races, we investigated the transcriptional diversity within race 3 and race 4 inbred lines during their compatible interactions with the soybean host Zhonghuang 13. Six different race-enriched cDNA libraries were constructed with limited nematode samples collected from the three sedentary stages, parasitic J2, J3 and J4 female, respectively. Among 689 putative race-enriched genes isolated from the six libraries with functional annotations, 92 were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, including eight putative effector encoding genes. Further race-enriched genes were validated within race 3 and race 4 during development in soybean roots. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of all the race-enriched genes at J3 and J4 female stages showed that most of them functioned in metabolic processes. Relative transcript level analysis of 13 selected race-enriched genes at four developmental stages showed that the differences in their expression abundance took place at either one or more developmental stages. This is the first investigation into the transcript diversity of H. glycines races throughout their sedentary stages, increasing the understanding of the genetic diversity of H. glycines.

  3. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnason John T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT and brown (irT soybean (Glycine max were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1 from the seed coat of black (iRT soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT tissue. In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Results Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT or the brown (irT seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (isoflavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin

  4. Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, Kadur; Kadur, Guruprasad; Bhattacharjee, Swapan; Swapan, Bhattacharjee; Kataria, Sunita; Sunita, Kataria; Yadav, Sanjeev; Sanjeev, Yadav; Tiwari, Arjun; Arjun, Tiwari; Baroniya, Sanjay; Sanjay, Baroniya; Rajiv, Abhinav; Abhinav, Rajiv; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2007-01-01

    Exclusion of UV (280-380 nm) radiation from the solar spectrum can be an important tool to assess the impact of ambient UV radiation on plant growth and performance of crop plants. The effect of exclusion of UV-B and UV-A from solar radiation on the growth and photosynthetic components in soybean (Glycine max) leaves were investigated. Exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-B/A radiation, enhanced the fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area as well as induced a dramatic increase in plant height, which reflected a net increase in biomass. Dry weight increase per unit leaf area was quite significant upon both UV-B and UV-B/A exclusion from the solar spectrum. However, no changes in chlorophyll a and b contents were observed by exclusion of solar UV radiation but the content of carotenoids was significantly (34-46%) lowered. Analysis of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transient parameters of leaf segments suggested no change in the F v/F m value due to UV-B or UV-B/A exclusion. Only a small reduction in photo-oxidized signal I (P700+)/unit Chl was noted. Interestingly the total soluble protein content per unit leaf area increased by 18% in UV-B/A and 40% in UV-B excluded samples, suggesting a unique upregulation of biosynthesis and accumulation of biomass. Solar UV radiation thus seems to primarily affect the photomorphogenic regulatory system that leads to an enhanced growth of leaves and an enhanced rate of net photosynthesis in soybean, a crop plant of economic importance. The presence of ultra-violet components in sunlight seems to arrest carbon sequestration in plants.

  5. Drought Tolerance Conferred in Soybean (Glycine max. L) by GmMYB84, a Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Zhang, Wenxiao; Qin, Mengyin; Li, Shuo; Qiao, Meng; Liu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Fengning

    2017-10-01

    MYB-type transcription factors (MYB TFs) play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of MYB TFs during stress response remain unclear. In this study we identified a R2R3-MYB TF in soybean (Glycine max), denoted GmMYB84, which contributes to drought resistance. Expression of GmMYB84 was induced by drought, salt stress, H2O2 and ABA. Compared with the wild type (WT), GmMYB84-overexpressing soybean mutants (OE lines) exhibited enhanced drought resistance with a higher survival rate, longer primary root length, greater proline and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, higher antioxidant enzyme activities [peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], a lower dehydration rate and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content. We also found that ROS could induce SOD/POD/CAT activity in OE lines. In particular, we found that the optimal level of ROS is required for GmMYB84 to modulate primary root elongation. Some ROS-related genes were up-regulated under abiotic stress in GmMYB84 transgenic plants compared with the WT. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter analysis demonstrated that GmMYB84 binds directly to the promoter of GmRBOHB-1 and GmRBOHB-2 genes. Based on this evidence, we propose a model for how GmMYB84, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes work together to control root growth under both optimal and drought stress conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Putative bacterial volatile-mediated growth in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and expression of induced proteins under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnav, A; Kumari, S; Jain, S; Varma, A; Choudhary, D K

    2015-08-01

    Plant root-associated rhizobacteria elicit plant immunity referred to as induced systemic tolerance (IST) against multiple abiotic stresses. Among multibacterial determinants involved in IST, the induction of IST and promotion of growth by putative bacterial volatile compounds (VOCs) is reported in the present study. To characterize plant proteins induced by putative bacterial VOCs, proteomic analysis was performed by MALDI-MS/MS after exposure of soybean seedlings to a new strain of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU. Furthermore, expression analysis by Western blotting confirmed that the vegetative storage protein (VSP), gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) and RuBisCo large chain proteins were significantly up-regulated by the exposure to AU strain and played a major role in IST. VSP has preponderant roles in N accumulation and mobilization, acid phosphatase activity and Na(+) homeostasis to sustain plant growth under stress condition. More interestingly, plant exposure to the bacterial strain significantly reduced Na(+) and enhanced K(+) and P content in root of soybean seedlings under salt stress. In addition, high accumulation of proline and chlorophyll content also provided evidence of protection against osmotic stress during the elicitation of IST by bacterial exposure. The present study reported for the first time that Ps. simiae produces a putative volatile blend that can enhance soybean seedling growth and elicit IST against 100 mmol l(-1) NaCl stress condition. The identification of such differentially expressed proteins provide new targets for future studies that will allow assessment of their physiological roles and significance in the response of glycophytes to stresses. Further work should uncover more about the chemical side of VOC compounds and a detailed study about their molecular mechanism responsible for plant growth. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Root morphological responses of five soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cultivars to cadmium stress at young seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Deng, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yian; Fang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the differences in root morphological responses of soybean cultivars with different cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation to Cd stress, the biomass, Cd concentration, and root morphological features of five soybean cultivars were determined under 0, 9, 23, 45, and 90 μM Cd stress via hydroponic experiments. Significantly genotypic differences in Cd tolerance and Cd concentration were observed between five soybean cultivars at four Cd levels. For Cd tolerance, HX3 showed a strong Cd tolerance with tolerance indexes of shoot biomass at 92.49, 76.44, 60.21, and 46.45% after 18 days at four Cd levels, and others had similar weak tolerance at young seedling. For Cd accumulation, Cd concentration in roots showed far higher than that in shoots. The different accumulation features in roots and shoots among five cultivars were found at four Cd levels. Comparing with the control, the total root length (RL), root surface area (SA), and root volume (RV) of all cultivars were decreased significantly at four Cd levels. Tolerant cultivar HX3 had the largest root system and sensitive cultivar BX10 had the smallest root system at young seedling stage. Correlation analysis indicated that RL, SA, and RV were positively correlated with root biomass and shoot biomass under 9 and 23 μM Cd treatments, but root average diameter (RD) was negatively correlated with shoot biomass and root biomass only under 9 μM Cd treatments, while RL and SA were negatively correlated with root Cd concentration under 23 and 45 μM Cd treatments. The results suggested that root morphological traits were closely related to Cd tolerance at young seedlings under Cd treatments.

  8. Microbial assisted phyto extraction of metals and growth of soybean (glycine max l. merrill) on industrial waste water contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Bano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pots experiments were made to investigate the role of effective microorganisms (EM) in improving phyto extraction of metals (Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/) and growth of soybean plant in industrial waste water polluted soil. Waste water applications to soil were made in four different dilutions (i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Effective microorganisms were added into waste water prior to application. Effect of treatments on growth parameters was studied. The Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/ concentrations in different parts of plant were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Plant height significantly increased at all treatments except at 25% waste water treatment. Plant dry biomass and oil contents in seed significantly increased with all treatments compared to control but were higher at low concentration of waste water. Waste water treatments significantly increased the Cd and Mn accumulation in plant while inoculation of EM further enhanced the metals accumulation. The maximum accumulation of Cd and Mn found in plant treated with 100% waste water in combination with effective microorganisms. At harvest, the Cd/sup +2/ concentration decreased in leaves but increased in roots followed by stem > seeds, while, Mn/sup +2/ accumulation increased in leaves followed by roots > stem > seeds. Conclusively, EM enhanced the phyto extraction of Cd and Mn and also increased the oil contents in soybean on polluted soil. These findings suggest further investigation to find out a suitable concentration of industrial waste water in combination with EM for better growth of soybean and improving phyto extraction of metals. (author)

  9. The essence of NAC gene family to the cultivation of drought-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Reem M; Ali, Mohammed; Feng, Xing; Li, Xia

    2017-02-28

    The NAC gene family is notable due to its large size, as well as its relevance in crop cultivation - particularly in terms of enhancing stress tolerance of plants. These plant-specific proteins contain NAC domain(s) that are named after Petunia NAM and Arabidopsis ATAF1/2 and CUC2 transcription factors based on the consensus sequence they have. Despite the knowledge available regarding NAC protein function, an extensive study on the possible use of GmNACs in developing soybean cultivars with superior drought tolerance is yet to be done. In response to this, our study was carried out, mainly through means of phylogenetic analysis (rice and Arabidopsis NAC genes served as seeding sequences). Through this, 139 GmNAC genes were identified and later grouped into 17 clusters. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was carried out on drought-stressed and unstressed leaf tissues of both sensitive (B217 and H228) and tolerant (Jindou 74 and 78) cultivars. This was done to analyze the gene expression of 28 dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes. Upon completing the analysis, it was found that GmNAC gene expression is actually dependent on genotype. Eight of the 28 selected genes (GmNAC004, GmNAC021, GmNAC065, GmNAC066, GmNAC073, GmNAC082, GmNAC083 and GmNAC087) were discovered to have high expression levels in the drought-resistant soybean varieties tested. This holds true for both extreme and standard drought conditions. Alternatively, the drought-sensitive cultivars exhibited lower GmNAC expression levels in comparison to their tolerant counterparts. The study allowed for the identification of eight GmNAC genes that could be focused upon in future attempts to develop superior soybean varieties, particularly in terms of drought resistance. This study revealed that there were more dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes as (GmNAC004, GmNAC005, GmNAC020 and GmNAC021) in addition to what were reported in earlier inquiries. It is important to note though, that discovering such

  10. Drought resistant of bacteria producing exopolysaccharide and IAA in rhizosphere of soybean plant (Glycine max) in Wonogiri Regency Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Puspita, A. A.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Drought is one of the main problem which limitating the agriculture productivity in most arid region such as in district Eromoko, Wuryantro and SelogiriWonogiri Central Java Indonesia. Bacteria are able to survive under stress condition by producte exopolysaccharide. This study aims to determine the presence of exopolysaccharide-producing drought-resistant bacteria on rhizosphere of soybean (Glycine max) and to determine the species of bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene. Isolation of bacteria carried out by the spread plate method. The decreased of osmotic potential for screening drought tolerant bacteria according to the previous equation [12]. Selection of exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria on solid media ATCC 14 followed by staining the capsule. 16S rRNA gene amplification performed by PCR using primers of 63f and 1387r. The identificationof the bacteria is determined by comparing the results of DNA sequence similarity with bacteria databank in NCBI database. The results showed 11 isolates were exopolysaccharide-producing drought tolerant bacteria. The identity of the bacteria which found are Bacillus sp, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus.

  11. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  12. The impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the physiology of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) under different soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiming; Rossi, Lorenzo; Stowers, Cheyenne; Zhang, Weilan; Lombardini, Leonardo; Ma, Xingmao

    2018-01-01

    The ongoing global climate change raises concerns over the decreasing moisture content in agricultural soils. Our research investigated the physiological impact of two types of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) on soybean at different moisture content levels. One CeO 2 NP was positively charged on the surface and the other negatively charged due to the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating. The results suggest that the effect of CeO 2 NPs on plant photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) was dependent upon the soil moisture content. Both types of CeO 2 NPs exhibited consistently positive impacts on plant photosynthesis at the moisture content above 70% of field capacity (θ fc ). Similar positive impact of CeO 2 NPs was not observed at 55% θ fc , suggesting that the physiological impact of CeO 2 NPs was dependent upon the soil moisture content. The results also revealed that V Cmax (maximum carboxylation rate) was affected by CeO 2 NPs, indicating that CeO 2 NPs affected the Rubisco activity which governs carbon assimilation in photosynthesis. In conclusion, CeO 2 NPs demonstrated significant impacts on the photosynthesis and WUE of soybeans and such impacts were affected by the soil moisture content. Graphical abstract Soil moisture content affects plant cerium oxide nanoparticle interactions.

  13. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiology response of fourth generation saline resistant soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) with application of several types of antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, I. R.; Rosmayati; Rahmawati, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant applications are expected to reduce the adverse effects of soil saline. This research was conducted in plastic house, Plant Tissue Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture and Plant Physiology Laboratory Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan also in Research Centers and Industry Standardization, Medan from July-December 2016. The objective of the research was to know the effect of various antioxidant treatments with different concentrations (control, ascorbic acid 250, 500 and 750 ppm; salicylic acid 250, 500 and 750 ppm; α-tocopherol 250, 500 and 750 ppm) on fourth generation soybean physiology in saline condition (Electric Conductivity 5-6 dS/m). The results of this research showed that the antioxidant type and concentration affected not significantly to physiology of fourth generation soybean. Descriptively the highest average of superoxide dismutase and peroxide dismutase was showed on ascorbic acid 250 ppm. The highest average of ascorbate peroxidase was showed on α-tocopherol 750 ppm. The highest average of carotenoid content was showed on ascorbic acid 500 ppm. The highest average of chlorophyll content was showed on α-tocopherol 250 ppm. The highest average of ratio of K/Na was showed on salicylic acid 250 ppm.

  15. Residue and bio-efficacy evaluation of controlled release formulations of imidacloprid against pests in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Dey, Debjani; Shakil, N A; Walia, S

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of imidacloprid (1-(6 chloro-3-pyridinyl methyl)-N- nitro imidazolidin-2- ylideneamine) were prepared using novel amphiphilic polymers synthesized from polyethylene glycol and aliphatic diacids employing encapsulation technique. The bioefficacy of the prepared CR formulations was evaluated against major pests of soybean, namely stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntmer and white fly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius along with a commercial formulation at the experimental farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi during kharif 2009 and 2010. Most of the CR formulations of imidacloprid gave significantly better control of the pests compare to its commercial formulations, however the CR formulations, Poly [poly (oxyethylene-1000)-oxy suberoyl] amphiphilic polymer based formulation performed better over others for controlling of both stem fly incidence and Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) infestation transmitted by white fly. Some of the developed CR formulations recorded higher yield over commercial formulation and control. Nodulation pattern of soybean was not affected due to treatment of CR and commercial formulations of imidacloprid. Also the residues of imidacloprid in seed and soil at harvest were not detectable for both CR and commercial formulations.

  16. Evaluation of Clethodim Herbicide Efficiency in Comparison to other Graminicides for Weedy Grasses Control in Soybean (Glycin max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mousavi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Lorestan, Kermanshah and Golestan provinces in 2006 to separately evaluation of Clethodim herbicide for weedy grass control in soybean. All experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks with four replicates. Treatments included: clethodim at 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 L/ha; cycloxydim at 3 L/ha; Haloxyfop-R-methyl at 0.75 L/ha; Quizalofop-P-ethyl at 2 L/ha; and weeding control. In Lorestan postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed biomass by 74%. In Kermanshah, postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed density by 78%. In Golestan, post emergence application of clethodim at 1, and 1.2 L/ha reduced barnyarad grass density 75% and 80% respectively. Accordingly, use of clethodim for grass weed control in soybean, because of high-performance and lower consumption in comparison with some common herbicides is recommended.

  17. Genetic analysis of soybean reactions to soybean mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Guorong

    1995-01-01

    The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] mosaic disease, caused by soybean mosaic virus (SMV), is one of the most important soybean diseases in many areas of the world. This research, conducted in four separate studies, was designed to identify and characterize new sources of genes for resistance to SMV and to investigate the interaction of soybean resistance genes and SMV strains.

  18. Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril] em diferentes densidades Performance of genotypes of early-cycle vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton César de O. Charlo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril], em diferentes densidades, foi instalado um ensaio, em área experimental do Setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal, nas dependências da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, adotando-se nas parcelas os genótipos e nas subparcelas as densidades, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas de 4,5m de plantio, com densidades de 20, 10 e 7 plantas por metro e 0,60m nas entrelinhas, sendo consideradas para avaliação 20 plantas por parcela, das duas linhas centrais. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, contendo substrato Plantmax Hortaliças®. O transplantio ocorreu dez dias após a semeadura, em solo devidamente preparado, conforme recomendações para a cultura. A colheita foi realizada quando os legumes estavam em estádio reprodutivo R6. Avaliaram-se os genótipos JLM010 e CNPSOI quanto às características: número médio de legumes por planta, número médio de sementes por legume, massa fresca de 100 sementes e produtividade estimada de grãos imaturos. Com base nos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o genótipo JLM010 é o mais recomendado e deve ser plantado na densidade de 7 plantas por metro.With the aim of evaluating the performance of two genotypes of early-cycle soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different spacings, a study was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector of Vegetable Crops and Aromatic Medicinal Plants, belonging to the Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus-SP. The experimental design used was the one of subdivided parcels, each parcel representing

  19. Compositions of forage and seed from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean MON 89788 and insect-protected soybean MON 87701 from Brazil are equivalent to those of conventional soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Kristina H; Harrigan, George G; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Hanson, Christy; Smith, Michelle; Sorbet, Roy; Zhu, Eddie; Ridley, William P

    2010-05-26

    Brazil has become one of the largest soybean producers. Two Monsanto Co. biotechnology-derived soybean products are designed to offer benefits in weed and pest management. These are second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, and insect-protected soybean, MON 87701. The second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788, contains the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps). MON 87701 contains the cry1Ac gene and expression of the Cry1Ac protein providing protection from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to determine whether the compositions of seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are comparable to those of conventional soybean grown in two geographically and climatically distinct regions in multiple replicated sites in Brazil during the 2007-2008 growing season. Overall, results demonstrated that the seed and forage of MON 89788 and MON 87701 are compositionally equivalent to those of conventional soybean. Strikingly, the results also showed that differences in mean component values of forage and seed from the two controls grown in the different geographical regions were generally greater than that observed in test and control comparisons. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) of compositional data generated on MON 89788, MON 87701, and their respective region-specific controls provide a graphical illustration of how natural variation contributes more than biotechnology-driven genetic modification to compositional variability in soybean. Levels of isoflavones and fatty acids were particularly variable.

  20. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran. The field soil is categorized into coarse Loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, and mesic Typic Xerorthents. The experiments were arranged in split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of long-term (since 2002 tillage systems including conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. Eight fertilization methods were employed in the sub-plots, including (F1: farmyard manure (FYM; (F2: compost; (F3: chemical fertilizers; (F4: FYM + compost; (F5: FYM + chemical fertilizers; (F6: compost + chemical fertilizers; (F7: FYM + compost + chemical fertilizers and (F8: Control (without fertilizer. The highest microbial biomass carbon (385.1 μg was observed in NT-F4 treatment. The NT treatment comparatively recorded higher values of acid phosphatase (189.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1, alkaline phosphatase (2879.6 μg PNP g-1 h-1 and dehydrogenase activity (68.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1. The soil treated with a mixture of compost and FYM inputs had the maximum urease activity of all tillage treatments. Organically manured treatment (F4 showed more activity in dehydrogenase (85.7 μg PNP g-1 h-1, acid phosphatase (199.1 µg PNP g-1 h-1 and alkaline phosphatase (3183.6 µg PNP g-1 h-1 compared to those treated with chemical fertilizers. In NT-F4 treatment, using on-farm inputs is most

  1. Ectopic phytocystatin expression increases nodule numbers and influences the responses of soybean (Glycine max) to nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Cooper, James W; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine proteases and cystatins have many functions that remain poorly characterised, particularly in crop plants. We therefore investigated the responses of these proteins to nitrogen deficiency in wild-type soybeans and in two independent transgenic soybean lines (OCI-1 and OCI-2) that express the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI). Plants were grown for four weeks under either a high (5 mM) nitrate (HN) regime or in the absence of added nitrate (LN) in the absence or presence of symbiotic rhizobial bacteria. Under the LN regime all lines showed similar classic symptoms of nitrogen deficiency including lower shoot biomass and leaf chlorophyll. However, the LN-induced decreases in leaf protein and increases in root protein tended to be smaller in the OCI-1 and OCI-2 lines than in the wild type. When LN-plants were grown with rhizobia, OCI-1 and OCI-2 roots had significantly more crown nodules than wild-type plants. The growth nitrogen regime had a significant effect on the abundance of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), LN-dependent increases in VPE2 and VPE3 transcripts in all lines. However, the LN-dependent increases of VPE2 and VPE3 transcripts were significantly lower in the leaves of OCI-1 and OCI-2 plants than in the wild type. These results show that nitrogen availability regulates the leaf and root cysteine protease, VPE and cystatin transcript profiles in a manner that is in some cases influenced by ectopic OCI expression. Moreover, the OCI-dependent inhibition of papain-like cysteine proteases favours increased nodulation and enhanced tolerance to nitrogen limitation, as shown by the smaller LN-dependent decreases in leaf protein observed in the OCI-1 and OCI-2 plants relative to the wild type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Host specificity of Aphelinus species collected from soybean aphid in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is native to Asia where it is an occasional pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Aphis glycines was found during 2000 in North America and since then has spread throughout much of the area where soybean is grown. In Asia, A. glycines ...

  3. Biochemical and functional properties of a lectin purified from korean large black soybeans--a cultivar of glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, E F; Wong, J H; Lin, P; Ng, T B

    2010-06-01

    Lectins, a class of proteins that reversibly and non-enzymatically bind specific sugars, have been purified from different kinds of legumes. In this study, a 48-kDa lectin (KBL) was purified from Korean large black soybeans using liquid chromatography. The specific hemagglutinating activity of the KBL was 4096 titer/mg. EDTA-induced loss of hemagglutinating activity of KBL could be recovered by addition of Fe(3+) ions and some divalent cations as Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+). Sugars such as D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-raffinose, L-(+)-arabinose, alpha-D-(+)-melibiose, and alpha-lactose could inhibit the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. Furthermore, the protein showed high thermal stability as well as stability over a wide range of pH values. KBL inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an IC(50) of 1.38 microM. However, it was destitute of cytokine releasing, mitogenic, ribonuclease and antifungal activities. In addition, inhibitory activity toward nasopharyngeal cell lines was undetectable in KBL at concentrations up to 20 microM.

  4. POD NUMBER AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION CRITERIA IN SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merrill BREEDING FOR HIGH YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sitompul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in two years using 638 F2 and 1185 F3 lines of selected 16 F1 and 15 F2 parent lines (³80 pods plant-1 to evaluate pod number and CO2 exchange rate (CER as selection criteria. Pod and seed number, and seed weight of individual lines were observed during harvesting time, and CER of randomly selected 32 F2 and 30 F3 lines was measured at initial seed filling stage. The selection of F2 lines based on pod number to generate F3 lines increased the average of seed yield by 39%, and pod number by 77% in F3 lines compared with F2 lines. A close relationships was found between seed weight and pod or seed number per plant. Net CER responded sensitively to a reduction of light in a short-term and showed 78% of F2 lines and all F3 lines with maximum CER (Pmax³20 mmolCO2.m-2.s-1. The ratio of pod number per plant and Pmax varied between lines and were used to group lines resulting in close relationships between Pmax and pod number. It is concluded that the use of pod number and CER (Pmax as selection criteria offers an alternative approach in soybean breeding for high yield.

  5. Germinaton performance of selected local soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrills) cultivars during drought stress induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, R. F.; Damanik, R. I.; Khardinata, E. H.

    2018-02-01

    Drought stress is one of the factors that can decreased growth and production, so that required a variety that has the ability to sustain cellular metabolism, and growth during the stress. This research was aimed to investigated the involvement of germination performance invitro of five local soybean cultivars, Grobogan, Kaba, Anjasmoro, Argomulyo, and Dering to drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%). The measurable seedling traits as the day appearance of shoots and roots, total of leaves, shoot length, root length, fresh plant weight, dry plant weight, fresh root weight, and dry root weight under control as well as water stress condition were recorded. The experiment units were arranged in factorial completely randomized design with four replications. The result showed that the value for most parameters was recorded highest for Argomulyo cultivar compared with Dering cultivar which is known to be tolerant to drought. In terms of roots performance, Grobogan and Argomulyo cultivars produced the longest and heaviest of roots, while Grobogan cultivar had no significant different for root length compared with control. In conclusion, the root length and fresh weight root parameters can be used as quick criteria for drought tolerance.

  6. Analysis and modeling of dry matter production rate by soybean [Glycine max] community: Curvilinear response to radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameshima, R.

    1996-01-01

    The linear relationship between the amount of absorbed radiation and dry matter production by crop communities has long been known, and the proportionality constant between them is known as the radiation use efficiency (RUE). To analyze and predict crop production using RUE, the assumption is often made that RUE is not sensitive to radiation intensity and that dry matter production rate (DMPR) is a linear function of radiation intensity.However, there is evidence in opposition to this assumption, including reports of increasing RUE in shade tests, and hyperbolic response of photosynthetic rate to radiation intensity. The following model was developed and used to analyze the response of DMPR and RUE to daily radiation R S : DMPR = DMPR max (R S ) * g(α) where DMPR max (R S ) is the DMPR of a hypothetical soybean community absorbing all radiation, and g(α) represents the effect of radiation absorptivity (α). A hyperbolic curve and a straight line were employed for DMPR max (R S ) and g(α), respectively. Field experimental data including shade tests were used to determine the parameters for the model. Two sets of parameters were required to cover the entire experimental period. DMPR max (R S ) had an apparent curvilinear relationship with R S . The model successfully described dry matter production under successive low radiation conditions, which could not be estimated by a model with RUE insensitive to radiation. (author)

  7. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid-resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Zixiang; Gu, Cuihua; An, Yong-Qiang Charles; Bales, Carmille; DiFonzo, Chris; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun

    2017-12-01

    Rag6 and Rag3c were delimited to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 and a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Structural variants in the exons of candidate genes were identified. The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2000. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management strategy for aphids. Two novel aphid-resistance loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from Glycine soja 85-32, were previously detected in a 10.5-cM interval on chromosome 8 and a 7.5-cM interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Defining the exact genomic position of these two genes is critical for improving the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for identification of the functional genes. To pinpoint the locations of Rag6 and Rag3c, four populations segregating for Rag6 and Rag3c were used to fine map these two genes. The availability of the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K/8K iSelect BeadChip, combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers discovered through the whole-genome re-sequencing of E12901, facilitated the fine mapping process. Rag6 was refined to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 with four candidate genes, including three clustered nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes and an amine oxidase encoding gene. Rag3c was refined to a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16 with 11 candidate genes, two of which are a LRR gene and a lipase gene. Moreover, by sequencing the whole-genome exome-capture of the resistant source (E12901), structural variants were identified in the exons of the candidate genes of Rag6 and Rag3c. The closely linked SNP markers and the candidate gene information presented in this study will be significant resources for integrating Rag6 and Rag3c into elite cultivars and for future functional genetics studies.

  8. Redox markers for drought-induced nodule senescence, a process occurring after drought-induced senescence of the lowest leaves in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Belén; Shaw, Daniel; Cooper, James William; Karpinska, Barbara; Quain, Marian Dorcas; Makgopa, Eugene Matome; Kunert, Karl; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2015-09-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource that limits crop productivity in many parts of the world, and the frequency and severity of drought are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Improving tolerance to drought stress is therefore important for maximizing future crop yields. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of drought on soybean (Glycine max) leaves and nodules in order to define phenotypic markers and changes in cellular redox state that characterize the stress response in different organs, and to characterize the relationships between leaf and nodule senescence during drought. Leaf and crown nodule metabolite pools were measured together with leaf and soil water contents, and leaf chlorophyll, total protein contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters in nodulated soybeans that were grown under either well-watered conditions or deprived of water for up to 21 d. Ureides, ascorbate, protein, chlorophyll and the ratios of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv') to maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fm') fell to levels below detection in the oldest leaves after 21 d of drought. While these drought-induced responses were not observed in the youngest leaf ranks, the Fv'/Fm' ratios, pyridine nucleotide levels and the reduction state of the ascorbate pool were lower in all leaf ranks after 21 d of drought. In contrast to leaves, total nodule protein, pyridine nucleotides, ureides, ascorbate and glutathione contents increased as a result of the drought treatment. However, the nodule ascorbate pool was significantly less reduced as a result of drought. Higher levels of transcripts encoding two peroxiredoxins were detected in nodules exposed to drought stress but senescence-associated transcripts and other mRNAs encoding redox-related proteins were similar under both conditions. While the physiological impact of the drought was perceived throughout the shoot, stress-induced senescence occurred only in the oldest

  9. The effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield, yield components and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomandan, P; Khoramivafa, M; Haghi, Y; Ebrahimi, A

    2009-02-15

    Effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) are not well understood, because nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density has been tested separately. Two years field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of these factors on yield, yield components, oil and protein content in 2006 and 2007 in Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted on soybean (var. Williams) as a split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Nitrogen starter fertilizer treatments were arranged in three rates (0, 40, 80 kg ha(-1)) as main plots and plant density as sub plots arranged with three levels (15, 30, 45 plant m(-2)). Based on similarity treatments and experimental designs, the results of analysis of combined variance and mean comparisons showed significant (528.4 kg ha(-1) yield increase as density increased from 30 to 45 plant m(-2) and nitrogen starter fertilizer increased from 0 to 40 kg ha(-1) in two years. Analysis of correlation showed a positive significant correlation between yield and number of seed per plant (r = 0.724), number of pods and yield (r = 0.463), thousand seed weight and yield (r = 0.437). A linear regression was found between yield and number of seed per plant, number of pods and thousand seed weight (yield = 37.58 + 0.73x1-0.14x2 + 0.7x3; r2 = 0.56); p < 0.01). Seed protein was unaffected by plant densities, but nitrogen application changed it. Dissimilarly, oil content has a diverse respond to treatments. This experiment showed density of 45 plant m(-2) and application of nitrogen starter fertilizer 40 kg ha(-1) are optimum and increase grain yield under condition of our experiment. We suggest to conduct some experiments for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for levels of nitrogen starter and quadratic relationship for number of seed for levels of density.

  10. An overview of the metabolic differences between Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 bacteria and differentiated bacteroids from soybean (Glycine max) root nodules: an in vitro 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclare, Pierre; Bligny, Richard; Gout, Elisabeth; Widmer, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that induce root nodules formation in legume soybean (Glycine max.). Using 13 C- and 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have analysed the metabolite profiles of cultivated B. japonicum cells and bacteroids isolated from soybean nodules. Our results revealed some quantitative and qualitative differences between the metabolite profiles of bacteroids and their vegetative state. This includes in bacteroids a huge accumulation of soluble carbohydrates such as trehalose, glutamate, myo-inositol and homo-spermidine as well as Pi, nucleotide pools and intermediates of the primary carbon metabolism. Using this novel approach, these data show that most of the compounds detected in bacteroids reflect the metabolic adaptation of rhizobia to the surrounding microenvironment with its host plant cells. (authors)

  11. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy....

  12. Validation of microsatellite markers for assisted selection of soybean resistance to cyst nematode races 3 and 14 Validação de marcadores microssatélites para a seleção assistida de resistência de soja ao nematóide-de-cisto raças 3 e 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Flores da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate microsatellite markers associated with resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe races 3 and 14, in soybean (Glycine max L. genotypes, for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS programs. Microsatellites of soybean linkage groups A2, D2 and G were tested in two populations, and their selection efficiencies were determined. The populations were 65 F2:3 families from Msoy8001 (resistant x Conquista (susceptible cross, and 66 F2:3 families of S5995 (resistant x Renascença (susceptible cross, evaluated for resistance to races 3 and 14, respectively. Families with female index up to 30% were considered moderately resistant. Markers of A2 and G linkage groups were associated with resistance to race 3. Markers Satt309 and GMENOD2B explained the greatest proportion of phenotypic variance in the different groups. The combinations Satt309+GMENOD2B and Satt309+Satt187 presented 100% selection efficiency. Resistance to race 14 was associated with markers of G linkage group, and selection efficiency in the Satt309+Satt356 combination was 100%. The selection differential obtained by phenotypic and marker assisted selection showed that both can result in similar gains.O objetivo deste trabalho foi validar marcadores microssatélites associados à resistência às raças 3 e 14 do nematóide-de-cisto (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe da soja (Glycine max L., para serem utilizados em programas de seleção assistida por marcadores moleculares (SAM. Microssatélites dos grupos de ligação A2, D2 e G da soja foram testados em duas populações, e suas eficiências de seleção foram determinadas. As populações foram 65 famílias F2:3, do cruzamento Msoy8001 (resistente x Conquista (suscetível, e 66 famílias F2:3, do cruzamento S5995 (resistente x Renascença (suscetível, avaliadas para a resistência às raças 3 e 14, respectivamente. Famílias com índice de fêmeas de até 30% foram

  13. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  14. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  15. Genetic variability among and within races of Heterodera glycines Ichinohe assessed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adailton T. da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN was detected in Brazil in 1992 and since then it has been causing losses to Brazilian soybean crop yields. SCN populations have great genetic diversity which makes it difficult to manage this disease. The objectives of this research were to investigate the genetic variation of 16 SCN populations sampled in middle western and southeastern Brazil, utilizing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques, and to establish useful and specific RAPD markers for SCN race 3. RAPD markers demonstrated genetic variability among and within SCN populations, and they could be used for monitoring nematode population dynamics. The OPA-07 primer was a reliable molecular marker for race 3, while electrophoretic profile analysis of DNA fragments amplified with OPA-10 primer detected slight variation within those populations identified as race 3. The SCN population from Chapadão do Céu, GO - sample 2 - was the most genetically distant from the other populations.

  16. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Effects of Boron foliar-fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of the midsouth, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated soybeans in the Mississippi Delta have been reported to with increased seed yields when fertilized with a boron (B). Furrow irrigated soybean cultivars were foliar fertilized with a B solution at growth stages R3 and/or R5. No consistent trends in yield or seed weight were noted. No phy...

  19. Nitrogen rhizodeposition from soybean (Glycine max) and its impact on nutrient budgets in two contrasting environments of the Guinean savannah zone of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, G.; Franke, A. C.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by grain legumes such as soybean is potentially a large but neglected source of N in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were conducted to measure soybean N rhizodeposition in two environments of the Guinean savannah of Nigeria using 15N leaf labelling...

  20. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  1. 78 FR 9317 - Glycine max

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... exemption is ``safe.'' Section 408(c)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a... endogenous GM-ALS I protein to GM-HRA protein yields an enzyme that is resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides... Glycine max (soybean), which has an endogenous gene (gm-als I) that encodes for acetolactate synthase I...

  2. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  3. Deficiency in the amino aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by GmAMADH2, the homologue of rice Os2AP, enhances 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in soybeans (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikit, Siwaret; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Wanchana, Samart; Uyen, Tran T; Huong, Nguyen T T; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2011-01-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the volatile compound that provides the 'popcorn-like' aroma in a large variety of cereal and food products, is widely found in nature. Deficiency in amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was previously shown to be the likely cause of 2AP biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the validity of this mechanism was investigated in soybeans (Glycine max L.). An assay of AMADH activity in soybeans revealed that the aromatic soybean, which contains 2AP, also lacked AMADH enzyme activity. Two genes, GmAMADH1 and GmAMADH2, which are homologous to the rice Os2AP gene that encodes AMADH, were characterized. The transcription level of GmAMADH2 was lower in aromatic varieties than in nonaromatic varieties, whereas the expression of GmAMADH1 did not differ. A double nucleotide (TT) deletion was found in exon 10 of GmAMADH2 in all aromatic varieties. This variation caused a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. Suppression of GmAMADH2 by introduction of a GmAMADH2-RNAi construct into the calli of the two nonaromatic wild-type varieties inhibited the synthesis of AMADH and induced the biosynthesis of 2AP. These results suggest that deficiency in the GmAMADH2 product, AMADH, plays a similar role in soybean as in rice, which is to promote 2AP biosynthesis. This phenomenon might be a conserved mechanism among plant species. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Ganglion Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyst Figure 3 - Cross-section of wrist showing the root of a ganglion cyst PDF Ganglion Cysts Related Conditions Trigger Finger Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors de Quervain's Tenosynovitis Carpometacarpal Boss Other Links CME Mission Statement and ...

  5. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  6. De novo asymmetric synthesis and biological analysis of the daumone pheromones in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The de novo asymmetric total syntheses of daumone 1, daumone 2 and analogs are described. The key steps of our approach are the diastereoselective palladium catalyzed glycosylation reaction, the Noyori reduction of a acetylfuran and a propargyl ketone, which introduce the absolute stereochemistry of...

  7. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent

    2016-05-18

    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  8. A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Petr; Rakhshani, E.; Tomanović, Ž.; Hoelmer, K.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Yu, J.; Wang, M.; Heimpel, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2010), s. 179-186 ISSN 1070-9428 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technological Developments of the Republic of Serbia(SR) 143006B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Lysiphlebus orientalis sp. n. * aphid parasitoids * Glycine max Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  9. Silicon alleviates the adverse effects of salinity and drought stress on growth and endogenous plant growth hormones of soybean (glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzyun, M.; Sohn, Eun-Young; Khan, A.L.; Lee, In-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural industry is subjected to enormous environmental constraints, particularly due to salinity and drought. We evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in alleviating salinity and drought induced physio-hormonal changes in soybean grown in perlite. The plant growth attributes i.e., shoot length, plant fresh weight and dry weight parameters of soybean improved with elevated Si nutrition, while they decreased with NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) application. The adverse effects of NaCl and PEG on plant growth were alleviated by adding 100 mg L/sup -1/ and 200 mg L/sup -1/ Si to salt and drought stressed treatments. It was observed that Si effectively mitigated the adverse effects of NaCl on soybean than that of PEG. The chlorophyll contents were found to be least affected as an insignificant increase was observed with Si application. Bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents of soybean leaves increased, when Si was added to control or stressed plants. Jasmonic acid (JA) contents sharply increased under salinity and drought stress but declined when the plants were supplemented with Si. Similarly, free salicylic acid (SA) level also increased with NaCl and PEG application. However, free SA level further increased with the addition of Si to salt treated plants, but decreased when Si was given to PEG treated plants. It was concluded that Si improves physio-hormonal attributes of soybean and mitigate adverse effects of salt and drought stress. (author)

  10. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Supressividade dos nematóides Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines em soja por adição de lodo de esgoto ao solo Supressiveness of nematodes Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines in soybean by sewage sludge incorporated in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    soilborne plant pathogens and resistance to foliar diseases. However, it may influence negatively the biological and chemical balance in the soil, due to the presence of considerable amounts of available N, soluble salts and heavy metals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge incorporation to the soil and the suppressiveness induction of nematodes (Meloydogine javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L.. Experiments were performed in laboratory and in a greenhouse using collected soil in an experimental area of the Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Jaguariúna, SP. This area received successive applications of sewage sludge, originary from the sewage treatment of Barueri and Franca, in São Paulo State, Brazil, during five years (1998-2002. In relation to the suppressiveness induction of nematodes, the sludge did not affect significantly the development of H. glycines in the soil, but reduced the M. javanica reproduction, in the soybean root.

  12. Caracterização molecular de populações do nematóide-de-cisto-da-soja com diferentes índices de parasitismo na cultivar Hartwig Molecular characterization of soybean cyst nematode populations with different parasitism index to the Hartwig cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vilela Abdelnoor

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, foi descoberta uma raça do nematóide-de-cisto-da-soja (NCS; Heterodera glycines que apresentou a capacidade de quebrar a resistência da cultivar Hartwig, até então considerada resistente a todas as raças conhecidas do nematóide. Essa população foi coletada no Município de Sorriso, Estado do Mato Grosso, e foi caracterizada como raça 4. Para verificar a diversidade genética entre esta e outras populações pertencentes às raças 4 e 9, foi feita uma caracterização molecular pela técnica de marcadores moleculares RAPD. Foram utilizadas nove populações do NCS, das quais quatro apresentavam a capacidade de parasitar 'Hartwig'. Foi verificado que as populações capazes de parasitar 'Hartwig' foram bastante diferentes das demais. Por meio de análise de agrupamento, com base nas distâncias genéticas encontradas, foram obtidos três grupos: o primeiro, constituído por indivíduos classificados como raça 4, mas que não parasitam 'Hartwig'; o segundo, constituído por quatro populações capazes de parasitar 'Hartwig', e o terceiro, por apenas uma população, classificado como raça 9, e que também não parasita 'Hartwig'. Este estudo confirmou que a população de NCS, encontrada em Sorriso, é geneticamente distinta das demais populações da raça 4 encontradas e constitui uma nova raça, denominada 4+.Recently, a new race of soybean cyst nematode (SCN (Heterodera glycines was discovered, which breaks the resistance of cultivar Hartwig, resistant to all known races of SCN. This population was obtained from soybean plants collected in the Sorriso county, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and is characterized as race 4. To verify if this isolate was different from others classified as races 4 and 9, their genetic diversity was analyzed by using the RAPD technique. Nine populations of SCN were analyzed, and only four populations were able to parasitize soybean plants cultivar Hartwig. Based on this study, it was

  13. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  15. [Study of interaction of wild soybean subpopulations (Glycine soja) in the valley of the Tsukanovka river in the south of Far East of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic populations of G. soja gives significant information about formation of different populations, and allows developing measures for preservation of unique natural gene bank of wild soybean, the species closely related to cultivated soybean. In this study, ISSR markers were used to carry out a comparative analysis of genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic subpopulations of G. soja for studying possible mutual influence of subpopulations of anthropogenic and natural phytocenosis on the formation of their genetic diversity and to study genetic structure of natural subpopulations of wild soybean in the contact places between the two types ofcenoses. As a result, the characteristics that describe the genetic diversity of studied populations have been identified and the important role of an interaction between subpopulations of different phytocenoses on formation of the spatial genetic structure of population in the valley of Tsukanovka river has been demonstrated.

  16. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  17. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae), is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1). The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop) motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection.

  18. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) via association and linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Sun, Mingming; Zhao, Yue; Lv, Chunmei; Li, Dongmei; Yang, Zhijiang; Huang, Long; Teng, Weili; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Soybean white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ((Lib.) W. Phillips), is currently considered to be the second most important cause of soybean yield loss due to disease. Research is needed to identify SWM-resistant germplasm and gain a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of SWM resistance in soybean. Stem pigmentation after treatment with oxaloacetic acid is an effective indicator of resistance to SWM. A total of 128 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistant to SWM) and 'Hefeng 25' (susceptible) and 330 diverse soybean cultivars were screened for the soluble pigment concentration of their stems, which were treated with oxalic acid. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying soluble pigment concentration were detected by linkage mapping of the RILs. Three hundred and thirty soybean cultivars were sequenced using the whole-genome encompassing approach and 25 179 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for the fine mapping of SWM resistance genes by genome-wide association studies. Three out of five SNP markers representing a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and a single locus on chromosome 13 (Gm13) were significantly associated with the soluble pigment content of stems. Three more SNPs that represented three minor QTLs for the soluble pigment content of stems were identified on another three chromosomes by association mapping. A major locus with the largest effect on Gm13 was found both by linkage and association mapping. Four potential candidate genes involved in disease response or the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were identified at the locus near the significant SNPs (soybean breeding for improving resistance to SWM. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifoliaL.) in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ethann R; Knezevic, Stevan Z; Sikkema, Peter H; Lindquist, John L; Jhala, Amit J

    2017-01-01

    Common ragweed emerges early in the season in Nebraska, USA and is competitive with soybean; therefore, preplant herbicides are important for effective control. Glyphosate has been used as a preplant control option; however, confirmation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) common ragweed in Nebraska necessitates evaluating other herbicide options. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of preplant (PP) herbicides followed by (fb) glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S -metolachlor applied post-emergence (POST) for control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean; (2) their effect on common ragweed density, biomass, and soybean yield; and (3) the partial economics of herbicide programs. A field experiment was conducted in a grower's field infested with GR common ragweed in Gage County, Nebraska, USA in 2015 and 2016. Preplant herbicide programs containing glufosinate, paraquat, 2,4-D, dimethenamid-P, cloransulam-methyl, or high rates of flumioxazin plus chlorimuron-ethyl provided 90-99% control of common ragweed at 21 d after treatment (DAT). The aforementioned PP herbicides fb a POST application of glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S -metolachlor controlled GR common ragweed 84-98% at soybean harvest, reduced common ragweed density (≤20 plants m -2 ) and biomass by ≥93%, and secured soybean yield 1,819-2,158 kg ha -1 . The PP fb POST herbicide programs resulted in the highest gross profit margins (US$373-US$506) compared to PP alone (US$91) or PRE fb POST programs (US$158). The results of this study conclude that effective and economical control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean is achievable with PP fb POST herbicide programs.

  20. Infestation ratings database for soybean aphid on early-maturity wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura; SA) is a major invasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in northern production regions of North America. Although insecticides are currently the main method for controlling this pest, SA-resistant cultivars are being developed to sustainably manage ...

  1. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  2. Effect of dose-rate of gamma irradiation (60Co) on the anti nutritional compounds phytic acid and antitrypsin on soybean (glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanhindarto, R.P.; Hariyadi, P.; Purnomo, E.H.; Irawati, Z.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the effect of gamma irradiation at different dose-rate on the anti-nutritional compounds (phytic acid and antitrypsin) and the color of soybean has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to analyze the influence of the dose-rate on the rate of change of anti-nutritional compounds and color. Samples were irradiated with dose-rates of 1.30; 3.17; 5.71 and 8.82 kGy/hour with irradiation time varied from 0.5 to 55 hours. Phytic acid content and antitrypsin activity, as well as their L α b color values were analyzed. Results showed that a simple first order kinetics model can be used to describe changes in the concentration of the anti-nutritional compounds and color soybeans during the radiation processing. Data indicate that irradiation process at higher dose-rate (shorter time) is more effective in destroying anti-nutritional compounds as compared to that of irradiation process at lower dose-rate (longer time). Furthermore, irradiation process at higher dose-rate (shorter time) also have less detrimental effect on color of the soybean and the resulted soybean flour as compared to that of irradiation process at lower dose-rate (longer time). These findings suggest that irradiation process at a same dose may potentially be optimized by selecting the most appropriate combination of dose-rate and time of irradiation. (author)

  3. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  5. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  6. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  7. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haicui; Ma, Qibin; Ye, Kaixin; Yang, Cunyi; Tang, Yujuan; Hao, Juan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Chen, Mingluan; Feng, Yuqi; Nian, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellic acids (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3) once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20)-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  8. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh

    2001-01-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray 60 Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55). Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect- orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  9. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Song, Qijian; Shi, Ainong; Li, Song; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs) IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2) in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  10. Influence of soil-extractable aluminium and pH on the uptake of aluminium from soil into the soybean plant (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D; Thornton, I; Ramsey, M H

    1993-09-01

    The effects of soil pH and other soil properties on the uptake of AI by soybean plants have been investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Six soils were compared that were developed over six contrasting bedrock types ranging widely in their AI content and other chemical and physical characteristics, namely Oxford Clay, Chalk, Lower Lias Clay, Devonian Shale, Granite and Lower Greensand. Soil pH varied naturally between soil types and each soil was also amended to give two other pH levels using elemental sulphur and/or calcium carbonate. AI concentrations in various parts of the soybean plants were determined by ICP-AES after acid digestion. The AI solubility in the soils and hence its availability to the plants was estimated using a number of different reagents designed to extract different forms of AI.The AI concentration measured in the soybean leaves was found to be predicted most accurately by the 'available' AI extracted from soils by 0.02 M CaCl2. The relationship appears to the linear, with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 (p <0.01). The AI content of the leaves increases with decreasing soil pH. The relationship is non-linear with a marked increase in leaf AI for soils with pH <4.4. The amounts of 'plant-available' AI in the soils extracted with 0.02 M CaCl2 was much less than that extracted with 0.05 M EDTA, although both increased markedly with decreasing soil pH. The amount of AI measured in the soybean plants was directly related to both the 'available' forms of AI in the soils, and also to the pH of the soils. Soil pH was identified as a major factor that controls the uptake of Al from soil into the soybean plant.

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qin

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2 in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  12. Registration of eight soybean germplasm lines resistant to soybean rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow is a threat to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production worldwide. Although SBR has not caused widespread damage in North America, the crop is still threatened by the disease because most cultivars in production are susceptible...

  13. Study of Agronomical and Ecological Parameters of Additive and Replacement Intercropping Systems of Corn (Zea maize L. and Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Piri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a multiple cropping agricultural practice involves growing two or more crops in close proximity. Intercropping of compatible plants also encourages biodiversity, by providing a habitat for a variety of insects and soil organisms that would not be present in a monocrop environment. This in turn can help limit outbreaks of crop pests by increasing predator biodiversity. Additionally, reducing the homogeneity of crops increases the barriers against biological dispersal of pests through the crops. Cereal–legume intercropping plays an important role in subsistence food production in developing countries, especially in the situations of limited resources. Nitrogen fixing legumes can be included to a greater extent in arable cropping systems via intercrops. Legumes contribute to maintaining the soil fertility via nitrogen fixation, which is increased in intercrops due to the more competitive character of the cereal for soil inorganic N. Ariel et al., (2013 showed that,Legume-Cereal Intercropping of corn and soybean may be advantageous compared to monocultures. Corn and soybean intercropping produce high yields of green matter and seed concentrates especially when the corn-soybean ratio is 1:2. Due to the importance of cereal–legume intercropping in the sustainability of agricultural systems, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of cereal-legume intercropping on the total biomass and grain yield and to find the best pattern of additive and replacement intercropping systems in Iranshahr Region. Material and Methods In order to study the agronomical and ecological parameters of additive and replacement intercropping systems of corn and soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-13 in the south of Iranshahr city on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of 8 different intercropping ratios: corn monoculture (C100S0 and soybean monoculture (C0S100 as sole

  14. PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAMAN KEDELAI PADA KONDISI CEKAMAN AIR DAN PEMBERIAN MIKOKOMPOS (Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) Under Water Stress Conditions and Mycocompost Application)

    OpenAIRE

    Buhaira, .; Soverda, Nerty; Lestari, Ardiyaningsih Puji; Achnopa, Yudi

    2013-01-01

    Thi research was conducted to increase soybean tolerance to drought and soil fertility by applying compost and   arbuscular mycorhiza fungi. This system will create environmental friendly agriculture or agricultural system focusing on utilizing biological manure which can improve land productivity. Experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with two treatment factors and three replicated . First factor is type of compost, municipal waste compost , cow manure compost, chicken manu...

  15. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, María L.; Pelizza, Sebastián A.; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Stenglein, Sebastián A.; Vianna, María F.; Scorsetti, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires an...

  17. Fine mapping of a Phytophthora-resistance gene RpsWY in soybean (Glycine max L.) by high-throughput genome-wide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Ren, Hailong; Xia, Qiuju; Song, Enliang; Tan, Zhiyuan; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Gengyun; Nian, Hai

    2017-05-01

    Using a combination of phenotypic screening, genetic and statistical analyses, and high-throughput genome-wide sequencing, we have finely mapped a dominant Phytophthora resistance gene in soybean cultivar Wayao. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in many soybean-production regions in the world. Identification of resistant gene(s) and incorporating them into elite varieties are an effective way for breeding to prevent soybean from being harmed by this disease. Two soybean populations of 191 F 2 individuals and 196 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed to map Rps gene by crossing a susceptible cultivar Huachun 2 with the resistant cultivar Wayao. Genetic analysis of the F 2 population indicated that PRR resistance in Wayao was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily named RpsWY, which was mapped on chromosome 3. A high-density genetic linkage bin map was constructed using 3469 recombination bins of the RILs to explore the candidate genes by the high-throughput genome-wide sequencing. The results of genotypic analysis showed that the RpsWY gene was located in bin 401 between 4466230 and 4502773 bp on chromosome 3 through line 71 and 100 of the RILs. Four predicted genes (Glyma03g04350, Glyma03g04360, Glyma03g04370, and Glyma03g04380) were found at the narrowed region of 36.5 kb in bin 401. These results suggest that the high-throughput genome-wide resequencing is an effective method to fine map PRR candidate genes.

  18. Phenotypic characterization and genetic dissection of nine agronomic traits in Tokachi nagaha and its derived cultivars in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangxiong; Li, Huihui; Fan, Xuhong; Huang, Wen; Yang, Jiyu; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Guo, Yong; Chang, Ruzhen; Wang, Dechun; Chen, Pengyin; Wang, Shuming; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2017-03-01

    By using the soybean founder parent Tokachi nagaha and its 137 derived cultivars as materials, a genome-wide association analysis was performed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying soybean yield and quality related traits at two planting densities. Results of ANOVA showed that genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction effects were all significant for each trait. The Tokachi nagaha-derived soybean population could be divided into two subpopulations based on molecular data, and accessions in each subpopulation were almost all from the same Chinese province. Relatedness was detected between pair-wise accessions within the population. Linkage disequilibrium was obvious and the level of intra-chromosome linkage disequilibrium was about 8370kb. A total of 40 SNPs with significant signal were detected and distributed across 18 chromosomes. Some SNP markers were located in or near regions where QTLs have been previously mapped by linkage analysis. Nineteen SNPs were identified both in low- and high- density planting treatments, indicating those loci were common and sTable Sixteen SNPs were co-associated with two or more different traits, suggesting that some of the QTLs/genes underlying those identified SNPs were likely to be pleiotropic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acidification and starch behaviour during co-fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and soybean (Glycine max Merr) into gari, an African fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Kongor, Edem John; Annor, George Amponsah; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using a Brabender viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy fortification up to 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8% to 60.4% within the 48 h fermentation time in the unfortified sample, with similar trends noted at all levels of fortification. Starch pasting characteristics showed varied trends in pasting temperature, peak viscosity, viscosity at 95 degrees C and at 50 degrees C-hold with increasing fermentation time and soybean concentration. Cassava could be co-fermented with soybean up to 20% concentration during gari processing without significant effect on its process and product quality characteristics.

  20. Association analysis for detecting significant single nucleotide polymorphisms for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at the seedling stage in soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Lihua; Kan, Guizhen; Du, Wenkai; Guo, Shiwei; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Guozheng; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2016-03-01

    Tolerance to low-phosphorus soil is a desirable trait in soybean cultivars. Previous quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance were mainly derived from bi-parental segregating populations and few reports from natural population. The objective of this study was to detect QTLs that regulate phosphorus-deficiency tolerance in soybean using association mapping approach. Phosphorus-deficiency tolerance was evaluated according to five traits (plant shoot height, shoot dry weight, phosphorus concentration, phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency) comprising a conditional phenotype at the seedling stage. Association mapping of the conditional phenotype detected 19 SNPs including 13 SNPs that were significantly associated with the five traits across two years. A novel cluster of SNPs, including three SNPs that consistently showed significant effects over two years, that associated with more than one trait was detected on chromosome 3. All favorable alleles, which were determined based on the mean of conditional phenotypic values of each trait over the two years, could be pyramided into one cultivar through parental cross combination. The best three cross combinations were predicted with the aim of simultaneously improving phosphorus acquisition efficiency and use efficiency. These results will provide a thorough understanding of the genetic basis of phosphorus deficiency tolerance in soybean.

  1. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  2. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  3. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta ao metribuzin aplicado em diferentes doses Response of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars to rates of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, foi realizado um experimento a campo, na re gião da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento das cultivares de soja BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná e Planalto em relação ao metribuzin aplicado em pré-emergência nas doses de 0, 490 e 980 g/ha. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram estimados através de avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, contagem da população de plantas, determinações do peso seco da parte aérea e do número de grãos e obtenção do rendimento de grãos. Para a maioria das variáveis em estudo, constatou-se que ocorreram reduções proporcionais aos acréscimos das doses do herbicida. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostraram que houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos de doses, tendo as cultivares Bragg e Davis demonstrado o menor efeito fito-tóxico, enquanto BR1 foi a que apresentou maior grau de injúria. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos alcançado pelas cultivares, foi constatado que Bragg comportou-se como altamente tolerante; BR1 e Davis como moderadamente tolerantes; IAS5 como intermediária e Paraná, Planalto e IAS4 como moderadamente suscetíveis.A field experiment was conducted during the 1978/79 growing season at the Central Depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response soybean cultivars BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná, and Planalto to metribuzin applied in pre-emergence at rates of 0, 490 and 980 g/ha. The effects of the treatments were evaluated through visual rating of phytotoxicity, counting of soybean population, and determinations of dry weight of soybean stems, number of grains per unit area and grain yield. For most of the variables measured there were reductions proportional to increasing rates of metribuzin appl ied. Results of visual evaluation of soybean injury showed statistical differences among rates of the herbicide, being Bragg and

  4. Ação do Agrostemin sobre a altura e o número de folhas de plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8 Effects of Agrostemmin on number of leaves and height of soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.H. Fernandes

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o efeito de um estimulante vegetal, o Agrostemin, sobre a altura e o número de folhas das plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Foram estudados seis tratamentos, correspondentes as seguintes dosagens, épocas e formas de aplicação: testemunha (T1; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes (T2; 0,125g Agrostemin/100g semente e pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T4; pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T5 e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T6. Realizaram-se três coletas de plantas, com intervalo de 14 dias. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se duas análises de variância com desdobramento em efeitos de regressão. Através dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o Agrostemin quando aplicado via semente (T2 ou via foliar à 500 ppm (T6, aumentou a altura e o número de folhas. Ao aplicar o produto via semente mais via foliar à 500 ppm (T4, estas medidas diminuiram.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Agrostemmin (plant stimulant on height and number of leaves of soybean plants (Glycine max L Merril cv. IAC-8. Six treatments were studied: check (T1; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed (T2; 0,125g Agrostemmin/100 seed and foliar spraying 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T4; foliar spraying 333 ppm (T5 and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T6. Three samplings were made at 14 day intervals. The experimental layout was completely randomized, using two variance, testing regression effects. Agrostemmin applied to the seed (T2 or sprayed on the leaves at the rate of 500 ppm (T6 increased height and number of leaves of soybean, whereas the combination of Agrostemmin applied to the seeds and sprayed at 500 ppm (T4 decreased those values.

  5. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not pass...

  6. Plant elicitor peptides promote plant defences against nematodes in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Huffaker, Alisa; Crippen, Devany; Robbins, Robert T; Goggin, Fiona L

    2018-04-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here, we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defences against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2 or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on above-ground growth, and up-regulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defence genes. GmPep1 induced the expression of its propeptide precursor (GmPROPEP1), a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein (NBS-LRR), a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI), Respiratory Burst Oxidase Protein D (RBOHD) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves. In addition, GmPep2 and GmPep3 seed treatments up-regulated RBOHD expression and ROS accumulation in roots and leaves. These results suggest that GmPeps activate plant defences through systemic transcriptional reprogramming and ROS signalling, and that Pep seed treatments represent a potential strategy for nematode management. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Emisiones de óxido nitroso en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]: efecto de la inoculación y de la fertilización nitrógenada Nitrous oxide emission during a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] culture: inoculation and nitrogen fertilization effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Ciampitti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El óxido nitroso absorbe radiación infrarroja contribuyendo al efecto invernadero; este gas es producido principalmente en el suelo, mediante los procesos de nitrificación y denitrificación. En un estudio a campo, sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización y la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill], sobre las emisiones de óxido nitroso. Los gases se extrajeron de cilindros de PVC y la lectura se realizó con cromatografía gaseosa. Las emisiones presentaron valores crecientes desde la siembra hacia madurez fisiológica del cultivo, para todos los tratamientos; este comportamiento fue concomitante con la evolución presentada por la humedad edáfica. La fertilización nitrogenada aumentó significativamente (PNitrous oxide gas absorbs infrared radiation contributing to the greenhouse effect; this gas is produced mainly in soil, by means of the processes of nitrification and denitrification. In a field study at the FAUBA on a typic Argiudol, we evaluated the effect of fertilization and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum during a soybean culture [Glycine max (L. Merrill], on nitrous oxide emisión. Gases were sampled with PVC cylinders and were read with gaseous chromatography. Emissions presented increasing values from seeding towards physiological maturity for all treatments; this behavior was similar to the evolution presented by nitrate level and soil moisture. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased (P<0.05 nitrous oxide emissions and inoculation only had a significant effect with the highest level of fertilization (P=0.09. Plots fertilized at highest dose and inoculated gave the greatest nitrous oxide emissions. The variable that better explains the emissions is the nitrate level (r² = 0.1899; P=0.0231.

  8. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on seed yield, N concentration and photosynthesis of nine soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Guanghua; Liu, Xiaobing; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2014-09-01

    Nine soybean cultivars widely cultivated in Northeast China were investigated in present study to assess their O3 sensitivities on the basis of the response of photosynthesis and seed yield to ambient and future ozone (O3) concentrations, and determine whether the effects of O3 vary with the developmental stages (flowering and seed filling stages). Relative to charcoal-filtered air (CF), elevated O3 concentration (E-O3, ambient air+40 ppb) significantly reduced soybean yields by 40%, with a range of 32-46% among cultivars. E-O3 also induced significant decreases in pigment contents, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll a fluorescence at both flowering and seed filling stages in most cultivars. Except net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance (gs) at seed filling stage, all variables showed no significant interaction between O3 and cultivar, suggesting that all tested cultivars had similar sensitivities to O3. The responses of seed N content to E-O3 differed among cultivars. Ambient O3 concentration (mean of daily concentration of 19 ppb) did not induce any change relative to CF. Significant positive relationship between endogenous gs in CF and yield loss among cultivars was found only at seed filling stage. Positive correlation between effects of E-O3 on leaf N content and effects on light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) indicated that gs and leaf N content at seed filling stage contributes to yield loss and decreased photosynthesis by E-O3, respectively. It can be inferred that E-O3 had a larger negative effects on seed filling stage than flowering stage of soybean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of glyoxalase gene families in soybean (Glycine max) indicate their development and abiotic stress specific response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ajit; Islam, Tahmina

    2016-04-16

    Glyoxalase pathway consists of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII) which detoxifies a highly cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) to its non-toxic form. MG may form advanced glycation end products with various cellular macro-molecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA; that ultimately lead to their inactivation. Role of glyoxalase enzymes has been extensively investigated in various plant species which showed their crucial role in salinity, drought and heavy metal stress tolerance. Previously genome-wide analysis of glyoxalase genes has been conducted in model plants Arabidopsis and rice, but no such study was performed in any legume species. In the present study, a comprehensive genome database analysis of soybean was performed and identified a total of putative 41 GLYI and 23 GLYII proteins encoded by 24 and 12 genes, respectively. Detailed analysis of these identified members was conducted including their nomenclature and classification, chromosomal distribution and duplication, exon-intron organization, and protein domain(s) and motifs identification. Expression profiling of these genes has been performed in different tissues and developmental stages as well as under salinity and drought stresses using publicly available RNAseq and microarray data. The study revealed that GmGLYI-7 and GmGLYII-8 have been expressed intensively in all the developmental stages and tissues; while GmGLYI-6, GmGLYI-9, GmGLYI-20, GmGLYII-5 and GmGLYII-10 were highly abiotic stress responsive members. The present study identifies the largest family of glyoxalase proteins to date with 41 GmGLYI and 23 GmGLYII members in soybean. Detailed analysis of GmGLYI and GmGLYII genes strongly indicates the genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication of the glyoxalase members. Moreover, this study provides a strong basis about the biological role and function of GmGLYI and GmGLYII members in soybean growth, development and stress physiology.

  11. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  12. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of RpsJS, a novel resistance gene to Phytophthora sojae in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jutao; Li, Lihong; Zhao, Jinming; Huang, Jing; Yan, Qiang; Xing, Han; Guo, Na

    2014-04-01

    We finely map a novel resistance gene ( RpsJS ) to Phytophthora sojae in soybean. RpsJS was mapped in 138.9 kb region, including three NBS-LRR type predicted genes, on chromosome 18. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae) has been reported in most soybean-growing regions throughout the world. Development of PRR resistance varieties is the most economical and environmentally safe method for controlling this disease. Chinese soybean line Nannong 10-1 is resistant to many P. sojae isolates, and shows different reaction types to P. sojae isolates as compared with those with known Rps (Resistance to P. sojae) genes, which suggests that the line may carry novel Rps genes or alleles. A mapping population of 231 F(2) individuals from the cross of Nannong 10-1 (Resistant, R) and 06-070583 (Susceptible, S) was used to map the Rps gene. The segregation fits a ratio of 3R:1S within F(2) plants, indicating that resistance in Nannong 10-1 is controlled by a single dominant gene (designated as RpsJS). The results showed that RpsJS was mapped on soybean chromosome 18 (molecular linkage group G, MLG G) flanked by SSR (simple repeat sequences) markers BARCSOYSSR_18_1859 and SSRG60752K at a distance of 0.9 and 0.4 cm, respectively. Among the 14 genes annotated in this 138.9 kb region between the two markers, three genes (Glyma18g51930, Glyma18g51950 and Glyma18g51960) are the nucleotide-binding site and a leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) type gene, which may be involved in recognizing the presence of pathogens and ultimately conferring resistance. Based on marker-assisted resistance spectrum analyses of RpsJS and the mapping results, we inferred that RpsJS was a novel gene or a new allele at the Rps4, Rps5 or Rps6 loci.

  13. Soybean germplasm accession seedling reactions to soybean rust isolates from Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a threat to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in regions of the world where winters are not cold enough to completely eliminate the many hosts of the fungus, so resistant soybean cultivars would be useful in managing this disease. Res...

  14. Recovery Plan for Red Leaf Blotch of Soybean Caused by Phoma glycinicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red leaf blotch (RLB) of soybean is caused by the fungal pathogen Phoma glycinicola, formerly known in the plant pathology literature as Pyrenochaeta glycines, Dactuliophora glycines, and Dactuliochaeata glycines. The disease presently occurs in only a few African countries on soybean and a wild leg...

  15. No choice but to find resistance to soybean aphid biotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] utilizes its natural defenses to limit soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) injury, reducing insecticide reliance. Specific genes called Rag or Resistance to Aphis glycines are unfavorable to SBA and may suppress their development and...

  16. Mind your elders: wild soybean’s contribution to soybean aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, biotype 4 soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) is the most virulent SBA biotype. Overcoming the most aphid resistant genes, SBA biotype 4 has become the greatest challenge in utilizing plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Soybean’s wild ancestor Glycine soja (Sie...

  17. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Biotic Production Potential and Climate Regulation Potential. A Case Study for Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean (Glycine max in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Piastrellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact potential of land use on biotic production and climate regulation in the agricultural phase of a product, taking into account the varied soil and crop management. Land occupation and transformation impacts of soybean production in Argentina for different agricultural systems are evaluated. The results indicate that the magnitude of occupation and transformation impacts is considerably reduced by implementing no-tillage instead of conventional tillage. Nevertheless, the methodologies adopted are unable to show any of the expected differences between rainfed or irrigation systems, crop sequences and delays in seed-planting, due to failures in the specific characterization factors. On the other hand, an uncertainty is demonstrated by the results associated with the choice of regeneration time corresponding to the different ecoregions over which soybean cultivation extends across the country. One of the recommendations that comes to the fore is to consider in the characterization factors increments in the soil organic carbon stock and in the mineralization rates, associated with the presence of the preceding crop and the greater availability of water in the soil of irrigated systems.

  18. Nitrate reductase and nitrogenase activities in relation to N-uptake from soil, 15N-fertilizer and symbiotic fixation in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Saito, S.M.T.; Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrogenase (ARA) activities were evaluated in relation to nitrogen in the plant from soil (NFS), fertilizer (NFF) and symbiotic fixation (NFN 2 ) to study the pattern of utilization of nitrogen in nodulated and non nodulated soybean, 35, 55 and 75 days after planting. Three levels of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 - added to soil were used (0 - 25 and 50 kg N/ha), being the experiment conducted in the greenhouse, with a split plot statistical design and 4 replications. Maximum levels of RNA and ARA occurred 55 days after planting. Addition of 50 kg N/ha decreased NRA at all harvesting time studied; and nodule ARA only 75 days after planting. By that time the nodulated isoline showed higher NRA than the non nodulated one, the NFS and NFF of the isolines were not different 35 and 55 days after planting, but decreased at the last harvest, especially in nodulated soybean. Symbiotic N 2 -fixation increased plant-N after 55 days growth, contribution about 65% of plant-N in the period between 55 and 75 days after planting. Nodulated plant showed higher N than non nodulated, a sinergistic effect of the three sources of N studied on N increase of nodulated plants was observed. (Author) [pt

  19. Elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract effect on improving levels of Ter-119+Cd59+ in a mouse model fed a high fat-fructose diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Yunita Diyah; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    People who have unbalanced lifestyles and habits such as consuming high fat and sugar foods, as well as the lack of physical activity, have an increased risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The condition of obesity occurs due to an excess of nutrients which leads to low-grade inflammation. Inflammation induced by obesity causes unstable bone marrow homeostasis which is associated with proliferation and differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). This study aimed to observe the erythroid progenitor (TER-119) and complement regulator (CD59) on bone marrow cells in mouse models fed a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). This research was conducted by modeling obese mice using high fat and fructose food for 20 weeks, and then treating them with elicited soybean extract (ESE) for four weeks with several doses: low dose (78 mg/kgBB), moderate dose (104 mg/kgBB) and high dose (130 mg/kgBB). Cell TER119+CD59+ expression decreased in the HFFD group compared to the normal group. In the low, moderate and high dose group, TER119+CD59+ expression significantly increased compared to the HFFD group. These results demonstrate that soybean elicited extract can improve the hematopoietic system by increasing TER119+CD59+ expression in a high fat and fructose diet mouse model.

  20. Nutrição mineral da soja perene (Glycine wightii Verdc.: I - Ensaio de adubação em solo de cerrado Mineral fertilization of soybeans (Glycine wightii Verdc.: I - Fertilizer trial in "cerrado" soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. C. Lovadini

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados de uma experiência de adubação com delineamento fatorial 3³, instalada em solo de cerrado (Latossolo Vermelho Escuro fase arenosa, na Estação Experimental de Jupiá (CESP, para o estudo dos efeitos da aplicação de calcário, fósforo e potássio, em três níveis, na produção de forragem de soja perene. Os resultados experimentais revelam que o calcário e o fósforo produziram efeitos altamente significativos sôbre a produção; o potássio não provocou efeitos significativos, e tampouco foram significativas as interações entre os elementos estudados. Embora não significativa, ocorreu interação negativa entre calcário e fósforo: o efeito de cada um dêles foi diminuído sempre que a dose do outro foi aumentada.In this paper are discussed the results of a factorial experiment 3³ designed to study the effect of Ca (dolomite lime, P (superphosphate and K (potassium chlorate, on the production of perennial soybean on Dark Red Latosol. Both Ca and P alone had a highly significant effect on the production whereas K did not show any effect. There was no interaction among the three elements, but it was noticed that as Ca levels were increased it decreased the effect of P and as P levels were increased it decreased the Ca effect. In other words there was a negative relationship which was not significant.

  1. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003. Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004. Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004. Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan, nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers. To analyze the growth of

  2. NADPH oxidase is involved in regulation of gene expression and ROS overproduction in soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium-induced oxidative burst is partially mediated by NADPH oxidase. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase in soybeans’ response to short-term cadmium stress. The application of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, affected expression of two Cd-inducible genes, encoding DOF1 and MYBZ2 transcription factors. This effect was observed after 3 h of treatment. Interestingly, Cd-dependent increases in NADPH oxidase activity occurred only after a period of time ranging from 6 and 24 h of stress. Stimulation of the enzyme correlated in time with a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Further analysis revealed that pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity during 24 h of Cd stress does not affect Cd uptake, seedling growth, or the level of lipid peroxidation. The role of NADPH oxidase in the response of soybean seedlings to short-term Cd exposure is discussed.

  3. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003. Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004. Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004. Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan, nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers. To analyze the growth of

  4. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    -ecological zones and two varieties of white maize grains (Local and DMR-ESRW) produced in the same environmental conditions were compared. These grains were used in four balanced diets for unsexed broiler chickens (Re Bro) from 8 to 49 days of age. Per kg of dry matter (DM), a difference of about 0.396 MJ...... effect (P>0.05) of the grains' origin or variety on the growth performance of chickens. The daily feed intake, the daily weight gain, the feed conversion ratio and the final body weight of chickens at 28 and 49 days of age were similar between diets. In addition, the partial substitution of maize...... by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...

  5. Genotype X environment interactions and stability of soybean for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the world's leading source of oil and protein. It has the highest protein content of all food crops and is second only to groundnut in terms of oil content among food legumes. Study on genotype x enviroment interaction (GE) and stability of twenty soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes ...

  6. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, A A; Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Yu; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30-100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect.

  7. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  8. Carboidratos das fibras de cotilédones e proteínas de produtos derivados de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril Carbohydrates from cotyledon fibers and proteins of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Fátima Seibel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibras alimentares obtidas de cotilédones de soja original (FAO e micronizada (FAM foram fracionadas e avaliadas quanto a polissacarídeos e monossacarídeos constituintes. O componente majoritário foi a hemicelulose, totalizando 59% em FAO e 51% na FAM, a pectina representou em média 14% e a celulose 8,5%. As duas amostras de fibras apresentaram 17 mg.g-1 de ácidos urônicos e a mesma composição de monossacarídeos, sendo galactose, glicose e arabinose/ramnose os principais componentes. As proteínas de concentrado protéico, farinha desengordurada e fibras alimentares (FAO e FAM foram avaliadas quanto à solubilidade em diferentes solventes (NaCl, água, etanol e NaOH e quanto ao peso molecular. A farinha desengordurada de soja teve a maior parte das proteínas passível de extração com solução salina, e o concentrado protéico e as fibras de cotilédones com solução alcalina. A fração protéica que não foi extraída com nenhum dos quatro solventes utilizados permaneceu no resíduo, o maior percentual estava no concentrado, seguido pela fibra alimentar micronizada e a farinha, já a menor quantidade estava na fibra alimentar original. A eletroforese das proteínas dos quatro ingredientes alimentares mostrou as subunidades que constituem as frações β-conglicinina e glicinina. Bandas com peso molecular próximo aos 30 kDa foram reveladas nas proteínas extraídas das fibras de cotilédones de soja, sendo provavelmente glicoproteínas de parede celular, ricas em hidroxiprolina.Dietary fibers from soybean cotyledons classified as original (ODF and milled (MDF were fractionated and evaluated as to fractions and monosaccharide composition. The major constituent was hemicellulose, 59% in ODF and 51% MDF, pectin was in average 14% and cellulose, 8.5%. Both samples had 17 mg.g-1 uronic acids and the same composition in monosaccharides: galactose, glucose and arabinose/rhamnose, after hydrolysis. Protein fractions extracted from

  9. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation 60Co effect on the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of different cultivars of soybean grains (Glycine max (L.))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Tais Carolina Franqueira de

    2006-01-01

    With the increase of the world population, creative strategies will be necessary to control food production. To achieve this challenge, new cultivars have been development, though different techniques and characteristics. To improve food conservation, a plant of methods can be used. The use of Cobalto-60 radiation is a secure and useful method to increase the life time of foods. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soybean, some alterations must be studied. This study has the objective to determinate this alterations caused by irradiation (with doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked grain of five different cultivars of soybean (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48), this study includes analysis of time cooking and hydratation, and chemical analysis of proximate composition, in vitro digestibility of proteins, percentage of deamidation , phenolics compounds, trypsin inhibitors and tannins. The amount of water absorbed by each grain varied from 14.00 to 16.66mL, and the time cooking varied from 119.67 to 291.33 minutes. The values found for ash were 4.90 to 6.08%, for protein from 21.23 to 36.99%, for fat from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble staple fibres from 1.37 to 4.03% and insoluble staple fibres from 15.97 to 18.87%. The deamidation percentage in the different samples varied of 17,34 to 57.79% and the digestibility in vitro from 84.45 to 89.11%. Inside of the anti nutritional factors, the total compounds phenolics varied from 3.9 to 9.7 mg/g, the units of trypsin inhibited from 24.75 to 57.53 UTI/g and the tannins from 0.02 to 0.32 mg/g. For the physical analyses it showed differences in the time of hydratation among them and the irradiation promoted reduction in the time, but not in the amount of absorbed water; in the cooking time it had reduction with the increase of the doses of radiation; the differences found in the proximate composition did not have influence with the irradiation, but with the different cultivars; for the digestibility

  10. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO₂] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2014-09-01

    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycine max

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    otoigiakih

    1Institute of Cereal and Oil crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences/ Shijiazhuang Branch Center of. National Center for Soybean Improvement / the Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Breeding, Shijiazhuang,. 050031, Peoples' ... In variance with previous reports that domestication- related traits are ...

  12. Nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium nutrients uptake of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) on three levels of radiation intensities and soil moisture content of latosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahbuddin, H.; Apriyana, Y.; Heryani, N.; Darmijati, S.; Las, I.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was implemented from July to August 1994 in greenhouse of the Ecophysiology Division, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops using a split-split plot design with three replications. Radiation intensity levels as main plot were: without shelter, 25 percent shelter, and 67 percent shelter. Levels of available water in soil as sub-plot were: less than 25 percent soil water availability, content of soil water availability, and 125 percent soil water availability. Soybean varieties as sub-sub plots were: Wilis, Malabar, and Lokon. The experiment showed that nitrogen and phosphor uptake of Wilis was the highest, 41.228 mg and 1.225 mg per hill, especially under 100 percent light intensity and soil water availability more than 25 percent. Under 25 percent shade the potassium uptake of Wilis was 45.997 mg, this was higher than Malabar. The highest increased in seed dry weight, up to 0.733 g, occurred if soil water content changed from available water to 125 percent water content. One calory decreased in radiation caused 0.006 g decreased in seed dry weight per hill, Malabar variety produced an average of 0.892 g seed dry weight, where each millimeter of water will increased 2.0 mg of dry seed weight. Malabar variety had water use efficiency of 0.043 percent g/ml and radiation use efficiency 0.011 percent g/cal. Malabar variety produced the heaviest 100 good seed (7.293 g), followed by Wilis variety (5.520 g) and Lokon variety (4.597 g) [in

  13. Effect of Organic Growth Stimulants and Magnetic Water on Oil Harvest Index and Protein Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. at Different Harvest Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of organic growth stimulant and harvest time of soybean cultivar Williams on oil harvest index and protein yield, factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 15 treatment and three replications of Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht in 2012-2013 year. The experiment Treatments were including Kadostim (50.00, Aminol forte (20.00, organic manure (cow,10 ton.ha-1, magnetic water (20 lit.m-2 plus the control (no spray and three harvest time 1. the first harvest when seed pods in main stem had 25-20% moisture, 2. the second harvest when in pods maturity (yellowing of more than 95% of pods and seeds per pod in the main stem had 15-14% moisture, 3. the third harvest when the main stem had less than 14% moisture. Results showed that significant differences exist between the spray application and harvest time in oil harvest index and protein yields. spray application with kadostim had the maximum oil harvest index (8.7% and biological yield (5933 kg.ha-1. Mean comparison of the interaction showed that spray application of kadostim at the second harvest produced highest grain yield (2853 kg.ha-1, oil yield (664 kg.ha-1 and protein yield (1019 kg.ha-1. The results of this experiment, it seems that Kadostim and organic manure spray application at the second harvest to help increase production, and a step towards reducing environmental pollution and sustainable agriculture is.

  14. The effect of nano-silica fertilizer concentration and rice hull ash doses on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciaty, T.; Purnomo, D.; Sakya, A. T.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    Agriculture is facing a number of challenges included limited water supply, low nutrient use efficiency, etc affected by climate change. Nano-silica is a product of nanotechnology, the frontier technologies to enhance crop productivity under climate change threats. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of nano silica concentration and rice hull ash on growth and yield of soybean. The experiment was conducted at Gagasari village, Cirebon, West Java from March until June 2017. The treatments were arranged by using factorial completely randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was a concentration of nano silica fertilizer consisted of four levels i.e., 0, 1.75, 2.5, and 3.75 ml.l‑1. The second factor was doses of rice hull ash consisted of four levels i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3 ton.ha‑1. Each treatment combinations was repeated three times. The result showed that concentration of nano silica individually affected the number of leaves and number of branches, NAR and RGR, productive branches at 21, 30-45, and 35 daps, respectively. It also affected the seed dry weight plant‑1 and plot‑1. Meanwhile, doses of rice hull ash affected LAI, NAR, and RGR, 15-30, and 30-45 dap, respectively. Dry seed weight plot‑1 was also affected by doses of rice hull ash. There was an interaction effect between nano-silica concentration and doses of rice hull ash on number pods.plant‑1. Combinations of 2.5 ml.l‑1 nano-silica and 3 ton.ha‑1 of rice hull ash gave the highest number pods.plant‑1.

  15. Isoflavone Malonyltransferases GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 Differently Modify Isoflavone Glucosides in Soybean (Glycine max under Various Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Malonylated isoflavones are the major forms of isoflavonoids in soybean plants, the genes responsible for their biosyntheses are not well understood, nor their physiological functions. Here we report a new benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase, deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase (BAHD family isoflavone glucoside malonyltransferase GmIMaT1, and GmIMaT3, which is allelic to the previously characterized GmMT7 and GmIF7MaT. Biochemical studies showed that recombinant GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 enzymes used malonyl-CoA and several isoflavone 7-O-glucosides as substrates. The Km values of GmIMaT1 for glycitin, genistin, and daidzin were 13.11, 23.04, and 36.28 μM, respectively, while these of GmIMaT3 were 12.94, 26.67, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Transgenic hairy roots overexpressing both GmIMaTs had increased levels of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin, and contents of daidzin and glycitin increased only in GmIMaT1-overexpression lines. The increased daidzein and genistein contents were detected only in GmIMaT3-overexpression lines. Knockdown of GmIMaT1 and GmIMaT3 reduced malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin contents, and affected other isoflavonoids differently. GmIMaT1 is primarily localized to the endoplasmic reticulum while GmIMaT3 is primarily in the cytosol. By examining their transcript changes corresponding to the altered isoflavone metabolic profiles under various environmental and hormonal stresses, we probed the possible functions of GmIMaTs. Two GmIMaTs displayed distinct tissue expression patterns and respond differently to various factors in modifying isoflavone 7-O-glucosides under various stresses.

  16. Efeito de doses de metribuzin no crescimento e na conversão da energia solar em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L . merrill Effect of metribuzin doses on the growth and solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a eficiência na conversão da energia solar foram estudados em soja (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivada em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin (0, 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1. O valor máximo da conversão da energia solar foi de 0,75%, para as plantas cultiva das na maior dose do herbicida. Os valores da conversão da energia solar média durante o ciclo da cultura foram 0,32 ; 0,31 ; 0,32 e 0,33%. em ordem crescente de dose do metribuzin. De modo geral, na fase vegetativa as plantas controle apresentaram valores inferiores em todos os valores de crescimento determinados, superando as tratadas com metribuzin somente na fase reprodutiva, mostrando que no período crítico de competição o dano causado pelas plantas daninhas é maior que a possível fitotoxicida de causada pelo metribuzin.Growth analysis and evaluation of solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, Uberaba unver field conditions and four doses of metribuzin (0,0;0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were performed in this study. Maximum solar energy conversion was 0,75% for pla nts tre ate d wit h 1,05 kg i.a.ha -1 metribuzin. The aver age of solar energy conversion throughout the entire crop cycle were 0,32, 0,31 , 0,32 and 0,33% for the increasing metribuzin doses. In general, the control showed lower figures for all growth values studied than the treated during the vegetative phase. During the reproductive phase, however, they surpassed those tre ated with metribuzin, showing that in the critical period of competition weeds were more harmful than the phytotoxicity produced by metribuzin.

  17. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases. In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7. A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7 were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2 and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi. Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi

  18. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Genetic analysis of resistance to soybean rust disease | Kiryowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow.) causes the most damage of all the pathogens known to attack soybean (Glycine max. Merril). A study was conducted in Uganda to estimate the magnitude of genetic parameters controlling soybean rust resistance and to estimate narrow sense heritability of the resistance.

  20. Molecular Soybean-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Steven A; Qi, Mingsheng; Innes, Roger W; Ma, Wenbo; Lopes-Caitar, Valéria; Hewezi, Tarek

    2016-08-04

    Soybean hosts a wide variety of pathogens that cause significant yield losses. The importance of soybean as a major oilseed crop has led to research focused on its interactions with pathogens, such as Soybean mosaic virus, Pseudomonas syringae, Phytophthora sojae, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, and Heterodera glycines. Pioneering work on soybean's interactions with these organisms, which represent the five major pathogen groups (viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes), has contributed to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence and immunity. These mechanisms involve conserved and unique features that validate the need for research in both soybean and homologous model systems. In this review, we discuss identification of effectors and their functions as well as resistance gene-mediated recognition and signaling. We also point out areas in which model systems and recent advances in resources and tools have provided opportunities to gain deeper insights into soybean-pathogen interactions.

  1. Qualidade da aplicação aérea líquida com uma aeronave agrícola experimental na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L. Liquid aerial pesticide application quality with an experimental agricultural aircraft in soybean crop (Glycine Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços da tecnologia de aplicação aérea de agroquímicos têm-se dado na direção de redução do volume de calda, o que pode ocasionar má distribuição e consequente deposição irregular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da aplicação de calda de pulverização em aplicação aérea, na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L.. Para a aplicação, foi utilizada uma aeronave agrícola experimental, aplicando um volume de calda de 20 L ha-1 . Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de soja, foi utilizado corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização. Estas folhas foram lavadas, e o volume determinado por espectrofotometria. Para a obtenção do espectro de gotas, foram utilizados alvos artificiais constituídos por papel hidrossensível, distribuídos no terço superior e médio das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de fator único, considerando as diferentes posições na planta, e cartas de controle foram feitas a partir dos limites inferior e superior de controle. A aplicação aérea de calda de pulverização na cultura da soja apresentou menores valores de diâmetro da mediana volumétrica, amplitude relativa e cobertura no terço médio em relação ao terço superior da cultura da soja. Houve menor deposição da calda de pulverização no terço inferior. Os indicadores de cobertura da calda de pulverização demonstraram que a aplicação aérea com a aeronave agrícola experimental avaliada não se encontra sob controle estatístico de processo, ou seja, fora do padrão de qualidade.Advances in aerial pesticide application technology of chemicals have been given in the direction of reducing the syrup volume, which can cause poor distribution and consequent irregular deposition. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the syrup spray on aerial application in soybean crop (Glycine Max

  2. Pilonidal Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2015. Pilonidal cyst Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Pancreatic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatic cysts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. Ovarian Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any way, your doctor will probably do a laparotomy. A laparotomy uses a bigger incision to remove the cyst ... your doctor about all of this before the surgery. Your doctor will also talk to you about ...

  5. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  6. Teste de lixiviação de potássio para avaliação do vigor de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L.Merril] Potassium leaching test for the evaluation of soybean seed vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.F.S. Dias

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal investigar a possibilidade de se obter indicações rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja através do teste de lixiviação de potássio, cuja eficiência foi avaliada comparativamente as informações fornecidas por outros métodos considerados adequados para a determinação do vigor. Para tanto, utilizou-se quatro lotes de sementes de soja dos cultivares IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento artificial, condutividade elétrica e determinação do grau de umidade. Além destes foram conduzidos estudos de lixiviação de potássio utilizando-se amostras de sementes não danificadas e de sementes fisicamente puras. A quantidade de potássio lixiviado foi avaliada em fotômetro de chama após 60, 90, 120 e 150 minutos de embebição a 30ºC. As avaliações feitas aos 60, 90 e 120 minutos mostraram-se adequadas para a identificação de lotes com diferentes níveis de vigor, constituindo-se em um método simples e rápido para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes.This work was performed to investigate the possibilities of providing rapid indications on the physiological quality of seeds through the potassium leaching test. Four lots of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds, cultivars IAC-8 and IAC-15 were submitted to germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seed moisture tests. In addition, studies on potassium leaching were conducted with samples of selected non damaged seeds and with pure seeds. The amount of leached potassium was evaluated in a flame photometer after a 60, 90, 120 and 150 minute imbibition at 30°C. The evaluations after 60, 90 and 120 minutes were suitable for the identification of lots with different levels of vigour, thus proving to be a simple and rapid method for seed vigour evaluation.

  7. Perfomance evaluation of a direct injection engine using different blends of soybean (Glycine max methyl biodiesel Avaliação do desempenho de um motor de injeção direta sob diferentes misturas de biodiesel metílico de soja (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. Nietiedt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is used widely in Brazil and worldwide. On the other hand, the growing environmental awareness leads to a greater demand for renewable energy resources. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the use of different blends of soybean (Glycine max methyl biodiesel and diesel in an ignition compression engine with direct injection fuel. The tests were performed on an electric eddy current dynamometer, using the blends B10, B50 and B100, with 10; 50 e 100% of biodiesel, respectively, in comparison to the commercial diesel B5, with 5% of biodiesel added to the fossil diesel. The engine performance was analyzed trough the tractor power take off (PTO for each fuel, and the best results obtained for the power and the specific fuel consumption, respectively, were: B5 (44.62 kW; 234.87 g kW-1 h-1; B10 (44.73 kW; 233.78 g kW-1 h-1; B50 (44.11 kW; 250.40 g kW-1 h-1 e B100 (43.40 kW; 263.63 g kW-1 h-1. The best performance occurred with the use of B5 and B10 fuel, without significant differences between these blends. The B100 fuel showed significant differences compared to the other fuels.O óleo diesel combustível é utilizado em grande escala no País e no mundo. Por outro lado, a crescente conscientização ambiental acarreta em maior demanda por recursos energéticos renováveis. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de diferentes misturas de biodiesel metílico de soja (Glycine max e diesel mineral em um motor de ignição por compressão e injeção direta de combustível. Os procedimentos de ensaio foram realizados em um dinamômetro elétrico de correntes parasitas, utilizando as proporções de mistura B10, B50 e B100, com 10; 50 e 100% de biodiesel, respectivamente, em comparação ao diesel comercial B5, com 5% de biodiesel adicionado ao diesel fóssil. O desempenho do motor foi analisado através da tomada de potência do trator (TDP para cada mistura, sendo que os melhores resultados obtidos para potência e consumo espec

  8. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  9. Comparative study of phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids compositional profiles in black seed-coated soybeans (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) depending on pickling period in brewed vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-07-18

    Pickled soybeans or vinegar beans have long been used as a folk remedy and also a supplemental nutritional source in Korea. In general the pickling process in vinegar improves the digestibility of soybeans as well as increases the availability of various (non-)nutrients in soybeans. However, detailed information about the changes in functional substances such as (poly)phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids (FAs) in soybeans during the pickling process is quite limited. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the changes in the selected phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and FAs in soybeans as a function of the pickling time. The sum of the total phenolics in both the pickled soybeans and the pickling solutions increased by as much as 47% after pickling. Naringenin, vanillin, and catechin were the major phenolics observed in the pickled soybeans and pickling solutions. The total vitamin E content in the pickled soybeans decreased by 23% after pickling, although no vitamin E molecules were found in the pickling solution. γ-Tocopherol was abundant in the untreated soybeans, but decreased by ~29% after pickling. Both the total and major FA contents varied by less than 1% during the pickling period. In this study, a 10-20 day pickling period may be considered suitable in terms of retention of functional substances in the pickled soybeans, such as selected phenolics, vitamin E, and FAs. Our findings provide basic information and insight into the production of functional compounds in soybeans upon immersing in brewed vinegar, and also may be helpful toward improving the health-functionality of soybean-based foods in the food industry. Graphical abstract How to change bioactive compounds during the pickling process?

  10. Influência de abelhas africanizadas na concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207 = Influence of africanized honeybees on sugar concentration in the nectar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill em áreas com ou sem a presença de abelhas Apis mellifera L. Foi utilizada a variedade Coodetec 207 em quatro tratamentos: área de 24 m2 coberta com colônia de abelhas africanizadas em seu interior; área semicoberta com livre acesso para insetos visitantes; área livre e área coberta sem abelhas. As flores foram coletadas durante três dias, a cada 2h. e a concentração dos açúcares totais por flor foi determinada por espectrofotometria. A área coberta com abelha apresentou maior concentração de açúcares totais em relação à área coberta sem abelhas e livre, contudo, aconcentração de açúcares totais na área livre não diferiu da concentração observada na área coberta sem abelhas. Houve redução na concentração média de sacarose na área livre, diferindo das concentrações nas demais áreas. A concentração média de glicose não diferiu entre os tratamentos, enquanto que a de frutose não apresentou diferença entre as áreas cobertas com abelhas, semicoberta e livre. A variedade Coodetec 207 da soja apresentou maior concentração total de açúcares e de frutose nas áreas cobertas com abelhas. Contudo, a presença de Apis mellifera não interferiu nesta concentração de açúcares no néctar das flores de soja desta variedade.This research was carried out to evaluate the sugar concentration in soybean nectar in areas with Africanized honeybee colonies. The var. Coodetec 207 was used in four treatments: 24 m2 covered area with Africanized honeybee colony inside, semi-covered area for free insect visitation, uncovered area, and covered area without insect visitation. Flowers were harvested for three days at two-hour intervals, and the total sugar concentration per flower was determined by spectrophotometry. The covered area with Africanized honeybee colony presented higher sugar concentration than the covered area

  11. Modeling distribution and abundance of soybean aphid in soybean fields using measurements from the surrounding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlai, C A; Sikkema, S; Hallett, R H; Newman, J; Schaafsma, A W

    2010-02-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a severe pest of soybean in central North America. Outbreaks of the aphid in Ontario are often spotty in distribution, with some geographical areas affected severely and others with few or no aphid populations occurring in soybean for the duration of the season. A. glycines spend summers on soybean and overwinter on buckthorn, a shrub that is widespread in southern Ontario and is commonly found in agricultural hedgerows and at the margins of woodlots. A. glycines likely use both short distance migratory flights from buckthorn and longer distance dispersal flights in the search for acceptable summer hosts. This study aims to model colonization of soybean fields by A. glycines engaged in early-season migration from overwintering hosts. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was used to rank numerous competing linear and probit models using field parameters to predict aphid presence, colonization, and density. The variable that best modeled aphid density in soybean fields in the early season was the ratio of buckthorn density to field area, although dramatic differences in relationships between the parameters were observed between study years. This study has important applications in predicting areas that are at elevated risk of developing economically damaging populations of soybean aphid and which may act as sources for further infestation.

  12. Formation of monofluorocarbon compounds by single cell cultures of Glycine max growing on inorganic fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.A.; Shorthouse, M.

    1972-01-01

    Single cell cultures of Glycine max were exposed to sodium fluoride to determine the capacity for synthesis of fluoroacetate and fluorocitrate. This capacity had previously been observed in soybean plants and alfalfa. The results show that cell cultures of Glycine max can also synthesize these fluoroacids.

  13. Investigating the use of Active Crop Canopy Sensors for Soybean Management in Field Research and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua Jay

    Approximately one-third of soybean yield gain is a result of improved agronomic practices, which includes disease and insect management. Treatments containing fungicide, insecticide, biological, and nutrient components were evaluated in Nebraska soybean fields during 2013 through 2015 to determine effects on soybean yield and profitability. The greatest yield (4.83 Mg ha -1, p=0.019) was achieved with a complete seed and pod set treatment, but resulted in the second lowest calculated net return (US151 ha -1, p=0.019) after accounting for fixed and variable costs at a soybean market price of US0.367 kg-1. The most profitable treatment was the fungicide seed treatment followed by no pod set treatment (US$241 ha-1, p=0.019). The use of pod set treatments in the absence of significant disease and insect pressure was not profitable in most instances. Crop canopy reflectance was measured several times throughout the season during 2014 and 2015 to evaluate normalized difference red edge (NDRE) index to predict soybean productivity. The NDRE values were used to calculate a cumulative reflectance value through the R6 growth stage, defined as area under the reflectance progress curve (AURPC). The AURPC values and seed yield were classified as top 25%, middle 50%, or bottom 25% by location. Multinomial regression determined that bottom AURPC values correctly predicted bottom yield 52.5% of the time (p=0.033), but ranged from 46.7 to 86.2% by location. Misclassifications by incorrectly identifying a bottom yield within the top AURPC ranged from 0.0% to 16.7% by location. The AURPC offers a novel method to delineate management zones in soybean production fields. Soybean canopy reflectance was also evaluated for the relationship between NDRE and soybean response to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) infection. SCN-resistant and -susceptible varieties were planted in SCN-infested and non-infested sites during 2015 and 2016. Susceptible varieties yielded

  14. Disease resistance through impairment of α-SNAP-NSF interaction and vesicular trafficking by soybean Rhg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Adam M; Smith, John M; Song, Junqi; McMinn, Patrick H; Teillet, Alice; August, Benjamin K; Bent, Andrew F

    2016-11-22

    α-SNAP [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein] and NSF proteins are conserved across eukaryotes and sustain cellular vesicle trafficking by mediating disassembly and reuse of SNARE protein complexes, which facilitate fusion of vesicles to target membranes. However, certain haplotypes of the Rhg1 (resistance to Heterodera glycines 1) locus of soybean possess multiple repeat copies of an α-SNAP gene (Glyma.18G022500) that encodes atypical amino acids at a highly conserved functional site. These Rhg1 loci mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; H. glycines), the most economically damaging pathogen of soybeans worldwide. Rhg1 is widely used in agriculture, but the mechanisms of Rhg1 disease resistance have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that the resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAP is defective in interaction with NSF. Elevated in planta expression of resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAPs depleted the abundance of SNARE-recycling 20S complexes, disrupted vesicle trafficking, induced elevated abundance of NSF, and caused cytotoxicity. Soybean, due to ancient genome duplication events, carries other loci that encode canonical (wild-type) α-SNAPs. Expression of these α-SNAPs counteracted the cytotoxicity of resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAPs. For successful growth and reproduction, SCN dramatically reprograms a set of plant root cells and must sustain this sedentary feeding site for 2-4 weeks. Immunoblots and electron microscopy immunolocalization revealed that resistance-type α-SNAPs specifically hyperaccumulate relative to wild-type α-SNAPs at the nematode feeding site, promoting the demise of this biotrophic interface. The paradigm of disease resistance through a dysfunctional variant of an essential gene may be applicable to other plant-pathogen interactions.

  15. Introduction of the rd29A: AtDREB2A CA gene into soybean (Glycine max L. Merril and its molecular characterization in leaves and roots during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Engels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of soybean yield to Brazilian producers because of a water deficit in the 2011-2012 season was 12.9%. To reduce such losses, molecular biology techniques, including plant transformation, can be used to insert genes of interest into conventional soybean cultivars to produce lines that are more tolerant to drought. The abscisic acid (ABA-independent Dehydration Responsive Element Binding (DREB gene family has been used to obtain plants with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In the present study, the rd29A:AtDREB2A CA gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was inserted into soybean using biolistics. Seventy-eight genetically modified (GM soybean lines containing 2-17 copies of the AtDREB2A CA gene were produced. Two GM soybean lines (P1397 and P2193 were analyzed to assess the differential expression of the AtDREB2A CA transgene in leaves and roots submitted to various dehydration treatments. Both GM lines exhibited high expression of the transgene, with the roots of P2193 showing the highest expression levels during water deficit. Physiological parameters examined during water deficit confirmed the induction of stress. This analysis of AtDREB2A CA expression in GM soybean indicated that line P2193 had the greatest stability and highest expression in roots during water deficit-induced stress.

  16. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yu Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM, the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  17. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora stem and root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This disease induces serious limitations on soybean production, with yield l...

  18. 77 FR 41354 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...] Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically... soybean designated as MON 87712, which has been genetically engineered for increased yield. The petition.... Louis, MO, seeking a determination of nonregulated status of soybean (Glycine max) designated as event...

  19. Molecular mapping and genomics of soybean seed protein: A review and perspective for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major q...

  20. Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...

  1. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the ... Key words: Soybean, Glycine max (L), salt stress, dry weight, micronutrient accumulation. ..... Iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents wheat and rice varieties under salt stress. Turk. J. Agric. Forest, 22: 227-233. Ashraf M, McNeilly T (1990).

  2. A Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a universal soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cytogenetic map that associates classical genetic linkage groups, molecular linkage groups and a sequence-based physical map with the karyotype has been impeded due to the soybean chromosomes themselves, which are tiny and morphological...

  3. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes (Williams, K1410 ...

  4. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  6. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  7. The Complex Cell Wall Composition of Syncytia Induced by Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes Reflects Both Function and Host Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant–parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, syncytia, within their host roots. These unique plant organs serve as the sole nutrient resource for development and reproduction throughout the biotrophic interaction. The multinucleate syncytium, which arises through local dissolution of cell walls and protoplast fusion of multiple adjacent cells, has dense cytoplasm containing numerous organelles, surrounded by thickened outer cell walls that must withstand high turgor pressure. However, little is known about how the constituents of the syncytial cell wall and their conformation support its role during nematode parasitism. We used a set of monoclonal antibodies, targeted to a range of plant cell wall components, to reveal the microstructures of syncytial cell walls induced by four of the most economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida, Heterodera glycines, Heterodera avenae and Heterodera filipjevi, in their respective potato, soybean, and spring wheat host roots. In situ fluorescence analysis revealed highly similar cell wall composition of syncytia induced by G. pallida and H. glycines. Both consisted of abundant xyloglucan, methyl-esterified homogalacturonan and pectic arabinan. In contrast, the walls of syncytia induced in wheat roots by H. avenae and H. filipjevi contain little xyloglucan but are rich in feruloylated xylan and arabinan residues, with variable levels of mixed-linkage glucan. The overall chemical composition of syncytial cell walls reflected the general features of root cell walls of the different host plants. We relate specific components of syncytial cell walls, such as abundant arabinan, methyl-esterification status of pectic homogalacturonan and feruloylation of xylan, to their potential roles in forming a network to support both the strength and flexibility required for syncytium function.

  8. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  9. Giant earlobe epidermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation.

  10. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  11. Ectopic phytocystatin expression leads to enhanced drought stress tolerance in soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis thaliana through effects on strigolactone pathways and can also result in improved seed traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Márquez-García, Belén; Comadira, Gloria; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Olmos, Enrique; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic cystatin expression has long been used in plant pest management, but the cysteine protease, targets of these inhibitors, might also have important functions in the control of plant lifespan and stress tolerance that remain poorly characterized. We therefore characterized the effects of expression of the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI), on the growth, development and stress tolerance of crop (soybean) and model (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Ectopic OCI expression in soybean enhanced shoot branching and leaf chlorophyll accumulation at later stages of vegetative development and enhanced seed protein contents and decreased the abundance of mRNAs encoding strigolactone synthesis enzymes. The OCI-expressing A. thaliana showed a slow-growth phenotype, with increased leaf numbers and enhanced shoot branching at flowering. The OCI-dependent inhibition of cysteine proteases enhanced drought tolerance in soybean and A. thaliana, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation being much less sensitive to drought-induced inhibition in the OCI-expressing soybean lines. Ectopic OCI expression or treatment with the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 increased lateral root densities in A. thaliana. E64 treatment also increased lateral root densities in the max2-1 mutants that are defective in strigolactone signalling, but not in the max3-9 mutants that are defective in strigolactone synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that OCI-inhibited cysteine proteases participate in the control of growth and stress tolerance through effects on strigolactones. We conclude that cysteine proteases are important targets for manipulation of plant growth, development and stress tolerance, and also seed quality traits. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genotypic Variation and Physiological Response of 10 Soybean Genotypes to Low-Zn Stress in Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Lampley, Aja

    2009-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the most important vegetable and oilseed crops with an annual value of over 36 billion dollars in the U.S. Soil Zn deficiency can reduce soybean yield and quality; therefore identifying Zn efficient genotypes can offer a sustainable solution to this problem. Furthermore, a reliable method for screening soybean lines would be useful for breeders. The main objective of this study was to detect genotypic variation in soybean under low Zn stress. Thi...

  13. Validation of a hairy roots system to study soybean-soybean aphid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Stephanie C.; Studham, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.

    2017-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is one of the main insect pests of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Genomics approaches have provided important data on transcriptome changes, both in the insect and in the plant, in response to the plant-aphid interaction. However, the difficulties to transform soybean and to rear soybean aphid on artificial media have hindered our ability to systematically test the function of genes identified by those analyses as mediators of plant resistance to the insect. An efficient approach to produce transgenic soybean material is the production of transformed hairy roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes; however, soybean aphids colonize leaves or stems and thus this approach has not been utilized. Here, we developed a hairy root system that allowed effective aphid feeding. We show that this system supports aphid performance similar to that observed in leaves. The use of hairy roots to study plant resistance is validated by experiments showing that roots generated from cotyledons of resistant lines carrying the Rag1 or Rag2 resistance genes are also resistant to aphid feeding, while related susceptible lines are not. Our results demonstrate that hairy roots are a good system to study soybean aphid-soybean interactions, providing a quick and effective method that could be used for functional analysis of the resistance response to this insect. PMID:28358854

  14. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  15. Development of rigorous fatty acid near-infrared spectroscopy quantitation methods in support of soybean oil improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) is a valuable source of high quality edible oil and protein. Despite dramatic breeding gains over the past 80 years, soybean seed oil continues to be oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation. ...

  16. RNAseq reveals weed-induced PIF3-like as a candidate target to manipulate weed stress response in soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, David P; Hansen, Stephanie A; Moriles-Miller, Janet P; Pierik, Ronald; Yan, Changhui; Clay, David E; Scheffler, Brian; Clay, Sharon A

    Weeds reduce yield in soybeans (Glycine max) through incompletely defined mechanisms. The effects of weeds on the soybean transcriptome were evaluated in field conditions during four separate growing seasons. RNASeq data were collected from six biological samples of soybeans growing with or without

  17. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an Environmental Assessment... for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental United States. We... INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to Asia, was found in North America...

  18. Evaluation of soybean germplasm accessions for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi populations in the southeastern United States, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm accessions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection were screened for resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) at up to five locations in the southeastern United States in 2009, 2011 and 2012. In 2009, plant introductions (PIs) from maturity gro...

  19. Traumatic bone cyst, idiopathic origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic bone cyst (TBC) is an uncommon non-epithelial lined cavity of the jaws. Traumatic bone cysts have been reported in the literature under a variety of names: solitary bone cyst, haemorrhagic bone cyst, extravasation cyst and simple bone cyst. The multitude of names applied to this lesion implies ...

  20. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The natural plant stress elicitor cis-jasmone causes cultivar-dependent reduction in growth of the stink bug, Euschistus heros and associated changes in flavonoid concentrations in soybean, Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, José P; Ueda, Tatiana E; Janegitz, Tatiani; Vieira, Simone S; Salvador, Mariana C; de Oliveira, Maria C N; Zingaretti, Sonia M; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the plant stress related elicitor cis-jasmone (cJ) provides protection in soybean pods against the seed-sucking stink bug pest, Euschistus heros, the growth of E. heros on cJ-treated pods was investigated using three soybean cultivars differing in insect susceptibility, i.e. BRS 134 (susceptible), IAC 100 (resistant) and Dowling (resistant). E. heros showed reduced weight gain when fed cJ-treated Dowling, whereas no effect on weight gain was observed when fed other treated cultivars. Using analysis of variance, a three factor (cultivar x treatment x time) interaction was observed with concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides daidzin and genistin, and their corresponding aglycones, daidzein and genistein. There were increases in genistein and genistin concentrations in cJ-treated Dowling at 144 and 120 h post treatment, respectively. Higher concentrations of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin in Dowling, compared to BRS 134 and IAC 100, were observed independently of time, the highest concentrations being observed in cJ-treated seeds. Levels of glycitin and malonylglycitin were higher in BRS 134 and IAC 100 compared to Dowling. Canonical variate analysis indicated daidzein (in the first two canonical variates) and genistein (in the first only) as important discriminatory variables. These results suggest that cJ treatment leads to an increase in the levels of potentially defensive isoflavonoids in immature soybean seeds, but the negative effect upon E. heros performance is cultivar-dependent. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Intrascrotal extratesticular epidermoid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A; Agarwal, K

    2011-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare tumours, which account for 1% of all testicular tumours. Very rarely, they are intrascrotal but extratesticular. We present a rare case of an intrascrotal extratesticular cyst. The triad of findings were sonographic appearance of an onion ring, avascularity on Doppler sonography and negative results of tumour markers; these are highly suggestive of an epidermoid cyst.

  3. Soybean DNA extraction from blended refined vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J.; Fernandes, T.J.R.; Mafra, I.; Amaral, J.S.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2010-01-01

    The major genetically modified (GM) crop species is soybean (Glycine max), accounting for 53% of the total world’s GM planted area and 70% of the soybean annual production in 2008 [1]. Since the approval of Roundup Ready® (RR) soybean in EU, the production of soybean oil using GM seeds has been increasing. In EU, the doubts raised by the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) lead to the mandatory labelling for food products containing more than 0.9% of authorised GMO. In blended edible ...

  4. Mapeamento de semeaduras de soja (Glycine max (L.Merr. mediante dados MODIS/Terra E TM/Landsat 5: um comparativo Mapping of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. culture by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5: a comparative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. C. Lamparelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar mapeamentos de semeadura da cultura da soja na região oeste do Paraná, realizados com imagens MODIS/Terra e TM/Landsat 5. Primeiramente, construiu-se máscara de referência, considerando seis imagens TM ao longo do ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se dos algoritmos Paralelepípedo e MaxVer com posterior análise visual. As imagens MODIS foram classificadas com o algorítimo Paralelepípedo, em quatro passagens referentes ao pico vegetativo. O desempenho das classificações foi avaliado por meio de Matrizes de Erros, calculadas pela análise de 100 pontos amostrais (soja ou não-soja, aleatoriamente distribuídos em cada um dos oito municípios da área de estudo. Os principais resultados mostraram que a Exatidão Global (EG e o Índice Kappa (IK, que variaram entre 0,55 e 0,80, em ambos os sensores, são considerados bons a muito bons. Quando EG e IK dos sensores TM e MODIS foram comparados, não se encontrou diferença significativa. O mapeamento da soja utilizando o sensor MODIS produziu 70% de confiabilidade sob o ponto de vista do usuário. A principal conclusão é a viabilidade de mapear a soja pelo sensor MODIS com as vantagens de que as imagens MODIS têm melhor resolução temporal e são disponibilizadas gratuitamente na Internet.The objective of this work was to compare the soybean crop mapping in the western of Parana State by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5 images. Firstly, it was generated a soybean crop mask using six TM images covering the crop season, which was used as a reference. The images were submitted to Parallelepiped and Maximum Likelihood digital classification algorithms, followed by visual inspection. Four MODIS images, covering the vegetative peak, were classified using the Parallelepiped method. The quality assessment of MODIS and TM classification was carried out through an Error Matrix, considering 100 sample points between soybean or not soybean, randomly allocated in each of

  5. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from NaCl-treated Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Li, Yong; Li, Jie; Dai, Cui-hong; Wang, Xi; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Yang, Liang; Zhu, Yan-ming

    2006-02-22

    Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. As a first step towards the characterization of genes that contribute to combating salinity stress, we constructed a full-length cDNA library of Glycine soja (50109) leaf treated with 150 mM NaCl, using the SMART technology. Random expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing of 2,219 clones produced 2,003 cleaned ESTs for gene expression analysis. The average read length of cleaned ESTs was 454 bp, with an average GC content of 40%. These ESTs were assembled using the PHRAP program to generate 375 contigs and 696 singlets. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress related ESTs were discussed. We compared the EST sequences of Glycine soja to that of Glycine max by using the blastn algorithm. Most expressed sequences from wild soybean exhibited similarity with soybean. All our EST data are available on the Internet (GenBank_Accn: DT082443-DT084445). The Glycine soja ESTs will be used to mine salt tolerance gene, whose full-length cDNAs will be obtained easily from the full-length cDNA library. Comparison of Glycine soja ESTs with those of Glycine max revealed the potential to investigate the wild soybean's expression profile using the soybean's gene chip. This will provide opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying stress response of plants.

  6. Teores de isoflavonas em grãos inteiros e nos componentes dos grãos de diferentes cultiva