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Sample records for glycemic load gl

  1. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aerde, Marieke A; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI ...

  2. Glycemic indices, glycemic load and glycemic response for seventeen varieties of dates grown in Saudi Arabia.

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    AlGeffari, Metab Ali; Almogbel, Ebtehal Solaiman; Alhomaidan, Homaidan Turki; El-Mergawi, Ragab; Barrimah, Issam Alsaed

    2016-01-01

    Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. The available carbohydrate content of Tamer stage dates was determined using standard laboratory methods. Healthy subjects (ten males and nine females) received 50 g of glucose (on three separate occasions) and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the seventeen varieties of date (each once). The GI and GL were then calculated. GI, GL, and glycemic response. The mean (SEM) GI of the date samples was 55.2 (7.7) (range, 42.8-74.6). Sellaj and Maktoomi exhibited the highest GI (74.6 [10.1] and 71.0 [11.1]), respectively, whereas Shaqra, Sukkary, and Sag'ai had the lowest GI (42.8 [5.5], 43.4 [4.7] and 44.6 [6]), respectively. The GL of the date samples ranged from 8.5 to 24. Sellaj had a high GL (24), whereas Ajwah and Shaqra had a low GL (8.5 and 9.2). The analyses suggested no significant difference in GI between the date varieties. However, the GL values differed significantly between the 17 date varieties (P Saudi Arabia. The identification of date varieties with lower glycemic responses may help lower the GI of the diet of both healthy and diabetic Saudi individuals. We used dates at the Tamer stage, which may not be translatable to all types of dates.

  3. Understanding the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Practical Applications

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    Lazarim, Fernanda Lorenzi; Stancanelli, Mirtes; Brenzikofer, Rene; de Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2009-01-01

    We have introduced the study of synthesis pathways using two experiments: 1--the determination of the glycemic index (GI) of some foods and the effects of fiber and fat on the GI; 2--the determination of blood glucose levels after the ingestion of meals with high and low glycemic loads (GL). After a practice assembly, when the foods and meals that…

  4. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

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    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem?

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    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background: The few studies examining the potential associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and body mass index (BMI) have provided no clear pictures. Underreporting of energy intake may be one explanation for this. Objective: We examined the associations between GI, GL...... a positive association between GI, GL, and BMI. Energy adjustment and the exclusion of LERs significantly affected the results of the analysis; thus, we stress the importance of energy adjustment....

  6. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

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    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun

    2010-03-28

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  7. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

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    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  8. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

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    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  9. Overall glycemic index and glycemic load of vegan diets in relation to plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols.

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    Waldmann, Annika; Ströhle, Alexander; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the overall glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of dietary fiber, and to examine the associations between these factors and plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols in adult vegans in the German Vegan Study (GVS). Cross-sectional study, Germany. Healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for >or=1 year prior to study start; minimum age of 18 years; no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) and who participated in all study segments. The average dietary GL of the GVS population was 144, and the average GI was 51.4. The adjusted geometric mean total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased across the increasing quartiles of GL, carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake. The associations between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and GL density and GI were inconsistent. Also, associations between GI, GL, the intake of carbohydrates, and triacylglycerol concentration were not observed. Fiber-rich vegan diets are characterized by a low GI and a low to moderate GL. The data do not support the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-rich diet per se is associated with unfavorable effects on triaclyglycerols that would be predicted to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

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    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  11. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and metabolic profile in children with phenylketonuria.

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    Moretti, F; Pellegrini, N; Salvatici, E; Rovelli, V; Banderali, G; Radaelli, G; Scazzina, F; Giovannini, M; Verduci, E

    2017-02-01

    No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled. Dietary (including GI and GL) and blood biochemical assessments were performed. No difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children. Compared to healthy controls, PKU children consumed less protein (p = 0.001) and fat (p = 0.028), and more carbohydrate (% of total energy, p = 0.004) and fiber (p = 0.009). PKU children had higher daily GI than healthy children (mean difference (95% confidence interval), 13.7 (9.3-18.3)) and higher GL (31.7 (10.1-53.2)). PKU children exhibited lower blood total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels (p triglyceride level (p = 0.014) than healthy children, while glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ. In PKU children the dietary GL was associated with triglyceride glucose index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.515, p = 0.034). In PKU children a relationship of the dietary treatment with GI and GL, blood triglycerides and triglyceride glucose index may exist. Improvement towards an optimal diet for PKU children could include additional attention to the management of dietary carbohydrate quality. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of the Relationship between Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Type 2 Diabetes

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    Fahime Zeinali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent decades, studies on type 2 diabetes (T2D, have adopted a new approach to the field of a more complete collection of variables related to the lifestyles and diet of people. Diet is an important factor in increasing the rate of T2D among individuals. Considering the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet, little attention has been paid to the type of carbohydrates consumed in the incidence of T2D. The present study aimed to review the literature on the relationship between the glycemic index (GI, the glycemic load, (GL and T2D, it also targets at evaluating and comparing the results of similar studies in other countries Methods: Using search engines, including PubMed, Science Direct, Embase and Scopus, and key words such as GI, GL, diabetes; articles with cross-sectional, clinical trial, Prospective and retrospective cohort designs between 2000 to 2016 were selected. Moreover, non-English language articles were not investigate. Results: The results of these studies showed that a diet containing low GI and GL has beneficial effects on the metabolism of glucose in the body and is also considered as a factor to protect the body against T2D and its complications. Conclusions: Monitoring eating habits of people with T2D can have beneficial effects on T2D and its associated risk factors.

  13. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations123

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    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20–22; women: 50%; age: 50–80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  14. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed. Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values. Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [ n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUC i ) method. Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUC i ( P < 0.0001), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0066), and mean GL ( P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUC i ( P = 0.0026), measured meal GI ( P = 0.0139), and meal GL ( P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUC i or II; fiber had no effect. Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at

  15. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

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    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  16. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Their Association with C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes

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    Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether the Glycemic Index (GI or Glycemic Load (GL of a diet is associated with C-reactive Protein (CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Materials and Methods. Our analysis included 4,366 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During follow-up 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Dietary GI and GL were derived from a food-frequency questionnaire and its association with CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. The association of GI and GL with diabetes incidence was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. Results. GL, but not GI, was associated with lnCRP at baseline (bGL=0.11 per 50 units; P=.01. When comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of GI with respect to diabetes incidence, a Relative Risk (RR of 0.95 [95%CI 0.75, 1.21] was found after adjustment for lifestyle and nutritional factors. For GL the RR for diabetes incidence was 1.00 [95%CI 0.74, 1.36]. Additional adjustment for CRP did not change RRs. Conclusion. Since GI was not associated with CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unlikely that a high GI diet induces the previously shown positive association between CRP and risk of type 2 diabetes by increasing CRP concentrations.

  17. The association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and diet quality indices in Iranian adults: results from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

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    Azadbakht, Leila; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Akhavanzanjani, Mohsen; Taheri, Marzieh; Golshahi, Jafar; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and dietary quality indices in Iranian adults. This cross section was conducted among 1571 Iranian adults aged  ≥19 years. GI, GL and diet quality indices were estimated by 24-h recall and DDS was calculated using a validated 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants who were in the top tertile of GI had lower healthy eating index (HEI) (57.2 ± 7.8 versus 55.6 ± 8.7; p diet quality indices may suggest the relevance of carbohydrate source in determining the diet quality indices.

  18. Counting Carbs? Understanding Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

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    ... compare how single servings of different foods affect blood sugar. It takes into account both the quality and quantity of carbs in a serving. . Some studies suggest that sticking to foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent ...

  19. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

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    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

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    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  1. Correlation bethealtyy ween dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and blood lipid levels in a group of women from Ahvaz

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    Farideh Shishebor; Zahra Shamekhi; Majid Karandish; Seyed Mahmood Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objectives: There are limited number of studies conducted on the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of a food program and metabolic factors such as blood lipids in Asian countries including Iran. Therefore, this study aimed at analyzing the correlation between Glycemic index and Glycemic load of Iranian food program and blood lipids. Materials & Methods: The subjects were 95 women working in Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences in the range of 20 to 55 years old...

  2. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

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    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  3. Dietary contributors to glycemic load in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

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    Shikany, James M.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and selected cancers. We sought to identify the main food and food group contributors to dietary GL in a representative sample of US adults to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a longitudinal cohort of 30,239 community-dwelling black and white women and men age ≥45 years across the US. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of each carbohydrate food, and its glycemic index, were used to calculate GL values for each carbohydrate food reported. These were totaled to estimate the mean total daily GL for each participant. Individual carbohydrate foods also were collapsed into 18 carbohydrate food groups, and the portion of the total GL contributed by each carbohydrate food and food group was determined. Analyses were conducted overall, by race/sex groups, and by region. Results Sweetened beverages were the main contributors to GL overall (12.14 median % of daily GL), by far the largest contributors in black men (17.79 median %) and black women (16.43 median %), and major contributors in white men (12.02 median %) and white women (11.22 median %). Other important contributors to GL overall and in all race/sex groups and regions included breads, starchy side dishes, and cereals. Conclusions In this US cohort of white and black adults, sweetened beverages were major contributors to GL overall, and especially in black participants. This information may help to inform future interventions targeting reduction in dietary GL. PMID:25837217

  4. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  5. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  6. Low-glycemic-load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Sears, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Historically, carbohydrates have been thought to play only a minor role in promoting weight gain and in predicting the risk of development of chronic disease. Most of the focus had been on reducing total dietary fat. During the last 20 years, fat intake decreased, while the number of individuals who were overweight or developed a chronic conditions have dramatically increased. Simultaneously, the calories coming from carbohydrate have also increased. Carbohydrates can be classified by their post-prandial glycemic effect, called the glycemic index or glycemic load. Carbohydrates with high glycemic indexes and high glycemic loads produce substantial increases in blood glucose and insulin levels after ingestion. Within a few hours after their consumption, blood sugar levels begin to decline rapidly due to an exaggerated increase in insulin secretion. A profound state of hunger is created. The continued intake of high-glycemic load meals is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In this review, the terms glycemic index and glycemic load are defined, coupled with an overview of short- and long-term changes that occur from eating diets of different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads. Finally, practical strategies for how to design low-glycemic-load diets consisting primarily of low-glycemic carbohydrates are provided.

  7. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    , and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity......, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. RESULTS - intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), whereas daily glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0...

  8. Which Foods May Be Addictive? The Roles of Processing, Fat Content, and Glycemic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M.; Avena, Nicole M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption) with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University (Study One) and community (Study Two). Participants 120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two. Measurements In Study One, participants (n = 120) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams) were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one) and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two). Results In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings. Conclusion The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose

  9. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M Schulte

    Full Text Available We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL. The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating.Cross-sectional.University (Study One and community (Study Two.120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two.In Study One, participants (n = 120 completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two.In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings.The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose, rapid rate of absorption appear to be particularly associated with

  10. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  11. The effect of consumption of low-glycemic-index and low-glycemic-load desserts on anthropometric parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiana, Vasiliki; Kanellos, Panagiotis Τ; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Tsitsinakis, Georgios; Kokkinos, Alexander; Perrea, Despina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consumption of desserts with low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL), as part of a balanced hypo-caloric diet, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 61 subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 30) or to the control group (n = 31). Both groups followed the same hypo-caloric (-500 kcal) diet for 12 weeks. Consumption of four portions of low-GI/low-GL desserts/week was included in the diet in the intervention group while one portion of a favorite usual sweet/week was allowed to be consumed in the control group. Thirty subjects in the control and 28 subjects in the intervention group completed the trial. Body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were reduced significantly in both groups. Arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, and γ-GT were reduced significantly only in the intervention group; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups at endpoint. C-reactive protein was reduced in the intervention, and HDL cholesterol was also reduced in the control group; the reductions were significantly different at the end of the trial. No significant changes were observed in the other plasma lipids, uric acid, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 in either study group. Consumption of desserts with low GI/GL in a balanced hypo-caloric diet has a positive impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients with T2DM.

  12. Association between glycemic load and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the Brain in Motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Anna; Csizmadi, Ilona; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, Richard S; Tyndall, Amanda V; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Poulin, Marc J

    2017-07-17

    Impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for non-age-related cognitive decline and is also associated with measures of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). A low glycemic load (GL) diet can aid in the management of blood glucose levels, but little is known about its effect on cognition with poor glucoregulation. We assessed the relation between GL and cognitive function by glucoregulation and possible mediatory effects by CRF and PA in older adults from the Brain in Motion Study. A cross-sectional analysis of 194 cognitively healthy adults aged ≥55 years (mean = 65.7, SD = 6.1) was conducted. GL was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and glucoregulation was characterized on the HOMA-IR index. Subjects also completed a cognitive assessment, CRF testing, a validated self-reported PA questionnaire, and a blood draw. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for significant covariates were used to evaluate the relation between GL and cognition, and mediation by CRF and PA was also assessed. GL was inversely associated with global cognition (β = -0.014; 95% CI -0.024, -0.004) and figural memory (β = -0.035; 95% CI -0.052, -0.018) in subjects with poor glucoregulation. Neither CRF nor PA mediated these relations. In subjects with good glucoregulation, no association was found between GL and cognitive function (p > 0.05). A low GL diet is associated with better cognitive function in older adults with poor glucoregulation. This study provides supportive evidence for the role of GL in maintaining better cognitive function during the aging process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Should glycemic index and glycemic load be considered in dietary recommendations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Nielsen, Birgit M.; Grau, K.

    2008-01-01

    emphasizes the need to investigate the effects of carbohydrate on diet-related conditions and diseases. This review examines the epidemiological literature linking GI and GL to heart disease, insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity among initially healthy people. The evidence...

  14. Dietary glycemic load and risk of cognitive impairment in women: findings from the EPIC-Naples cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Vittorio; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Camilla; Brighenti, Furio; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment in a female population living in the metropolitan area of Naples, in the Mediterranean part of Italy, has been evaluated in the Naples EPIC prospective cohort study. The study cohort, enrolled between 1993 and 1997, is composed of 5062 women aged 30-69 years. At time of enrolment anthropometric measures were performed and information about socio-demographic details, clinical data, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. During 2008 and 2009, women 65 years of age or older received a telephone interview to evaluate cognitive status (TICS); the derived score was used as proxy of cognitive impairment. Analyses were carried out on 1514 participants. Linear regression model showed negative association between TICS score and, respectively, age at baseline (β = -.31, 95% CI -.34, -.24), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.08, 95% CI -.16, -.01), and glycemic load (GL) (β = -.02, 95% CI -.03, -.01), whereas education level (β = 0.62, 95% CI .56, .69) showed positive association. A logistic regression model, used to evaluate determinants of the low cognitive score (TICS score ≤ 15, 1st tertile), confirmed association for previous variables [age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15); BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.001, 1.07); GL (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001, 1.011); education level (OR .82, 95% CI .79, .84)] with, in addition, type II diabetes (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.014, 3.4). This study indicates that GL may play a role in determining risk of cognitive impairment, besides age, BMI, education and diabetes.

  15. Low-glycemic load decreases postprandial insulin and glucose and increases postprandial ghrelin in white but not black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Heymen, Steve; Hinderliter, Alan L; Galanko, Joseph; Macintosh, Beth

    2012-07-01

    Alterations in appetite hormones favoring increased postprandial satiety have been implicated in both the glycemic control and potential weight-loss benefits of a low-glycemic diet. Racial differences exist in dietary glycemic load and appetite hormone concentrations. This study examined the impact of glycemic load on appetite hormones in 20 black women [10 normal weight, BMI = 22.8 ± 1.42 (mean ± SD); 10 obese, BMI = 35.1 ± 2.77] and 20 white women (10 normal weight, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.45; 10 obese, BMI = 34.3 ± 2.77). Each woman completed two 4.5-d weight-maintenance, mixed-macronutrient, high-glycemic vs. low-glycemic load diets that concluded with a test meal of identical composition. Blood samples collected before and serially for 3 h after each test meal were assayed for plasma ghrelin and serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Compared with the high-glycemic load meal, the low-glycemic load meal was associated with lower insulin(AUC) (P = 0.02), glucose(AUC) (P = 0.01), and urge to eat ratings (P = 0.05) but with higher ghrelin(AUC) (P = 0.008). These results suggest the satiating effect of a low-glycemic load meal is not directly linked to enhanced postprandial suppression of ghrelin. Notably, these effects were significant among white but not black women, suggesting that black women may be less sensitive than white women to the glucoregulatory effects of a low-glycemic load. These findings add to a growing literature demonstrating racial differences in postprandial appetite hormone responses. If reproducible, these findings have implications for individualized diet prescription for the purposes of glucose or weight control in women.

  16. Effect of meal glycemic load and caffeine consumption on prolonged monotonous driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Hall, Susan; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials. On separate occasions, participants were provided one of three treatments prior to undertaking a 90min computer-based simulated drive. The 3 treatment conditions involved consuming: (1) a low glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (LGL), (2) a high glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (HGL) and (3) a high glycemic load meal+caffeine capsules (3mgkg -1 body weight) (CAF). Measures of driving performance included lateral (standard deviation of lane position (SDLP), average lane position (AVLP), total number of lane crossings (LC)) and longitudinal (average speed (AVSP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP)) vehicle control parameters. Blood glucose levels, plasma caffeine concentrations and subjective ratings of sleepiness, alertness, mood, hunger and simulator sickness were also collected throughout each trial. No difference in either lateral or longitudinal vehicle control parameters or subjective ratings were observed between HGL and LGL treatments. A significant reduction in SDLP (0.36±0.20m vs 0.41±0.19m, p=0.004) and LC (34.4±31.4 vs 56.7±31.5, p=0.018) was observed in the CAF trial compared to the HGL trial. However, no differences in AVLP, AVSP and SDSP or subjective ratings were detected between these two trials (p>0.05). Altering the glycemic load of a breakfast meal had no effect on measures of monotonous driving performance in non-diabetic adults. Individuals planning to undertake a prolonged monotonous drive following consumption of a

  17. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  18. Dietary Glycemic Index during Pregnancy Is Associated with Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring at Age 20 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Haldorsson, Thorhallur

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers...

  19. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF......), and waist circumference (¿WC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates.Significant GI X sex X physical activity interactions for ABSTRACTBackground: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemicload (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase therisk of weight gain...... of the Monitoring Trendsand Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsamplecomprised 185 men and 191 women born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interviewwere carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examinationwas performed in 1993 and 1994...

  20. Índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica de dietas consumidas por indivíduos obesos Glycemic index and glycemic load of diets consumed by obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica de dietas de indivíduos obesos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, que analisou as fichas clínicas de 80 adultos obesos, acompanhados em um serviço privado localizado em Fortaleza, Ceará. Determinaram-se o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica da dieta. Para verificação da associação entre índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica, e dessas variáveis com a ingestão energética diária e com o índice de massa corporal dos indivíduos, utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson. O teste "t" de Student foi utilizado para verificar diferenças entre os dois índices e o sexo. Em ambos os testes adotou-se pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the glycemic index and glycemic load of diets of obese individuals. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that analyzed the medical records of 80 obese adults attending a private health care service in Fortaleza, Ceará. The glycemic index and load of their diet was determined. The Pearson correlation test was used to verify if there was an association between glycemic index and glycemic load and of these variables with their daily energy intake and body mass index. The Student's "t" test was used to verify the differences between the two indexes and gender. A significance level of p<0.05 was adopted for both tests. RESULTS: Inadequate (moderate or high glycemic index prevailed at breakfast (82.9%, afternoon snack (60.0% and dinner (64.6%. The daily glycemic index was inadequate for 78.7% of the group and predominantly moderate according to the mean found (59.23, however it was less inadequate than the daily glycemic load which was high (143.8 and worse among males. The body mass index of the group, in general and according to gender, was not associated with any of the indices. Daily energy intake was associated only with glycemic load, both generally and taking gender into account. CONCLUSION: The results point toward a higher glycemic load in

  1. The importance of glycemic load of the diet in the development of cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dudziak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of cancer involves not only appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy and rehabilitation, but also diet aimed at prevention of the process of cachexia. Postprandial hyperglycemia exerts a significant effect on the growth and proliferation of tumor cells. It promotes formation of a number of metabolic changes in every tissue of the organism. Chronic postprandial hyperglycemia, occurring in type 2 diabetes, enhances all these changes. Although the results of epidemiological studies on the relationship between the overall risk of cancer development, or tumors in different parts of the organism, are heterogeneous, most of them indicate that the risk increases with an increase in glycemic load of the examined population’s diets. Researchers also suggest a beneficial effect of limiting the amount of easily assimilable carbohydrate in the diet to stabilize the disease and for better tolerance of chemoor radiation therapy. However, further studies are required.

  2. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Leidig, Michael M; Feldman, Henry A; Lovesky, Margaret M; Ludwig, David S

    2007-05-16

    The results of clinical trials involving diet in the treatment of obesity have been inconsistent, possibly due to inherent physiological differences among study participants. To determine whether insulin secretion affects weight loss with 2 popular diets. Randomized trial of obese young adults (aged 18-35 years; n = 73) conducted from September 2004 to December 2006 in Boston, Mass, and consisting of a 6-month intensive intervention period and a 12-month follow-up period. Serum insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a 75-g dose of oral glucose was determined at baseline as a measure of insulin secretion. Outcomes were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Missing data were imputed conservatively. A low-glycemic load (40% carbohydrate and 35% fat) vs low-fat (55% carbohydrate and 20% fat) diet. Body weight, body fat percentage determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Change in body weight and body fat percentage did not differ between the diet groups overall. However, insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was an effect modifier (group x time x insulin concentration at 30 minutes: P = .02 for body weight and P = .01 for body fat percentage). For those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes above the median (57.5 microIU/mL; n = 28), the low-glycemic load diet produced a greater decrease in weight (-5.8 vs -1.2 kg; P = .004) and body fat percentage (-2.6% vs -0.9%; P = .03) than the low-fat diet at 18 months. There were no significant differences in these end points between diet groups for those with insulin concentration at 30 minutes below the median level (n = 28). Insulin concentration at 30 minutes after a dose of oral glucose was not a significant effect modifier for cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the full cohort, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations improved more on the low-glycemic load diet, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  3. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  4. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Livia S A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers. METHODS: International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utilit...

  5. Glycemic load, exercise, and monitoring blood glucose (GEM): A paradigm shift in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Taylor, Ann G; Singh, Harsimran; Moncrief, Matthew; Diamond, Anne; Yancy, William S; Hegde, Shefali; McCall, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary RCT investigated whether an integrated lifestyle modification program that focuses on reducing postprandial blood glucose through replacing high with low glycemic load foods and increasing routine physical activities guided by systematic self-monitoring of blood glucose (GEM) could improve metabolic control of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without compromising other physiological parameters. Forty-seven adults (mean age 55.3 years) who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for less than 5 years (mean 2.1 years), had HbA1c ≥ 7% (mean 8.4%) and were not taking blood glucose lowering medications, were randomized to routine care or five 1-h instructional sessions of GEM. Assessments at baseline and 6 months included a physical exam, metabolic and lipid panels, and psychological questionnaires. The GEM intervention led to significant improvements in HbA1c (decreasing from 8.4 to 7.4% [69-57 mmol/mol] compared with 8.3 to 8.3% [68-68 mmol/mol] for routine care; Interaction ptype 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beneficial effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load hypocaloric diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Homeira Hamayeli; Salehpour, Saghar; Amiri, Zohreh; Farahani, Sara Jalali; Meyer, Barbara J; Tahbaz, Farideh

    2012-04-01

    The recommended composition of a hypocaloric diet for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load diet compared with a conventional hypocaloric diet on reproductive hormones, inflammatory markers, lipids, glucose, and insulin levels in obese women with PCOS. A total of 60 overweight and obese women with PCOS who did not use insulin-sensitizing agents were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 hypocaloric diet groups for a single-blind clinical trial. The groups included a conventional hypocaloric diet (CHCD) (15% of daily energy from protein) and a modified hypocaloric diet (MHCD) with a high-protein, low-glycemic load (30% of daily energy from protein plus low-glycemic-load foods selected from a list) that was prescribed via counseling visits weekly during 12 weeks of study. Anthropometric assessments and biochemical measurements including reproductive hormones, inflammatory factors, lipids, glucose, and insulin were performed on fasting blood samples at baseline and after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Weight loss was significant and similar in the 2 groups. Mean of testosterone in the MHCD and CHCD groups decreased from 1.78 ± 0.32 to 1.31 ± 0.26 ng/ml and from 1.51 ± 0.12 to 1.15 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively (p hypocaloric diets significantly led to reduced body weight and androgen levels in these two groups of women with PCOS. The combination of high-protein and low-glycemic-load foods in a modified diet caused a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in hsCRP level when compared with a conventional diet.

  7. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  8. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A low-glycemic index diet is effective in blood glucose control of diabetic subjects, reduces insulin requirement in women with gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM and improves pregnancy outcomes when used from beginning of the second trimester. However there are limited reports to examine the effect of low glycemic load (LGL diet and fiber on blood glucose control and insulin requirement of women with GDM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of low glycemic load diet with and without fiber on reducing the number of women with GDM requiring insulin. Materials and Methods: All GDM women (n = 31 were randomly allocated to consume either a LGL diet with Fiber or LGL diet. Results: We found that 7 (38.9% of 18 women with GDM in Fiber group and 10 (76.9% in "Without Fiber" group required insulin treatment. Conclusion: The LGL diet with added fiber for women with GDM dramatically reduced the number needing for insulin treatment.

  9. OpenGL development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Movania, Muhammad Mobeen

    2013-01-01

    The book is written in a Cookbook format with practical recipes aimed at helping you exploit OpenGL to its full potential.This book is targeted towards intermediate OpenGL programmers. However, those who are new to OpenGL and know an alternate API like DirectX might also find these recipes useful to create OpenGL animations.

  10. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent’s family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Results Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35 compared to controls (122 ± 28 (p  0.05. Conclusions Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  11. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Hasnani; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Azizan, Noor Zalmy

    2012-08-16

    The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. A case-control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent's family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p  0.05). Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  12. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960

  13. Yogurt Is a Low-Glycemic Index Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas Ms

    2017-07-01

    High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 ( P yogurt. Although yogurt has a low GI, its insulinemic index (II) is higher than its GI. High insulin responses may be deleterious because hyperinsulinemia is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Nevertheless, this may not be a concern for yogurt because, although its II is higher than its GI, the II of yogurt is within the range of II values for nondairy low-GI foods. In addition, mixed meals containing dairy protein elicit insulin responses similar to those elicited by mixed meals of similar composition containing nondairy protein. Because the GI of yogurt is lower than that of most other carbohydrate foods, exchanging yogurt for other protein and carbohydrate sources can reduce the GI and GL of the diet, and is in line with recommended dietary patterns, which include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C. PMID:21653575

  15. Decreases in dietary glycemic index are related to weight loss among individuals following therapeutic diets for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Jenkins, David J A; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C.

  16. Convergence of obesity and high glycemic diet on compounding diabetes and cardiovascular risks in modernizing China: An emerging public health dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Vasanti S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and decreasing physical activity. Specifically, a high GI diet adversely impacts metabolism and appetite control regulation, and notably confers substantially greater risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers among overweight and obese individuals (P

  17. Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonzalez-Anton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, insulinemic index (InI, appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-flour, Alfacar whites and Wholemeal. All breads portions were calculated to supply 50 g of available carbohydrates. In addition, 50 g of glucose was used as a reference. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare data calculated for all breads with glucose load. The GI value varied from 61 for the Wholemeal, to Alfacar 68, Ordinary 76, and 78 and 86 for the Precooked-Frozen and Candeal-flour breads, respectively. Wholemeal and Alfacar had lower GI than glucose. All tested breads had a lower GL (ranged 9 to 18 compared with glucose. Wholemeal GL was similar to Alfacar, but lower than the other white breads. InI were significantly lower for all breads (ranged 68 to 73 compared with glucose, and similar among them. The intake of the Wholemeal bread led to a higher release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide compared with the Ordinary and Precooked breads and to a higher release of pancreatic polypeptide compared with the Precooked-Frozen bread. All breads affected appetite ratings similarly. In conclusion, based on GL, the Wholemeal bread would be expected to exert a favorable glycemic response.

  18. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  19. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. OpenGL 4 shading language cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, David

    2013-01-01

    OpenGL Shading Language 4 Cookbook is a hands-on guide that gets straight to the point - actually creating graphics, instead of just theoretical learning. Each recipe is specifically tailored to satisfy your appetite for producing real-time 3-D graphics using the latest GLSL specification.This book is for OpenGL programmers looking to use the modern features of GLSL 4 to create real-time, three-dimensional graphics. Familiarity with OpenGL programming, along with the typical 3D coordinate systems, projections, and transformations is assumed. It can also be useful for experienced GLSL programme

  1. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood ( p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity ( p = 0.046) and an increased HSI ( p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI ( p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  2. Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and in obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Cosentino, Loretta; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Morgana, Manuela; Mattina, Alessandro; Sprini, Delia; Verga, Salvatore; Rini, Giovam Battista

    2013-06-01

    The role of glycemic index of the diet in glucose control and cardiovascular prevention is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads on endothelial function and glycemic variability in nondiabetic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. Forty nondiabetic obese participants were randomly assigned to a three-month treatment with either a low glycemic index (LGI; n=19) or high glycemic index (HGI; n=21) hypocaloric diet with similar macronutrient and fiber content. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery before and after dieting. In addition, 48-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring was done before and after dieting in a subgroup of 24 participants. The amount of weight loss after dieting was similar in both groups. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the FMD (Pdiet, and -0.9±3.6% after the HGI diet (Pdiet on results was observed. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the 48-h glycemic variability measured as coefficient of variability (CV%; Pdiet (from 23.5 to 20.0%) and increased after the HGI diet (from 23.6 to 26.6%). The change in percentage of FMD was inversely correlated with the change in the 48-h glycemic CV% (r=-0.45; Phypocaloric diet in nondiabetic obese persons. ISRCTN56834511. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Tensor product varieties and crystals. GL case

    OpenAIRE

    Malkin, Anton

    2001-01-01

    The role of Spaltenstein varieties in the tensor product for GL is explained. In particular a direct (non-combinatorial) proof of the fact that the number of irreducible components of a Spaltenstein variety is equal to a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient (i.e. certain tensor product multiplicity) is obtained.

  4. Gl(2/2)-oscillators and Gl(2/2)-dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamupingene, A.H.; Nguyen Anh Ky.

    1991-07-01

    Extending the concept of the dynamical symmetry, we identify the Lie superalgebra Gl(2/2) as a dynamical (super-)algebra of a class of non-canonical quantum systems, whose dynamical variables and quantities can be realized in terms of the Gl(2/2)-generators. In this way, a new class of harmonic oscillators is established. As a consequence of the choice of the dynamical variables the Heisenberg algebra and the Hermitian condition for the Gl(2/2)-representations are also given. (author). 12 refs

  5. Warum macht Fliegen glücklich?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Pfister

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Berufliche Orientierungen von Pilotinnen weckt große Erwartungen, die leider nur teilweise eingelöst werden. Es ermöglicht Einsichten in die Berufsbiographien von Pilotinnen und in das „Gendering“ des Berufsfelds, gibt aber auf zentrale Fragen, u.a. nach den Barrieren, die Frauen den Weg an die Spitze versperren, keine befriedigenden Antworten. So bleibt auch offen, warum Fliegen glücklich macht.

  6. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels,

  7. Dynamical structure of linearized GL(4) gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragone, C.; Restuccia, A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical content of the three more natural models of GL(4) gravity is analyzed, for the case of weak fields. It is shown that the first model is the linearized version of Yang's one-tensor-field gravity and is a scalar-tensor theory, with its scalar part contained in a symmetric tensor. The second and the third linearized models, which can both be derived from the fourth-order action postulated by Yang, are two-tensor decoupled systems. In both cases one of the tensors is the symmetric weak metric gravity tensor field. the second tensor appearing in these two models, representing the GL(4)-gauge field, is either a linearized symmetric affinity (in the second model) or a linearized but nonsymmetric affinity (for the third model). It is shown that in these last two cases the affinity contains a helicity-3 propagating field. Owing to the presence of helicity-3 fields it is shown that it is better to regard Yang's action as an action for a two-tensor system instead of trying to recover from a pure gravity (one-tensor-field) action. Finally, it is shown what is the dynamical structure of the second and third linearized two-tensor models which can be derived from Yang's action. (author)

  8. Incorporating modern OpenGL into computer graphics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Guido; Muller, Thomas; Ertl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    University of Stuttgart educators have updated three computer science courses to incorporate forward-compatible OpenGL. To help students, they developed an educational framework that abstracts some of modern OpenGL's difficult aspects.

  9. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  10. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  11. Skin Autofluorescence and Glycemic Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M. J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.

    Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated during glycemic and oxidative stress and is an important predictor of complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: Here we both review and present original data on the relationship between skin

  12. A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew K; Sullivan, Debra K; Swerdlow, Russell H; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging. Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study. The study began in November 2013 and is currently ongoing. Results: Amyloid was elevated in 26% ( n = 33) of participants. HGLDiet pattern adherence ( P = 0.01), sugar intake ( P = 0.03), and carbohydrate intake ( P = 0.05) were significantly higher in participants with elevated amyloid burden. The HGLDiet pattern was positively associated with amyloid burden both globally and in all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and education (all P ≤ 0.001). Individual dietary glycemic measures (sugar intake, carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load) were also positively associated with global amyloid load and nearly all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and educational level ( P ≤ 0.05). Cognitive performance was associated only with daily sugar intake, with higher sugar consumption associated with poorer global cognitive performance (global composite measure and Mini-Mental State Examination) and performance on subtests of Digit Symbol, Trail Making Test B, and Block Design, controlling for age, sex, and education. Conclusion: A high-glycemic diet was associated with greater cerebral amyloid burden, which suggests diet as a potential modifiable behavior for cerebral amyloid accumulation and subsequent Alzheimer

  13. Modular representations of GL(n) distinguished by GL(n-1) over a p-adic field

    OpenAIRE

    Sécherre , Vincent; Venketasubramanian , C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Let $\\F$ be a non-Archimedean locally compact field, $q$ be the cardinality of its residue field, and $\\R$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic $\\ell$ not dividing $q$.We classify all irredu\\-cible smooth $\\R$-representations of $\\GL\\_n(\\F)$ having a nonzero $\\GL\\_{n-1}(\\F)$-inva\\-riant linear form, when $q$ is not congruent to $1$ mod $\\ell$.Partial results in the case when $q$ is $1$ mod $\\ell$ show that, unlike the complex case, the space of $\\GL\\_{n-1}(\\F)$-invariant linear ...

  14. Litiasis de las glándulas salivales

    OpenAIRE

    Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme; Sánchez Garcés, Ma. Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    La litiasis es hoy día la enfermedad más frecuente de las glándulas salivales mayores y, muy en concreto, el motivo de exéresis quirúrgica de la glándula submaxilar. Se hace una revisión de la etiopatogenia, incidencia y clínica, así como de los métodos de diagnóstico y del estado actual de su tratamiento.

  15. On the Hopf structure of Up,q(gl(1/1)) and the universal Τ-matrix of Funp,q(GL(1/1))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Jagannathan, R.

    1994-08-01

    Using the technique developed by Fronsdal and Galindo (Lett. Math. Phys, 27 (1993) 57) for studying the Hopf duality between the quantum algebras Fun p,q (GL(2)) and U p,q (gl(2)), the Hopf structure of U p,q (gl(1/1)), dual to Fun p,q (GL(1/1)), is derived and the corresponding universal Τ-matrix of Fun p,q (GL(1/1)), embodying the suitably modified exponential relationship U p,q (gl(1/1)) → Fun p,q (GL(1/1)), is obtained. (author). 10 refs

  16. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  17. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-01

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  18. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-15

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  19. Exploring Physics with Computer Animation and PhysGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensky, T. J.

    2016-10-01

    This book shows how the web-based PhysGL programming environment (http://physgl.org) can be used to teach and learn elementary mechanics (physics) using simple coding exercises. The book's theme is that the lessons encountered in such a course can be used to generate physics-based animations, providing students with compelling and self-made visuals to aid their learning. Topics presented are parallel to those found in a traditional physics text, making for straightforward integration into a typical lecture-based physics course. Users will appreciate the ease at which compelling OpenGL-based graphics and animations can be produced using PhysGL, as well as its clean, simple language constructs. The author argues that coding should be a standard part of lower-division STEM courses, and provides many anecdotal experiences and observations, that include observed benefits of the coding work.

  20. Impact of night sleep duration on glycemic and triglyceride levels in Chinese with different glycemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Anping; Pan, Changyu; Lu, Juming; Dou, Jingtao; Lu, Zhaohui; Ba, Jianming; Wang, Baoan; Mu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between night sleep duration and glycemic and triglyceride (TG) levels among people with different glycemic status. In all, 18,121 subjects aged ≥40 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, including 4318 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), 4225 with diabetes, and 9578 with normal glucose regulation (NGR). The IGR + diabetes and NGR groups were divided into three subgroups according to self-reported night sleep duration as follows: (i) 9 h. The associations of sleep duration with HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load plasma glucose (PPG), and TG levels were examined. Long night sleep duration (>9 h) was associated with higher HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and TG levels compared with sleep duration of 6-9 h (P index and depressive symptoms, and remained significant even after adjusting for snoring. A significant interaction between sleep duration and TG or snoring was observed for HbA1c levels, which attenuated the sleep-HbA1c association in the IGR + diabetes group. However, no significant association was observed between short night sleep duration and HbA1c levels. Long night sleep duration is associated with higher HbA1c, FPG, PPG, and TG levels in IGR and diabetes patients, independent of potential confounders. This may be important in clinical management of IGR and diabetes patients. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Birgit Steinbügl: Deutsch-englische Kollokationen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    This study investigates the role of collocations in dictionary use, and the extent to which ... In the first chapter of her book, Steinbügl gives a theoretical exposition by ... expression chambre forte is not automatically understandable for non-native speakers of French, because they cannot deduce the meaning from the individ-.

  2. OpenGL ES 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parminder

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to OpenGL ES or have some experience in 3D graphics, then this book will be extremely helpful in raising your expertise level from a novice to professional. The book implements more than 90 recipes to solve everyday challenges, helping you transition from a beginner to a professional.

  3. Reply #1 to: Glycemic Choreoballism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cosentino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Author Reply Letter was written in response to a Letter to the Editor:Lee D, Ahn T. Glycemic choreoballism. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QJ7HNFThe Letter to the Editor, above, was written in response to these two Case Reports:Roy U, Das SK, Mukherjee A, et al. Irreversible hemichoreahemiballism in a case of nonketotic hyperglycemia presenting as the initial manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QZ2B3FCosentino C, Torres L, Nuñez Y, et al. Hemichorea/hemiballism associated with hyperglycemia: report of twenty cases. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8DN454P

  4. The Case for Teaching Computer Graphics with WebGL: A 25-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ed

    2017-01-01

    OpenGL has been the standard API for teaching computer graphics. There are now multiple versions of the standard, including WebGL. which is the JavaScript implementation of OpenGL ES 2.0. The author argues that WebGL is the version best suited for an introductory course in computer graphics.

  5. WebGL-rajapinta ja 3D-grafiikkakirjaston luominen

    OpenAIRE

    Kuokkanen, Juuso

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin 3D-grafiikkaa ja sen ohjelmointia WebGL-ohjelmointirajapinnan avulla, ja opinnäytetyön tuotoksena tuotettiin WebGL-rajapintaa hyödyntävä 3D-grafiikkakirjaston prototyyppi, jolla voi luoda 3D-grafiikkaa hyödyntäviä sovelluksia, jotka toimivat selaimessa. Aihe valittiin opinnäytetyön tekijän henkilökohtaisesta kiinnostuksesta 3D-grafiikkaa kohtaan. Työssä tutkitaan 3D-grafiikkaan liittyviä matemaattisia käsitteitä ja laskutoimituksia sekä selvitetään, kuinka niitä...

  6. Arithmetic differential equations on $GL_n$, I: differential cocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Buium, Alexandru; Dupuy, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The theory of differential equations has an arithmetic analogue in which derivatives are replaced by Fermat quotients. One can then ask what is the arithmetic analogue of a linear differential equation. The study of usual linear differential equations is the same as the study of the differential cocycle from $GL_n$ into its Lie algebra given by the logarithmic derivative. However we prove here that there are no such cocycles in the context of arithmetic differential equations. In sequels of t...

  7. Antiangiogenic Effects of Noscapine Enhance Radioresponse for GL261 Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W.; Lukyanov, Yevgeniy; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Esencay, Min; Smirnova, Iva; Schnee, Tona; Shao Yongzhao; Devitt, Mary Louise; Zagzag, David; McBride, William; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of noscapine, a tubulin-binding drug, in combination with radiation in a murine glioma model. Methods and Materials: The human T98G and murine GL261 glioma cell lines treated with noscapine, radiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival. Mice with established GL261 hind limb tumors were treated with noscapine, radiation, or both to evaluate the effect of noscapine on radioresponse. In a separate experiment with the same treatment groups, 7 days after radiation, tumors were resected and immunostained to measure proliferation rate, apoptosis, and angiogenic activity. Results: Noscapine reduced clonogenic survival without enhancement of radiosensitivity in vitro. Noscapine combined with radiation significantly increased tumor growth delay: 5, 8, 13, and 18 days for control, noscapine alone, radiation alone, and the combination treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). To assess the effect of the combination of noscapine plus radiation on the tumor vasculature, tubule formation by the murine endothelial 2H11 cells was tested. Noscapine with radiation significantly inhibited tubule formation compared with radiation alone. By immunohistochemistry, tumors treated with the combination of noscapine plus radiation showed a decrease in BrdU incorporation, an increase in apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, and a decrease in tumor vessel density compared with tumors treated with radiation alone. Conclusion: Noscapine enhanced the sensitivity of GL261 glioma tumors to radiation, resulting in a significant tumor growth delay. An antiangiogenic mechanism contributed to the effect. These findings are clinically relevant, particularly in view of the mild toxicity profile of this drug

  8. Learning game physics with Bullet Physics and OpenGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive set of straight-forward, easy-to-follow tutorials in OpenGL and Bullet Physics that will teach you how modern game physics and 3D graphics work.If you're a beginner or intermediate programmer with a basic understanding of 3D mathematics, and you want a stronger foundation in 3D graphics and physics, then this book is perfect for you! You'll even learn some of the fundamental concepts in 3D mathematics and software design that lies beneath them both, discovering some techniques and tricks in graphics and physics that you can use in any game development project.

  9. Millisecond accuracy video display using OpenGL under Linux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Neil

    2006-02-01

    To measure people's reaction times to the nearest millisecond, it is necessary to know exactly when a stimulus is displayed. This article describes how to display stimuli with millisecond accuracy on a normal CRT monitor, using a PC running Linux. A simple C program is presented to illustrate how this may be done within X Windows using the OpenGL rendering system. A test of this system is reported that demonstrates that stimuli may be consistently displayed with millisecond accuracy. An algorithm is presented that allows the exact time of stimulus presentation to be deduced, even if there are relatively large errors in measuring the display time.

  10. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Arshad, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  11. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, W [Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Arshad, A R [Combined Military Hospital, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  12. Protein Kinase CK2 Content in GL261 Mouse Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Alcaraz, Estefania; Plana, Maria; Candiota, Ana Paula; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive human glial tumour with a median survival of 14-15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment. Unfortunately, chemoresistence always ensues with concomitant tumour regrowth. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in cancer and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Targeting CK2 in GBM treatment may benefit patients. With this translational perspective in mind, we have studied the CK2 expression level by Western blot analysis in a preclinical model of GBM: GL261 cells growing orthotopically in C57BL/6 mice. The expression level of the CK2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) was higher in tumour (about 4-fold) and in contralateral brain parenchyma (more than 2-fold) than in normal brain parenchyma (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were found in CK2 regulatory subunit (CK2β) expression, suggesting an increased unbalance of CK2α/CK2β in GL261 tumours with respect to normal brain parenchyma, in agreement with a differential role of these two subunits in tumours.

  13. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  14. Learn OpenGL ES for mobile game and graphics development

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    One of the first OpenGL ES version 3 books for game app developers doing mobile. Covers Android code and may be useful to iOS game developers too. OpenGL ES 3 is a new significant tech update to OpenGL ES graphics API engine that fuels game apps in both iOS and Android.

  15. Abscisic Acid: A Novel Nutraceutical for Glycemic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Elena; Hontecillas, Raquel; Leber, Andrew; Einerhand, Alexandra; Carbo, Adria; Bruzzone, Santina; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Noah; Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Victoria; Sturla, Laura; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid is naturally present in fruits and vegetables, and it plays an important role in managing glucose homeostasis in humans. According to the latest U.S. dietary survey, about 92% of the population might have a deficient intake of ABA due to their deficient intake of fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes the in vitro, preclinical, mechanistic, and human translational findings obtained over the past 15 years in the study of the role of ABA in glycemic control. In 2007, dietary ABA was first reported to ameliorate glucose tolerance and obesity-related inflammation in mice. The most recent findings regarding the topic of ABA and its proposed receptor lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 in glycemic control and their interplay with insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 suggest a major role for ABA in the physiological response to a glucose load in humans. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that the ABA response might be dysfunctional in diabetic subjects. Follow on intervention studies in healthy individuals show that low-dose dietary ABA administration exerts a beneficial effect on the glycemia and insulinemia profiles after oral glucose load. These recent findings showing benefits in humans, together with extensive efficacy data in mouse models of diabetes and inflammatory disease, suggest the need for reference ABA values and its possible exploitation of the glycemia-lowering effects of ABA for preventative purposes. Larger clinical studies on healthy, prediabetic, and diabetic subjects are needed to determine whether addressing the widespread dietary ABA deficiency improves glucose control in humans. PMID:28660193

  16. Building a Laboratory Information Management System Using Windows4GL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickens, M.A.; Shaieb, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    The system discussed is currently implemented at LLNL in the Environmental Services program which operates out of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) directorate. Responsibility is to provide the C&MS Environmental Services (CES) program with an enterprise-wide information system which will aid CES. The specific portion of the information system is the Sample Tracking, Analysis and Reporting System (STARS). Since CES was formed by merging two analytical laboratory organizations in May 1995, a new Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) had to be developed. The development of a LIMS in Windows4GL was found to be satisfactory. The product STARS was well received by the user community, and it has improved business practices and efficiency in CES. The CES management staff has seen increased personnel productivity since STARS was release. We look forward to upgrading to CA-OpenROAD and taking advantage of its many improved and innovative features to further enhance STARS.

  17. Building a Laboratory Information Management System Using Windows4GL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, M.A.; Shaieb, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    The system discussed is currently implemented at LLNL in the Environmental Services program which operates out of the Chemistry ampersand Materials Science (C ampersand MS) directorate. Responsibility is to provide the C ampersand MS Environmental Services (CES) program with an enterprise-wide information system which will aid CES. The specific portion of the information system is the Sample Tracking, Analysis and Reporting System (STARS). Since CES was formed by merging two analytical laboratory organizations in May 1995, a new Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) had to be developed. The development of a LIMS in Windows4GL was found to be satisfactory. The product STARS was well received by the user community, and it has improved business practices and efficiency in CES. The CES management staff has seen increased personnel productivity since STARS was release. We look forward to upgrading to CA-OpenROAD and taking advantage of its many improved and innovative features to further enhance STARS

  18. Relationships Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Donald; Quinn, Lauretta; Park, Chang

    2018-07-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem affecting approximately 29.1 million individuals in the United States. Another 86 million have prediabetes. The development and implementation of lifestyle modifications such as physical activity for these persons are among the most effective methods for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (peak maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2 peak] and ventilatory threshold [VT]) in overweight/obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition, the influences of body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA %S]) on the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness were explored. Data were abstracted from a completed study that included 51 overweight or obese subjects with T2DM ( n = 18), impaired glucose tolerance ( n = 8), or normal glucose tolerance ( n = 25). Relationships between glycemic control (HbA1c) and cardiovascular fitness (VO 2 peak and VT) were determined using correlational analysis and multiple linear regression analyses. A statistically significant relationship was observed between HbA1c and cardiovascular fitness. However, BMI and HOMA %S did not influence the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular fitness. HbA1c contributes to VO 2 peak and VT in obese and overweight subjects across glucose tolerance categories. Significant results were achieved despite the fact that there was a limited range of HbA1c based on the study inclusion criteria. This finding suggests that even a mild decrease in glycemic control can negatively influence cardiovascular fitness.

  19. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  20. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  1. Tumores de glándula mamaria en caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Torres

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available De los animales de compañía, los caninos son los que sufren con mayor frecuencia tumores de glándula mamaria y dentro de ellos las hembras son las que contribuyen con el mayor número de casos. Cuando estos tumores se presentan en machos por lo general tienen características histológicas malignas. Para el diagnóstico histopatológico la clasificación que ha tenido mayor aceptación es la propuesta por Hampe and Misdorp. A través de muchos años de investigación en este campo se han descrito varios factores considerados como predisponentes, entre los cuales están: raza, sexo, edad, dentro de estos la que presenta mayor disparidad de conceptos es la raza ya que, según algunos autores, se puede ver influenciada por factores externos como la localización geográfica y el gusto de los propietarios por ciertas razas como animales de compañía. Otro hecho importante es la descripción de agentes causales: el invalance hormonal (estrógenos, progesterona, mutaciones genéticas, (gen supresor del tumor, protooncogenes y consumo de dietas ricas en grasas. Finalmente, es importante hacer énfasis en el hecho que del diagnóstico adecuado y pautas de tratamiento llevados a cabo por el médico veterinario clínico, depende el pronóstico y las expectativas de vida del paciente canino.

  2. Professional WebGL Programming Developing 3D Graphics for the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Anyuru, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Everything you need to know about developing hardware-accelerated 3D graphics with WebGL! As the newest technology for creating 3D graphics on the web, in both games, applications, and on regular websites, WebGL gives web developers the capability to produce eye-popping graphics. This book teaches you how to use WebGL to create stunning cross-platform apps. The book features several detailed examples that show you how to develop 3D graphics with WebGL, including explanations of code snippets that help you understand the why behind the how. You will also develop a stronger understanding of W

  3. Studies on the glycemic response of wheat at various level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    estimating the glycemic index of various processing effect subjected to wheat ... Over-consumption of milled cereals is sometimes blamed for obesity ... Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of the glycemic effect of carbohydrate in a particular food,.

  4. Colocación de implantes glúteos y de cadera: una alternativa para mejorar el contorno en hipoplasia glúteo-trocantérea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.

    Full Text Available La mejoría del contorno glúteo y de caderas en un paciente varón que desea un contorno femenino es difícil de conseguir cuando no es posible disponer de una cantidad de grasa suficiente para inyectar y lograr una mejoría integral. Presentamos la técnica quirúrgica utilizada en un paciente transexual masculino que había tenido dos intentos fallidos de feminizar su contorno de glúteos y caderas. Utilizamos implantes ovales de silicona cohesiva, tanto para la región glútea como para las caderas, inyectando grasa en las áreas de transición entre los dos implantes. Con esta combinación obtuvimos un contorno femenino integral, eliminando por completo el aspecto masculino de la región glúteo-trocantérea. En conclusión, pensamos que la combinación empleada supone una opción novedosa y no descrita hasta el momento para el tratamiento de pacientes transexuales que buscan un contorno glúteo más femenino de forma integral, con resultados predecibles y muy gratificantes, que mejora las deficiencias que los pacientes masculinos tienen en esta zona en comparación con el contorno de los glúteos femeninos.

  5. Live-cell calcium imaging of adherent and non-adherent GL261 cells reveals phenotype-dependent differences in drug responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Averey D; Daniels, Richard L

    2017-08-02

    The tumor-derived GL261 cell line is used as a model for studying glioblastoma and other high-grade gliomas, and can be cultured adherently or as free-floating aggregates known as neurospheres. These different culture conditions give rise to distinct phenotypes, with increased tumorigenicity displayed by neurosphere-cultured cells. An important technique for understanding GL261 pathobiology is live cell fluorescent imaging of intracellular calcium. However, live cell imaging of GL261 neurospheres presents a technical challenge, as experimental manipulations where drugs are added to the extracellular media cause the cells to move during analysis. Here we present a method to immobilize GL261 neurospheres with low melting point agarose for calcium imaging using the fluorescent calcium sensor fura-2. GL261 cells were obtained from the NCI-Frederick Cancer Research Tumor Repository and cultured as adherent cells or induced to form neurospheres by placing freshly trypsinized cells into serum-free media containing fibroblast growth factor 2, epidermal growth factor, and B-27 supplement. Prior to experiments, adherent cells were loaded with fura-2 and cultured on 8-well chamber slides. Non-adherent neurospheres were first loaded with fura-2, placed in droplets onto an 8-well chamber slide, and finally covered with a thin layer of low melting point agarose to immobilize the cells. Ratiometric pseudocolored images were obtained during treatment with ATP, capsaicin, or vehicle control. Cells were marked as responsive if fluorescence levels increased more than 30% above baseline. Differences between treatment groups were tested using Student's t-tests and one-way ANOVA. We found that cellular responses to pharmacological treatments differ based on cellular phenotype. Adherent cells and neurospheres both responded to ATP with a rise in intracellular calcium. Notably, capsaicin treatment led to robust responses in GL261 neurospheres but not adherent cells. We demonstrate the use

  6. Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M; Thompson, Sharon V

    2017-10-04

    Legumes, such as black beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ( n = 12, 18-65 years). Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting), and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment ( p = 0.027). Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min ( p = 0.026 and p = 0.024), 90 min ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.012) and 120 min post prandial ( p = 0.024; black bean meal). Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns.

  7. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  8. RDF-GL : a SPARQL-based graphical query language for RDF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenboom, F.P.; Milea, D.V.; Frasincar, F.; Kaymak, U.; Chbeir, R.; Badr, Y.; Abraham, A.; Hassanien, A.-E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents RDF-GL, a graphical query language (GQL) for RDF. The GQL is based on the textual query language SPARQL and mainly focuses on SPARQL SELECT queries. The advantage of a GQL over textual query languages is that complexity is hidden through the use of graphical symbols. RDF-GL is

  9. Incerta glòria di Joan Sales tra filologia, storia e traduzione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Rigobon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo saggio si fa una riflessione sull’opera di Joan Sales Incerta glòria e particolarmente si vede le conessione tra filologia, storia e traduzione. This article makes a reflection on the work of Joan Sales, Incerta glòria, and it particularly affects the connection between philology, history and translation.

  10. Glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting in non alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors.This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non‑alcohol users and ...

  11. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  12. [Glycemic targets and cardiovascular morbi-mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Lyse; Bauduceau, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    The 2008-year was full of learning experience and suspense in diabetologia. The past studies, UKPDS in type 2 diabetic patients and DCCT in type 1 diabetic patients have shown that intensive treatment during a short period did reduce the incidence of microvascular events and in the long term, the incidence of macrovascular events linked to diabetes. The conclusions of recent studies quote, from ACCORD, an increased mortality in the type 2 diabetic patients using intensive therapy, from ADVANCE, a reduction of microvascular complications and from VADT, no effect. The analysis of studies published since 2008 brings lessons for the clinical practice: presence of glycemic memory, absence of tensional memory, usefulness of control of every cardiovascular risk factors, need of early treatment of diabetes. Moreover, to define HbA1c objective, age, duration of diabetes, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, former HbA1c level and potential undesirable effects, such hypoglycaemia, must be considered. The management of type 2 diabetic patients requires an early, not to quick intensive treatment, which avoids hypoglycaemia and is combined with a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. So, the recent position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consideres needs and preferences of each patient and individualizes glycemic targets and treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of prolonged salt movement in the Glückstadt Graben (NW Germany) driven by tectonic and sedimentary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kley, Jonas; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian; Kukowski, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The formation of salt structures exerted a major influence on the evolution of subsidence and sedimentation patterns in the Glückstadt Graben, which is part of the Central European Basin System and comprises a post-Permian sediment thickness of up to 11 km. Driven by regional tectonics and differential loading, large salt diapirs, salt walls and salt pillows developed. The resulting salt flow significantly influenced sediment distribution in the peripheral sinks adjacent to the salt structures and overprinted the regional subsidence patterns. In this study, we investigate the geometric and temporal evolution of salt structures and subsidence patterns in the central Glückstadt Graben. Along a key geological cross section, the post-Permian strata were sequentially decompacted and restored in order to reconstruct the subsidence history of minibasins between the salt structures. The structural restoration reveals that subsidence of peripheral sinks and salt structure growth were initiated in Early to Middle Triassic time. From the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, salt movement and salt structure growth never ceased, but were faster during periods of crustal extension. Following a phase from Late Jurassic to the end of the early Late Cretaceous, in which minor salt flow occurred, salt movement was renewed, particularly in the marginal parts of the Glückstadt Graben. Subsidence rates and tectonic subsidence derived from backstripping of 1D profiles reveal that especially the Early Triassic and Middle Keuper times were periods of regional extension. Three specific types of salt structures and adjacent peripheral sinks could be identified: (1) Graben centre salt walls possessing deep secondary peripheral sinks on the sides facing away from the basin centre, (2) platform salt walls, whose main peripheral sinks switched multiple times from one side of the salt wall to the other, and (3) Graben edge pillows, which show only one peripheral sink facing the basin centre.

  14. Glycemic Response of a Carbohydrate-Protein Bar with Ewe-Goat Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Manthou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI and glycaemic load (GL of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0 randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55 and low GL (<10 food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition.

  15. Farvel til glødepæren - goddag til...?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Glødepæren er, som vi kender den, er hastigt på vej ud af markedet idet EU har vedtaget at udfase glødepæren inden udgangen af 2012. Og det er godt, for glødepæren er en energiforbrugende lyskilde, der foranlediger tonsvis af CO2 udledning til atmosfæren. Spørgsmålet er så hvilken lyskilde der ka...... spørgsmål om at kaste sig ud i helt nye og uopdagede løsningsmodeller?...

  16. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2018-01-01

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings (pshypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. RDF-GL: A SPARQL-Based Graphical Query Language for RDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenboom, Frederik; Milea, Viorel; Frasincar, Flavius; Kaymak, Uzay

    This chapter presents RDF-GL, a graphical query language (GQL) for RDF. The GQL is based on the textual query language SPARQL and mainly focuses on SPARQL SELECT queries. The advantage of a GQL over textual query languages is that complexity is hidden through the use of graphical symbols. RDF-GL is supported by a Java-based editor, SPARQLinG, which is presented as well. The editor does not only allow for RDF-GL query creation, but also converts RDF-GL queries to SPARQL queries and is able to subsequently execute these. Experiments show that using the GQL in combination with the editor makes RDF querying more accessible for end users.

  18. Comparison of Physics Frameworks for WebGL-Based Game Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogya Resa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new technology called WebGL shows a lot of potentials for developing games. However since this technology is still new, there are still many potentials in the game development area that are not explored yet. This paper tries to uncover the potential of integrating physics frameworks with WebGL technology in a game engine for developing 2D or 3D games. Specifically we integrated three open source physics frameworks: Bullet, Cannon, and JigLib into a WebGL-based game engine. Using experiment, we assessed these frameworks in terms of their correctness or accuracy, performance, completeness and compatibility. The results show that it is possible to integrate open source physics frameworks into a WebGLbased game engine, and Bullet is the best physics framework to be integrated into the WebGL-based game engine.

  19. Antimicrobial effects of GL13K peptide coatings on S. mutans and L. casei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitt, Rebecca Ann

    Background: Enamel breakdown around orthodontic brackets, so-called "white spot lesions", is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. White spot lesions are caused by bacteria such as Streptococci and Lactobacilli, whose acidic byproducts cause demineralization of enamel crystals. Aims: The aim of this project was to develop an antimicrobial peptide coating for titanium alloy that is capable of killing acidogenic bacteria, specifically Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. The long-term goal is to create an antimicrobial-coated orthodontic bracket with the ability to reduce or prevent the formation of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients thereby improving clinical outcomes. Methods: First, an alkaline etching method with NaOH was established to allow effective coating of titanium discs with GL13K, an antimicrobial peptide derived from human saliva. Coatings were verified by contact angle measures, and treated discs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Secondly, GL13K coatings were tested against hydrolytic, proteolytic and mechanical challenges to ensure robust coatings. Third, a series of qualitative and quantitative microbiology experiments were performed to determine the effects of GL13K--L and GL13K--D on S. mutans and L. casei, both in solution and coated on titanium. Results: GL13K-coated discs were stable after two weeks of challenges. GL13K--D was effective at killing S. mutans in vitro at low doses. GL13K--D also demonstrated a bactericidal effect on L. casei, however, in contrast to S. mutans, the effect on L. casei was not statistically significant. Conclusion: GL13K--D is a promising candidate for antimicrobial therapy with possible applications for prevention of white spot lesions in orthodontics.

  20. Control of IgE and IgGl antibody production in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Macedo, M.S.; Braga, F.; Mota, I.

    1976-01-01

    The production of IgE and IgCl was studied in untreated, thymectomized, splenectomized, anti-thymocyte serum-treated, or sublethally X-irradiated mice. Dinitrophenyl, Ascaris, and ovalbumin were used as antigens, and aluminum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. A suppression of IgE production was observed in adult thymectomized mice, although the kinetic pattern of the antibody response was the same as in control animals. IgGl antibody production was not affected by thymectomy. Splenectomy did not change either IgE or IgGl production. A single dose of rabbit antithymocyte serum (ATS) given 8 days after immunization inhibited IgE antibody production. The effect of ATS was dose dependent and also varied with the amount of antigen used, the immune response to high doses being more susceptible to the effect of ATS. No alteration in IgGl production was caused by ATS even when IgE antibody formation was completely inhibited. When preceding immunization, sublethal irradiation enhanced IgE antibody formation and partially suppressed IgGl production; applied after immunization, irradiation caused an enhancement of IgE production which was inversely proportional to the interval elapsed between the two procedures. On the other hand, the IgGl antibody production was fairly resistant to the same treatment. The results suggest a clearcut separation between the mechanisms regulating IgE and IgGl production in mice

  1. Continuum limit of gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candu, Constantin

    2011-03-01

    We study the spectrum of an integrable antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian of the gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chain of alternating fundamental and dual representations. After extensive numerical analysis, we identify the vacuum and low lying excitations and with this knowledge perform the continuum limit, while keeping a finite gap. All antiferromagnetic gl(n+N vertical stroke N) spin chains with n>0 and N≠0 are shown to possess in the continuum limit 2n-2 multiplets of massive particles which scatter with gl(n) Gross-Neveu like S-matrices, namely their eigenvalues do not depend on N. We argue that the continuum theory is the gl(M vertical stroke N) Gross-Neveu model, that is the massive deformation of the gl(M vertical stroke N) 1 Wess-Zumino-Witten model. As we can see ion the example of gl(2m vertical stroke 1) spin chains, the full particle spectrum is much richer. Our analysis suggests that for a complete characterization of the latter it is not enough to restrict to large volume calculations, as we do in this work. (orig.)

  2. Continuum limit of gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2011-03-15

    We study the spectrum of an integrable antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian of the gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chain of alternating fundamental and dual representations. After extensive numerical analysis, we identify the vacuum and low lying excitations and with this knowledge perform the continuum limit, while keeping a finite gap. All antiferromagnetic gl(n+N vertical stroke N) spin chains with n>0 and N{ne}0 are shown to possess in the continuum limit 2n-2 multiplets of massive particles which scatter with gl(n) Gross-Neveu like S-matrices, namely their eigenvalues do not depend on N. We argue that the continuum theory is the gl(M vertical stroke N) Gross-Neveu model, that is the massive deformation of the gl(M vertical stroke N){sub 1} Wess-Zumino-Witten model. As we can see ion the example of gl(2m vertical stroke 1) spin chains, the full particle spectrum is much richer. Our analysis suggests that for a complete characterization of the latter it is not enough to restrict to large volume calculations, as we do in this work. (orig.)

  3. Postural hypotension in type 1 diabetes: The influence of glycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-04

    saharan ... Key words: Diabetes mellitus, duration, glycemic control, postural hypotension. Date of ... or older) provided informed consent before enrolment in the study. .... asymptomatic despite significant falls in blood pressure.[26].

  4. Morfologia das glândulas salivares de Glironia venusta Thomas, 1912 (Didelphimorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna S. Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a morfologia das glândulas salivares de Glironia venusta. Foi utilizado um exemplar coletado no resgate de fauna da Usina Hidroeletrica Teles Pires. Este foi fixado com solução de formaldeído a 10%. Para a análise macroscópica, as glândulas foram dissecadas e fotografadas in situ e para a microscopia foram retirados fragmentos das glândulas. Estes foram desidratados em concentrações crescentes de álcool, diafanizados em xilol, inclusos em parafina e corados com HE. G. venusta apresentou as glândulas mandibulares, parótidas, sublinguais, labiais e zigomáticas. As mandibulares se mostraram como estruturas alongadas, constituídas por lobos não septados e localizadas na porção anterior da região cervical. De formato triangular, a parótida estava localizada na depressão do masseter, ventral à cartilagem auricular. As sublinguais encontravam-se ventrais ao ramo da mandíbula, caudais ao digástrico. Foi observado na porção dorsoposterior à comissura labial, dorsal ao músculo orbicular da boca, as glândulas labiais, que apresentaram formato de "U". Já as glândulas zigomáticas acompanhavam a forma da porção anterior do arco zigomático, na margem infraorbital. As glândulas mandibulares e sublinguais apresentaram ácinos do tipo mucosos, com alguns ácinos serosos. A parótida era constituída por ácinos puramente serosos. Na glândula labial foi observado ácinos do tipo mistos ou seromucosos. Para a glândula zigomática não foi possível a realização da análise microscópica devido problemas de procedimento histológico. As características das glândulas salivares observadas em G. venusta se assemelham a de outros mamíferos onívoros, entretanto, apresentaram pequenas diferenças no que se refere à sua localização e forma.

  5. Quantification of PRL/Stat5 signaling with a novel pGL4-CISH reporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Jiamao

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevations of serum prolactin (PRL are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. PRL signaling through its prolactin receptor (PRLr involves the Jak2/Stat5 pathway. Luciferase-based reporter assays have been widely used to evaluate the activity of this pathway. However, the existing reporters are often not sensitive enough to monitor the effect of PRL in this pathway. Results In this study, a new biologically relevant reporter, pGL4-CISH, was generated to study the PRL/Jak2/Stat5 signaling pathway. The sensitivity of pGL4-CISH to detect PRL was superior to that of several other commonly utilized Stat5-responsive reporters. Interestingly, the enhanced function pGL4-CISH was restricted to the estrogen receptor positive (ER+ human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF7, but not in the ER-MDA-231, BT-474, or MCF10A cell lines. Overexpression of Stat5 further enhanced the effect of PRL on pGL4-CISH. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that pGL4-CISH is a novel and sensitive reporter for assessing the activity of the PRL/Stat5 signaling pathway in the ER+ human breast cancer cells.

  6. Quantification of PRL/Stat5 signaling with a novel pGL4-CISH reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Feng; Antico, Giovanni; Zheng, Jiamao; Clevenger, Charles V

    2008-02-06

    Elevations of serum prolactin (PRL) are associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. PRL signaling through its prolactin receptor (PRLr) involves the Jak2/Stat5 pathway. Luciferase-based reporter assays have been widely used to evaluate the activity of this pathway. However, the existing reporters are often not sensitive enough to monitor the effect of PRL in this pathway. In this study, a new biologically relevant reporter, pGL4-CISH, was generated to study the PRL/Jak2/Stat5 signaling pathway. The sensitivity of pGL4-CISH to detect PRL was superior to that of several other commonly utilized Stat5-responsive reporters. Interestingly, the enhanced function pGL4-CISH was restricted to the estrogen receptor positive (ER+) human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MCF7, but not in the ER-MDA-231, BT-474, or MCF10A cell lines. Overexpression of Stat5 further enhanced the effect of PRL on pGL4-CISH. These studies demonstrate that pGL4-CISH is a novel and sensitive reporter for assessing the activity of the PRL/Stat5 signaling pathway in the ER+ human breast cancer cells.

  7. MODEL SPECTRA OF THE FIRST POTENTIALLY HABITABLE SUPER-EARTH-Gl581d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Segura, AntIgona; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2011-01-01

    Gl581d has a minimum mass of 7 M Earth and is the first detected potentially habitable rocky Super-Earth. Our models confirm that a habitable atmosphere can exist on Gl581d. We derive spectroscopic features for atmospheres assuming an Earth-like composition for this planet, from high-oxygen atmosphere analogous to Earth's to high-CO 2 atmospheres with and without biotic oxygen concentrations. We find that a minimum CO 2 partial pressure of about 7 bar, in an atmosphere with a total surface pressure of 7.6 bar, is needed to maintain a mean surface temperature above freezing on Gl581d. We model transmission and emergent synthetic spectra from 0.4 μm to 40 μm and show where indicators of biological activities in such a planet's atmosphere could be observed by future ground- and space-based telescopes. The model we present here only represents one possible nature-an Earth-like composition-of a planet like Gl581d in a wide parameter space. Future observations of atmospheric features can be used to examine if our concept of habitability and its dependence on the carbonate-silicate cycle is correct, and assess whether Gl581d is indeed a habitable Super-Earth.

  8. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  9. Does glycemic variability impact mood and quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penckofer, Sue; Quinn, Lauretta; Byrn, Mary; Ferrans, Carol; Miller, Michael; Strange, Poul

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic condition that significantly impacts quality of life. Poor glycemic control is associated with more diabetes complications, depression, and worse quality of life. The impact of glycemic variability on mood and quality of life has not been studied. A descriptive exploratory design was used. Twenty-three women with type 2 diabetes wore a continuous glucose monitoring system for 72 h and completed a series of questionnaires. Measurements included (1) glycemic control shown by glycated hemoglobin and 24-h mean glucose, (2) glycemic variability shown by 24-h SD of the glucose readings, continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and Fourier statistical models to generate smoothed curves to assess rate of change defined as "energy," and (3) mood (depression, anxiety, anger) and quality of life by questionnaires. Women with diabetes and co-morbid depression had higher anxiety, more anger, and lower quality of life than those without depression. Certain glycemic variability measures were associated with mood and quality of life. The 24-h SD of the glucose readings and the CONGA measures were significantly associated with health-related quality of life after adjusting for age and weight. Fourier models indicated that certain energy components were significantly associated with depression, trait anxiety, and overall quality of life. Finally, subjects with higher trait anxiety tended to have steeper glucose excursions. Data suggest that greater glycemic variability may be associated with lower quality of life and negative moods. Implications include replication of the study in a larger sample for the assessment of blood glucose fluctuations as they impact mood and quality of life.

  10. Glycemic control in diabetes in three Danish counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lone G M; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Heickendorff, Lene; Møller, Holger Jon; Hendel, Jørn; Christensen, Cramer; Schmitz, Anita; Reinholdt, Birgitte; Lund, Erik D; Christensen, Niels J; Hansen, Erik Kjaersgaard; Hastrup, Jens; Skjødt, Hanne; Eriksen, Ebbe Wendel; Brandslund, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a proxy measure for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the trend for glycemic control in patients from three Danish counties using HbA1c measurements. We studied 2454 patients from a population of 807,000 inhabitants for whom routine monitoring of diabetes using HbA1c-DCCT aligned was initiated in 2001. We estimated the incidence of monitored patients in the population. The progress in patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels was investigated by cumulative probability plots, and the individual trend in clinical outcome was investigated by a modified difference plot. The age-standardized incidence of monitored patients was or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. The overall percentage above the treatment target (>or=6.62% HbA1c) was 51% in 2003 compared to 59% in 2001, and the percentage with poor glycemic control (>or=10.0% HbA1c) was reduced from 19% to 4%. Of patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels, 15% showed progress in glycemic control, and 28% reached treatment targets. In patients with originally normal HbA1c, 75% showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels, which reached diabetic concentrations in 17%. Patients with diabetic first HbA1c concentrations (>or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. In individual patients, 75% with originally diabetic HbA1c levels showed improved glycemic control after 3 years, while 78% with originally normal concentrations showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels.

  11. Game and Graphics Programming for iOS and Android with OpenGL ES 20

    CERN Document Server

    Marruchi-Foino, Romain; Semko, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Develop graphically sophisticated apps and games today! The smart phone app market is progressively growing, and there is new market gap to fill that requires more graphically sophisticated applications and games. Game and Graphics Programming for iOS and Android with OpenGL ES 2.0 quickly gets you up to speed on understanding how powerful OpenGL ES 2.0 technology is in creating apps and games for amusement and effectiveness. Leading you through the development of a real-world mobile app with live code, this text lets you work with all the best features and tools that Open GL ES 2.0 has to off

  12. WebGL and web audio software lightweight components for multimedia education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Yuksel, Kivanc; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of our recent work on development of contemporary computing platform DC2 for multimedia education usingWebGL andWeb Audio { the W3C standards. Using literate programming paradigm the WEBSA educational tools were developed. It offers for a user (student), the access to expandable collection of WEBGL Shaders and web Audio scripts. The unique feature of DC2 is the option of literate programming, offered for both, the author and the reader in order to improve interactivity to lightweightWebGL andWeb Audio components. For instance users can define: source audio nodes including synthetic sources, destination audio nodes, and nodes for audio processing such as: sound wave shaping, spectral band filtering, convolution based modification, etc. In case of WebGL beside of classic graphics effects based on mesh and fractal definitions, the novel image processing analysis by shaders is offered like nonlinear filtering, histogram of gradients, and Bayesian classifiers.

  13. Fischer matrices of Dempwolff group $2^{5}{^{cdot}}GL(5,2$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Basheer Mohammed Basheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In cite{Demp2} Dempwolff proved the existence of a group of theform $2^{5}{^{cdot}}GL(5,2$ (a non split extension of theelementary abelian group $2^{5}$ by the general linear group$GL(5,2$. This group is the second largest maximal subgroup of thesporadic Thompson simple group $mathrm{Th}.$ In this paper wecalculate the Fischer matrices of Dempwolff group $overline{G} =2^{5}{^{cdot}}GL(5,2.$ The theory of projective characters isinvolved and we have computed the Schur multiplier together with aprojective character table of an inertia factor group. The fullcharacter table of $overline{G}$ is then can be calculated easily.

  14. Morfologia da glândula adrenal da paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Sergio Pinter Garcia; Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho, Ana Laura; Luís Martins, Leandro; Martins Leal, Leonardo; Pacheco, Maria Rita; Fernandes Machado, Marcia Rita

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p163 A paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766) é um roedor de porte médio que, embora pertencente à fauna brasileira, possui poucas informações acerca de sua morfologia na literatura especializada. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se estudar a morfologia da sua glândula adrenal mediante análise de microscopia de luz, cuja importância refere-se ao fato da glândula adrenal ser um órgão secretor de substâncias particulares que promovem no organismo funções ...

  15. Efecto de la radioterapia en glándulas salivales accesorias.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, Carmen Aránzazu

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar las alteraciones que las radiaciones ionizantes producen sobre las glándulas salivales accesorias labiales. En nuestro estudio se seleccionaron sujetos diagnosticados de un tumor maligno de cabeza y cuello que iban a recibir radioterapia dentro de su tratamiento, incluyendo los labios dentro del campo de irradiación. Se evaluó la secreción salival y las alteraciones morfológicas de las glándulas en el momento del diagnóstico...

  16. Estudio anatomopatológico de los tumores de las glándulas salivares

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Salas, Rosa María

    2011-01-01

    Hemos estudiado, de forma retrospectiva, las características epidemiológicas, morfológicas e inmunohistoquímicas de 400 tumores de las glándulas salivares. La clasificación diagnóstica utilizada ha sido la de Ellis y Auclair (AFIP 1995). Los tumores de las glándulas salivares de nuestras serie son neoplasias que afectan con mayor frecuencia a pacientes entre 30 y 60 años de edad; en los pacientes con tumores benignos, la edad es significativamente menor que los que presentan turmores malignos...

  17. Impact of Glucose Meter Error on Glycemic Variability and Time in Target Range During Glycemic Control After Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Bryant, Sandra C

    2015-08-25

    We retrospectively studied the impact of glucose meter error on the efficacy of glycemic control after cardiovascular surgery. Adult patients undergoing intravenous insulin glycemic control therapy after cardiovascular surgery, with 12-24 consecutive glucose meter measurements used to make insulin dosing decisions, had glucose values analyzed to determine glycemic variability by both standard deviation (SD) and continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and percentage glucose values in target glucose range (110-150 mg/dL). Information was recorded for 70 patients during each of 2 periods, with different glucose meters used to measure glucose and dose insulin during each period but no other changes to the glycemic control protocol. Accuracy and precision of each meter were also compared using whole blood specimens from ICU patients. Glucose meter 1 (GM1) had median bias of 11 mg/dL compared to a laboratory reference method, while glucose meter 2 (GM2) had a median bias of 1 mg/dL. GM1 and GM2 differed little in precision (CV = 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively). Compared to the period when GM1 was used to make insulin dosing decisions, patients whose insulin dose was managed by GM2 demonstrated reduced glycemic variability as measured by both SD (13.7 vs 21.6 mg/dL, P meter error (bias) was associated with decreased glycemic variability and increased percentage of values in target glucose range for patients placed on intravenous insulin therapy following cardiovascular surgery. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. [The glycemic index of some foods common in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Roca-Vides, R A; López-Pérez, R J; de Vivero, I; Ruiz-Velazco, M

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the increase of glycemia due to the ingestion of usual food in Mexico, portions with 50 g of carbohydrate form white corn tortilla, yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice, potatoes, beans brown and black, nopal (prickle pear cactus) and peanuts, compared with white bread, were given to 21 healthy and 27 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Serum glucose and insulin were measured every 30 min for 180 min long. Glycemic index was obtained as: (area under curve of glucose with test food/area under curve of glucose with white bread) X 100. A corrected index was calculated subtracting the area corresponding to initial values. Insulin index was obtained similarly. Each sample was studied 14-18 times. Glycemic and insulin indexes of white and yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice and potatoes were not different from bread (P greater than 0.05). Corrected glycemic indexes of brown beans (54 +/- 15, +/- SE) and black beans (43 +/- 17) were low (p less than 0.05), as well as corrected insulin indexes (69 +/- 11 and 64 +/- 10 respectively, (P less than 0.02). Peanuts had low glycemic (33 +/- 17, P less than 0.01), but normal insulin index. Nopal had very low glycemic and insulin indexes (10 +/- 17 and 10 +/- 16, P less than 0.0001). These data might be useful in prescribing diets for diabetic subjects.

  19. Intensive glycemic control and cardiovascular disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aparna; Reynolds, L Raymond; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Cardiovascular complications constitute the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) provided consistent evidence that intensive glycemic control prevents the development and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, whether intensive glucose lowering also prevents macrovascular disease and major cardiovascular events remains unclear. Extended follow-up of participants in these studies demonstrated that intensive glycemic control reduced the long-term incidence of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) results suggested that intensive glycemic control to near normoglycemia had either no, or potentially even a detrimental, effect on cardiovascular outcomes. This article discusses the effects of intensive glycemic control on cardiovascular disease, and examines key differences in the design of these trials that might have contributed to their disparate findings. Recommendations from the current joint ADA, AHA, and ACCF position statement on intensive glycemic control and prevention of cardiovascular disease are highlighted.

  20. O darwinismo nas Conferências Populares da Glória Darwinism in the Popular Conferences in the Glória district of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Carula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o darwinismo exposto, entre 1875 e 1880, nas Conferências Populares da Glória - preleções públicas realizadas na escola da Freguesia da Glória, no Rio de Janeiro. As conferências que tiveram as idéias darwinistas como temática foram recebidas e repercutidas na imprensa de maneira polêmica. Apresenta-se a concepção sobre o darwinismo do médico Miranda Azevedo, o primeiro, mas não o único, a discursar sobre o tema. Com relação às conferências desse médico, analisa-se a aplicabilidade social do darwinismo por ele defendida, e as discussões na imprensa sobre a propagação do darwinismo no Brasil e sobre a possível origem símia do homem. Por fim, analisam-se as preleções de outros conferencistas que ou versaram sobre o tema mais diretamente ou perpassaram o assunto.In this paper I examine the Darwinism that transpired, between 1875 and 1880, during the Popular Conferences in the Gloria district - public conferences that took place at the Freguesia da Glória school, in Rio de Janeiro. The Conferences that had Darwinism as a subject were received and reverberated in the press polemically. I present the conception of Darwinism held by doctor Miranda Azevedo, the first, but not the only speaker, to discuss the subject. Concerning this doctor's conferences, I analyze the social application of Darwinism defended by him, and the discussions in the press about the spread of Darwinism in Brazil, and the possible simian origin of man. Finally, I talk about other lecturers' talks that either directly broached the subject or mentioned it in passing.

  1. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  2. Learning Three.js the JavaScript 3D library for WebGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dirksen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    If you know JavaScript and want to start creating 3D graphics that run in any browser, this book is a great choice for you. You don't need to know anything about math or WebGL; all that you need is general knowledge of JavaScript and HTML.

  3. Quantized planes and multiparameter deformations of Heisenberg and GL(N) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, D.B.; Zachos, C.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize our work on explicitly deforming classical oscillators to multiparameter quantum oscillators which do not commute with each other. These ''anyonic'' oscillators lead to the construction of a consistent quantum algebra GL q (N) with (N - 1)(N - 2)/2 independent parameters, some of whose features and applications we shall discuss. 22 refs

  4. Form factors in quantum integrable models with GL(3)-invariant R-matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakuliak, S., E-mail: pakuliak@theor.jinr.ru [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ragoucy, E., E-mail: eric.ragoucy@lapth.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique LAPTH, CNRS and Université de Savoie, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Slavnov, N.A., E-mail: nslavnov@mi.ras.ru [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing GL(3)-invariant R-matrix. We obtain determinant representations for form factors of off-diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix. These representations can be used for the calculation of form factors and correlation functions of the XXX SU(3)-invariant Heisenberg chain.

  5. Research on Chinese characters display of airborne MFD based on GL studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhile; Dong, Junyu; Hu, Wenting; Cui, Yipeng

    2018-04-01

    GL Studio cannot display Chinese characters during developing the airborne MFD, this paper propose a method of establishing a Chinese character font with GB2312 encoding, establish the font table and the display unit of Chinese characters based on GL Studio. Abstract the storage and display data model of Chinese characters, parse the GB encoding of the corresponding Chinese characters that MFD received, find the coordinates of the Chinese characters in the font table, establish the dynamic control model and the dynamic display model of Chinese characters based on the display unit of Chinese characters. In GL Studio and VC ++.NET environment, this model has been successfully applied to develop the airborne MFD in a variety of mission simulators. This method has successfully solved the problem that GL Studio software cannot develop MFD software of Chinese domestic aircraft and can also be used for other professional airborne MFD development tools such as IDATA. It has been proved by experiments that this is a fast effective scalable and reconfigurable method of developing both actual equipment and simulators.

  6. A note on glN type-I integrable defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Type-I quantum defects are considered in the context of the gl N spin chain. The type-I defects are associated with the generalized harmonic oscillator algebra, and the chosen defect matrix is that of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model. The transmission matrices relevant to this particular type of defects are computed via the Bethe ansatz methodology. (paper)

  7. New reflection matrices for the Uq(gl(m|n)) case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia; Karaiskos, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    We examine supersymmetric representations of the B-type Hecke algebra. We exploit such representations to obtain new non-diagonal solutions of the reflection equation associated with the super algebra U q (gl(m|n)). The boundary super algebra is briefly discussed and it is shown to be central to the supersymmetric realization of the B-type Hecke algebra. (letter)

  8. Correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Li; Ji Ning; Zhu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Used continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitoring glycemic excursion within a day of twenty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inspect fundus photography, correlation was analyzed. Results: Glycemic excursion might reveal the risk for diabetic retinopathy better than HbA1c does. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may correlate with glycemic excursion. (authors)

  9. Morfologia da glândula pineal de gambás (Didelphis sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A glândula pineal deve ser analisada e estudada em animais da fauna brasileira, para que dados da pesquisa básica possam ser aplicados em novas técnicas de manejo reprodutivo destes animais, inclusive em cativeiro, face à íntima relação deste órgão fotorreceptor com o ciclo reprodutivo. Para este estudo, foram utilizados 10 gambás (Didelphis sp, provenientes do Departamento de Anatomia da USP e da UNIFEOB, já mortos e fixados. Nenhum animal foi submetido a situações de dor/sofrimento e ao sacrifício de sua vida. A glândula pineal foi encontrada em todos animais estudados e apresentou-se com diminutas dimensões, não sendo possível, portanto descrever-lhe características macroscópicas. Através da análise microscópica pudemos localizar a glândula no espaço correspondente ao plano mediano, em relação ao encéfalo, rostral e dorsalmente aos colículos rostrais, ventralmente aos hemisférios cerebrais e caudalmente à comissura habenular. Consiste de uma evaginação do teto do diencéfalo e mostra-se em forma de "U" invertido. Comparativamente a características de glândulas pineais de outras espécies animais, a do Didelphis genus, que estudamos, revela peculiaridades tanto em relação ao seu tamanho, apenas perceptível microscopicamente, quanto ao fato de apresentar células semelhantes às secretoras, dispersas também em áreas vizinhas. Tais peculiaridades motivam reflexões sobre o papel funcional da glândula, na espécie considerada.

  10. Morfologia da glândula adrenal da paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p163 A paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 é um roedor de porte médio que, embora pertencente à fauna brasileira, possui poucas informações acerca de sua morfologia na literatura especializada. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se estudar a morfologia da sua glândula adrenal mediante análise de microscopia de luz, cuja importância refere-se ao fato da glândula adrenal ser um órgão secretor de substâncias particulares que promovem no organismo funções biológicas de grande importância, além de proporcionar informações à anatomia comparada. Foram utilizadas oito pacas adultas, quatro machos e quatro fêmeas. Logo após o óbito, os animais foram posicionados em decúbito dorsal, foi realizada a abertura de sua cavidade abdominal por meio de incisão pré-retroumbilical e seguido do rebatimento lateral das paredes abdominais para a exposição da glândula em questão. As glândulas adrenais foram individualizadas, fragmentos foram colhidos, fixados e preparados para observação histológica. Constatou-se que a morfologia geral da glândula adrenal da paca assemelha-se à de outros mamíferos.

  11. Adsorption kinetics of maxilon yellow 4GL and maxilon red GRL dyes on kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, Mehmet; Karaoglu, M. Hamdi; Alkan, Mahir

    2009-01-01

    Kaolinite, a low-costly material, is the most abundant phyllosilicate mineral in highly weathered soils. In this work, the adsorption kinetics of maxilon yellow 4GL (MY 4GL) and maxilon red GRL (MR GRL) dyes on kaolinite from aqueous solutions was investigated using the parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, initial dye concentration, initial pH, ionic strength, acid-activation, calcination and solution temperature. The equilibrium time was 150 min for both dyes. The results showed that alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of MY 4GL and MR GRL dyes and physisorption seemed to play a major role in the adsorption process. It was found that the rate of adsorption decreases with increasing temperature and the process is exothermic. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order equation for both dyes investigated in this work with the k 2 values lying in the region of 1.79 x 10 4 to 107.87 x 10 4 g/mol min for MY 4GL and 3.44 x 10 4 to 72.09 x 10 4 g/mol min for MR GRL. The diffusion coefficient values calculated for the dyes were in the range of 3.76 x 10 -9 to 62.50 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s for MY 4GL and 1.98 x 10 -9 to 44.00 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s for MR GRL, and are compatible with other studies reported in the literature. The thermodynamic activation parameters such as the enthalpy, entropy and free energy were determined. The obtained results confirmed the applicability of this clay as an efficient adsorbent for cationic dyes.

  12. IRF models associated with representations of the Lie superalgebras gl(m|n) and sl(m|n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, T.; Fujii, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents two families of exactly solvable interaction round a face (IRF) models associated with representations of the Lie superalgebras gl(m/n) and sl(m/n). These IRF models are the generalizations of integrable spin chains with bosons and fermions. The authors present fusion models associated with higher representations of gl(m/n) and sl(m/n). The authors introduce restricted IRF models both for gl(m/n) and sl(m/n)

  13. Finite-dimensional representations of the quantum superalgebra Uq[gl(2/2)]: 1. Typical representations at generic q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Anh Ky.

    1993-05-01

    In the present paper we construct all typical finite-dimensional representations of the quantum Lie superalgebra U q [gl(2/2)] at generic deformation parameter q. As in the non-deformed case the finite-dimensional U q [gl(2/2)]-module W q obtained is irreducible and can be decomposed into finite-dimensional irreducible U q [l(2)+gl(2)]submodules V i q . (authohor). 32 refs

  14. Overall glycaemic index and glycaemic load of habitual diet and risk of heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau, Katrine; Tetens, Inge; Bjørnsbo, Kirsten S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that diets with high glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) increase the risk of heart disease. Design Overall GI and GL were assessed from 7 d diet records or diet history interviews. Setting Information on hospitalization and death due to CVD and CHD was o...

  15. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Sengpiel, Verena; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Myhre, Ronny; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jacobsson, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery. This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery. Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

  16. Orbit and Dynamical Mass of the Late-T Dwarf GL 758 B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Hirsch, Lea; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Crepp, Justin R.; Biller, Beth A.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2018-04-01

    Gl 758 B is a late-T dwarf orbiting a metal-rich Sun-like star at a projected separation of ρ ≈ 1.″6 (25 au). We present four epochs of astrometry of this system with NIRC2 at Keck Observatory spanning 2010 to 2017 together with 630 radial velocities (RVs) of the host star acquired over the past two decades from McDonald Observatory, Keck Observatory, and the Automated Planet Finder at Lick Observatory. The RVs reveal that Gl 758 is accelerating with an evolving rate that varies between 2 and 5 m s‑1 yr‑1, consistent with the expected influence of the imaged companion Gl 758 B. A joint fit of the RVs and astrometry yields a dynamical mass of {42}-7+19 M Jup for the companion with a robust lower limit of 30.5 M Jup at the 4-σ level. Gl 758 B is on an eccentric orbit (e = 0.26–0.67 at 95% confidence) with a semimajor axis of a = {21.1}-1.3+2.7 au and an orbital period of P = {96}-9+21 yr, which takes it within ≈9 au from its host star at periastron passage. Substellar evolutionary models generally underpredict the mass of Gl 758 B for nominal ages of 1–6 Gyr that have previously been adopted for the host star. This discrepancy can be reconciled if the system is older—which is consistent with activity indicators and recent isochrone fitting of the host star—or alternatively if the models are systematically overluminous by ≈0.1–0.2 dex. Gl 758 B is currently the lowest-mass directly imaged companion inducing a measured acceleration on its host star. In the future, bridging RVs and high-contrast imaging with the next generation of extremely large telescopes and space-based facilities will open the door to the first dynamical mass measurements of imaged exoplanets. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible

  17. Association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispín-Trebejo, Brenda; Robles-Cuadros, María Cristina; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    There is limited and controversial information regarding the potential impact of depression on glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the association between depression and poor glycemic control. In addition, the prevalence of depression and rates of poor glycemic control were determined. Cross-sectional study performed in the endocrinology unit of two hospitals of ESSALUD in Peru. The outcome of interest was poor glycemic control, evaluated by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c: diabetes patients. Our results suggest that early detection of depression might be important to facilitate appropriate glycemic control and avoid further metabolic complications. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the utility of a glycemic pattern identification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Erik A; Tannan, Vinay

    2014-07-01

    With the increasing prevalence of systems allowing automated, real-time transmission of blood glucose data there is a need for pattern recognition techniques that can inform of deleterious patterns in glycemic control when people test. We evaluated the utility of pattern identification with a novel pattern identification system named Vigilant™ and compared it to standard pattern identification methods in diabetes. To characterize the importance of an identified pattern we evaluated the relative risk of future hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events in diurnal periods following identification of a pattern in a data set of 536 patients with diabetes. We evaluated events 2 days, 7 days, 30 days, and 61-90 days from pattern identification, across diabetes types and cohorts of glycemic control, and also compared the system to 6 pattern identification methods consisting of deleterious event counts and percentages over 5-, 14-, and 30-day windows. Episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, severe hypoglycemia, and severe hyperglycemia were 120%, 46%, 123%, and 76% more likely after pattern identification, respectively, compared to periods when no pattern was identified. The system was also significantly more predictive of deleterious events than other pattern identification methods evaluated, and was persistently predictive up to 3 months after pattern identification. The system identified patterns that are significantly predictive of deleterious glycemic events, and more so relative to many pattern identification methods used in diabetes management today. Further study will inform how improved pattern identification can lead to improved glycemic control. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. iPhone 3D Programming Developing Graphical Applications with OpenGL ES

    CERN Document Server

    Rideout, Philip

    2010-01-01

    What does it take to build an iPhone app with stunning 3D graphics? This book will show you how to apply OpenGL graphics programming techniques to any device running the iPhone OS -- including the iPad and iPod Touch -- with no iPhone development or 3D graphics experience required. iPhone 3D Programming provides clear step-by-step instructions, as well as lots of practical advice, for using the iPhone SDK and OpenGL. You'll build several graphics programs -- progressing from simple to more complex examples -- that focus on lighting, textures, blending, augmented reality, optimization for pe

  20. On the gl(1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troost, Jan [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University and Sorbonne Universités,24 rue Lhomond, 75005, Paris (France)

    2017-05-10

    We continue the study of the gl(1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model. The Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations for the one, two, three and four point functions are analyzed, for vertex operators corresponding to typical and projective representations. We demonstrate their interplay with the logarithmic global conformal Ward identities. We compute the four point function for one projective and three typical representations. Three coupled first order Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations are integrated consecutively in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, and we assemble the solutions into a local correlator. Moreover, we prove crossing symmetry of the four point function of four typical representations at generic momenta. Throughout, the map between the gl(1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model and symplectic fermions is exploited and extended.

  1. Branes in the GL(1 vertical stroke 1) WZNW-Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, T.; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quella, T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Inst. for Mathematics

    2007-08-15

    We initiate a systematic study of boundary conditions in conformal field theories with target space supersymmetry. The WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1) is used as a prototypical example for which we find the complete set of maximally symmetric branes. This includes a unique brane of maximal super-dimension 2 vertical stroke 2, a 2-parameter family of branes with super-dimension 0 vertical stroke 2 and an infinite set of fully localized branes possessing a single modulus. Members of the latter family can only exist along certain lines on the bosonic base, much like fractional branes at orbifold singularities. Our results establish that all essential algebraic features of Cardy-type boundary theories carry over to the non-rational logarithmic WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1). (orig.)

  2. Comparison of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 2 and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzowa, Johannes; Pacini, Giovanni; Hecking, Manfred; Fidler, Catharina; Haidinger, Michael; Brath, Helmut; Thomas, Andreas; Säemann, Marcus D; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after renal transplantation leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increased glycemic variability and poor glycemic control have been associated with cardiovascular complications. We therefore aimed at determining glycemic variability and glycemic control in subjects with PTDM in comparison to T2DM subjects. In this observational study we analyzed 10 transplanted subjects without diabetes (Control), 10 transplanted subjects with PTDM, and 8 non-transplanted T2DM subjects using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). Several indices of glycemic control quality and variability were computed. Many indices of both glycemic control quality and variability were different between control and PTDM subjects, with worse values in PTDM. The indices of glycemic control, such as glucose mean, GRADE and M-value, were similar in PTDM and T2DM, but some indices of glycemic variability, that is CONGA, lability index and shape index, showed a markedly higher (i.e., worse) value in T2DM than in PTDM (P value range: 0.001-0.035). Although PTDM and T2DM subjects showed similar glycemic control quality, glycemic variability was significantly higher in T2DM. These data underscore potential important pathophysiological differences between T2DM and PTDM indicating that increased glycemic variability may not be a key factor for the excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with PTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...... population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...... associations were observed between dietary GI and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 60, SE=0 center dot 21, P=0 center dot 006), and between dietary GL and Sigma SF (beta=0 center dot 15, SE=0.06, P=0 center dot 009). In conclusion, dietary GI and GL were positively associated with body fatness among Danish boys...

  4. Toeplitz quantization of Kaehler manifolds and gl(N), N [yields] [infinity] limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordemann, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)); Meinrenken, E. (Dept. of Mathematics, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Schlichenmaier, M. (Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Univ. of Mannheim (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    For general compact Kaehler manifolds it is shown that both Toeplitz quantization and geometric quantization lead to a well-defined (by operator norm estimates) classical limit. This generalizes earlier results of the authors and Klimek and Lesniewski obtained for the torus and higher genus Riemann surfaces, respectively. We thereby arrive at an approximation of the Poisson algebra by a sequence of finite-dimensional matrix algebras gl(N), N [yields] [infinity]. (orig.)

  5. The two-parameter deformation of GL(2), its differential calculus, and Lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirrmacher, A.; Wess, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Yang-Baxter equation is solved in two dimensions giving rise to a two-parameter deformation of GL(2). The transformation properties of quantum planes are briefly discussed. Non-central determinant and inverse are constructed. A right-invariant differential calculus is presented and the role of the different deformation parameters investigated. While the corresponding Lie algebra relations are simply deformed, the comultiplication exhibits both quantization parameters. (orig.)

  6. The evaluation of GL impact in Physical sciences using bibliometric indicators : preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa (CNR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    A bibliometric study of the Italian grey literature in SIGLE database. Preliminary results. Given the increasing importance of Grey Literature (GL) for the information and documentation field, it is essential to apply a bibliometric analysis similar to the one widely used for the conventional literature. Study objectives: 1) impact evalutation of grey literature in physical sciences; and 2) differentiation between scientific and non scientific grey literature documents in the same discipline,...

  7. Evaluation of pGL1-TNF-alpha therapy in combination with radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Andres, M. L.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term control of high-grade brain tumors is rarely achieved with current therapeutic regimens. In this study a new plasmid-based human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression vector was synthesized (pGL1-TNF-alpha) and evaluated together with radiation in the aggressive, rapidly growing C6 rat glioma model. pGL1-TNF-alpha was successfully transfected into C6 cells in vitro using a cationic polyamine method. Expression was detected up to 7 days and averaged 0.4 ng of TNF-alpha in the culture medium from 1x10(5) cells. The expressed protein was biologically functional, as evidenced by growth inhibition of L929, a TNF-alpha-susceptible cell line. Using fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies and laser scanning cytometry, we confirmed that both the P55 and P75 receptors for TNF-alpha were present on the C6 cell membrane. However, the receptors were present at low density and P55 was expressed more than the P75 receptor. These findings were in contrast to results obtained with TNF-alpha-susceptible L929 cells. Tests in athymic mice showed that pGL1-TNF-alpha administered intratumorally 16-18 h before radiation (each modality given three times) significantly inhibited C6 tumor progression (Palpha alone did not slow tumor growth and radiation alone had little effect on tumor growth. These results indicate that pGL1-TNF-alpha has potential to augment the antitumor effects of radiation against a tumor type that is virtually incurable.

  8. Hyper-hippocampal glycogen induced by glycogen loading with exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Mariko; Matsui, Takashi; Shima, Takeru; Jesmin, Subrina; Omi, Naomi; Soya, Hideaki

    2018-01-19

    Glycogen loading (GL), a well-known type of sports conditioning, in combination with exercise and a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 1 week enhances individual endurance capacity through muscle glycogen supercompensation. This exercise-diet combination is necessary for successful GL. Glycogen in the brain contributes to hippocampus-related memory functions and endurance capacity. Although the effect of HCD on the brain remains unknown, brain supercompensation occurs following exhaustive exercise (EE), a component of GL. We thus employed a rat model of GL and examined whether GL increases glycogen levels in the brain as well as in muscle, and found that GL increased glycogen levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, as well as in muscle. We further explored the essential components of GL (exercise and/or diet conditions) to establish a minimal model of GL focusing on the brain. Exercise, rather than a HCD, was found to be crucial for GL-induced hyper-glycogen in muscle, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. Moreover, EE was essential for hyper-glycogen only in the hippocampus even without HCD. Here we propose the EE component of GL without HCD as a condition that enhances brain glycogen stores especially in the hippocampus, implicating a physiological strategy to enhance hippocampal functions.

  9. Development and implementation of a propeller test capability for GL-10 "Greased Lightning" propeller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Brian Edward

    Interest in small unmanned aerial vehicles has increased dramatically in recent years. Hybrid vehicles which allow forward flight as a fixed wing aircraft and a true vertical landing capability have always had applications. Management of the available energy and noise associated with electric propeller propulsion systems presents many challenges. NASA Langley has developed the Greased Lightning 10 (GL-10) vertical takeoff, unmanned aerial vehicle with ten individual motors and propellers. All are used for propulsion during takeoff and contribute to acoustic noise pollution which is an identified nuisance to the surrounding users. A propeller test capability was developed to gain an understanding of how the noise can be reduced while meeting minimum thrust requirements. The designed propeller test stand allowed for various commercially available propellers to be tested for potential direct replacement of the current GL-10 propellers and also supported testing of a newly designed propeller provided by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results from the test program provided insight as to which factors affect the noise as well as performance characteristics. The outcome of the research effort showed that the current GL-10 propeller still represents the best choice of all the candidate propellers tested.

  10. Functional characterization of the Gentiana lutea zeaxanthin epoxidase (GlZEP) promoter in transgenic tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingjie; Yuan, Dawei; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Bai, Chao; Wen, Nuan; Lu, Xiaodan; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2012-10-01

    The accumulation of carotenoids in plants depends critically on the spatiotemporal expression profiles of the genes encoding enzymes in the carotenogenic pathway. We cloned and characterized the Gentiana lutea zeaxanthin epoxidase (GlZEP) promoter to determine its role in the regulation of carotenogenesis, because the native gene is expressed at high levels in petals, which contain abundant chromoplasts. We transformed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) plants with the gusA gene encoding the reporter enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of the GlZEP promoter, and investigated the reporter expression profile at the mRNA and protein levels. We detected high levels of gusA expression and GUS activity in chromoplast-containing flowers and fruits, but minimal levels in immature fruits containing green chloroplasts, in sepals, leaves, stems and roots. GlZEP-gusA expression was strictly associated with fruit development and chromoplast differentiation, suggesting an evolutionarily-conserved link between ZEP and the differentiation of organelles that store carotenoid pigments. The impact of our results on current models for the regulation of carotenogenesis in plants is discussed.

  11. Employing WebGL to develop interactive stereoscopic 3D content for use in biomedical visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Semay; Renambot, Luc; Sauter, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Web Graphics Library (WebGL), the forthcoming web standard for rendering native 3D graphics in a browser, represents an important addition to the biomedical visualization toolset. It is projected to become a mainstream method of delivering 3D online content due to shrinking support for third-party plug-ins. Additionally, it provides a virtual reality (VR) experience to web users accommodated by the growing availability of stereoscopic displays (3D TV, desktop, and mobile). WebGL's value in biomedical visualization has been demonstrated by applications for interactive anatomical models, chemical and molecular visualization, and web-based volume rendering. However, a lack of instructional literature specific to the field prevents many from utilizing this technology. This project defines a WebGL design methodology for a target audience of biomedical artists with a basic understanding of web languages and 3D graphics. The methodology was informed by the development of an interactive web application depicting the anatomy and various pathologies of the human eye. The application supports several modes of stereoscopic displays for a better understanding of 3D anatomical structures.

  12. 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL Rendering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennoi Atitayaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An HMI, or Human-Machine Interface, is a software allowing users to communicate with a machine or automation system. It usually serves as a display section in SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system for device monitoring and control. In this papper, a 3D Web-based HMI with WebGL (Web-based Graphics Library rendering performance is presented. The main purpose of this work is to attempt to reduce the limitations of traditional 3D web HMI using the advantage of WebGL. To evaluate the performance, frame rate and frame time metrics were used. The results showed 3D Web-based HMI can maintain the frame rate 60FPS for #cube=0.5K/0.8K, 30FPS for #cube=1.1K/1.6K when it was run on Internet Explorer and Chrome respectively. Moreover, the study found that 3D Web-based HMI using WebGL contains similar frame time in each frame even though the numbers of cubes are up to 5K. This indicated stuttering incurred less in the proposed 3D Web-based HMI compared to the chosen commercial HMI product.

  13. Carcinoma de glándulas sebáceas limitado a conjuntiva bulbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Buitrago-Torrado

    Full Text Available El carcinoma de glándulas sebáceas es un tumor infrecuente que puede desarrollarse a partir de cualquier glándula sebácea en la piel. El 75 % de las veces es de origen ocular y afecta principalmente las glándulas de Zeiss, Meibomio y de la carúncula. Se caracteriza por un comportamiento agresivo, con alta probabilidad de invasión a piel, conjuntiva y córnea. Sin embargo, el compromiso de la conjuntiva como localización primaria es raro. Se presenta un caso con diagnóstico de carcinoma sebáceo de patrón nodular primario de la conjuntiva bulbar, atendido en el Hospital Universitario de Santander durante los años 2014-2016. El propósito del presente estudio es dar a conocer el caso de una patología infrecuente con pocos casos reportados en la literatura, enfatizar su importancia dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de masas en la conjuntiva y del estudio histopatológico como método para obtener un diagnóstico definitivo y realizar un abordaje temprano.

  14. Loss of Sh3gl2/Endophilin A1 Is a Common Event in Urothelial Carcinoma that Promotes Malignant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyama Majumdar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial carcinoma (UC causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying urothelial cancer development and tumor progression are still largely unknown. Using informatics analysis, we identified Sh3gl2 (endophilin A1 as a bladder urothelium-enriched transcript. The gene encoding Sh3gl2 is located on chromosome 9p, a region frequently altered in UC. Sh3gl2 is known to regulate endocytosis of receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in oncogenesis, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and c-Met. However, its role in UC pathogenesis is unknown. Informatics analysis of expression profiles as well as immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays revealed Sh3gl2 expression to be decreased in UC specimens compared to nontumor tissues. Loss of Sh3gl2 was associated with increasing tumor grade and with muscle invasion, which is a reliable predictor of metastatic disease and cancer-derived mortality. Sh3gl2 expression was undetectable in 19 of 20 human UC cell lines but preserved in the low-grade cell line RT4. Stable silencing of Sh3gl2 in RT4 cells by RNA interference 1 enhanced proliferation and colony formation in vitro, 2 inhibited EGF-induced EGFR internalization and increased EGFR activation, 3 stimulated phosphorylation of Src family kinases and STAT3, and 4 promoted growth of RT4 xenografts in subrenal capsule tissue recombination experiments. Conversely, forced re-expression of Sh3gl2 in T24 cells and silenced RT4 clones attenuated oncogenic behaviors, including growth and migration. Together, these findings identify loss of Sh3gl2 as a frequent event in UC development that promotes disease progression.

  15. Preservation of renal function by intensive glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus. At 47 years of age, her hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was 10.0%, and she had overt nephropathy. The first renal biopsy yielded a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Intensive glycemic control was initiated and her HbA1c improved to 6.0%. Renal dysfunction showed no progression for 15 years. At 62 years of age, a second renal biopsy was performed. Glomerular lesions did not show progression but tubulointerstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions showed progression compared with the first biopsy. Intensive glycemic control can prevent the progression of glomerular lesions, but might not be effective for interstitial and vascular lesions.

  16. Artérias das glândulas adrenais em avestruzes (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p125 O crescimento da criação racional de avestruz e seus subprodutos têm despertado interesse dos pesquisadores em ampliar os estudos com esse animal. Assim, áreas de pesquisa básicas, como a morfologia, tornam-se necessárias para dar subsídios às áreas aplicadas. Com o intuito de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares das glândulas adrenais, utilizaram-se 30 avestruzes (Struthio camelus, de quatro dias de vida, tendo seus contingentes arteriais marcados com solução aquosa corada de Neoprene Látex “450” a 50% e fixados em solução diluída de formol a 10%. A cavidade celomática foi exposta para a identificação das referidas glândulas, que são órgãos pares e encontram-se recobertas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo, disposto simetricamente nos dois antímeros, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e cranio-medialmente aos lobos craniais dos rins. O aporte sanguíneo arterial, em ambos os antímeros, é proveniente das artérias adrenais direita e esquerda, dos ramos das artérias renais craniais direita e esquerda e dos ramos diretos da aorta descendente. Independentemente da origem, os números de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variaram de um a dois e de um a três respectivamente para os antímeros esquerdo e direito.

  17. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  18. Evaluation of a New Digital Automated Glycemic Pattern Detection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comellas, María José; Albiñana, Emma; Artes, Maite; Corcoy, Rosa; Fernández-García, Diego; García-Alemán, Jorge; García-Cuartero, Beatriz; González, Cintia; Rivero, María Teresa; Casamira, Núria; Weissmann, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Blood glucose meters are reliable devices for data collection, providing electronic logs of historical data easier to interpret than handwritten logbooks. Automated tools to analyze these data are necessary to facilitate glucose pattern detection and support treatment adjustment. These tools emerge in a broad variety in a more or less nonevaluated manner. The aim of this study was to compare eDetecta, a new automated pattern detection tool, to nonautomated pattern analysis in terms of time investment, data interpretation, and clinical utility, with the overarching goal to identify early in development and implementation of tool areas of improvement and potential safety risks. Multicenter web-based evaluation in which 37 endocrinologists were asked to assess glycemic patterns of 4 real reports (2 continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] and 2 multiple daily injection [MDI]). Endocrinologist and eDetecta analyses were compared on time spent to analyze each report and agreement on the presence or absence of defined patterns. eDetecta module markedly reduced the time taken to analyze each case on the basis of the emminens eConecta reports (CSII: 18 min; MDI: 12.5), compared to the automatic eDetecta analysis. Agreement between endocrinologists and eDetecta varied depending on the patterns, with high level of agreement in patterns of glycemic variability. Further analysis of low level of agreement led to identifying areas where algorithms used could be improved to optimize trend pattern identification. eDetecta was a useful tool for glycemic pattern detection, helping clinicians to reduce time required to review emminens eConecta glycemic reports. No safety risks were identified during the study.

  19. Ubicación anatómica de las glándulas salivales linguales ó glandulas salivales menores presentes en la lengua.

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Carlos; Jiménez, Luis Felipe; Ortiz, Mª de Jesús; Moret de González, Yuli; González, osé María

    2008-01-01

    La cavidad bucal está conformada por diversas estructuras anatómicas, donde las glándulas salivales desempeñan funciones de vital importancia como son la producción y excreción de saliva. Las mismas se dividen en glándulas salivales mayores y menores. Las glándulas salivales mayores son las glándulas parótidas, las submaxilares y las sublinguales. Las glándulas salivales menores están distribuidas en diferentes localizaciones anatómicas de la mucosa bucal. Ellas son: las glándulas labiales, p...

  20. Norm of Bethe vectors in models with gl(m|n symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hutsalyuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study quantum integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing gl(m|n-invariant R-matrix. We compute the norm of the Hamiltonian eigenstates. Using the notion of a generalized model we show that the square of the norm obeys a number of properties that uniquely fix it. We also show that a Jacobian of the system of Bethe equations obeys the same properties. In this way we prove a generalized Gaudin hypothesis for the norm of the Hamiltonian eigenstates.

  1. Study of 3D visualization of fast active reflector based on openGL and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingcheng; Wu Wenqing; Liu Jiajing; Tang Pengyi; Wang Jian

    2014-01-01

    Active Reflector is the one of the innovations of Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST). Its performance will influence the performance of whole telescope and for display all status of ARS in real time, the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to develop the control system of ARS and virtual 3D technology-OpenGL is used to visualize the status. For the real-time performance of EPICS, the status visualization is also display in real time for users to improve the efficiency of telescope observing. (authors)

  2. Interactive WebGL-based 3D visualizations for EAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, J.Y.; Xiao, B.J.; Li, Dan; Wang, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D [1] (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.

  3. Interactive WebGL-based 3D visualizations for EAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Dan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, K.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D [1] (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.

  4. Classical mechanics on the GL(n, R) group and Euler-Calogero-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvedelidze, A.M.; Mladenov, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Relations between free motion on the GL + (n, R) group manifold and the dynamics of an n-particle system with spin degrees of freedom on a line interacting with a pairwise 1/sinh 2 x 'potential' (Euler-Calogero-Sutherland model) are discussed within a Hamiltonian reduction. Two kinds of reductions of the degrees of freedom are considered: that which is due to continuous invariance and that which is due to discrete symmetry. It is shown that, upon projecting onto the corresponding invariant manifolds, the resulting Hamiltonian system represents the Euler-Calogero-Sutherland model in both cases

  5. Salivary function and glycemic control in older persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E M; Taylor, G W; Borrell, L N; Ship, J A

    2000-03-01

    There is no consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction in older persons with diabetes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effect of diabetes and glycemic control on salivary function in an older population. Twenty nine persons with type 2 diabetes and 23 nondiabetic control subjects participated (age range, 54-90 years). Diabetic status was determined by a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) test and a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) >9%. Unstimulated whole saliva, unstimulated parotid, and stimulated parotid flow rates were measured, and subjects completed a standardized xerostomia questionnaire. Persons with poorly controlled diabetes had lower (P =.01) stimulated parotid flow rates than persons with well-controlled diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects. There were no significant differences in xerostomic complaints based on diabetic or glycemic control status or salivary flow rates. These results provide some evidence that poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with salivary dysfunction in older adults who have no concomitant complaints of xerostomia.

  6. Variability in Glycemic Control with Temperature Transitions during Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal K. Haase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH and continuous insulin may be at increased risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, particularly during temperature transitions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency of glucose excursions during each phase of TH and to characterize glycemic control patterns in relation to survival. Methods. Patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for circulatory arrest and treated with both therapeutic hypothermia and protocol-based continuous insulin between January 2010 and June 2013 were included. Glucose measures, insulin, and temperatures were collected through 24 hours after rewarming. Results. 24 of 26 patients experienced glycemic excursions. Hyperglycemic excursions were more frequent during initiation versus remaining phases (36.3%, 4.3%, 2.5%, and 4.0%, p=0.002. Hypoglycemia occurred most often during rewarming (0%, 7.7%, 23.1%, and 3.8%, p=0.02. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia had higher insulin doses prior to rewarming (16.2 versus 2.1 units/hr, p=0.03. Glucose variation was highest during hypothermia and trended higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (13.38 versus 9.16, p=0.09. Frequency of excursions was also higher in nonsurvivors (32.3% versus 19.8%, p=0.045. Conclusions. Glycemic excursions are common and occur more often in nonsurvivors. Excursions differ by phase but risk of hypoglycemia is increased during rewarming.

  7. HTML5 games creating fun with HTML5, CSS3, and WebGL

    CERN Document Server

    Seidelin, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Discover new opportunities for building 2D and 3D games with HTML5 The newest iteration of HTML, HTML5 can be used with JavaScript, CSS3, and WebGL to create beautiful, unique, engaging games that can be played on the web or mobile devices like the iPad or Android phones. Gone are the days where games were only possible with plugin technologies such as Flash and this cutting-edge book shows you how to utilize the latest open web technologies to create a game from scratch using Canvas, HTML5 Audio, WebGL, and WebSockets. You'll discover how to build a framework on which you will create your HTML5 game. Then each successive chapter covers a new aspect of the game, including user input, sound, multiplayer functionality, 2D and 3D graphics, and more. Aims directly at a new way to develop games for the web through the use of HTML5 Demonstrates how to make iOS and Android web apps Explains how to capture player input; create 3D graphics; and incorporate textures, lighting, and sound Guides you through the proce...

  8. Abscesso cervical gigante provocado por sialolitíase de glândula submandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fruet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As infecções cervicais profundas apresentam alta mortalidade, apesar da eficácia da antibioticoterapia atual. Uma das principais complicações é a obstrução das vias aéreas superiores. A principal causa dessas infecções é de origem odontogênica e, raramente, a infecção das glândulas salivares. Objetivo: Apresentar um caso de abscesso cervical profundo, cuja etiologia rara está associada à sialolitíase com origem em glândula submandibular. Metodologia: O caso foi acompanhado no serviço de Cabeça e Pescoço do Conjunto Hospitalar de Sorocaba (CHS e sua descrição embasada na literatura. Relato de Caso: Paciente iniciou quadro de dor localizada em região submandibular posterior direita, acompanhada de disfagia e dispneia contínua. Procurou atendimento médico na cidade de origem, onde recebeu antibioticoterapia. Evoluiu com insuficiência respiratória, necessitando de transferência para o serviço de emergência do CHS aos cuidados da equipe de Cabeça e Pescoço. Ao exame físico, apresentava edema, abaulamento e hiperemia da lateral direita do pescoço. A Tomografia Computadorizada evidenciou abscesso em espaço retro-faríngeo com compressão da parede posterior da orofaringe e hipofaringe, além de glândula submandibular direita aumentada e imagem de cálculo. Foi realizada a traqueostomia e a resolução cirúrgica por meio da drenagem do abscesso através da incisão transversa em colar. Conclusão: O caso apresentado mostra um abscesso cervical profundo causado por etiologia incomum, a sialolitíase, cujo diagnóstico precoce, seguido do tratamento adequado, poderiam ter evitado a evolução grave do paciente. Neste caso, a drenagem cirúrgica precoce mostra sua importância na prevenção de insuficiência respiratória.

  9. Influência do consumo de etanol nas glândulas salivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrard, Vinicius Coelho et al.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre os efeitos do consumo de etanol nas glândulas salivares. Fonte de dados: Foi realizada uma busca no banco de dados Medline, utilizando as palavras alcohol/ ethanol, salivary glands. Síntese dos dados: Tem sido observada na população uma elevação no consumo de bebidas alcoólicas pela população, ocasionando alterações em diversos sistemas. Aumento de volume das glândulas salivares e redução do fluxo salivar são freqüentes em indivíduos alcoolistas. Como a saliva tem propriedades protetoras, a redução do fluxo torna a boca mais suscetível a injúrias, como as relacionadas à cárie e à periodontite. Podem ser observadas alterações morfológicas, como acúmulo de tecido adiposo, hiperplasia dos ductos e redução da proporção de células acinares. O consumo de etanol é responsável ainda pela redução dos níveis de imunoglobulinas presentes na saliva. A degradação do etanol gera metabólitos tóxicos, como o acetaldeído, que podem modificar a função das glândulas salivares. Existe a possibilidade de a saliva redistribuir o acetaldeído na boca, potencializando o dano produzido pelo consumo de etanol. Além disso, outros mecanismos podem estar presentes, como redução das prostaglandinas, desnutrição, alterações do sistema imune e estresse oxidativo, este último envolvido na patogênese de uma série de doenças crônico-degenerativas, entre elas o câncer. Conclusões: Os pacientes alcoolistas devem receber uma atenção especial em relação aos cuidados bucais, pois suas condições locais e sistêmicas os tornam mais suscetíveis a doenças da boca, como cárie, periodontite e câncer.

  10. Morfologia da glândula mamária do quati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B. Casals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nasua nasua é um animal onívoro, encontrado em todo Brasil. A reprodução da espécie ocorre somente uma vez ao ano, na primavera. As fêmeas são matriarcas e amamentam suas crias até os 5 meses de idade, vivem com seus filhotes em bandos de até 30 indivíduos. Para descrição morfológica da glândula mamaria do Nasua nasua foram utilizados seis animais provenientes do Criatório Cientifico (Cecrimpas, Unifeob. Autorizado pelo Ibama (Proc.02027.002322/98-99. Para análise macroscópica um animal foi injetado com látex neoprene, sendo a artéria femoral injetada com látex de cor vermelha e a veia jugular de cor azul. Os demais animais foram fixados em solução aquosa a 10% de formaldeído. Para análise microscópica, fragmentos glandulares foram coletados e submetidos ao processo rotineiro, embebido em parafina e corados com Hematoxilina e Eosina, Picrossírius e Azul de Toluidina. Macroscopicamente foram evidenciados três pares de glândulas mamárias, sendo dois pares posicionados na região abdominal e um par na região inguinal. Microscopicamente, notou-se epitélio de revestimento externo das papilas mamárias, epitélio pavimentoso estratificado queratinizado, o qual seguia por toda glândula de forma irregular. Na entrada do óstio, o epitélio da epiderme era modificado ocorrendo uma transição de epitélio pavimentoso estratificado para um epitélio cúbico no ducto papilar. O parênquima glandular era caracteristicamente túbulo alveolar com células secretoras, evidenciado principalmente no animal lactente. Os resultados macroscópicos e microscópicos assemelham-se aos já descritos nas cadelas (Canis familiaris e os do Procyon cancrivorus pertencente à mesma família do quati, Família Procyonidae.

  11. GPU acceleration for digitally reconstructed radiographs using bindless texture objects and CUDA/OpenGL interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Owis, Mohamed I

    2015-01-01

    This paper features an advanced implementation of the X-ray rendering algorithm that harnesses the giant computing power of the current commodity graphics processors to accelerate the generation of high resolution digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). The presented pipeline exploits the latest features of NVIDIA Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) architectures, mainly bindless texture objects and dynamic parallelism. The rendering throughput is substantially improved by exploiting the interoperability mechanisms between CUDA and OpenGL. The benchmarks of our optimized rendering pipeline reflect its capability of generating DRRs with resolutions of 2048(2) and 4096(2) at interactive and semi interactive frame-rates using an NVIDIA GeForce 970 GTX device.

  12. Yangian symmetry of long-range gl(N) integrable spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beisert, Niklas; Erkal, Denis

    2008-01-01

    An interesting type of spin chain has appeared in the context of the planar AdS/CFT correspondence: it is based on an integrable nearest-neighbor spin chain, and it is perturbatively deformed by long-range interactions which apparently preserve the integrable structure. Similar models can be constructed by demanding the existence of merely one conserved local charge. Although the latter is not a sufficient integrability condition in general, the models often display convincing signs of full integrability. Here we consider a class of long-range spin chains with spins transforming in the fundamental representation of gl(N). For the most general such model with one conserved local charge we construct a conserved Yangian generator and show that it obeys the Serre relations. We thus provide a formal proof of integrability for this class of models

  13. Degeneration of Bethe subalgebras in the Yangian of gl_n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilin, Aleksei; Rybnikov, Leonid

    2018-04-01

    We study degenerations of Bethe subalgebras B( C) in the Yangian Y(gl_n), where C is a regular diagonal matrix. We show that closure of the parameter space of the family of Bethe subalgebras, which parameterizes all possible degenerations, is the Deligne-Mumford moduli space of stable rational curves \\overline{M_{0,n+2}}. All subalgebras corresponding to the points of \\overline{M_{0,n+2}} are free and maximal commutative. We describe explicitly the "simplest" degenerations and show that every degeneration is the composition of the simplest ones. The Deligne-Mumford space \\overline{M_{0,n+2}} generalizes to other root systems as some De Concini-Procesi resolution of some toric variety. We state a conjecture generalizing our results to Bethe subalgebras in the Yangian of arbitrary simple Lie algebra in terms of this De Concini-Procesi resolution.

  14. Vasculogenesis and Diabetic Erectile Dysfunction: How Relevant Is Glycemic Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Angela; Gomes, Pedro; Silvestre, Ricardo; Guardão, Luísa; Leite, Liliana; Chilro, Rui; Rodrigues, Ilda; Vendeira, Pedro; Virag, Ronald; Costa, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complication of diabetes, condition responsible for causing endothelial dysfunction (EDys) and hampering repair mechanisms. However, scarce information is available linking vasculogenesis mediated by Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) and diabetes-associated ED. Furthermore, it remains to be elucidated if glycemic control plays a role on EPCs functions, EPCs modulators, and penile vascular health. We evaluated the effects of diabetes and insulin therapy on bone marrow (BM) and circulating EPCs, testosterone, and systemic/penile Stromal Derived Factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) expression. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: age-matched controls, 8-weeks streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetics, and insulin-treated 8-weeks diabetics. EPCs were identified by flow cytometry for CD34/CD133/VEGFR2/CXCR4 antigens. Systemic SDF-1α and testosterone levels were evaluated by ELISA. Penile SDF-1α protein expression was assessed, in experimental and human diabetic cavernosal samples, by immunohistochemical techniques. Diabetic animals presented a reduction of BM-derived EPCs and an increase in putative circulating endothelial cells (CECs) sloughed from vessels wall. These alterations were rescued by insulin therapy. In addition, glycemic control promoted an increase in systemic testosterone and SDF-1α levels, which were significantly decreased in animals with diabetes. SDF-1α protein expression was reduced in experimental and human cavernosal diabetic samples, an effect prevented by insulin in treated animals. Insulin administration rescued the effects of diabetes on BM function, CECs levels, testosterone, and plasmatic/penile SDF-1α protein expression. This emphasizes the importance of glycemic control in the prevention of diabetes-induced systemic and penile EDys, by the amelioration of endothelial damage, and increase in protective pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 82-91, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A browser-based event display for the CMS Experiment at the LHC using WebGL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, T.

    2017-10-01

    Modern web browsers are powerful and sophisticated applications that support an ever-wider range of uses. One such use is rendering high-quality, GPU-accelerated, interactive 2D and 3D graphics in an HTML canvas. This can be done via WebGL, a JavaScript API based on OpenGL ES. Applications delivered via the browser have several distinct benefits for the developer and user. For example, they can be implemented using well-known and well-developed technologies, while distribution and use via a browser allows for rapid prototyping and deployment and ease of installation. In addition, delivery of applications via the browser allows for easy use on mobile, touch-enabled devices such as phones and tablets. iSpy WebGL is an application for visualization of events detected and reconstructed by the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The first event display developed for an LHC experiment to use WebGL, iSpy WebGL is a client-side application written in JavaScript, HTML, and CSS and uses the WebGL API three.js. iSpy WebGL is used for monitoring of CMS detector performance, for production of images and animations of CMS collisions events for the public, as a virtual reality application using Google Cardboard, and asa tool available for public education and outreach such as in the CERN Open Data Portal and the CMS masterclasses. We describe here its design, development, and usage as well as future plans.

  16. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  17. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D

    2014-06-27

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.

  18. Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    -picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitro blue tetrazolium reducing and glucose-induced Hb-glycation inhibitory activity did not differ from non-sprouted raw grains. Increase in rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed in BGs and KCs. BGs significantly mitigated 1 st 30 min starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursions and reduced 2 h postprandial glycemic load. Conclusion: Sprouting leads dynamic changes in free radicals scavenging potentials and antioxidant activities in grains. Consumption of seeds as well as BGs before the starch-rich meal can significantly mitigate 1 st 30 min postprandial glycemic excursion and reduce 2 h postprandial glycemic burden.

  19. Is there a need to optimize glycemic control in hemodialyzed diabetic patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2006-01-01

    The report of Williams et al. gives rise to at least two important questions regarding diabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis: (1) Does glycemic control play a significant role? (2) Is HbA1c a reliable measure of glycemic control? These questions are discussed. It is recommended that you t...

  20. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  1. ASHP therapeutic position statement on strict glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-15

    The deleterious effects of hyperglycemia have been documented from the biochemical to the pathophysiologic level. Given the research findings and the guidelines for glycemic control established by ADA and ACE, ASHP supports and encourages strict glycemic control in all appropriate patients with diabetes mellitus to reduce the progression of chronic complications.

  2. Contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus Atl AM and GL murein hydrolase activities in cell division, autolysis, and biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Bose

    Full Text Available The most prominent murein hydrolase of Staphylococcus aureus, AtlA, is a bifunctional enzyme that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to yield two catalytically active proteins, an amidase (AM and a glucosaminidase (GL. Although the bifunctional nature of AtlA has long been recognized, most studies have focused on the combined functions of this protein in cell wall metabolism and biofilm development. In this study, we generated mutant derivatives of the clinical S. aureus isolate, UAMS-1, in which one or both of the AM and GL domains of AtlA have been deleted. Examination of these strains revealed that each mutant exhibited growth rates comparable to the parental strain, but showed clumping phenotypes and lysis profiles that were distinct from the parental strain and each other, suggesting distinct roles in cell wall metabolism. Given the known function of autolysis in the release of genomic DNA for use as a biofilm matrix molecule, we also tested the mutants in biofilm assays and found both AM and GL necessary for biofilm development. Furthermore, the use of enzymatically inactive point mutations revealed that both AM and GL must be catalytically active for S. aureus to form a biofilm. The results of this study provide insight into the relative contributions of AM and GL in S. aureus and demonstrate the contribution of Atl-mediated lysis in biofilm development.

  3. Contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus Atl AM and GL murein hydrolase activities in cell division, autolysis, and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jeffrey L; Lehman, McKenzie K; Fey, Paul D; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    The most prominent murein hydrolase of Staphylococcus aureus, AtlA, is a bifunctional enzyme that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to yield two catalytically active proteins, an amidase (AM) and a glucosaminidase (GL). Although the bifunctional nature of AtlA has long been recognized, most studies have focused on the combined functions of this protein in cell wall metabolism and biofilm development. In this study, we generated mutant derivatives of the clinical S. aureus isolate, UAMS-1, in which one or both of the AM and GL domains of AtlA have been deleted. Examination of these strains revealed that each mutant exhibited growth rates comparable to the parental strain, but showed clumping phenotypes and lysis profiles that were distinct from the parental strain and each other, suggesting distinct roles in cell wall metabolism. Given the known function of autolysis in the release of genomic DNA for use as a biofilm matrix molecule, we also tested the mutants in biofilm assays and found both AM and GL necessary for biofilm development. Furthermore, the use of enzymatically inactive point mutations revealed that both AM and GL must be catalytically active for S. aureus to form a biofilm. The results of this study provide insight into the relative contributions of AM and GL in S. aureus and demonstrate the contribution of Atl-mediated lysis in biofilm development.

  4. Glándula pediosa de moluscos terrestres y sus implicancias evolutivas, con énfasis en Megalobulimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Borda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la anatomía de la glándula pediosa de cinco especies de Megalobulimus (Megalobulimidae, y son comparadas con gastrópodos pulmonados Succineidae, Orthalicidae, Helicidae y Veronicellidae. Una sinapomorfía considerada para el clado Stylommatophora es la presencia de una membrana que aísla a la glándula pediosa de la cavidad visceral. Las especies estudiadas mostraron un grado variable de sujeción de la glándula al pie, desde apenas sujeta por escasa fibras (Megalobulimus hasta aquella totalmente aislada por una membrana (Cantareus pasando por grados intermedios (Succinea y Bostryx. La glándula pediosa en la seudobabosa Heterovaginia limayana (Systellommatophora no está adherida al piso de la cavidad visceral. En Megalobulimus, la parte glandular es voluminosa y pende del techo de la cápsula, a diferencia de las otras especies en que los acinos glandulares están uniformemente adosados a la pared interna de la cápsula. Se describen nuevos caracteres para la glándula pediosa que mejoran la diagnosis del género Megalobulimus y su evaluación filogenética.

  5. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHOD Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7% presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. RESULTS More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control.

  6. How Do the Cognitive Load, Self-Efficacy and Attitude of Pre-Service Teachers Shift in the Multimedia Science Learning Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendioglu, Akin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teacher's cognitive load types (intrinsic load-IL, extraneous load-EL, and germane load-GL), academic achievements, and affective characteristics (attitude and self-efficacy) at two stages of experimental learning processes. The first and the second groups used explanatory instructional…

  7. Geriatric Family Support and Diabetic Type-2 Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Heidari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As the most part of geriatric (65 years and older diabetic care is given at home, family support has an important role in their blood sugar level control care. This study aimed to assess the relationship between family support and blood sugar level control in such elderly suffering type-2 diabetes. Methods & Materials: Via descriptive-correlative study, one hundred fifty geriatric patients with type-2 diabetes, who referred to Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Iran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Samplings based on nonrandomized and convenience. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic data glucose-labeled hemoglobin (HbA1C and received-perceived family support by applying the standard questionnaire of "Diabetes Social Support-Family Version" format. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 by using Chi-square and Pierson Tests. Results: Results showed a significant relationship between family support and glycemic control (r=-0.56, P<0.0001. Also there were significant relationships between family support, gender and marital status (P<0.0001. There were also significant relationships between glycemic control and marital status (P=0.02, financial status (P=0.04 and educational level (P=0.05. Conclusion: Findings of this research added further evidence about the impact of family support on the health of older adults with diabetes. These findings suggest using family centered nursing interventions and collaboration of family members in care of the elderly with type-2 diabetes.

  8. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Englund-Ögge

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery.This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at <37 gestational weeks. A Cox regression model was used to assess associations with preterm delivery.After adjustments, the "main meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.80, 0.98 and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99 for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96 and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98 for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery.Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

  9. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gL regulates an entry-associated conformation change in gH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gillet

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein H (gH/gL heterodimer is crucial for herpesvirus membrane fusion. Yet how it functions is not well understood. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gH, like that of other herpesviruses, adopts its normal virion conformation by associating with gL. However, gH switched back to a gL-independent conformation after virion endocytosis. This switch coincided with a conformation switch in gB and with capsid release. Virions lacking gL constitutively expressed the down-stream form of gH, prematurely switched gB to its down-stream form, and showed premature capsid release with poor infectivity. These data argue that gL plays a key role in regulating a gH and gB functional switch from cell binding to membrane fusion.

  10. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  11. El diagnóstico por la imagen de las enfermedades de las glándulas salivales

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Expósito, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Las lesiones de las glándulas salivales son relativamente frecuentes, presentando una patología tan diversa como la de cualquier otro sistema orgánico. La mayoría de las lesiones son inflamatorias, otras son de origen litiásico, algunas tienen una patogenia incierta que pueden confundirse con neoplasias malignas y, por último, hay un amplio espectro de neoplasias tanto benignas como malignas. La mayoría de los agrandamientos de las glándulas salivales están causados por procesos inflamator...

  12. Development of a Relap based Nuclear Plant Analyser with 3-D graphics using OpenGL and Object Relap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D Graphic Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) program was developed using GLScene and the TRelap. GLScene is an OpenGL based 3D graphics library for the Delphi object-oriented program language, and it implements the OpenGL functions in forms suitable for programming with Delphi. TRelap is an object wrapper developed by the author to easily implement the Relap5 thermal hydraulic code under object oriented programming environment. The 3-D Graphic NPA was developed to demonstrate the superiority of the object oriented programming approach in developing complex programs

  13. Simulator Posisi Matahari dan Bulan Berbasis Web dengan WebGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshory

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moon as a satellite of the earth has an important role for the life of the earth. Apart from being a source of illumination, moon also has an effect on the earth both on land and at sea. The influence of the moon to the earth relate to the its position. This research aims to create a simulator of the sun and moon position to the earth based on the time and location of the observation. This simulator is web-based and made in 3-dimensional (3D using webGL technology. The position of the sun and moon expressed by latitude and longitude which is a position that is passed by the line connecting the earth to the sun or the line connecting the earth to the moon. The position of the sun and moon obtained from calculations based on previous research. Once the position is known, the earth, the sun, and the moon then described as a 3-D model. The position of the camera can be moved by dragging a web page so that the sun, earth, and moon can be seen from various positions. The camera always leads to the center of the earth to avoid user errors flipping the camera which causes the object is not visible.

  14. Image Quality Improvement on OpenGL-Based Animations by Using CUDA Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner UÇKAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 2D or 3D rendering technology is used for graphically modelling many physical phenomena occurring in real life by means of the computers. On the other hand, the ever-increasing intensity of the graphics applications require that the image quality of the so-called modellings is enhanced and they are performed more quickly. In this direction, a new software and hardware-based architecture called CUDA has been introduced by Nvidia at the end of 2006. Thanks to this architecture, larger number of graphics processors has started contributing towards the parallel solutions of the general-purpose problems. In this study, this new parallel computing architecture is taken into consideration and an animation application consisting of humanoid robots with different behavioral characteristics is developed using the OpenGL library in C++. This animation is initially implemented on a single serial CPU and then parallelized using the CUDA architecture. Eventually, the serial and the parallel versions of the same animation are compared against each other on the basis of the number of image frames per second. The results reveal that the parallel application is by far the best yielding high quality images.

  15. Heparanase Expression in Malignant Salivary Gl, Tumors Inversely Correlates with Long-Term Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ben-Izhak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upregulation of the endo-b-Dglucuronidase, heparanase, was noted in an increasing number of human malignancies. Heparanase expression correlated with enhanced local, distant metastatic spread, increased vascular density, reduced postoperative survival. PATIENTS, METHODS: We analyzed heparanase expression in 60 patients (aged 59 ± 17 years with malignant salivary tumors (39 males, 21 females using immunohistochemistry. We applied antiheparanase antibody 733, which has previously been shown to preferentially recognize a 50-kDa active heparanase subunit over a 65-kDa latent enzyme. Thus, immunostaining can directly be correlated with enzymatic activity. RESULTS: Heparanase staining was positive (> 0 in 70% of tumors (42 of 60 patients, was negative (0 in the remaining 30% (18 patients. The cumulative survival of patients diagnosed as heparanase-negative (n = 18 at 300 months was 70% (95% confidence interval = 35-88. In contrast, the cumulative survival of patients diagnosed as heparanase-positive (n = 42 at 300 months was 0% (statistically significant difference, P = .035. CONCLUSIONS: Heparanase expression levels inversely correlate with the survival rates of salivary gl, cancer patients, clearly indicating that heparanase is a reliable prognostic factor for this malignancy, an attractive target for anticancer drug development.

  16. iview: an interactive WebGL visualizer for protein-ligand complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Nakane, Takanori; Wong, Man-Hon

    2014-02-25

    Visualization of protein-ligand complex plays an important role in elaborating protein-ligand interactions and aiding novel drug design. Most existing web visualizers either rely on slow software rendering, or lack virtual reality support. The vital feature of macromolecular surface construction is also unavailable. We have developed iview, an easy-to-use interactive WebGL visualizer of protein-ligand complex. It exploits hardware acceleration rather than software rendering. It features three special effects in virtual reality settings, namely anaglyph, parallax barrier and oculus rift, resulting in visually appealing identification of intermolecular interactions. It supports four surface representations including Van der Waals surface, solvent excluded surface, solvent accessible surface and molecular surface. Moreover, based on the feature-rich version of iview, we have also developed a neat and tailor-made version specifically for our istar web platform for protein-ligand docking purpose. This demonstrates the excellent portability of iview. Using innovative 3D techniques, we provide a user friendly visualizer that is not intended to compete with professional visualizers, but to enable easy accessibility and platform independence.

  17. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunpreet Singh Kahlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3% had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came

  18. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Pathak, Rambha

    2011-07-01

    Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3%) had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came out to be .311. This correlation was found to be statistically

  19. Factors associated with glycemic control among diabetic adult out-patients in Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Alemayehu, Ermiyas; Kassahun, Wongelawit; Adamu, Aderaw; Gebreweld, Angesom

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study was to determine the status of glycemic control and identify factors associated with poor glycemic control among diabetic out-patients. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 384 (126 type 1 and 258 type 2) diabetic adults attending a hospital in Northeast Ethiopia from January 1 to April 30, 2017. Of the total participants, 70.8% had poor status of glycemic control (defined as mean fasting blood glucose level above 130 mg/dl). In the multivariate analysis, rural residence (AOR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.37-4.96), low educational level (AOR = 7.10, 95% CI 2.94-17.17) and longer duration of diabetes (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.18-4.08) were significantly associated with increased odds of poor glycemic control. Moreover, merchants (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.16-9.96) were significantly more likely to have poor glycemic control compared to government employee. Diabetic patients receiving oral anti-diabetics (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 2.10-12.52) or insulin (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI 1.26-8.48) were more likely to be poorly controlled. These results highlight the needed for appropriate management of patients focusing on associated factors identified for poor glycemic control to maintain good glycemic control and improve adverse outcomes of the disease in this study setting.

  20. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian Adi Pamungkas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus becomes the public health problem in the wide world. Reasons for poor glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes are complex. Objective: To determine factors contributed to poor glycemic control among Indonesian patients with Type 2 Diabetes Methods: This was a cross sectional regression study. There were 70 respondents selected using purposive sampling. Pre-structured questionnaires were used to measure socio demographic, clinical characteristics, self-care management behaviors, medication adherence, barriers to adherence, and family support. Data were analyzed using chi-square and binary logistic regression. Results: Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥7% or FBG ≥200 mg/dl. Findings of this study reported that 83% patients had or FBG ≥200 mg/dl, which confirmed as poor glycemic control. Logistic regression showed that increasing duration of diabetes (> 5 years, non-adherence to dietary behaviors recommendation through selecting healthy diet, arranging a meal plan, recognizing the amount calorie needs, managing dietary behaviors challenges, medication adherence, and family support were significantly influence poor glycemic control with increased odds ratio scores. Conclusion: The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was raised. Increasing duration of diabetes, non- adherence to medication and dietary behaviors management, and lack of family support were associated with poor glycemic control. Thus, integration of diabetes self-management program with social support is needed to deal with patients’ need to achieve the great benefits in diabetes care.

  1. Evaluation of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Gu, Liubao; Lou, Qinglin; Ouyang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yun; Wu, Haidi; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the factors related to the results of glycemic control. A total of 2454 T2DM patients from 11 communities were examined for glycosylated hemoglobin levels and glycemic control options. Potential factors related to the results of glycemic control were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all the patients, 55.3 % achieved the glycemic control target of HbA1c 1.345, 95 % CI 1.022-1.769; P = 0.034), higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR 1.954, 95 % CI 1.778-2.147; P 1), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.181, 95 % CI 1.020-1.367; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The complexity of antidiabetics was also associated with poor glycemic control (P insulin injection was most strongly associated with poor glycemic control (OR 6.210, 95 % CI 4.054-9.514; P 1). Male patients with higher levels of total cholesterol, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or longer diabetic durations showed poor glycemic control, which was not found in female patients. Glycemic control was not satisfactory in T2DM patients of Nanjing communities. Various factors are associated with poor results of glycemic control.

  2. Spectral data for a pair of matrices of order three and an action of the group GL(2,Z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretin, Yurii A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the 10-dimensional complex space whose points are cubic curves on the projective complex plane with three marked points. The triples of marked points on the curve are defined up to equivalence of divisors. We construct a natural action of the group GL(2,Z) on this space.

  3. Creatine supplementation and glycemic control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Camila Lemos; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Campos-Ferraz, Patrícia Lopes; Mota, João Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this review is the effects of creatine supplementation with or without exercise on glucose metabolism. A comprehensive examination of the past 16 years of study within the field provided a distillation of key data. Both in animal and human studies, creatine supplementation together with exercise training demonstrated greater beneficial effects on glucose metabolism; creatine supplementation itself demonstrated positive results in only a few of the studies. In the animal studies, the effects of creatine supplementation on glucose metabolism were even more distinct, and caution is needed in extrapolating these data to different species, especially to humans. Regarding human studies, considering the samples characteristics, the findings cannot be extrapolated to patients who have poorer glycemic control, are older, are on a different pharmacological treatment (e.g., exogenous insulin therapy) or are physically inactive. Thus, creatine supplementation is a possible nutritional therapy adjuvant with hypoglycemic effects, particularly when used in conjunction with exercise.

  4. Adiposity and Glycemic Control in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.; Grontved, Anders

    2014-01-01

    , waist circumference, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were assessed in 8- to 10-year-old children in 1997 in a subset of the European Youth Heart Study, Danish component. Plasma PFC concentrations were available from 499 children. Linear regression models were......Objective: Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Body mass index, skinfold thickness...... perfluorooctane sulfonic acid/mL plasma was associated with 16.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2%-28.3%) higher insulin concentration, 12.0% (95% CI, 2.4%-22.4%) higher β-cell activity, 17.6% (95% CI, 5.8%-30.8%) higher insulin resistance, and 8.6% (95% CI, 1.2%-16.5%) higher triglyceride concentrations...

  5. Anatomía quirúrgica del músculo glúteo mayor: espacio Intramuscular de FROD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Rodríguez-García

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. El músculo glúteo mayor es el más voluminoso y superficial de la región glútea, con forma cuadrilátera, dos inserciones diferentes, espesor variable en sus distintas zonas, y cubierto con diferentes fascias o aponeurosis. Realizamos un detallado estudio de la anatomía descriptiva y quirúrgica de dicho músculo para comparar cuál de las técnicas actuales utilizadas para el aumento glúteo con implantes es más segura y cuál proporciona mejores resultados. Material y método. Estudiamos 10 cadáveres frescos facilitados por el Instituto de Medicina Legal Regional Norte, y 10 cadáveres formolizados del anfiteatro de la Universidad Libre Seccional Barranquilla (Colombia, durante el período comprendido entre marzo de 2009 y febrero de 2010. Resultados. Determinamos que el músculo glúteo mayor, además de sus características anatómicas detalladas en los textos de anatomía descriptiva, está constituido por gruesos fascículos musculares paralelos y adyacentes unidos por fuertes tabiques o septos fibroaponeuróticos, del plano superficial al profundo. En el desarrollo del estudio encontramos un espacio anatómico intramuscular en el glúteo mayor, no descrito antes en las publicaciones de Cirugía Plástica ni en los textos de Anatomía más conocidos. Se presenta como una zona limpia, de aproximadamente 10 cm. de diámetro, con delicada aponeurosis muscular en su piso, sin la presencia de los tabiques fibroaponeuróticos interfasciculares habituales y exenta de estructuras vasculonerviosas importantes. Conclusiones. Describimos un nuevo espacio intramuscular en el glúteo mayor, que identificamos como Espacio Intramuscular de FROD, que consideramos de enorme potencial quirúrgico para la ejecución de las técnicas de aumento glúteo.

  6. Glycemic Variation in Tumor Patients with Total Parenteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes and mortality in several patients. However, studies evaluating hyperglycemia variation in tumor patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between glycemia and tumor kinds with TPN by monitoring glycemic variation in tumor patients. Methods: This retrospective clinical trial selected 312 patients with various cancer types, whose unique nutrition treatment was TPN during the monitoring period. All patients had blood glucose (BG values assessed at least six times daily during the TPN infusion. The glycemic variation before and after TPN was set as the indicator to evaluate the factors influencing BG. Results: The clinical trial lasted 7.5 ± 3.0 days adjusted for age, gender, family cancer history and blood types. There were six cancer types: Hepatic carcinoma (HC, 21.8%, rectal carcinoma (17.3%, colon carcinoma (CC, 14.7%, gastric carcinoma (29.8%, pancreatic carcinoma (11.5%, and duodenal carcinoma (DC, 4.8%. The patients were divided into diabetes and nondiabetes groups. No statistical differences in TPN glucose content between diabetes and nondiabetes groups were found; however, the tumor types affected by BG values were obvious. With increasing BG values, DC, HC and CC were more represented than other tumor types in this sequence in diabetic individuals, as well as in the nondiabetic group. BG was inclined to be more easily influenced in the nondiabetes group. Other factors did not impact BG values, including gender, body mass index, and TPN infusion duration time. Conclusions: When tumor patients are treated with TPN, BG levels should be monitored according to different types of tumors, besides differentiating diabetes or nondiabetes patients. Special BG control is needed for DC, HC and CC in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. If BG overtly increases, positive measurements are needed to control BG

  7. Human glycemic response and phenolic content of unsweetened cranberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ted; Singh, Ajay P; Vorsa, Nicholi; Goettl, Christopher D; Kittleson, Katrina M; Roe, Cindy M; Kastello, Gary M; Ragsdale, Frances R

    2008-03-01

    This cross-sectional study determined the phenolic composition of an over-the-counter cranberry juice (CBJ) with high-performance liquid chromatography and examined the effects of low- and normal-calorie CBJ formulations on the postprandial glycemic response in healthy humans. The CBJ used in this study contained seven phenolic acids, with 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acid being the primary components, and 15 flavonol glycosides, with myricetin-3-galactoside and quercetin-3-galactoside being the most prevalent. CBJ proanthocyanidins consisted of three different tetramers and a heptamer, which were confirmed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis. Participants received one of the following six treatments: nothing (no water/beverage), water (480 mL), unsweetened low-calorie CBJ (38 Cal/480 mL), normal-calorie CBJ (280 Cal/480 mL), isocaloric normal calorie (high fructose corn syrup [HFCS]), or isocaloric low-calorie beverages. No significant differences in postprandial blood glucose or insulin were observed in the groups receiving nothing, water, or low-calorie treatments. In contrast, the ingestion of normal-calorie CBJ and normal-calorie control beverage resulted in significantly higher blood glucose concentrations 30 minutes postprandially, although the differences were no longer significant after 180 minutes. Plasma insulin of normal-calorie CBJ and control (HFCS) recipients was significantly higher 60 minutes postprandially, but not significantly different 120 minutes postprandially. CBJ ingestion did not affect heart rate or blood pressure. This study suggests that the consumption of a low-calorie CBJ rich in previously uncharacterized trimer and heptamer proanthocyanidins is associated with a favorable glycemic response and may be beneficial for persons with impaired glucose tolerance.

  8. Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Sousa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os tumores glómicos são tumores perivasculares cujas células se assemelham a células musculares lisas modificadas do corpo glómico. São mais frequentes na região subungueal e raros no pulmão.Os autores apresentam um caso de uma doente de 62 anos, com toracalgia esquerda e dispneia para grandes esforços. Apresentava nódulo solitário localizado ao segmento basal-externo do LIE, com 1,9 cm de diâmetro, de limites bem definidos, consistência firme e superfície de secção nodular e branco-rosada.Os tumores glómicos são geralmente benignos. Podem ter origem em células glómicas ectópicas ou diferenciarem-se a partir de células não glómicas. Devem ser classificados em tumor glómico, glomangioma ou glomangiomioma de acordo com a abundância relativa de células glómicas, do componente vascular e muscular. Estão descritas metástases pulmonares de tumores glómicos malignos, sendo necessário excluir origem primária extra-pulmonar nesses casos.O diagnóstico diferencial dos tumores glómicos do pulmão inclui o carcinóide, hemangiopericitoma, tumores musculares lisos (leiomioma epitelióide e o paraganglioma.Rev Port Pneumol 2006; XII (3: 269-274 Abstract: Glomic tumours are perivascular tumours whose cells resemble modified smooth muscular cells of the glomic body.They are more frequent in the subungueal region and rare in the lung.The authors present a case of a 62 year old women with left thoracic pain and great enforces dyspnoea. She presented a solitary nodule in the external basal segment of the LLL, 1.9 cm diameter, circumscribed, firm and with nodular whitish rose cut surface.Glomic tumours are generally benign. They may origin in ectopic glomic cells or be differentiated from non glomic cells. They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components. Pulmonary metastasis of malignant glomic tumours

  9. Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Sousa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os tumores glómicos são tumores perivasculares cujas células se assemelham a células musculares lisas modificadas do corpo glómico. São mais frequentes na região subungueal e raros no pulmão.Os autores apresentam um caso de uma doente de 62 anos, com toracalgia esquerda e dispneia para grandes esforços. Apresentava nódulo solitário localizado ao segmento basal-externo do LIE, com 1,9 cm de diâmetro, de limites bem definidos, consistência firme e superfície de secção nodular e branco-rosada.Os tumores glómicos são geralmente benignos. Podem ter origem em células glómicas ectópicas ou diferenciarem-se a partir de células não glómicas. Devem ser classificados em tumor glómico, glomangioma ou glomangiomioma de acordo com a abundância relativa de células glómicas, do componente vascular e muscular. Estão descritas metástases pulmonares de tumores glómicos malignos, sendo necessário excluir origem primária extra-pulmonar nesses casos.O diagnóstico diferencial dos tumores glómicos do pulmão inclui o carcinóide, hemangiopericitoma, tumores musculares lisos (leiomioma epitelióide e o paraganglioma. Abstract: Glomic tumours are perivascular tumours whose cells resemble modified smooth muscular cells of the glomic body.They are more frequent in the subungueal region and rare in the lung.The authors present a case of a 62 year old women with left thoracic pain and great enforces dyspnoea. She presented a solitary nodule in the external basal segment of the LLL, 1.9 cm diameter, circumscribed, firm and with nodular whitish rose cut surface.Glomic tumours are generally benign. They may origin in ectopic glomic cells or be differentiated from non glomic cells. They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components. Pulmonary metastasis of malignant glomic tumours have been described. In these cases

  10. Classificação Morfológica da Glândula Prepucial do Nasua nasua (Quati.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Bertassoli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n2p83 A proposta desta pesquisa é descrever a glândula prepucial do Nasua nasua. Utilizaram-se oito quatis provenientes do Criatόrio Científico Cecrimpas (Unifeob; as glândulas prepuciais foram analisadas, dissecadas e descritas macro e microscopicamente, visando estabelecer sua classificação morfofuncional para, assim, poder compará-las com as de outras espécies já descritas na literatura. Amostras de tecido glandular foram coletadas, coradas (Hematoxilina e Eosina, Azul Toluidina, e Picrosirius e analisadas através da microscopia de luz. Todos os resultados foram compilados e fotodocumentados. Na espécie citada, essa glândula tem como principal função a demarcação territorial e está situada na porção prepucial do mesmo modo que nos javalis. Em outros animais, como primatas, cervídeos e roedores, essas glândulas demarcatόrias estão localizadas em diferentes regiões anatômicas, como entre os olhos, no metatarso, nas áreas perianais e esternais. Em nosso resultado das medidas biométricas, obtivemos como média 3,8 ± 1,41cm de largura, 3,15 ± 0,93cm de altura e 10,26 ± 1,89cm de circunferência, e essa glândula foi histologicamente classificada como do tipo tubuloalveolar, com secreção holόcrina.

  11. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  12. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  13. Perioperative glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Wahby

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Tight glycemic control improved perioperative outcome in diabetic CABG patients. Maintaining perioperative blood glucose level between 110 and 149 mg/dl is safe and should be recommended as a routine practice in diabetic patients undergoing CABG surgery.

  14. Pathways from emotional adjustment to glycemic control in youths with diabetes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S M; Lee, P W; Low, L C; Cheng, A; Yeung, W; Huen, K F; O'Donnell, D

    2000-09-01

    To examine factors that influence emotional adjustment, adherence to diabetic care, and glycemic control in Hong Kong youths with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Seventy youths, their mothers, and matched controls provided information on health beliefs, authoritarian parenting style, parent-child conflict, emotional adjustment, and adherence to medical regimen. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained to measure glycemic control. Predictors explained 34% of the variance in emotional adjustment and 39% of the variance in glycemic control. The data supported a pathway from emotional adjustment to self-efficacy to adherence behaviors to glycemic control. In contrast to Western culture and consistent with prediction, parenting style did not associate with negative outcomes, and even relatively low levels of parent-child conflict correlated negatively with emotional adjustment in this culture. Management of conflict and self-efficacy enhancing interactions are suggested interventions to enhance adherence to diabetic care in Hong Kong youths with IDDM.

  15. Starch composition, glycemic indices, phenolic constituents, and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of some common tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The fruits' low glycemic indices, strong antioxidant properties, and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities could be possible mechanisms for their use in the management and prevention of type-2 diabetes.

  16. Alterations in hemostasis associated with pregnancy in patients with glycemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Arkad'evna Bondar'

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present a comparative analysis of alterations in hemostasis and blood coagulation during normal pregnancy with those in pregnant women with glycemic disorders (diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, gestational diabetes.

  17. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  18. Early Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Emergency Department Patients: Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen, Jason

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Glycemic control in the critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patient has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality. We sought to investigate the effect of early glycemic control in critically ill emergency department (ED patients in a small pilot trial.Methods: Adult non-trauma, non-pregnant ED patients presenting to a university tertiary referral center and identified as critically ill were eligible for enrollment on a convenience basis. Critical illness was determined upon assignment for ICU admission. Patients were randomized to either ED standard care or glycemic control. Glycemic control involved use of an insulin drip to maintain blood glucose levels between 80-140 mg/dL. Glycemic control continued until ED discharge. Standard patients were managed at ED attending physician discretion. We assessed severity of illness by calculation of APACHE II score. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints included vasopressor requirement, hospital length of stay, and mechanical ventilation requirement.Results: Fifty patients were randomized, 24 to the glycemic group and 26 to the standard care cohort. Four of the 24 patients (17% in the treatment arm did not receive insulin despite protocol requirements. While receiving insulin, three of 24 patients (13% had an episode of hypoglycemia. By chance, the patients in the treatment group had a trend toward higher acuity by APACHE II scores. Patient mortality and morbidity were similar despite the acuity difference.Conclusion: There was no difference in morbidity and mortality between the two groups. The benefit of glycemic control may be subject to source of illness and to degree of glycemic control, or have no effect. Such questions bear future investigation. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:20-23].

  19. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between...

  20. Linagliptin increases incretin levels, lowers glucagon, and improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Thomas; Graefe-Mody, Ulrike; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2012-01-01

    Linagliptin is a xanthine-based dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor that is now available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate further the mechanisms underlying the improvements in glycemic control observed...... with linagliptin. The effects of linagliptin on DPP-4, pharmacodynamic parameters, and glycemic control versus placebo were assessed in patients with inadequately controlled T2DM....

  1. Status of glycemic control in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.U.; Fakhr, A.; Khan, Z.A.; Nadeem, M.; Bangash, R.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the status of glycemic control in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical out-patient/ in -patient departments at Military Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2011 to December 2012. Methods: Six hundred and fifty patients of type 2 DM fulfilling the required criteria were included in the study. Glycemic control of these patients was determined by estimation of blood glucose (fasting and random) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The patients were grouped in three categories good, fair and poor diabetic control having their HbA1c values of being 6-7%, 7.1-8% and more than 8.1% respectively. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15 was used for analysis. Results: Out of 650 patients 377 (58%) had poor glycemic control with mean HbA1c of 9.5% +- 0.95, 78 (12%) patients had fair control of glycemic control with mean HbA1c of 7.8 +- 0.25, and 195 (30%) patients had good glycemic control with mean HbA1c of 6.4 +- 0.17. Conclusion: Majority of patients had poor control of their glycemic status which is an important indicator and predictor of both micro and macrovascular complications. (author)

  2. Inpatient glycemic management in internal medicine: an observational multicenter study in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shujie; Zhang, Ning; Fish, Anne Folta; Yuan, Xiaodan; Liu, Lin; Li, Fan; Fang, Zhaohui; Lou, Qingqing

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among inpatients in internal medicine, and specifically, to assess the glycemic management of inpatients in non-endocrinology departments in three large urban hospitals in China. A multicenter observational study was conducted using electronic health records, and a survey of 1939 patients who were admitted to internal medicine units and followed until discharge. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, or impaired fasting glucose were included. Aspects of glycemic management examined were (a) hyperglycemia, (b) endocrinology consultation for hyperglycemia and (c) hypoglycemia. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in internal medicine was 45.7% (886 out of 1939). A total of 741 (83.6%) patients were treated by non-endocrinology departments; of those, 230 (31.1%) were in poor glycemic control and needed an endocrinology consultation. Yet only 57 (24.8%) received one. In 4 cases, the physician did not follow the consultants' advice. Among the remaining 53 consulted patients, 35 (66.1%) were still in poor glycemic control, yet only about half received a second consultation. Finally, among patients treated in non-endocrinology departments, 58 (7.8%) had hypoglycemia; less than half retested their blood glucose after treatment. The majority of patients with hyperglycemia were in non-endocrinology departments. Their glycemic management was poor; the endocrinology consultation rate was low and the result was suboptimal. Also, the management of hypoglycemia was not ideal. Therefore, improving glycemic management is urgently needed in Chinese hospitals.

  3. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  4. Carcinoma da glândula supra-renal Adrenal gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A neoplasia da glândula supra-renal pode ser oriunda de diversos tipos histológicos. O carcinoma é raro, correspondendo à 0,02% de todas as neoplasias. OBJETIVOS: Revisar os últimos avanços relacionados ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento do carcinoma da glândula supra-renal. MÉTODOS:Foi realizada revisão da literatura no Medline, livros texto de autores consagrados e referências obtidas de artigos considerados de maior relevância. CONCLUSÕES: Aproximadamente 79% dos carcinomas supra-renais são funcionantes. O hormônio mais comumente secretado é o cortisol causando síndrome de Cushing. Portadores de lesões não-funcionantes podem apresentar queixas relacionadas com o crescimento local da lesão. Ele está presente em uma série de síndromes neoplásicas de origem familiar. Ainda não está definido se o carcinoma esporádico tem origem em lesões benignas. De acordo com os sintomas, a investigação diagnóstica inicial envolve dosagens de cortisol urinário e nível sérico de aldosterona e renina. A tomografia abdominal ou a ressonância magnética são os exames de imagem de primeira linha. O PET scan com fluorodeoxiglicose apresenta potencial para diferenciação entre lesão benigna e maligna. A biópsia com agulha fina não está indicada devido à sua alta taxa de complicações. O tratamento de eleição é o cirúrgico com ressecção em bloco de órgãos adjacentes se necessário. Linfadenectomia aórtica e retroperitoneal deve ser realizada. Recorrência local ou metástases ocorrem em 80% dos casos. Procedimentos cirúrgicos citoredutores beneficiam os casos de doença avançada. Na presença de metástases, nos submetidos à cirurgia citoredutora e nos com recorrência local à quimioterapia com mitotano está indicada. Radioterapia é o tratamento de escolha no caso de metástases ósseas e tratamento adjuvante em alguns casos de risco elevado para recorrência. Em adultos a sobrevida média geral em 5 anos

  5. Glycemic screening and recurrent carbohydrate metabolism disorders with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.А. Lutsenko

    2018-03-01

    analytical sensitivity of test system for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Screening for hyperparathyroidism is the detection of blood ionized calcium level. This examination is particularly relevant for patients from risk group for initial hyperparathyroidism — patients with gallstone disease, urolithiasis, stomach ulcer and/or duodenal ulcer, essential hypertension, etc. Free metanephrines of blood plasma and conjugated urine metanephrines are the screening tests for pheochromocytoma diagnosis. The level of methylated secondary catecholamines (metanephrines, normetanephrines shows the daily tumor activity of pheochromocytoma. Thus, glycemic screening and endocrynopathies screening with hypersecretion of counterregulatory hormones should be conducted together. This will allow detecting secondary forms of diabetes mellitus and compensating glycemic state of the patient.

  6. Analysis of the effects of 50g/L povidone iodine in conjuncfival sac before cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the sterilizing effects of 50g/L povidone Iodine used in conjunctival sag before cataract surgery.METHODS: Totally, 58 eyes of 45 cataract patients underwent phacoemulsification aspiration with intraocular lens implantation. The cojunctival sac secretions at three time points(admission, before and after disinfection with povidone iodinewere obtained and then cultured under the same condition and at the same time. The results were observed and identified.RESULTS: At the three points, the positive rate of bacterial culture was 79.3%, 41.9% and 3.4%, respectively. The positive rate significantly reduced gradually. CONCLUSION: The application effect of 50g/L povidone iodine in killing conjunctival sac bacteria is remarkable, which can avoid the postoperative endophthalmitis effectively.

  7. Linfoma tipo MALT de la glándula parótida Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frómeta Neira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los linfomas tipo MALT (tejido linfoideo asociado a mucosa, constituyen la variedad más recientemente descubierta de los linfomas no Hodgkin, tienen lugar fundamentalmente en la mucosa gástrica asociados a infección por Helycobacter pylori, y en la glándula tiroides en relación con la tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Sin embargo, internacionalmente se han descrito casos en glándulas salivales asociados a linfoadenitis. La naturaleza de la lesión a menudo no puede ser determinada solo por el estudio citológico; se hace necesario el análisis histopatológico para el diagnóstico definitivo en la mayoría de los casos. El presente estudio muestra un paciente masculino con aumento de volumen bilateral de ambas glándulas parótidas y diagnóstico citohistopatológico de un proceso linfoepitelial benigno, el cual desarrolló un linfoma tipo MALT en relación con la glándula parótida derecha.The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland.

  8. Exploratory Visual Analytics of a Dynamically Built Network of Nodes in a WebGL-Enabled Browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    dimensionality reduction, feature extraction, high-dimensional data, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding, neighbor retrieval visualizer, visual...WebGL-enabled rendering is supported natively by browsers such as the latest Mozilla Firefox , Google Chrome, and Microsoft Internet Explorer 11. At the...appropriate names. The resultant 26-node network is displayed in a Mozilla Firefox browser in figure 2 (also see appendix B). 3 Figure 1. The

  9. Vascularização das glândulas adrenais em galinhas da linhagem NPK (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Coutinho do Amaral

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir com o conhecimento referente aos arranjos vasculares viscerais, que freqüentemente mostram suficientes variações para diferenciação entre famílias e ordens, utilizamos 34 galinhas da linhagem NPK, com idade aproximada de 10 semanas, eutanasiadas com dose de gás anestésico, tendo marcado seus contingentes arteriais com solução aquosa de Neoprene Látex ¨450¨ a 50 %, corada com corante específico e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10 %, para estudar a vascularização das glândulas adrenais. Assim, os resultados indicam que as glândulas adrenais são órgãos pares, dispostos um em cada antímero, lateralmente à aorta descendente, caudalmente aos pulmões e médio-cranialmente aos rins. Nos dois antímeros, as glândulas adrenais receberam vasos oriundos das artérias adrenais homólogas provenientes da artéria renal cranial e da aorta descendente (ramos diretos. Independentemente da origem, o número de ramos destinados às glândulas adrenais variou de acordo com o antímero, sendo de 1 a 4 para o antímero esquerdo, e de 1 e 3 para o direito. Quanto maior o número de artérias totais e ramos emitidos pelas artérias adrenais contralaterais destinados a um antímero, maior será o número de ramos destinados pelas mesmas ao antímero oposto.

  10. The multiparametric deformation of GL(n) and the covariant differential calculus on the quantum vector space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirrmacher, A.

    1991-01-01

    A n(n-1)/2+1 parameter solution of the Yang Baxter equation is presented giving rise to the quantum Group GL x;qij (n). Determinant and inverse are constructed. The group acts covariantly on a quantum vector space of non-commutative coordinates. The associated exterior space can be identified with the differentials exhibiting a multiparameter deformed differential calculus following the construction of Wess and Zumino. (orig.)

  11. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Ihnat, Michael; Saunders, Debra; Bastian, Anja; Smith, Nataliya; Pavana, Roheeth Kumar; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-07-17

    High grade gliomas (HGGs; grades III and IV) are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, and their malignant nature ranks them fourth in incidence of cancer death. Standard treatment for glioblastomas (GBM), involving surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab, have not substantially improved overall survival. New therapeutic agents are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Here we study the potential therapeutic agent AG119 in a pre-clinical model for gliomas. AG119 possesses both anti-angiogenic (RTK inhibition) and antimicrotubule cytotoxic activity in a single molecule. GL261 glioma-bearing mice were either treated with AG119, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody, anti c-Met antibody or TMZ, and compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Animal survival was assessed, and tumor volumes and vascular alterations were monitored with morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. Percent survival of GL261 HGG-bearing mice treated with AG119 was significantly higher (p mouse GL261 glioma model, and that AG119 is also not subject to methyl guanine transferase (MGMT) mediated resistance, as is the case with TMZ, indicating that AG119 may be potentially useful in treating resistant gliomas.

  12. Finite-dimensional representations of the quantum superalgebra Uq[gl(2/2)] II: Nontypical representations at generic q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Anh Ky; Stoilova, N.I.

    1994-11-01

    The construction approach proposed in the previous paper Ref.1 allows us there and in the present paper to construct at generic deformation parameter q all finite-dimensional representations of the quantum Lie superalgebra U q [gl(2/2)]. The finite-dimensional U q [gl(2/2)]-modules W q constructed in Ref.1 are either irreducible or indecomposable. If a module W q is indecomposable, i.e. when the condition (4.41) in Ref.1 does not hold, there exists an invariant maximal submodule of W q , to say I q k , such that the factor-representation in the factor-module W q /I q k is irreducible and called nontypical. Here, in this paper, indecomposable representations and nontypical finite-dimensional representations of the quantum Lie superalgebra U q [gl(2/2)] are considered and classified as their module structures are analyzed and the matrix elements of all nontypical representations are written down explicitly. (author). 23 refs

  13. Neoplasias malignas de glândulas salivares: estudo retrospectivo = Malignant neoplasms of salivary glands: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa, Renata Pereira de Sousa et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar a ocorrência de neoplasias malignas em glândulas salivares de pacientes dos hospitais de referência no tratamento de Câncer do Estado da Paraíba no período de 1998 a 2003. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo pelo método indireto, através da análise de 914 prontuários arquivados do Hospital Dr. Napoleão Laureano, em João Pessoa-PB, e do Centro de Cancerologia Ulisses Pinto, em Campina Grande-PB. Encontrou-se 29 casos de neoplasias malignas de glândulas salivares, dos quais 53,6% acometeram indivíduos do gênero masculino e 46,4% do feminino; a faixa etária com maior número de casos foi de 61-80 anos com 48,3%. A glândula parótida apresentou maior prevalência com 48,3%, sendo o tipo neoplásico com maior representação da amostra o Carcinoma adenóide cístico com 58,6%

  14. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  15. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  16. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta......%BF), and waist circumference (DeltaWC) were observed in women after adjustment for covariates. Significant GI x sex x physical activity interactions for DeltaBW, Delta%BF, and DeltaWC were observed, and the associations in the sedentary women were particularly positive. No significant associations with GI were...

  17. Brewer's Yeast Improves Glycemic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Djalali, Mahmoud; Derakhshanian, Hoda; Hajianfar, Hossein; Bahonar, Ahmad; Djazayery, Abolghassem

    2013-10-01

    Brewer's yeast may have beneficial effects on insulin receptors because of itsglucose tolerance factor in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer's yeast supplementation on glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial, 84 adults (21 men and 63 women) aged 46.3 ± 6.1 years old with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: Supplement group receiving brewer's yeast (six 300mg tablets/day, total 1800 mg) and control group receiving placebo (six 300mg tablets/day) for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, body mass index, food consumption (based on 24h food record), fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance were measured before and after the intervention. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 18.0). The changes in FBS, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin sensitivity were significantly different between the two groups during the study (respectively P brewer›s yeast besides the usual treatment of diabetes can ameliorate blood glucose variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use.

  19. Fibrinogen titer and glycemic status in women using contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the coagulation and glycemic status in Pakistani women using contraceptives. Design: The study was conducted prospectively on 70 women and compared with 10 age-matched controls. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Karachi. Period of study was 18 month. Subjects and Methods: Eighty women aged between 20-45 years selected from low socioeconomic class and poor family background were categorized in control (n=10) and oral and injectable contraceptive users (n = 70). The contraceptives used were tablet Lofemenal, injection Norigest and Norplant implant. Their blood was tested for fibrinogen titer and random blood glucose. Results: There was no appreciable difference either in fibrinogen titer or plasma glucose levels in injectable users as compared to controls, but increased incidence of high fibrinogen titer and borderline blood glucose was observed in oral contraceptive users 25% and 20 % respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that long-term use of oral contraceptives (> 3 years) might increase the thrombotic tendency and elevate the plasma glucose levels especially in women above 30 years of age. (author)

  20. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  1. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvez, A; Ihsanullah,; Rafiq, A; Ahmad, N; Khan, E H [Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar (Pakistan). Department of Pathology

    2010-04-15

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  2. Associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone, glycemic variability and insulin infusion rate variability in critically Ill patients under moderate glycemic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Roosmarijn T. M.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively studied associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone and variability of the blood glucose level and changes in insulin rates in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 'Glycemic variability' and 'insulin infusion rate variability' were calculated from and expressed as the

  3. Relative contributions of preprandial and postprandial glucose exposures, glycemic variability, and non-glycemic factors to HbA in individuals with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine; Alssema, Marjan; Mela, David J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is substantial interest in dietary approaches to reducing postprandial glucose (PPG) responses, but the quantitative contribution of PPG to longer-term glycemic control (reflected in glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c) in the general population is not known. This study quantif...

  4. Effect of Linagliptin Versus Metformin on Glycemic Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Heredia, Tonatiuh; Hernández-Corona, Diana M; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-08-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and glycemic variability may be associated with increased risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of linagliptin versus metformin on glycemic variability in patients with IGT. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial with parallel groups was carried out in 16 adult patients with IGT, overweight or obesity. All patients signed an informed consent. The therapies were randomly assigned: (a) metformin 500 mg bid (n = 8) or (b) linagliptin 5 mg a.m. and placebo p.m. (n = 8), both for 90 days. At the beginning of the trial and 3 months later, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycemic variability [area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), standard deviation (SD) of glucose, coefficient of variation (CV) of glucose, and mean blood glucose (MBG)] were measured. Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analyses. Both groups were similar in basal characteristics. After linagliptin administration, a significant decrease in glucose levels at 120 min of OGTT (9.0 ± 0.9 vs. 6.9 ± 2.2 mmol/L, P = 0.012) was observed. Glycemic variability showed a similar behavior and there were no significant differences in the AUC, MAGE, SD of glucose, CV of glucose, and MBG between groups. Linagliptin administration resulted in better glycemic control according to the decrease of glucose levels by the OGTT at 120 min in patients with IGT. Meanwhile, glycemic variability was not modified in any of the study groups.

  5. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  6. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibirige D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Davis Kibirige,1 George Patrick Akabwai,2 Leaticia Kampiire,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 William Lumu5 1Department of Medicine/Diabetic and Hypertension Clinics, Our Lady of Consolota Hospital, Kisubi, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Children’s Foundation, 3Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, 5Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, Mengo, Uganda Background: Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%. The median (interquartile range HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%. Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%, 76 (17.97%, and 179 (42.32% study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005 and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0

  7. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  8. [Influence on glycemic control of improved diabetic gastroparesis by long-term cisapride therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, K; Tanabe, S; Mitsuhashi, T; Saigenji, K

    1995-10-01

    To investigate the effect on glycemic control of improving diabetic gastroparesis, we evaluated symptoms (scored), gastric motor functions (solid and liquid gastric emptying studies and electrogastrography), and glycemic control in 11 patients with diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4 +/- 4.5 years old) before and after treatment with cisapride (15 mg/day p.o., 12 weeks). None of the patients had organic abnormalities on gastrointestinal endoscopy. The dysmotility symptom score (maximum: 18) on cisapride significantly improved from 13.1 to 4.0 (p instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m (both p < 0.05). Liquid gastric emptying, evaluated using a sulfamethizole technique, also improved but not significantly. Electrogastrography revealed no significant changes after treatment, but the postprandial rate of normal frequency waves tended to increase. Glycemic control was assessed based on HbA1C, fructosamine and M value. There were no significant changes in glycemic control after treatment with cisapride. We conclude that long-term administration of cisapride reduced dysmotility symptoms and improved solid and liquid gastric emptying without adversely affecting glycemic control.

  9. Cr-enriched yeast: beyond fibers for the management of postprandial glycemic response to bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Amalia E; Stamataki, Nikoleta; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Pateras, Irene; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despoina; T Karathanos, Vaios

    2017-06-01

    Efforts regarding the amelioration of postprandial glycemic response to bread are mainly focused in the addition of soluble dietary fibers. The current study presents another approach which is based on the supplementation of flour with Cr-enriched yeast. Cr is known for its beneficial effects on improvement of glucose tolerance and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Twelve normoglycemic subjects were provided with white bread (WB, reference food) or whole wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WWCrB, rich in insoluble fibers) or white wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WCrB, poor in fibers) or whole wheat-rye-barley bread enriched with oat beta glucans (BGB, rich in soluble fibers) with 1-week intervals in amounts that yielded 50 g of available carbohydrates. Postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses as well as glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Ingestion of WWCrB, WCrB and BGB elicited lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for 120-min glycemic response compared to WB (1033.02 ± 282.32, 701.69 ± 330.86 and 748.95 ± 185.42 vs 2070.87 ± 518.44 mg/dL min, respectively, P yeast induces milder postprandial glycemic response to bread without the necessity of high fiber amounts, providing with another strategy for the management of glycemic control.

  10. Model-based analysis of postprandial glycemic response dynamics for different types of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne J. Rozendaal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Knowledge of postprandial glycemic response (PPGR dynamics is important in nutrition management and diabetes research, care and (selfmanagement. In daily life, food intake is the most important factor influencing the occurrence of hyperglycemia. However, the large variability in PPGR dynamics to different types of food is inadequately predicted by existing glycemic measures. The objective of this study was therefore to quantitatively describe PPGR dynamics using a systems approach. Methods: Postprandial glucose and insulin data were collected from literature for many different food products and mixed meals. The predictive value of existing measures, such as the Glycemic Index, was evaluated. A physiology-based dynamic model was used to reconstruct the full postprandial response profiles of both glucose and insulin simultaneously. Results: We collected a large range of postprandial glucose and insulin dynamics for 53 common food products and mixed meals. Currently available glycemic measures were found to be inadequate to describe the heterogeneity in postprandial dynamics. By estimating model parameters from glucose and insulin data, the physiology-based dynamic model accurately describes the measured data whilst adhering to physiological constraints. Conclusions: The physiology-based dynamic model provides a systematic framework to analyze postprandial glucose and insulin profiles. By changing parameter values the model can be adjusted to simulate impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Keywords: Postprandial glycemic response, Physiology-based dynamic model, Food intake, Computational modeling, Glucose, Insulin

  11. Cushing's syndrome in type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungunes, Askin; Sahin, Mustafa; Demirci, Taner; Ucan, Bekir; Cakir, Evrim; Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Unsal, Ilknur Ozturk; Karbek, Basak; Calıskan, Mustafa; Ozbek, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-12-01

    Cushing's syndrome may be more frequent in some specific patient groups such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome in outpatients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control despite at least 3-months insulin therapy. Outpatients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control is poor (Hb Alc value >7 %) despite receiving at least 3-months long insulin treatment (insulin alone or insulin with oral antidiabetics) were included. Patients with classic features of Cushing's syndrome were excluded. Overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) was performed as a screening test. A total of 277 patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemic control is poor (Hb Alc value >7 %) despite insulin therapy were included. Two of the 277 patients with type 2 diabetes were diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome (0.72 %). Hypertension was statistically more frequent in the patients with cortisol levels ≥1.8 μg/dL than the patients with cortisol levels Cushing's syndrome among patients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control despite insulin therapy is much higher than in the general population. The patients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control despite at least three months of insulin therapy should be additionally tested for Cushing's syndrome if they have high dose insülin requirements.

  12. A randomized controlled trial to prevent glycemic relapse in longitudinal diabetes care: Study protocol (NCT00362193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Dianne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a common disease with self-management a key aspect of care. Large prospective trials have shown that maintaining glycated hemoglobin less than 7% greatly reduces complications but translating this level of control into everyday clinical practice can be difficult. Intensive improvement programs are successful in attaining control in patients with type 2 diabetes, however, many patients experience glycemic relapse once returned to routine care. This early relapse is, in part, due to decreased adherence in self-management behaviors. Objective This paper describes the design of the Glycemic Relapse Prevention study. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal frequency of maintenance intervention needed to prevent glycemic relapse. The primary endpoint is glycemic relapse, which is defined as glycated hemoglobin greater than 8% and an increase of 1% from baseline. Methods The intervention consists of telephonic contact by a nurse practitioner with a referral to a dietitian if indicated. This intervention was designed to provide early identification of self-care problems, understanding the rationale behind the self-care lapse and problem solve to find a negotiated solution. A total of 164 patients were randomized to routine care (least intensive, routine care with phone contact every three months (moderate intensity or routine care with phone contact every month (most intensive. Conclusion The baseline patient characteristics are similar across the treatment arms. Intervention fidelity analysis showed excellent reproducibility. This study will provide insight into the important but poorly understood area of glycemic relapse prevention.

  13. Clinical effect of 1g/L anthocyanin eye-patch for mild and moderate dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Hua Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinic efficacy of 1g/L anthocyanin eye-patch for mild and moderate dry eye. METHODS: In this prospective and multicenter study, a total of 320 cases(640 eyeswith mild and moderate dry eye were enrolled from 8 Aier Eye Hospitals in Changsha, Chongqing, Wuhan and so on from October 2016 to April 2017. The patients were assigned to eye patch group(160 casesand artificial tears group(160 casesbased on random number table. The patients in eye-patch group used 1g/L of anthocyanin eye-patch for more than 6h during night sleep, while the patients in artificial tears group used polyvinyl alcohol eye drops for 4 times per day. The evaluation of symptoms and signs were conducted on 1d before the treatment and 14d after the treatment. The evaluation of symptoms adopted the Ocular Surface Disease Index(OSDI, while the observation of signs included tear secretion test(Schirmer Ⅰ test, SⅠt, first noninvasive tear breakup time(NITBUTfas well as average noninvasive tear breakup time(NITBUTavmeasured by Oculus ocular surface analyser. RESULTS: OSDI score, NITBUTf and NITBUTav in the two groups after treatment were significantly improved compared with that before treatment, and the difference had a statistical significance(PP>0.05. There was no significant difference in OSDI score, NITBUTf, NITBUTav and SⅠt between the two groups after treatment(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The 1g/L anthocyanin eye-patch has similar efficacy with artificial tears for mild and moderate dry eye, which can effectively improve the symptoms and tear film stability.

  14. Equilibrium modeling of removal of drimarine yello HG-3GL dye from aqueous solutions by low cost agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.N.H.N.; Sadaf, S.; Sadaf, S.; Farrukh, Z.; Noreen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollution control is one of the leading issues of society today. The present study was designed to remove the Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL dye from aqueous solutions through biosorption. Sugarcane bagasse was used as biosorbent in native, acetic acid treated and immobilized form. Batch study was conducted to optimize different system variables like pH of solution, medium temperature, biosorbent concentration, initial dye concentration and contact time. Maximum dye removal was observed at pH 2, biosorbent dose of 0.05 g/50 mL and 40 degree C temperature. The equilibrium was achieved in 45-90 min. Different kinetic and equilibrium models were applied to the experimental results. The biosorption kinetic data was found to follow the pseudo second order kinetic model. Freundlich adsorption isotherm model showed a better fitness to the equilibrium data. The value of Gibbs free energy revealed that biosorption of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL dye by native and pretreated sugarcane bagasse was a spontaneous process. Presence of salt and heavy metal ions in aqueous solution enhanced the biosorption capacity while presence of surfactants decreased the biosorption potential of biosorbent. Dye was desorbed by 1M NaOH solution. Fixed bed column study of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL was carried out to optimize different parameters like bed height, flow rate and initial dye concentration. It was observed that biosorption capacity increases with increase in initial dye concentration and bed height but decreases with the increase in flow rate. The data of column study was explained very well by BDST model. FT-IR analysis confirmed the involvement of various functional groups, mainly hydroxyl, carboxyl and amine groups. The results proved that sugarcane bagasse waste biomass can be used as a favorable biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. (author)

  15. Cistomatose de glândula apócrina em onça-pintada (Panthera onca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gruchouskei

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A cistomatose de glândula apócrina é uma condição rara e não-neoplásica, que tem sido relatada em cães e gatos, e caracterizada por vários grupos de glândulas sudoríparas dilatadas, cuja distribuição generalizada raramente é observada. Uma fêmea de onça-pintada melânica (Panthera onca, com idade estimada de 16 anos e mantida em cativeiro, apresentou aumento de volume abdominal. Ao exame físico foram observados vários nódulos de consistência macia e flutuante, não aderidos, com tamanho de 2 a 15cm de diâmetro, na região ventral abdominal. Outras massas de menor diâmetro (0,5-1,0cm estavam presentes na região cervical e no dorso do animal. Estas massas foram removidas em um procedimento cirúrgico. Dentro deste cisto havia conteúdo líquido, inodoro e translúcido. Microscopicamente, observou-se entre a derme média e profunda a formação de múltiplos cistos de tamanho variável. Esses cistos eram revestidos por uma única camada de células predominantemente cubóides. Em alguns focos eram observadas raras projeções papiliformes de epitélio glandular. O citoplasma estava levemente eosinofílico e com raras imagens de decapitação do ápice. O diagnóstico de cistomatose de glândulas apócrinas foi realizado através dos achados macroscópicos e microscópicos.

  16. New Evidence for a Substellar Luminosity Problem: Dynamical Mass for the Brown Dwarf Binary Gl 417BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2014-08-01

    We present new evidence for a problem with cooling rates predicted by substellar evolutionary models that implies that model-derived masses in the literature for brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets may be too high. Based on our dynamical mass for Gl 417BC (L4.5+L6) and a gyrochronology system age from its young, solar-type host star, commonly used models predict luminosities 0.2-0.4 dex lower than we observe. This corroborates a similar luminosity-age discrepancy identified in our previous work on the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC, which coincidentally has nearly identical component masses (≈50-55 M Jup) and age (≈800 Myr) as Gl 417BC. Such a luminosity offset would cause systematic errors of 15%-25% in model-derived masses at this age. After comparing different models, including cloudless models that should not be appropriate for mid-L dwarfs like Gl 417BC and HD 130948BC but actually match their luminosities better, we speculate the observed overluminosity could be caused by opacity holes (i.e., patchy clouds) in these objects. Moreover, from hybrid substellar evolutionary models that account for cloud disappearance, we infer the corresponding phase of overluminosity may extend from a few hundred million years up to a few gigayears and cause masses to be overestimated by up to 25%, even well after clouds disappear from view entirely. Thus, the range of ages and spectral types affected by this potential systematic shift in luminosity evolution would encompass most known directly imaged gas-giants and field brown dwarfs. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. Sonda permeabilizadora en el tratamiento de la disfunción obstructiva de las glándulas de Meibomio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimí Cárdenas Díaz

    Full Text Available El ojo seco constituye una de las principales afecciones de la superficie ocular por la que acuden las personas a la consulta de Oftalmología. El 70 % de los pacientes con este diagnóstico presentan algún signo relacionado con la enfermedad de las glándulas de Meibomio y su control con los tratamientos habituales continúa siendo un problema. Las compresas calientes y los lavados con champú infantil darán alivio temporal, pero por lo general son abandonados por los pacientes. Otro enfoque es la expresión de las glándulas de Meibomio, la cual es molesta y por lo general necesita realizarse más de una vez; de ahí que el sondeo quirúrgico de esta sea una alternativa a utilizar. El sondaje mediante las sondas de Maskin introducidas desde el 2009 constituye una nueva modalidad terapéutica, la cual, de acuerdo con el conocimiento de los autores, no había sido introducida previamente en el país. La no disponibilidad de sondas con este fin en Cuba fue la motivación para diseñarla con el objetivo de permeabilizar los conductos excretores en la disfunción obstructiva de las glándulas de Meibomio (O- MGD, y así implementar esta técnica. Este dispositivo se construyó con medios propios en el taller de prototipos del laboratorio, de acuerdo con las características anatómicas del sistema glandular. Actualmente se usa de manera regular por doctores con resultados alentadores, como en los casos que se presentan.

  18. Clinical study of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets for dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qun Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets on the treatment of dry eye. METHODS:Totally 200 patients with dry eye were randomly divided into the control group(n=100and observation group(n=100. Patients in two groups were given 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops and physiotherapy. On the basis of this, the observation group were treated with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets. The inflammatory factors(IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1βlevels and ocular symptom scores(OSDI, BUT, SⅠt, FLin the two groups were compared between before and after treatment. And the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, OSDI and FL scores in two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment, and BUT and SⅠt were significantly higher than those before treatment. Moreover, the improvement degree of the above indexes in the observation group were better than those in the control group, showing statistically significant difference(Pχ2=5.531, P=0.019, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(χ2=0.307, P=0.579. CONCLUSION:As for the patients with dry eye, the combination of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets can significantly decrease the level of inflammatory factors, improve the eye symptoms and the clinical total efficiency, without increasing treatment-related adverse effects.

  19. Implantation of GL261 neurospheres into C57/BL6 mice: a more reliable syngeneic graft model for research on glioma-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Tunan; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Lunshan; Feng, Hua

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators are indispensable components of the tumor-initiating cell (TIC) niche and regulate the malignant behavior of TICs. However, conventional animal models for glioma-initiating cell (GIC) studies are based on the implantation of GICs from human glioblastoma (GBM) into immunodeficient mice without the regulation of immune system. Whether animal models can mimic the cellular microenvironment of malignancy and evaluate the biological features of GICs accurately is unclear. Here, we detected the biological features of neurosphere-like tumor cells derived from the murine GBM cell line GL261 (GL261-NS) and from primary human GBM (PGBM-NS) in vitro, injected GL261-NS into syngeneic C57/BL6 mouse brain and injected PGBM-NS into NOD/SCID mouse brain, respectively. The tumorigenic characteristics of the two different orthotopic transplantation models were analyzed and the histological discrepancy between grafts and human primary GBM was compared. We found that GICs enriched in GL261-NS, GL261-NS and PGBM-NS exhibited increased GIC potential and enhanced chemoresistance in vitro. GL261-NS was significantly more aggressive compared to GL261 adhesive cells (GL261-AC) in vivo and the enhanced aggression was more significant in syngeneic mice compared to immunodeficient mice. The discrepancy of tumorigenicity between GL261-NS and GL261-AC in C57/BL6 mice was also larger compared to that between PGBM-NS and PGBM-AC in immunodeficient mice. Syngrafts derived from GL261-NS in C57/BL6 mice corresponded to the human GBM histologically better, compared with xenografts derived from PGBM-NS in NOD/SCID mice, which lack inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators. We conclude that the inflammatory niche is involved in the tumorigenicity of GICs and implantation of GL261-NS into C57/BL6 mice is a more reliable syngeneic graft model for in vivo study on GICs relative to the immunodeficiency model.

  20. Plan estratégico para la empresa Global Logistics (GL) para el periodo 2017-2019

    OpenAIRE

    Castello Manky, Luis Fernando; Grados Iturrizaga, Miguel Augusto; Hudson Okumura, Ciro

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como finalidad el desarrollo de un plan estratégico para la empresa Global Logistics (GL) para los años 2017 a 2019. Inicia con el análisis y diagnóstico situacional, donde se analiza el macroentorno en base al análisis PESTEL y luego se procede a analizar la industria considerando las cinco fuerzas de Porter, para, finalmente, determinar las oportunidades y amenazas que enfrenta la empresa. Una vez concluido el análisis y diagnóstico situacional, se...

  1. Tratamento das cavidades anoftálmicas secas com transplante de glândulas salivares labiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Soares França

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar os efeitos clínicos da secreção das glândulas salivares labiais na lubrificação das cavidades anoftálmicas secas, avaliar a durabilidade dos resultados e apresentar a técnica do transplante. A aplicação desse procedimento em cavidades anoftálmicas secas é inédita na literatura. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo das cirurgias de enxertos glândulo-mucosos, compostos pela mucosa labial e glândulas salivares subjacentes, colocados no fórnice conjuntival de 5 pacientes com cavidades anoftálmicas que apresentavam grave xeroftalmia e retração dos fórnices conjuntivais. As cirurgias foram realizadas durante o período de julho/00 a janeiro/09. Dois pacientes já haviam sido tratados previamente com enxertos de mucosa ou de pele. A técnica do procedimento é descrita em detalhes. Os parâmetros que serviram para a análise comparativa dos resultados foram o quadro clínico, o aspecto do revestimento da cavidade, o ressecamento da superfície da prótese e a frequência do uso de colírios lubrificantes. RESULTADOS: Em todos os casos foi constatada a integração do enxerto e a melhora dos parâmetros avaliados. A evolução mostrou persistência e estabilidade dos resultados. CONCLUSÕES: A lubrificação da superfície da cavidade produzida pela secreção salivar mostrou ser eficiente, bem tolerada e constante, resultando maior conforto do uso da prótese. Infere-se que essa melhor lubrificação obtida ajuda a prevenir a evolução do processo de retração da cavidade. O transplante das glândulas salivares labiais para o fórnice conjuntival demonstrou ser um procedimento de fácil execução, acessível a qualquer cirurgião oftalmologista.

  2. Cystadenoma: a rare tumor originated in minor salivary gland Cistadenoma: um tumor raro em glândula salivar menor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nunes dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystadenoma of salivary glands is an uncommon benign neoplasm that presents intraluminal papillary projections. The authors describe one case of cystadenoma located in the buccal mucosa and highlight its histomorphological features and differential diagnosis.O cistadenoma de glândula salivar é uma neoplasia benigna incomum, que exibe projeções papilíferas intraluminais. Os autores descrevem um caso de cistadenoma localizado na mucosa jugal, discutindo os aspectos histomorfológicos e o diagnóstico diferencial desse tumor.

  3. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. El objetivo de la presente publicación fue comunicar los casos detectados en nuestro estudio de anomalías estructurales de la glándula tiroidea en pacientes que recibieron radioterapia para el tratamiento de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroides en 43 pacientes sobrevivientes de tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello, que habían recibido radioterapia y que fueron atendidos en los Hospitales Pediátricos Docentes «William Soler» y «Juan Manuel Márquez» en un período de 10 años (1990 a 2000. RESULTADOS. La alteración estructural de la glándula tiroides más frecuente fue la fibrosis glandular (18,5 %, seguida del adenoma tiroideo y de quistes simples de la glándula (11,1 % respectivamente. Hubo 2 casos de carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides (7,4 % y uno de lesión mixta adenofolicular (3,7 %. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina permitió la detección de la mayoría de estas lesiones y posibilitó, guiada por ecografía, la detección de lesiones intraparenquimatosas de la glándula. El tratamiento de las alteraciones encontradas fue quirúrgico y se practicó tiroidectomía total a los dos pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de la glándula tiroides, tiroidectomía subtotal a los tres pacientes con quistes de la glándula y adenomas tiroideos. En los casos de fibrosis glandular se detectó hipofunción tiroidea concomitante, por tanto se administró tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina. CONCLUSIONES. La citología aspirativa con aguja fina guiada mediante ecografía de la glándula tiroides permitió diagnosticar alteraciones estructurales no detectadas en el examen físico. La patología maligna más irradiada correspondió a los linfomas no Hodgkin. Cuanto mayor es la dosis de irradiación, mayor es la patología tiroidea.INTRODUCTION: The aim of

  4. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, Rheal A.; Ihnat, Michael; Saunders, Debra; Bastian, Anja; Smith, Nataliya; Pavana, Roheeth Kumar; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-01-01

    High grade gliomas (HGGs; grades III and IV) are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, and their malignant nature ranks them fourth in incidence of cancer death. Standard treatment for glioblastomas (GBM), involving surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab, have not substantially improved overall survival. New therapeutic agents are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Here we study the potential therapeutic agent AG119 in a pre-clinical model for gliomas. AG119 possesses both anti-angiogenic (RTK inhibition) and antimicrotubule cytotoxic activity in a single molecule. GL261 glioma-bearing mice were either treated with AG119, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody, anti c-Met antibody or TMZ, and compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Animal survival was assessed, and tumor volumes and vascular alterations were monitored with morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. Percent survival of GL261 HGG-bearing mice treated with AG119 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to untreated tumors. Tumor volumes (21–31 days following intracerebral implantation of GL261 cells) were found to be significantly lower for AG119 (p < 0.001), anti-VEGF (p < 0.05) and anti-c-Met (p < 0.001) antibody treatments, and TMZ-treated (p < 0.05) mice, compared to untreated controls. Perfusion data indicated that both AG119 and TMZ were able to reduce the effect of decreasing perfusion rates significantly (p < 0.05 for both), when compared to untreated tumors. It was also found that IC 50 values for AG119 were much lower than those for TMZ in T98G and U251 cells. These data support further exploration of the anticancer activity AG119 in HGG, as this compound was able to increase animal survival and decrease tumor volumes in a mouse GL261 glioma model, and that AG119 is also not subject to methyl guanine

  5. The obesity epidemic: is glycemic index the key to unlocking a hidden addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; McRobbie, Hayden; Eyles, Helen; Walker, Natalie; Simmons, Greg

    2008-11-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is an important cause of a range of diseases and is estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death globally. In this paper we discuss evidence that food consumption shows similarities to features of other addictive behaviours, such as automaticity and loss of control. Glycemic index is hypothesised to be the element of food that predicts its addictive potential. Although we do not have substantive evidence of a withdrawal syndrome from high glycemic food abstinence, anecdotal reports exist. Empirical scientific and clinical studies support an addictive component of eating behaviour, with similar neurotransmitters and neural pathways triggered by food consumption, as with other drugs of addiction. The public health implications of such a theory are discussed, with reference to tobacco control. Subtle changes in the preparation and manufacturing of commonly consumed food items, reducing glycemic index through regulatory channels, may break such a cycle of addiction and draw large public health benefits.

  6. Breaking down patient and physician barriers to optimize glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stuart A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately half of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) do not achieve globally recognized blood glucose targets, despite the availability of a wide range of effective glucose-lowering therapies. Failure to maintain good glycemic control increases the risk of diabetes-related complications and long-term health care costs. Patients must be brought under glycemic control to improve treatment outcomes, but existing barriers to optimizing glycemic control must first be overcome, including patient nonadherence to treatment, the failure of physicians to intensify therapy in a timely manner, and inadequacies in the health care system itself. The reasons for such barriers include treatment side effects, complex treatment regimens, needle anxiety, poor patient education, and the absence of an adequate patient care plan; however, newer therapies and devices, combined with comprehensive care plans involving adequate patient education, can help to minimize barriers and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise and Glycemic Control: Focus on Redox Homeostasis and Redox-Sensitive Protein Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced. Furthermore, regular exercise leads to the upregulation of antioxidant defense, which likely assists in the mitigation of chronic oxidative stress-associated disease. In this review, we explore the complex spatiotemporal interplay between exercise, oxidative stress, and glycemic control, and highlight exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and redox-sensitive protein signaling as important regulators of glucose homeostasis. PMID:28529499

  8. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Hayley; Williams, Sheila; Brown, Rachel; Venn, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI of meals, obtained by using the formula and by using both measured food GI and published values, with directly measured meal GIs. The GIs of 7 foods were tested in 30 healthy people. The foods were combined into 3 meals, each of which provided 50 g available carbohydrate, including a staple (potato, rice, or spaghetti), vegetables, sauce, and pan-fried chicken. The mean (95% CI) meal GIs determined from individual food GI values and by direct measurement were as follows: potato meal [predicted, 63 (56, 70); measured, 53 (46, 62)], rice meal [predicted, 51 (45, 56); measured, 38 (33, 45)], and spaghetti meal [predicted, 54 (49, 60); measured, 38 (33, 44)]. The predicted meal GIs were all higher than the measured GIs (P < 0.001). The extent of the overestimation depended on the particular food, ie, 12, 15, and 19 GI units (or 22%, 40%, and 50%) for the potato, rice, and spaghetti meals, respectively. The formula overestimated the GI of the meals by between 22% and 50%. The use of published food values also overestimated the measured meal GIs. Investigators using the formula to calculate a meal or diet GI should be aware of limitations in the method. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000210976.

  9. Methodologic considerations in the measurement of glycemic index: glycemic response to rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hätönen, Katja A; Similä, Minna E; Virtamo, Jarmo R; Eriksson, Johan G; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Valsta, Liisa M

    2006-11-01

    Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between venous and capillary blood sampling and between glucose and white bread as the reference food. The number of tests needed for the reference food was assessed. Rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and instant mashed potato were used as the test foods. Twelve healthy volunteers were served each test food once and both reference foods 3 times at 1-wk intervals in a random order after they had fasted overnight. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn at intervals for 3 h after each study meal. GIs and their CVs based on capillary samples were lower than those based on venous samples. Two tests of glucose solution as the reference provided stable capillary GIs for the test foods. The capillary GIs did not differ significantly when white bread was used as the reference 1, 2, or 3 times, but the variation was lower when tests were performed 2 and 3 times. Capillary GIs with white bread as the reference were 1.3 times as high as those with glucose as the reference. The capillary GIs of rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato were 77, 74, and 80, respectively, with glucose as the reference. Capillary blood sampling should be used in the measurement of GI, and reference tests with glucose or white bread should be performed at least twice.

  10. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  11. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  12. Glycemic control and all-cause mortality risk in type 1 diabetes patients: the EURODIAB prospective complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Simon, D.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Glycemic targets and the benefit of intensive glucose control are currently under debate because intensive glycemic control has been suggested to have negative effects on mortality risk in type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: We examined the association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)

  13. Effects of diabetes-related family stress on glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouli, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the way that family stress influences glycemic control among patients with diabetes who are younger than 18 years of age. PubMed and Scopus were searched for relevant studies published since 1990 using the following key words: diabetes type 1, glycemic control, family stress, family conflict, and family function. In total, 1478 papers were identified in the initial search. The final review included 6 cohort studies, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 1 qualitative review in which family stress was assessed using specific diabetes-related conflict measurement instruments, and glycemic control was evaluated by glycosylated hemoglobin measurement. In most studies family stress was negatively correlated with patients' glycemic control. Family function was strongly related to patients' glycemic control, while family conflict was adversely associated with glycemic control. Families of low socioeconomic status, those of adolescents with diabetes, and those of single parents were more prone to diabetes-related stress and thus more susceptible to worse glycemic control. Therapeutic psychological interventions and educational programs can help alleviate family diabetes-related stress and will likely improve glycemic control.

  14. The influence of aspirin dose and glycemic control on platelet inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemkes, B. A.; Bahler, L.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Stroobants, A. K.; van den Dool, E. J.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Nieuwland, R.; Gerdes, V. E.; Holleman, F.

    Background: Low-dose aspirin seems to offer no benefit in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The anti-platelet effect may be diminished by poor glycemic control or inadequate dosing of aspirin. Objectives: To study the effects of both glycemic control

  15. The effects of glycemic control on seizures and seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauwecker Paula

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke, affecting more than 50 million persons worldwide. Metabolic disturbances are often associated with epileptic seizures, but the pathogenesis of this relationship is poorly understood. It is known that seizures result in altered glucose metabolism, the reduction of intracellular energy metabolites such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as lactate and adenosine. In particular, it has been suggested that the duration and extent of glucose dysregulation may be a predictor of the pathological outcome of status. However, little is known about neither the effects of glycemic control on brain metabolism nor the effects of managing systemic glucose concentrations in epilepsy. Results In this study, we examined glycemic modulation of kainate-induced seizure sensitivity and its neuropathological consequences. To investigate the relationship between glycemic modulation, seizure susceptibility and its neuropathological consequences, C57BL/6 mice (excitotoxin cell death resistant were subjected to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, followed by systemic administration of kainic acid to induce seizures. Glycemic modulation resulted in minimal consequences with regard to seizure severity but increased hippocampal pathology, irrespective of whether mice were hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic prior to kainate administration. Moreover, we found that exogenous administration of glucose following kainic acid seizures significantly reduced the extent of hippocampal pathology in FVB/N mice (excitotoxin cell death susceptible following systemic administration of kainic acid. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that modulation of the glycemic index can modify the outcome of brain injury in the kainate model of seizure induction. Moreover, modulation of the glycemic index through glucose rescue greatly diminishes the extent of seizure

  16. Impact of postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status on clinical outcomes after total pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao-Jun; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2017-01-14

    To evaluate the impact of glycemic control and nutritional status after total pancreatectomy (TP) on complications, tumor recurrence and overall survival. Retrospective records of 52 patients with pancreatic tumors who underwent TP were collected from 2007 to 2015. A series of clinical parameters collected before and after surgery, and during the follow-up were evaluated. The associations of glycemic control and nutritional status with complications, tumor recurrence and long-term survival were determined. Risk factors for postoperative glycemic control and nutritional status were identified. High early postoperative fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels (OR = 4.074, 95%CI: 1.188-13.965, P = 0.025) and low early postoperative prealbumin levels (OR = 3.816, 95%CI: 1.110-13.122, P = 0.034) were significantly associated with complications after TP. Postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% (HR = 2.655, 95%CI: 1.299-5.425, P = 0.007) were identified as one of the independent risk factors for tumor recurrence. Patients with postoperative HbA1c levels over 7% had much poorer overall survival than those with HbA1c levels less than 7% (9.3 mo vs 27.6 mo, HR = 3.212, 95%CI: 1.147-8.999, P = 0.026). Patients with long-term diabetes mellitus (HR = 15.019, 95%CI: 1.278-176.211, P = 0.031) and alcohol history (B = 1.985, SE = 0.860, P = 0.025) tended to have poor glycemic control and lower body mass index levels after TP, respectively. At least 3 mo are required after TP to adapt to diabetes and recover nutritional status. Glycemic control appears to have more influence over nutritional status on long-term outcomes after TP. Improvement in glycemic control and nutritional status after TP is important to prevent early complications and tumor recurrence, and improve survival.

  17. Glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevents coronary arterial wall infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Izadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a very well-known risk factor for development of atherosclerosis, and it has been hypothesized that poor glycemic control and hyperglycemia plays a major role in this process. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the associates of poor glycemic control in Iranian patients who have already undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, with especial focus on the inhabitation of infectious agents within the coronary arterial wall. METHODS: In January 2010, 52 consecutive patients with type 2 DM who undergone CABG at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran were included into this cross-sectional study and biopsy specimens from their coronary plaques were taken and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for detecting Helicobacter species, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and their potential relation to the glycemic control status in these patients. RESULTS: Compared to that in diabetic patients with mean fasting blood sugar (FBS levels FBS < 126, atherosclerotic lesions in type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FBS > 126 were significantly more likely to be positive for CMV PCR test (41% vs. 9%, respectively; P = 0.05. In laboratorial test results, mean triglyceride level was significantly higher among patients of poor glycemic control (168 ± 89 vs. 222 ± 125 mg/dl, respectively; P = 0.033. Hypertension was also significantly more prevalent in this population (73% vs. 36%, respectively; P = 0.034. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control can be at higher risk for developing CMV infection in their coronary arterial wall, which can promote atherosclerosis formation process in this patient population. According to the findings of this study, we recommend better control of serum glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients to prevent formation/progression of atherosclerosis.   Keywords

  18. Food insecurity is related to glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawadi, Hiba Ahmad; Ammari, Fawaz; Abu-Jamous, Dima; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Bataineh, Safa'a; Tayyem, Reema Fayez

    2012-04-01

    Poor glycemic control has been shown to play a major role in the development and progression of diabetes complications. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that food insecurity may deteriorate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among type 2 diabetics in a major hospital that serves the area of northern Jordan, and to investigate its relation to glycemic control. A sample of 843 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Socioeconomic and health data were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by a trained nutritionist. Dietary assessment was done using food frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were processed using food processor software. Food insecurity was assessed by the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. Glycemic control was assessed by measuring glycosyated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Statistical procedures used to analyze the data were chi-square, and post-hoc analysis of variance. About 22% of the tested sample were food secure (FS); 51% were moderately food insecure (MFIS); and 27% were severely food insecure (SFIS). Higher BMI was associated with SFIS patients. After adjusting for age, gender, income, education, and duration of diabetes, body mass index, and caloric consumption; moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with poor glycemic control (p = 0.04). food insecurity may be associated with glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of glycemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Assiut-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM may lead to severe long-term health consequences, such as renal failure, blindness, as well as heart and cerebrovascular disease. Although a direct relationship between blood glucose control and diabetes complications remains to be established beyond doubt, most diabetologists aim to achieve the best possible glucose control in their patients with T1DM. The aim of this study was to detect the predictors of glycemic control among children with T1DM in Assiut Governorate-Egypt. Materials and Methods : We enrolled 415 children aged 2 to 18 years with type 1 diabetes of >1-year duration. They were subjected to full history including demographic factors and disease-related factors. Examination was done with determination of the body mass index, and assessment of stage of maturity. Investigations included hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lipid profile. Patients with HbA1c above the recommended values for age by the American Diabetes Association were considered as poor glycemic control group. Results : Of the studied cases, 190 cases (45.8% were of poor glycemic control. Patients with poor control had significantly higher mean age (16.83 ± 3.3 vs 9.77 ± 3.7, P<0.000. Girls aged 15 years or more had significantly higher prevalence of poor glycemic control than males of the same age group. As regard the disease-related factors, patients with poor control had significantly longer duration of disease (7.94 ± 2.6 vs 2.40 ± 2.0, P<0.000 and were older in age at onset of disease. Insulin regimen which consists of basal bolus insulin plus three injections of regular insulin was associated with more frequency of good glycemic control than other regimens. Patients with poor control had significantly higher mean of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than patients with good control. Adjusting for other variables, age of the patients, duration of

  20. Utility of different glycemic control metrics for optimizing management of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Klaus-Dieter; Heinke, Peter; Vogt, Lutz; Salzsieder, Eckhard

    2015-02-15

    The benchmark for assessing quality of long-term glycemic control and adjustment of therapy is currently glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Despite its importance as an indicator for the development of diabetic complications, recent studies have revealed that this metric has some limitations; it conveys a rather complex message, which has to be taken into consideration for diabetes screening and treatment. On the basis of recent clinical trials, the relationship between HbA1c and cardiovascular outcomes in long-standing diabetes has been called into question. It becomes obvious that other surrogate and biomarkers are needed to better predict cardiovascular diabetes complications and assess efficiency of therapy. Glycated albumin, fructosamin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol have received growing interest as alternative markers of glycemic control. In addition to measures of hyperglycemia, advanced glucose monitoring methods became available. An indispensible adjunct to HbA1c in routine diabetes care is self-monitoring of blood glucose. This monitoring method is now widely used, as it provides immediate feedback to patients on short-term changes, involving fasting, preprandial, and postprandial glucose levels. Beyond the traditional metrics, glycemic variability has been identified as a predictor of hypoglycemia, and it might also be implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diabetes complications. Assessment of glycemic variability is thus important, but exact quantification requires frequently sampled glucose measurements. In order to optimize diabetes treatment, there is a need for both key metrics of glycemic control on a day-to-day basis and for more advanced, user-friendly monitoring methods. In addition to traditional discontinuous glucose testing, continuous glucose sensing has become a useful tool to reveal insufficient glycemic management. This new technology is particularly effective in patients with complicated diabetes and provides the opportunity to characterize

  1. Glycemic Variability Is Associated With Reduced Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Lebech Cichosz, Simon; Hoeyem, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sex differences in cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and to determine whether cardiac autonomic modulation is associated with glycemic variability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated a cohort consisting of 48 men...... and 39 women with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and a known duration of diabetes ... by the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (P = 0.001), the root mean square of successive differences (P = 0.018), LF (P power (P = 0.008), RS ratio (P = 0.027), and expiration-to-inspiration ratio (P = 0.006) was significantly associated with increased glycemic...

  2. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the disp...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  3. [Socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional, and physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosana de Morais Borges; Fornés, Nélida Schmid; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    To identify the association of socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and of physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with T1DM. Sectional study of 71 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. The glycemic control was classified by the index of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Four 24-hours recalls of food consumption and physical activity were applied. The A1C was inadequate for the majority of the adolescents. The low educational level of the caregivers influenced the inadequate glycemic control. Patients with lower insulin dose presented better glycemic control. The food consumption was high of fat and poor of carbohydrate. Most of the patients were sedentary. Factors related to education, insulin and food consumption influenced the glycemic control.

  4. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  5. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  6. Improved fatigue behavior of low-carbon steel 20GL by applying ultrasonic impact treatment combined with the electric discharge surface alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordyuk, B.N., E-mail: mordyuk@imp.kiev.ua [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd., UA-03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Prokopenko, G.I.; Volosevich, P.Yu. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd., UA-03142, Kyiv (Ukraine); Matokhnyuk, L.E.; Byalonovich, A.V. [Pisarenko Institute for Strength of Materials, NAS of Ukraine, 2 Timiryazevs’ka str., UA-01014, Kyiv (Ukraine); Popova, T.V. [Ukrainian Research Institute Rail carriage building, 33 Prikhodko str., UA-39621, Kremenchuk (Ukraine)

    2016-04-06

    The effects of severe plastic deformation induced by ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) and the electric discharge surface alloying (EDSA) with chromium on the stress-controlled fatigue response of low-carbon steel 20GL are studied. The surface microrelief and integrity were analyzed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural formations in the sub-surface layers were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The steel specimens underwent UIT, and complex UIT+EDSA and UIT+EDSA+UIT processes demonstrate the fatigue strength magnitudes increased respectively by ~15, ~5 and ~30% on the base of 10{sup 7} cycles in comparison with that for the pristine specimen. SEM analysis of fracture surfaces reveals the subsurface crack nucleation in the UIT-processed specimens instead of superficial crack initiation observed in the pristine and EDSA-processed ones. TEM studies demonstrate that a dislocation-cell structure forms in ferrite grains and partial dissolution of cementite occurs in pearlite grains both at the surface after UIT and in the layer at a depth of 15–25 µm after the UIT+EDSA+UIT process. The enhanced fatigue strength and prolonged lifetime of the low-carbon steel specimens after UIT and UIT+EDSA+UIT processes are concluded to be associated with the subsurface crack nucleation achieved by the following factors: (i) minimized surface roughness and improved integrity of the modified layer; (ii) compressive residual stresses; and (iii) surface hardening coupled with the alloying by chromium and with the formation of the dislocation-cell structure containing the cell walls impenetrable to moving dislocations at cyclic loading.

  7. Measuring the glycemic index of foods: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Abernethy, John; Astrup, Arne; Atkinson, Fiona; Axelsen, Mette; Björck, Inger; Brighenti, Furio; Brown, Rachel; Brynes, Audrey; Casiraghi, M Cristina; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Dahlqvist, Linda; Delport, Elizabeth; Denyer, Gareth S; Erba, Daniela; Frost, Gary; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Hampton, Shelagh; Hart, Valerie A; Hätönen, Katja A; Henry, C Jeya; Hertzler, Steve; Hull, Sarah; Jerling, Johann; Johnston, Kelly L; Lightowler, Helen; Mann, Neil; Morgan, Linda; Panlasigui, Leonora N; Pelkman, Christine; Perry, Tracy; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Pieters, Marlien; Ramdath, D Dan; Ramsingh, Rayna T; Robert, S Daniel; Robinson, Carol; Sarkkinen, Essi; Scazzina, Francesca; Sison, Dave Clark D; Sloth, Birgitte; Staniforth, Jane; Tapola, Niina; Valsta, Liisa M; Verkooijen, Inge; Weickert, Martin O; Weseler, Antje R; Wilkie, Paul; Zhang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Many laboratories offer glycemic index (GI) services. We assessed the performance of the method used to measure GI. The GI of cheese-puffs and fruit-leather (centrally provided) was measured in 28 laboratories (n=311 subjects) by using the FAO/WHO method. The laboratories reported the results of their calculations and sent the raw data for recalculation centrally. Values for the incremental area under the curve (AUC) reported by 54% of the laboratories differed from central calculations. Because of this and other differences in data analysis, 19% of reported food GI values differed by >5 units from those calculated centrally. GI values in individual subjects were unrelated to age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, or AUC but were negatively related to within-individual variation (P=0.033) expressed as the CV of the AUC for repeated reference food tests (refCV). The between-laboratory GI values (mean+/-SD) for cheese-puffs and fruit-leather were 74.3+/-10.5 and 33.2+/-7.2, respectively. The mean laboratory GI was related to refCV (P=0.003) and the type of restrictions on alcohol consumption before the test (P=0.006, r2=0.509 for model). The within-laboratory SD of GI was related to refCV (P<0.001), the glucose analysis method (P=0.010), whether glucose measures were duplicated (P=0.008), and restrictions on dinner the night before (P=0.013, r2=0.810 for model). The between-laboratory SD of the GI values is approximately 9. Standardized data analysis and low within-subject variation (refCV<30%) are required for accuracy. The results suggest that common misconceptions exist about which factors do and do not need to be controlled to improve precision. Controlled studies and cost-benefit analyses are needed to optimize GI methodology. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00260858.

  8. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Taking a low glycemic index multi-nutrient supplement as breakfast improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Zhang, Peiwen; Guo, Honghui; Ling, Wenhua

    2014-12-10

    Dietary therapy is the mainstay of treatment for diabetes. This study examined the effect of a low glycemic index (GI) multi-nutrient supplement, consumed in place of breakfast, on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 participants were randomized at a 2:1 ratio into either a breakfast replacement group or a normal breakfast group for a 12-week interventional study. The primary outcome measure was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Nutrition status and somatometry were studied as secondary outcomes. The breakfast replacement group displayed a -0.2% absolute reduction in HbA1c (95% CI (confidence interval), -0.38% to -0.07%, p = 0.004), while the HbA1c of the control group increased 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%, p = 0.005). The baseline Mini Nutritional Assessment score for both groups was 26.0 and no significant changes occurred following intervention. However, there was a statistically significant difference in body mass index between the treatment and control groups (p = 0.032) due to the weight gain in the control group (increased 0.5 kg, 95% CI was 0.2 to 0.9, p = 0.007). These data suggest that breakfast replacement with a low GI multi-nutrient supplement can improve glycemic and weight control in T2DM.

  11. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.

  12. Comparison between simplified load spectra in accordance with Germanische Lloyd guidelines, and load spectra derived from time domain simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, M [Aerodyn Energiesysteme gmbH, Rendsburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The Germanische Lloyd guideline allows calculations of load spectra in two fundamentally different ways. In the case of the so-called `simplified load spectra` the maximum amplitude of fluctuation of a load component is formed as {+-}75% of the average value of the purely aerodynamic loads of this component at rated wind conditions, together with an overlay of mass-related loads. The second method allowed in the GL guideline is the calculation of load spectra from simulation results in the time domain. For a number of average wind speeds the time-dependent characteristics of the load components are calculated taking account of the natural spatial turbulence of the wind. These are converted into load spectra using the rainflow method. In a parametric study the load spectra are calculated according to both methods and compared. The calculations are performed for turbines with rated powers of 100 kW to 2000 kW, with two and three blades, and also for stall-controlled and pitch-controlled turbines. The calculated load spectra are compared with each by means of 1 P fatigue equivalent load spectra. The influence of individual parameters is presented, as is the validity of the simplified load spectra. (au)

  13. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Brand-Miller, J.; Fogelholm, M.; Raben, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

  14. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels.

  15. Transplante de glândulas salivares labiais no tratamento de olho seco em cães pela autoenxertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Séra Castanho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos clínicos da secreção das glândulas salivares labiais como alternativa de lubrificação ocular para alívio do olho seco, em casos moderados, severos e refratários ao tratamento clínico, através da técnica de transposição de glândulas salivares labiais para o fórnice conjuntival pela autoenxertia. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 17 cães os quais apresentavam olho seco autoimune sem reposta satisfatória ao tratamento clínico. O teste lacrimal de Schirmer e o tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal foram realizados no pré-operatório para avaliar a quantidade e a qualidade da lágrima produzida. Os pacientes foram submetidos aos exames oftálmicos completos no pré-operatório, a cada 15 dias por dois meses e a cada 30 dias por mais dois meses, totalizando seis retornos pós-operatórios. No pré-operatório e em todos os pós-operatórios fotografias digitais foram tiradas para o arquivo fotográfico. Utilizou-se o programa photoshop para avaliação e marcação dos neovasos corneanos em todos os retornos. RESULTADOS: Houve redução em todos os casos da secreção mucopurulenta, hiperemia conjuntival e blefarospasmo, bem como estabilização de lesões pré-existentes e redução importante do número de neovasos corneanos. A transposição resultou na melhora do tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, porém sem alterações significativas no teste de Schirmer. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante das glândulas salivares labiais para o fórnice conjuntival é um procedimento de fácil execução, rápido, eficaz, acessível a qualquer cirurgião veterinário oftalmologista e de grande valia para casos moderados e severos de ceratoconjuntivite seca não responsivos às medicações existentes.

  16. Piglet nasal microbiota at weaning may influence the development of Glässer's disease during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aragon, Virginia

    2016-05-26

    The microbiota, the ensemble of microorganisms on a particular body site, has been extensively studied during the last few years, and demonstrated to influence the development of many diseases. However, these studies focused mainly on the human digestive system, while the populations in the respiratory tract have been poorly assessed, especially in pigs. The nasal mucosa of piglets is colonized by an array of bacteria, many of which are unknown. Among the early colonizers, Haemophilus parasuis also has clinical importance, since it is also the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. This disease produces economical losses in all the countries with pig production, and the factors influencing its development are not totally understood. Hence, the purpose of this work was to characterize the nasal microbiota composition of piglets, and its possible role in Glässer's disease development. Seven farms from Spain (4 with Glässer's disease and 3 control farms without any respiratory disease) and three farms from UK (all control farms) were studied. Ten piglets from each farm were sampled at 3-4 weeks of age before weaning. The total DNA extracted from nasal swabs was used to amplify the 16S RNA gene for sequencing in Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing data was quality filtered and analyzed using QIIME software. The diversity of the nasal microbiota was low in comparison with other body sites, showing a maximum number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per pig of 1,603, clustered in five phyla. Significant differences were found at various taxonomical levels, when the microbiota was compared regarding the farm health status. Healthy status was associated to higher species richness and diversity, and UK farms demonstrated the highest diversity. The composition of the nasal microbiota of healthy piglets was uncovered and different phylotypes were shown to be significantly altered in animals depending on the clinical status of the farm of origin. Several OTUs at genus level were

  17. On Parametrization of the Linear GL(4,C) and Unitary SU(4) Groups in Terms of Dirac Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red'Kov, Victor M.; Bogush, Andrei A.; Tokarevskaya, Natalia G.

    2008-02-01

    Parametrization of 4 × 4-matrices G of the complex linear group GL(4,C) in terms of four complex 4-vector parameters (k,m,n,l) is investigated. Additional restrictions separating some subgroups of GL(4,C) are given explicitly. In the given parametrization, the problem of inverting any 4 × 4 matrix G is solved. Expression for determinant of any matrix G is found: det G = F(k,m,n,l). Unitarity conditions G+ = G-1 have been formulated in the form of non-linear cubic algebraic equations including complex conjugation. Several simplest solutions of these unitarity equations have been found: three 2-parametric subgroups G1, G2, G3 - each of subgroups consists of two commuting Abelian unitary groups; 4-parametric unitary subgroup consis! ting of a product of a 3-parametric group isomorphic SU(2) and 1-parametric Abelian group. The Dirac basis of generators Λk, being of Gell-Mann type, substantially differs from the basis λi used in the literature on SU(4) group, formulas relating them are found - they permit to separate SU(3) subgroup in SU(4). Special way to list 15 Dirac generators of GL(4,C) can be used {Λk} = {μiÅνjÅ(μiVνj = KÅL ÅM )}, which permit to factorize SU(4) transformations according to S = eiaμ eibνeikKeilLeimM, where two first factors commute with each other and are isomorphic to SU(2) group, the three last ones are 3-parametric groups, each of them consisting of three Abelian commuting unitary subgroups. Besides, the structure of fifteen Dirac matrices Λk permits to separate twenty 3-parametric subgroups in SU(4) isomorphic to SU(2); those subgroups might be used as bigger elementary blocks in constructing of a general transformation SU(4). It is shown how one can specify the present approach for the pseudounitary group SU(2,2) and SU(3,1).

  18. Análise histoquímica das glândulas anexas do aparelho reprodutor do macho de paca (Cuniculus paca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza C. Capalbo

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca (Cuniculus paca é um roedor típico de regiões tropicais. Com a finalidade de estudar esta espécie selvagem para manejo adequado e sua preservação, objetivou-se neste trabalho caracterizar a histoquímica das glândulas anexas do trato reprodutor do macho da paca. Para este fim, cortes histológicos dessas glândulas foram submetidas às reações histoquímicas com Ácido Periódico de Schiff (PAS, Alcian blue (AB, PAS. + AB. e PAS + Amilase. Na glândula bulbouretral foi constatado que o epitélio produz secreção rica em glicoproteínas neutras e ácidas, glicosaminoglicanas, e em algumas regiões produz mais de um tipo de secreção. Não foi observada a presença de glicogênio no epitélio. Na glândula vesicular, seu epitélio em borda em escova corou-se por glicoproteínas neutras e também por substância de composição desconhecida, não contendo glicoproteínas ácidas, glicogênio ou glicosaminoglicanas. Verificou-se presença de pequena quantidade de glicoproteínas ácidas e neutras na próstata, em especial na mucosa, além de glicoproteínas ácidas carboxiladas e sulfatadas em pequena quantidade no tecido conjuntivo da lâmina própria dessa glândula. Por fim, a glândula coaguladora apresentou pequena quantidade de glicoproteínas neutras na borda em escova de seu epitélio e substância de composição desconhecida, sendo ausente o glicogênio. Conclui-se que as glândulas anexas do trato reprodutor da paca apresentam características histoquímicas que compartilham certa similaridade com outras espécies da ordem Rodentia, com a presença de glicoproteínas neutras e ácidas em algumas glândulas, principalmente no epitélio da glândula bulbouretal e na borda em escova do epitélio das demais glândulas.

  19. Association of Exercise Stages of Change with Glycemic Control in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sundar; Clyburn, Ernest B.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the distribution of diabetic patients' stages of change to follow an exercise regimen, examining whether later stages of change were associated with better glycemic control. Data on participants from a primary care clinic (who were predominantly black, female, and indigent) indicated that over half of were in pre-contemplation,…

  20. Exercise and 24-h Glycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.W.; Manders, R.J.F.; Canfora, E.E.; van Mechelen, W.; Hartgens, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on subsequent 24-h glycemic control in 60 type 2 diabetes patients. Moreover, we examined whether individual responses to exercise were related to subjects' baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index,

  1. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Eijsvogels, Thijs M; Nyakayiru, Jean; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Thijssen, Dick H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise (∼8h daily) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Ten individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the worlds' largest walking event were recruited for this observational study. Simultaneous measurements of 24-h glycemic control (continuous glucose monitoring), insulin administration and food intake were performed during a non-walking day (control) and during three subsequent days with prolonged walking exercise (daily distance 40 or 50km). Despite an increase in daily energy (31±18%; p10 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose 0.05 for all variables). The prolonged walking exercise was associated with a modest increase in glycemic variability compared with the control day (pexercise allows for profound reductions in daily insulin administration in persons with type 1 diabetes, despite large increments in energy and carbohydrate intake. When taking such adjustments into account, prolonged moderate-intensity exercise does not necessarily impair 24-h glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects on Glycemic Control in Impaired Wound Healing in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhiro, Miyajima; Hui Teoh, Soon; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Shinohara, Masami; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Ohta, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahisa

    2018-02-01

    Impaired diabetic wound healing is an important issue in diabetic complications. The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect on glycemic control against impaired diabetic wound healing using a diabetic rat model. We investigated the wound healing process and effect on the impaired wound repair by glycemic control in the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, which is a new animal model of obese type 2 diabetes and may be a good model for study impaired wound healing. Male SDT fatty rats at 15 weeks of age were administered orally with sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor for 3 weeks. Wounds were induced at 2 weeks after SGLT 2 inhibitor treatment, and the wound areas were periodically examined in morphological and histological analyses. The SDT fatty rats showed a delayed wound healing as compared with the normal rats, but a glycemic control improved the impaired wound healing. In histological analysis in the skin of SDT fatty rats showed severe infiltration of inflammatory cell, hemorrhage and many bacterial masses in the remaining and slight fibrosis of crust on skin tissue . Thought that this results skin performance to be a delay of crust formation and regeneration of epithelium; however, these findings were ameliorated in the SGLT 2 inhibitor treated group. Glycemic control is effective for treatment in diabetic wounds and the SDT fatty rat may be useful to investigate pathophysiological changes in impaired diabetic wound healing.

  3. Glycemic control in diabetic children and adolescents after attending diabetic camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin P. Soenggono

    2011-10-01

    Conclusion Glycemic control in T1DM children and adolescents was significantly improved 3 months after attending diabetic camp compared to that before attending camp. According to subjects’ self-assessment by PedsQL questionnaire, no subjects indicated a poor quality of life for the duration of their illness. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:294-7].

  4. The influence of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Akueson, Cecelia E.; Ronneby, Helle

    2017-01-01

    , as a part of routine care. The total daily carbohydrate consumption from the major sources (e.g. bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, dairy products, fruits, candy) was calculated. A dietician estimated the overall glycemic index score (scale 0–7). Results At least two days of diet recording were available in 75...

  5. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable epidemiologic evidence links consuming lower glycemic index (GI) diets with good health, particularly upon aging. The GI is a kinetic parameter that reflects the ability of carbohydrate (CHO) contained in consumed foods to raise blood glucose in vivo. Newer nutritional, clinical, and ex...

  6. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...... to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  7. Dietary hyperglycemia, glycemic index and age-related metabolic retinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glycemic index (GI) indicates how fast blood glucose is raised after consuming a carbohydrate-containing food. Human metabolic studies indicate that GI is related to patho-physiological responses after meals. Compared with a low-GI meal, a high-GI meal is characterized with hyperglycemia during ...

  8. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  9. A Low-Glycemic Diet Lifestyle Intervention Improves Fat Utilization during Exercise in Older Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Cook, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of dietary glycemic index on exercise training-induced adaptations in substrate oxidation in obesity. Design and Methods: Twenty older, obese individuals undertook 3 months of fully supervised aerobic exercise and were randomized to low- (LoGIX) or high-glyce...

  10. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Aim The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Methods Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. Results 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30–0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Conclusions Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people. PMID:28060887

  11. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30-0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people.

  12. Experience and acceptability of diets of varying protein content and glycemic index in an obese cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McConnon, A; Horgan, G W; Lawton, C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To investigate acceptability and tolerability of diets of different protein and glycemic index (GI) content aimed at weight maintenance following a phase of rapid weight loss, as part of a large pan-European dietary intervention trial.Subjects/Methods:The Diogenes study (www...

  13. Glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses of patients with type 2 diabetes to commonly consumed breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; Corrigan, Michelle; O'Shea, Donal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the breads most commonly consumed by adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and then examine the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses that these breads elicit. One hundred people with T2DM were surveyed to identify the varieties of bread they most frequently consumed. According to a randomized crossover design, 11 fasting participants with T2DM consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate from 4 breads. Glucose and insulin concentrations and appetite ratings were determined over 270 minutes. Three commonly consumed varieties (white, whole wheat buttermilk, whole grain) identified in the survey-plus a lower-glycemic-index "control" bread (pumpernickel rye)-were tested in the second phase. Despite perceived differences between "brown" and "white" breads, the white, whole wheat buttermilk, and wholegrain breads promoted similar glycemic and insulinemic responses. Pumpernickel bread resulted in a significantly lower peak glucose (P breads and a lower peak insulin (P bread. Similar appetite responses were found with all 4 breads. Adults with T2DM are choosing a variety of breads with perceived differential effects on glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses. Appreciable benefits, however, are not conferred by the commonly consumed breads. If breads known to promote favorable metabolic responses are unavailable, the primary emphasis in education should be placed on portion control. Conveying this information to patients is crucial if nutrition education is to achieve its aim of empowering individuals to manage their diabetes through their food choices.

  14. Glycemic control in the infectious diseases ward; role of clinical pharmacist interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaei, Shadi; Karimzadeh, Iman; Elyasi, Sepideh; Hatamkhani, Shima; Khalili, Hossein

    2014-04-15

    Hyperglycemia is one of the most frequent metabolic complications in hospitalized patients. Increased risk of infection following hyperglycemia has been reported in hospitalized patients and infections may also cause insulin resistance which complicates the control of blood glucose level. In this study the impact of the clinical pharmacist interventions on the glycemic control in patients admitted to infectious diseases ward has been evaluated. We conducted a prospective, pre-post interventional study among patients with hyperglycemia. The clinical pharmacist-led multidisciplinary team managed the glycemic profile of patients according to an established insulin protocol commonly used in internal wards. Clinical pharmacists reviewed patients' medical charts for proper insulin administration, evaluated nurses' technique for insulin injection and blood glucose measurement, and educated patients about symptoms of hypoglycemia and the importance of adherence to different aspects of their glycemic management. The percentage of controlled random blood sugar increased from 13.8% in the pre-intervention to 22.3% in the post-intervention group (p value percentage of controlled fasting blood sugars in the post-intervention group was non-significantly higher than in the pre-intervention group. Pharmacists and additional health care providers from other departments such as nursing and dietary departments need to be devoted to glycemic control service. Collaborative practice agreement between physicians is necessary to promote this service and help to increase the use of such services in different settings for diabetes control.

  15. Effect of Glycemic Index of a Pre-exercise Meal on Endurance Exercise Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdon, Catriona A.; Spronk, Inge; Cheng, Hoi Lun; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on

  16. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.W.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Nyakayiru, J.D.O.A.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Loon, L.J. van

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to

  17. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  18. Alergia ao glúten: série de nove casos = Gluten allergy: series of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia, Estefânia Barrosa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusões: A alergia ao glúten é rara, explicando o pequeno número diagnosticado em 15 anos, em um hospital central de referência. Os nove casos tiveram início no primeiro ano de vida, sendo as manifestações cutâneas as mais frequentes. O eczema foi uma apresentação frequente e a sensibilização foi por via cutânea em alguns casos. A alergia alimentar múltipla também foi frequente nos casos descritos. Três das nove crianças resolveram a alergia até os seis anos, tendo em comum uma manifestação inicial cutânea. Nestes nove casos, o valor de IgE específica não foi preditivo da evolução clínica

  19. Experimentos de creación de contenidos gráficos para Realidad Virtual basadas en OpenGL

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Garfia, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    [ES]El proyecto consiste en el estudio de técnicas estereoscópicas dirigidas a su aplicación en realidad virtual, así como su implementación y evaluación a través de un demostrador que utiliza OpenGL y C++. La experiencia virtual generada por el demostrador es proyectada en un casco de realidad virtual, que además integra los movimiento de la cabeza que se obtienen a través de una aplicación Android que también se ha desarrollado. [EN]The project consists in the study of stereoscopic techn...

  20. Patología quirúrgica de glándulas salivales: Reporte de 79 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez Abreus

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión actualizada de la patología quirúrgica de las glándulas salivales mayores y se presentan los resultados obtenidos en 7 años de experiencia, comprendidos de enero de 1990 a diciembre de 1996 en 79 pacientes portadores de esta patología en el Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima" de Cienfuegos. Se analizan los diferentes procesos inflamatorios, litiásicos y tumorales de las glándulas salivales y la terapéutica empleada. La edad media fue de 50,7 años, con un predominio del sexo femenino; la patología más frecuente fue la tumoral y dentro de ésta los adenomas, con el 52 %, seguidos de las lesiones afines con el 29,1 % y los carcinomas con el 10,2 %. La cirugía sola o combinada con otros procederes fueron los principales pilares de tratamiento.We made an updated review on surgical pathology of major salivary glands and to present results pobtained for 7 years of experience, from January 1990 to December 1996 in 79 patients presentig with this pathology in "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía" Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital of Cienfuegos province. Different inflammatory, lithiasic and tumoral processes of salivary glands as well as therapeutics used were analyzed. Mean age was 50.7 years with a predominance of female sex; commonest pathology was tumoral type including adenomas (52 %, followed by relate injuries (29.1 %, and carcinomas (10.2 %. Surgery alone or combined with others procedures were main cornerstones of treatment.

  1. Efeito da substituição da farinha de trigo no desenvolvimento de biscoitos sem glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires dos Santos VIEIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O glúten pode determinar a qualidade da farinha de trigo, conferindo às massas características como elasticidade e capacidade de absorver água, o que torna a elaboração de produtos de panificação isentos de glúten um desafio. Desse modo, o presente estudo buscou avaliar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de biscoitos elaborados com ingredientes sucedâneos ao trigo, como fécula de mandioca, farinha de soja, de quinoa e de amaranto. Para a caracterização física foram determinados: peso, diâmetro, espessura, fator de expansão e volume específico. Quanto à composição química foram determinados: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, fibras alimentares, carboidratos totais, energia, além de pH e acidez. A aceitabilidade foi determinada por meio de uma escala hedônica de nove pontos. As formulações contendo farinhas sucedâneas ao trigo apresentaram bom rendimento, maior teor de cinzas, de proteínas, de lipídios e de fibras alimentares. Também, essas apresentaram percentuais de aceitabilidade superiores a 70%, exceto para a avaliação do sabor da amostra com maior teor de soja (40 g/100g. Conclui-se que as formulações contendo farinhas sucedâneas ao trigo podem ser consideradas promissoras, disponibilizando alternativas alimentares àqueles que almejam produtos com valor nutricional superior e posicionamento único no mercado, visto que os produtos disponíveis muitas vezes possuem baixo valor nutritivo ao serem elaborados com farinhas amiláceas.

  2. Targeting Protein Kinase CK2: Evaluating CX-4945 Potential for GL261 Glioblastoma Therapy in Immunocompetent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer-Font

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM causes poor survival in patients even with aggressive treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment but resistance always ensues. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2 contributes to tumour development and proliferation in cancer, and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Accordingly, targeting CK2 in GBM may benefit patients. Our goal has been to evaluate whether CK2 inhibitors (iCK2s could increase survival in an immunocompetent preclinical GBM model. Cultured GL261 cells were treated with different iCK2s including CX-4945, and target effects evaluated in vitro. CX-4945 was found to decrease CK2 activity and Akt(S129 phosphorylation in GL261 cells. Longitudinal in vivo studies with CX-4945 alone or in combination with TMZ were performed in tumour-bearing mice. Increase in survival (p < 0.05 was found with combined CX-4945 and TMZ metronomic treatment (54.7 ± 11.9 days, n = 6 when compared to individual metronomic treatments (CX-4945: 24.5 ± 2.0 and TMZ: 38.7 ± 2.7, n = 6 and controls (22.5 ± 1.2, n = 6. Despite this, CX-4945 did not improve mice outcome when administered on every/alternate days, either alone or in combination with 3-cycle TMZ. The highest survival rate was obtained with the metronomic combined TMZ+CX-4945 every 6 days, pointing to the participation of the immune system or other ancillary mechanism in therapy response.

  3. Salinivibrio costicola GL6, a Novel Isolated Strain for Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theobromine Under Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashengroph, Morahem

    2017-01-01

    The present study has been conducted towards isolation of moderately halophilic bacteria capable of transforming caffeine into theobromine. A total of 45 caffeine-degrading moderate halophiles were enriched from hypersaline lakes and examined for the biotransformation of caffeine to theobromine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strain GL6, giving the highest yield of theobromine, was isolated from the Hoz Soltan Lake, 20 % w/v salinity, central Iran, and identified as Salinivibrio costicola based on morphological and biochemical features as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank Accession No. KT378066) and DNA-DNA relatedness. The biotransformation of caffeine with strain GL6 leads to the formation of two metabolites, identified as theobromine and paraxanthine, but the yield of paraxanthine was much lower. Further study on the production of theobromine from caffeine under resting cell experiment was carried out subsequently. The optimal yield of theobromine (56 %) was obtained after a 32-h incubation using 5 mM of caffeine and 15 g l -1 (wet weight) of biomass in 0.1 M saline phosphate buffer (pH 7.0 and 10 % w/v NaCl) under agitation 180 rpm at 30 °C. The biotransformed theobromine was purified by preparative TLC and subjected to FTIR and mass spectroscopy for chemical identification. This is the first evidence for biotransformation of caffeine into theobromine by strains of the genus Salinivibrio.

  4. Targeting Protein Kinase CK2: Evaluating CX-4945 Potential for GL261 Glioblastoma Therapy in Immunocompetent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Villamañan, Lucia; Arias-Ramos, Nuria; Vilardell, Jordi; Plana, Maria; Ruzzene, Maria; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles; Candiota, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) causes poor survival in patients even with aggressive treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment but resistance always ensues. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development and proliferation in cancer, and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Accordingly, targeting CK2 in GBM may benefit patients. Our goal has been to evaluate whether CK2 inhibitors (iCK2s) could increase survival in an immunocompetent preclinical GBM model. Cultured GL261 cells were treated with different iCK2s including CX-4945, and target effects evaluated in vitro. CX-4945 was found to decrease CK2 activity and Akt(S129) phosphorylation in GL261 cells. Longitudinal in vivo studies with CX-4945 alone or in combination with TMZ were performed in tumour-bearing mice. Increase in survival (p < 0.05) was found with combined CX-4945 and TMZ metronomic treatment (54.7 ± 11.9 days, n = 6) when compared to individual metronomic treatments (CX-4945: 24.5 ± 2.0 and TMZ: 38.7 ± 2.7, n = 6) and controls (22.5 ± 1.2, n = 6). Despite this, CX-4945 did not improve mice outcome when administered on every/alternate days, either alone or in combination with 3-cycle TMZ. The highest survival rate was obtained with the metronomic combined TMZ+CX-4945 every 6 days, pointing to the participation of the immune system or other ancillary mechanism in therapy response. PMID:28208677

  5. [Moderate exercise and intake of either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates in sedentary women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, Briseidy; De León, Lidia G; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia E; Candia-Luján, Ramón

    2018-05-25

    To analyze changes in blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in relation to a moderate aerobic exercise in sedentary women of different body weight, exposed to either a high or low glycemic index carbohydrates diet. DISEñO: Cross-over type. SITE: Research was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Twenty-six young sedentary women who did not exercise in the last year participated in the study. Four of adequate weight (AW) and 2 with obesity (OB) were excluded for not consuming the suggested carbohydrates (1gr/kg of weight) nor completed the programed exercise. There were n=10 in each group (AW/OB). Two treatments of 55minutes of aerobic exercise each were applied one day after consuming either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were determined before and after the scheduled exercise. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were higher in OB than in AW at baseline. Glucose was normalized in OB from 5.8±0.35 to 5.3±0.23 mmol/L (P=.001), only by eating foods with low glycemic index; triglycerides increased from 139.5±66.0 to 150.8±67.2mg/dl (P=.004) at the end of the exercise, after consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrates. Elevation of triglycerides secondary to exercise after consumption of low glycemic index seems to indicate an increase of lipid oxidation in OB. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Fortification of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) flour on nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Yahya; Raditya Hardany Nugraha, Galih; Dwi Utari, Dyah

    2017-10-01

    Pasta is a nutritious and energy product which produced from the dough of wheat flour and water. It contains less of iodine and high of glycemic index. Euchema cottonii belongs of red seaweed is food substance that contains much of iodine and dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to know the fortification effect of E. cottonii flour on the nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta. E. cottonii was collected from the culture farm of E. cottonii on the Wongsorejo beach, District of Banyuwangi, East Java on April-June 2015. Wheat flour and pasta ingredients were obtained locally at shops of Pasar Besar, Malang. Pasta was produced by weighing of components, mixing, dough, milling, steaming and drying. E. cottonii flour was added on mixing process at 0; 7; 14 and 21 % of ingredients. The parameter of this study was the level of water, lipid, protein, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), iodine, crude fiber, the total of dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and glycemic index, respectively. Data were analyzed by variance and the least square difference used to determine the difference between treatments. The highest concentration group showed more nutritious than other treatments. The characters of its product were water 6.70%, lipid 2.26%, protein 23.09%, ash 14.11%, carbohydrate 53.84%, iodine 3.71 ppm, crude fiber 8.02%, the total of dietary fiber 20.88%, soluble fiber 11.69%, insoluble fiber 9.19%, and glycemic index 44.45, respectively. In conclusion, the fortification of E. cottonii flour enhances the nutrition value, iodine content, and glycemic index of pasta.

  7. Diurnal glycemic profile in obese and normal weight nondiabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Yariv; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Chen, Rony; Rosenn, Barak; Hod, Moshe; Langer, Oded

    2004-09-01

    A paucity of data exists concerning the normal glycemic profile in nondiabetic pregnancies. Using a novel approach that provides continuous measurement of blood glucose, we sought to evaluate the ambulatory daily glycemic profile in the second half of pregnancy in nondiabetic women. Fifty-seven obese and normal weight nondiabetic subjects were evaluated for 72 consecutive hours with continuous glucose monitoring by measurement interstitial glucose levels in subcutaneous tissue every 5 minutes. Subjects were instructed not to modify their lifestyle or to follow any dietary restriction. For each woman, mean and fasting blood glucose values were determined; for each meal during the study period, the first 180 minutes were analyzed. For the study group, the fasting blood glucose level was 75 +/- 12 mg/dL; the mean blood glucose level was 83.7 +/- 18 mg/dL; the postprandial peak glucose value level was 110 +/- 16 mg/dL, and the time interval that was needed to reach peak postprandial glucose level was 70 +/- 13 minutes. A similar postprandial glycemic profile was obtained for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Obese women were characterized by a significantly higher postprandial glucose peak value, increased 1- and 2-hour postprandial glucose levels, increased time interval for glucose peak, and significantly lower mean blood glucose during the night. No difference was found in fasting and mean blood glucose between obese and nonobese subjects. Glycemic profile characterization in both obese and normal weight nondiabetic subjects provide a measure for the desired level of glycemic control in pregnancy that is complicated with diabetes mellitus.

  8. Antithyroid Therapy Improves Glycemic Control in Hyperthyroid Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Thyroid disorders are more frequently met in patients with diabetes mellitus than in general population. Thyroid hormones increase glycemia by several mechanisms, but the effect of antithyroid treatment on glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM cases is not well studied. The aim of our work was to analyze the evolution of glycemic control of T1DM patients submitted to specific therapy when hyperthyroidism was diagnosed. Material and method. The study group comprised by 37 patients, 35 women (94.6% and 2 men (5.4%, known as having T1DM and diagnosed with hyperthyroidism during a 10-years interval. They were treated with antithyroid medication and reassessed after 6 months regarding thyroid function and glycemic control. Results. In the whole group, there was a significant decrease in mean HbA1c level (with 0.41% and a significant increase in the percentage of patients being in the glycemic target (from 10.8% to 35.1%. The better glycemic control was obtained with a lower mean insulin dose. Patients who became euthyroid had a better evolution regarding glucose control in comparison to those who remained hyperthyroid. Changes in other cardiovascular risk factors were noted: systolic blood pressure decreased; diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and body weight increased. TSH and HbA1c values were inversely correlated. Conclusions. The therapeutic control of excessive thyroid function significantly contributes to the improvement of glycemic control in patients with T1DM and induces changes in the cardiovascular risk factors profile.

  9. Serum bilirubin levels are positively associated with glycemic variability in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lee Kyung; Roh, Eun; Kim, Min Joo; Kim, Min Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Kwak, Soo Heon; Cho, Young Min; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Jung, Hye Seung

    2016-11-01

    Glycemic variability is known to induce oxidative stress. We investigated the relationships between glycemic variability and serum bilirubin levels, an endogenous anti-oxidant, in patients with diabetes. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 77 patients with type 2 diabetes who had been recruited to two clinical studies from 2008 to 2014. There were no participants with diseases of the pancreas, liver, biliary tract and chronic renal insufficiency. Glycemic variation was calculated by a continuous glucose monitoring system, and correlation analyses were carried out to evaluate their association with bilirubin levels. Multiple linear regression was carried out to identify independent factors influencing bilirubin levels and glycemic variation. Among the participants, 42.3% were men. The mean (standard deviation) age was 61.5 years (10.4 years), body mass index was 24.2 kg/m 2 (2.8 kg/m 2 ), diabetes duration was 17.7 years (9.5 years), hemoglobin A 1c was 60.7 mmol/mol (7.1 mmol/mol; 7.7 [0.7]%) and bilirubin was 11.8 μmol/L (4.10 μmol/L). Serum bilirubin levels were not different according to age, body mass index and hemoglobin A 1c . However, the mean amplitude of glucose excursion was positively associated with bilirubin levels in women (r = 0.588, P bilirubin and mean amplitude of glucose excursion remained significant (r = 0.566, P bilirubin was an independent determinant for the mean amplitude of glucose excursion in women. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol was also associated with bilirubin levels in women. Bilirubin level within the physiological range might be an independent predictor for glycemic variability in women with type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pfoods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  11. Multi-scale glycemic variability: a link to gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingran Cui

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM accelerates brain aging and cognitive decline. Complex interactions between hyperglycemia, glycemic variability and brain aging remain unresolved. This study investigated the relationship between glycemic variability at multiple time scales, brain volumes and cognition in type 2 DM.Forty-three older adults with and 26 without type 2 DM completed 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring, cognitive tests and anatomical MRI. We described a new analysis of continuous glucose monitoring, termed Multi-Scale glycemic variability (Multi-Scale GV, to examine glycemic variability at multiple time scales. Specifically, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition was used to identify five unique ultradian glycemic variability cycles (GVC1-5 that modulate serum glucose with periods ranging from 0.5-12 hrs.Type 2 DM subjects demonstrated greater variability in GVC3-5 (period 2.0-12 hrs than controls (P<0.0001, during the day as well as during the night. Multi-Scale GV was related to conventional markers of glycemic variability (e.g. standard deviation and mean glycemic excursions, but demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity to conventional markers, and was associated with worse long-term glycemic control (e.g. fasting glucose and HbA1c. Across all subjects, those with greater glycemic variability within higher frequency cycles (GVC1-3; 0.5-2.0 hrs had less gray matter within the limbic system and temporo-parietal lobes (e.g. cingulum, insular, hippocampus, and exhibited worse cognitive performance. Specifically within those with type 2 DM, greater glycemic variability in GVC2-3 was associated with worse learning and memory scores. Greater variability in GVC5 was associated with longer DM duration and more depression. These relationships were independent of HbA1c and hypoglycemic episodes.Type 2 DM is associated with dysregulation of glycemic variability over multiple scales of time. These time-scale-dependent glycemic fluctuations

  12. Experimental and modelling buckling of wood-based columns under repeated loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafa Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Collapse of timber constructions can appear under the effect of load that exceeds the resistance of a carrying element or under the effect of a geometrical instability like buckling. In addition, loading can be constant or varying for example loads due to wind or earthquakes. The aim of this paper is to study the behaviour and the lifetime of columns in wood or based-wood material such as glulam (GL or laminated veneer lumber (LVL under repeated loading leading to buckling.

  13. Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente Glomic tumor: Presentation of an infrequent case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Sousa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores glómicos são tumores perivasculares cujas células se assemelham a células musculares lisas modificadas do corpo glómico. São mais frequentes na região subungueal e raros no pulmão. Os autores apresentam um caso de uma doente de 62 anos, com toracalgia esquerda e dispneia para grandes esforços. Apresentava nódulo solitário localizado ao segmento basal-externo do LIE, com 1,9 cm de diâmetro, de limites bem definidos, consistência firme e superfície de secção nodular e branco-rosada. Os tumores glómicos são geralmente benignos. Podem ter origem em células glómicas ectópicas ou diferenciarem-se a partir de células não glómicas. Devem ser classificados em tumor glómico, glomangioma ou glomangiomioma de acordo com a abundância relativa de células glómicas, do componente vascular e muscular. Estão descritas metástases pulmonares de tumores glómicos malignos, sendo necessário excluir origem primária extra-pulmonar nesses casos. O diagnóstico diferencial dos tumores glómicos do pulmão inclui o carcinóide, hemangiopericitoma, tumores musculares lisos (leiomioma epitelióide e o paraganglioma.Glomic tumours are perivascular tumours whose cells resemble modified smooth muscular cells of the glomic body. They are more frequent in the subungueal region and rare in the lung. The authors present a case of a 62 year old women with left thoracic pain and great enforces dyspnoea. She presented a solitary nodule in the external basal segment of the LLL, 1.9 cm diameter, circumscribed, firm and with nodular whitish rose cut surface. Glomic tumours are generally benign. They may origin in ectopic glomic cells or be differentiated from non glomic cells. They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components. Pulmonary metastasis of malignant glomic tumours have been described. In these cases an extra

  14. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO......, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar...

  15. Fine mapping and identification of a novel locus qGL12.2 control grain length in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lan; Ding, Yingbin; Zheng, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Lizhen; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Lifang; Cheng, Yunlian; Qiao, Weihua; Yang, Qingwen

    2018-04-19

    A wild rice QTL qGL12.2 for grain length was fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12 containing six candidate genes and none was reported previously. Grain length is an important trait for yield and commercial value in rice. Wild rice seeds have a very slender shape and have many desirable genes that have been lost in cultivated rice during domestication. In this study, we identified a quantitative trait locus, qGL12.2, which controls grain length in wild rice. First, a wild rice chromosome segment substitution line, CSSL41, was selected that has longer glume and grains than does the Oryza sativa indica cultivar, 9311. Next, an F 2 population was constructed from a cross between CSSL41 and 9311. Using the next-generation sequencing combined with bulked-segregant analysis and F 3 recombinants analysis, qGL12.2 was finally fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12. Six candidate genes were found, and no reported grain length genes were found in this interval. Using scanning electron microscopy, we found that CSSL41 cells are significantly longer than those of 9311, but there is no difference in cell widths. These data suggest that qGL12.2 is a novel gene that controls grain cell length in wild rice. Our study provides a new genetic resource for rice breeding and a starting point for functional characterization of the wild rice GL gene.

  16. Effect of 0.5g/L cyclosporine A for symptom and sign scores in patients with moderate to severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of 0.5g/L cyclosporine A for symptom and sign scores in patients with moderate to severe dry eye.METHODS:Eighty patients(160 eyeswith moderate to severe dry eye were divided into two groups by double-blind and random principles:40 patients(80 eyesin observation group were treated with 10g/L sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and 0.5g/L cyclosporine A eye drops, 40 patients(80 eyesin the control group were treated with 10g/L sodium carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops. The changes of ocular sign and symptom scores were compared between the two groups.RESULTS:The total effective rate of observation group was 95.0%, which was significantly higher than that of control group(85.0%, PPPP>0.05. After treatment, the four parameters of observation group were improved significantly(PPPCONCLUSION:The 0.5g/L cyclosporine A eye drops can effectively relieve the symptoms and signs of moderate to severe dry eye, promote tear secretion, and improve ocular surface environment. The treatment effect is good.

  17. K2GL METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  18. Efeitos do som basal em fendas glóticas Effects of vocal fry incomplete glottal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana de Paula Bolzan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: som basal em fendas glóticas. PROCEDIMENTOS: participaram desta pesquisa dois sujeitos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 20 e 40 anos e diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico de fenda em ampulheta. Houve gravação da emissão sustentada da vogal /a/ e exame videolaringoestroboscópico, imediatamente a seguir, os sujeitos realizaram o som basal em três séries de 15 repetições, e foram submetidos a novo exame laríngeo e gravação da vogal. Os dados pré e pós-realização do som basal foram submetidos às analises acústica, perceptivo-auditiva e videolaringoestroboscópica, realizadas por juízes (três fonoaudiólogas e três otorrinolaringologistas, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: em ambos os sujeitos, houve melhora no fechamento glótico e amplitude de vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; piora no tipo de voz; aumento das medidas de ruído e de Jitter. CONCLUSÃO: o som basal promoveu redução das fendas glóticas e aumento da amplitude de vibração da mucosa das pregas vocais; piora do tipo de voz, que ficou mais ruidoso; aumento das medidas de ruído e de Jitter, sugerindo irregularidade vibratória, provavelmente devido ao efeito do ajuste do som basal ao mobilizar intensamente a mucosa.BACKGROUND: vocal fry in incomplete glottal closure. PROCEDURE: two individuals aged between 20 and 40 years old presenting an otolaryngological diagnosis of ampoule chink were part of the study. A recording of the sustained emission of /a/ vowel took place, as well as a videostroboscopic examination. Right after, the individuals completed the vocal fry in three series of 15 repetitions, being submitted to a new laryngeal examination and to the vowel’s recording. Both pre-vocal and post vocal fry data were assessed through acoustic, perceptive-auditive and videostroboscopic analysis, carried out by judges (three speech and language pathologists and three otolaryngologists, respectively. RESULTS: for both individuals, there was an improvement

  19. Synchronous subungual glomus tumors in the same finger Tumores glômicos subungueais sincrônicos no mesmo dedo

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    Nilton Di Chiacchio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The glomus tumor is an uncommon benign neoplasm of glomus cells. In the majority of the cases it is presented as a solitary painful papule in the subungual region. We report a rare case of a patient with two individual synchronous glomus tumors under the nail bed of the same finger.O tumor glômico é uma neoplasia benigna de células glômicas. Na maioria dos casos se apresenta como uma pápula solitária dolorosa na região subungueal. Relatamos o caso raro de um paciente com dois tumores glômicos sincrônicos sob o leito ungueal do mesmo dedo.

  20. The muscle-specific protein phosphatase PP1G/R(GL)(G(M))is essential for activation of glycogen synthase by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschenbach, W G; Suzuki, Y; Breeden, K

    2001-01-01

    In skeletal muscle both insulin and contractile activity are physiological stimuli for glycogen synthesis, which is thought to result in part from the dephosphorylation and activation of glycogen synthase (GS). PP1G/R(GL)(G(M)) is a glycogen/sarcoplasmic reticulum-associated type 1 phosphatase...... that was originally postulated to mediate insulin control of glycogen metabolism. However, we recently showed (Suzuki, Y., Lanner, C., Kim, J.-H., Vilardo, P. G., Zhang, H., Jie Yang, J., Cooper, L. D., Steele, M., Kennedy, A., Bock, C., Scrimgeour, A., Lawrence, J. C. Jr., L., and DePaoli-Roach, A. A. (2001) Mol....... Cell. Biol. 21, 2683-2694) that insulin activates GS in muscle of R(GL)(G(M)) knockout (KO) mice similarly to the wild type (WT). To determine whether PP1G is involved in glycogen metabolism during muscle contractions, R(GL) KO and overexpressors (OE) were subjected to two models of contraction...

  1. Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Gauer, Julia S; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Williamson, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur. Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. An additional randomized, crossover, controlled study on 16 volunteers consuming constituent fruit acids in a pH-balanced solution (same pH as pomegranate) and bread was conducted to determine any contributions to postprandial responses caused by acidic beverages. Results: As primary outcome, the incremental area under the curve for bread-derived blood glucose (-33.1% ± 18.1%, P = 0.000005) and peak blood glucose (25.4% ± 19.3%, P = 0.0004) were attenuated by pomegranate juice, compared with a control solution containing the equivalent amount of sugars. In contrast, the pomegranate supplement, or a solution containing the malic and citric acid components of the juice, was ineffective. The pomegranate polyphenol punicalagin was a very effective inhibitor of human α-amylase in vitro, comparable to the drug acarbose. Neither the pomegranate extract nor the individual component polyphenols inhibited 14 C-D-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers, but they inhibited uptake of 14 C-glucose into Xenopus oocytes expressing the human glucose transporter type 2. Further, some of the predicted pomegranate gut microbiota metabolites modulated 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into hepatic HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that pomegranate polyphenols, when present in a beverage but not in a supplement, can reduce the

  2. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Villanova,Nicola; Agostini,Federica; Soverini,Valentina; Marchesini,Giulio; Marzocchi,Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which coul...

  3. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the glycemic index of bakery products: influence of the reformulation of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Mairal, A; Peñalva-Lapuente, C; Iglesia, I; Urtasun, L; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Remón, S; Cortés, E; Moreno, L A

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate whether the modification of ingredients of two bakery products, muffins and bread, reduces their glycemic index, by means of in vitro and in vivo procedures. In vitro and in vivo glycemic index were evaluated for two types of bread and two types of muffins including one standard product for each category. For the in vitro determination, kinetics of starch digestion method was used. For the in vivo procedure, postprandial glucose measured as IAUC was obtained in a group of eighteen healthy volunteers (ten did the test with muffins and eight with breads). In in vitro, a reduction in the expected glycemic index regarding the control muffin was achieved with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch, dextrin and lentil flour. In breads, with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch and dextrins, a decrease in the expected glycemic index was also observed. In in vivo, a reduction in GI was also achieved both in muffin and in bread. All the obtained GI was higher in in vitro method. Despite the fact that in vitro overestimate in vivo method, the trend in the reduction in GI seems to be similar in both methods. With the substitution assayed, a reduction in the expected glycemic index and the glycemic index were obtained both in muffins and in breads.

  4. UNIFORM ATMOSPHERIC RETRIEVAL ANALYSIS OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS. I. CHARACTERIZING BENCHMARKS, Gl 570D AND HD 3651B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Teske, Johanna [Carnegie DTM, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Burningham, Ben; Marley, Mark S., E-mail: mrline@ucsc.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Interpreting the spectra of brown dwarfs is key to determining the fundamental physical and chemical processes occurring in their atmospheres. Powerful Bayesian atmospheric retrieval tools have recently been applied to both exoplanet and brown dwarf spectra to tease out the thermal structures and molecular abundances to understand those processes. In this manuscript we develop a significantly upgraded retrieval method and apply it to the SpeX spectral library data of two benchmark late T dwarfs, Gl 570D and HD 3651B, to establish the validity of our upgraded forward model parameterization and Bayesian estimator. Our retrieved metallicities, gravities, and effective temperatures are consistent with the metallicity and presumed ages of the systems. We add the carbon-to-oxygen ratio as a new dimension to benchmark systems and find good agreement between carbon-to-oxygen ratios derived in the brown dwarfs and the host stars. Furthermore, we have for the first time unambiguously determined the presence of ammonia in the low-resolution spectra of these two late T dwarfs. We also show that the retrieved results are not significantly impacted by the possible presence of clouds, though some quantities are significantly impacted by uncertainties in photometry. This investigation represents a watershed study in establishing the utility of atmospheric retrieval approaches on brown dwarf spectra.

  5. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  6. Does the anaesthetic infl uence behavioural transmission of the monogenean Gyrodactylus gasterostei Gläser, 1974 off the host?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grano-Maldonado M. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of the anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol on the transmission factors of gyrodactylid and to ascertain how this may affect in the colonisation of new hosts using the Gyrodactylus gasterostei Gläser, 1974 - Gasterosteus aculeatus L. model which is a simple and successful system to examine aspects of transmission of parasites from live and dead fish. Laboratory experiments include determining the maturity (presence of male copulate organ and reproductive (presence of daughter status of transmitting worms, in order to consider the factors that influence parasite option to migrate to a new individual of the same host species. This study demonstrates that parasites with a Male Copulate Organ (MCO present are more likely to abandon the host and attempt a host transfer. The use of the anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol does not affect transmission of gyrodactylids which leave the host to colonise a new host. Finally, the use of other anaesthetic although its relative importance with respect to transmission remains uncertain.

  7. Tumores de glándulas salivales: Su comportamiento en 10 años de trabajo (1993-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García-Roco Pérez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 107 pacientes que fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente debido a afecciones en glándulas salivales, durante un período de 10 años, en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Provincial Docente "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" de Camagüey, con el propósito de describir su frecuencia según edad y sexo, comportamiento biológico, localización anatómica y resultado histopatológico. Hubo predominio de las condiciones neoplásicas benignas en la parótida, mientras que en la submandibular se manifestaron con mayor frecuencia los procesos malignos. El adenoma pleomorfo fue el tumor más frecuente entre las neoplasias benignas y el carcinoma mucoepidermoide, el más común entre las malignas.A descriptive study of 107 patients, who had been surgically treated from salivary gland tumors in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of "Manuel Ascunce Domenech" provincial teaching hospital located in Camagüey during 10 years, was performed to describe the sex and age distribution and frequency of these tumors, their biological behavior, anatomical location and histopathological outcome. It was observed that benign neoplasias predominated in the parotid glands whereas malignant processes developed more often in submandibular glands. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most found tumor among the benign neoplasias and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the commonest among the malignant processes.

  8. Glycemic Response to Corn Starch Modified with Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase and its Relationship to Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, A; Yokoyama, W; Rosell, C M

    2016-09-01

    Corn starch was modified with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) below the gelatinization temperature. The porous granules with or without CGTase hydrolysis products may be used as an alternative to modified corn starches in foods applications. The amount and type of hydrolysis products were determined, containing mainly β-cyclodextrin (CD), which will influence pasting behavior and glycemic response in mice. Irregular surface and small holes were observed by microscopic analysis and differences in pasting properties were observed in the presence of hydrolysis products. Postprandial blood glucose in mice fed gelatinized enzymatically modified starch peaked earlier than their ungelatinized counterparts. However, in ungelatinized enzymatically modified starches, the presence of β- CD may inhibit the orientation of amylases slowing hydrolysis, which may help to maintain lower blood glucose levels. Significant correlations were found between glycemic curves and viscosity pattern of starches.

  9. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of glycemic elements of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Rai, Nilesh K; Pandhija, Shiwani; Rai, A K; Watal, Geeta

    2009-09-01

    The study defined the scientific evaluation of glycemic elements of extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca. A dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) of C. dactylon produced maximum falls of 23.2% and 22.8% in blood glucose levels of normoglycemic rats during studies of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, respectively, whereas the same dose of M. paradisiaca produced a rise of 34.9% and 18.4%. In diabetic rats during glucose tolerance tests, a fall of 27.8% and a rise of 17.5% were observed with the same dose of C. dactylon and M. paradisiaca, respectively. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used for detection of glycemic elements present in both the extracts indicated that C. dactylon was rich in magnesium (Mg), whereas M. paradisiaca was rich in potassium (K) and sodium (Na), comparatively, suggesting thereby the defined roles of these elements in diabetes management.

  11. Glycemic Memory as a Pathogenic Basis for Modern Antidiabetic Therapy Algorithm Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Poltorak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention/delay of the development of vascular complications remains one of major challenges in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies have shown lack of efficacy of stable glycemic control in patients with long-existing diabetes. This phenomenon, confirmed in animal models and analyzed at the molecular genetic level, is called metabolic/glycemic memory and associated with epigenetic modifications of gene expression. On the other hand, it has been proven that early intensive intervention in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus reduces the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications development and progression, forming the basis for long-term favorable effects that persist beyond normoglycemia. The foregoing justifies change of therapeutic approach in diabetes mellitus since the moment of establishing diagnosis for the early and maximum safely achievement of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels close to normal ones.

  12. Hope matters to the glycemic control of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fábio R M; Sigulem, Daniel; Areco, Kelsy C N; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Bernardo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the association of hope and its factors with depression and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A total of 113 patients were invited to participate. Significant negative correlations were found between hope and HbA1c and also between hope and depression. Hope showed a significant association with HbA1c and depression in the stepwise regression model. Among the hope factors, "inner positive expectancy" was significantly associated with HbA1c and depression. This study supports that hope matters to glycemic control and depression. Intervention strategies focusing on hope should be further explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. GL-V9, a new synthetic flavonoid derivative, ameliorates DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 expression via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yang; Ding, Youxiang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yuxin; Li, Wenjun; Huang, Shaoliang; Li, Zhiyu; Kong, Lingyi; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-09-22

    GL-V9, a new synthesized flavonoid derivative, has been reported to possess anti-cancer properties in our previous studies. Uncontrolled overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in oxidative damage of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of GL-V9 against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. GL-V9 also inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities. Moreover, GL-V9 inhibited ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, but enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity. GL-V9 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production in serum and colon as well. Mechanically, GL-V9 could increase Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a to suppress DSS-induced colonic oxidative stress. Furthermore, GL-V9 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and ROS production and increased the antioxidant defenses in the mouse macrophage cells RAW264.7 by promoting Trx-1 expression. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that GL-V9 attenuated DSS-induced colitis against oxidative stress by up-regulating Trx-1 via activation of AMPK/FOXO3a pathway, suggesting that GL-V9 might be a potential effective drug for colitis.

  14. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  15. Glycemic Control: A Combination of Lifestyle Management and the Use of Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Standl, Eberhard; Erbach, Michael; Schnell, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Some 30% of contemporary cardiology patients have coexisting known diabetes, and another 40% have either undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. There is still no final conclusive evidence of cardiovascular benefit by good glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, although studies like the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events, and meta-analyses based on these and other randomized controlled trials of blood glucose-lo...

  16. The Relationship Between Perceived Family Climate and Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eray, Şafak; Uçar, Halit Necmi; Çetinkaya, Fatma; Eren, Erdal; Vural, Pınar

    2017-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease which ranks third in children under age 16 years. Expressed emotion (EE) is a term that indicates a specific family climate including lack of emotional support (LES), irritability, and emotional over-involvement. It is known that the family environment is highly important for glycemic control in diabetic adolescents. In this study, the relationship between perceived EE and glycemic control in adolescents diagnosed with T1DM not accompanied by psychopathology were investigated. The study included 49 adolescents with T1DM and 50 adolescents as a control group. Adolescents with psychopathology and intellectual disability were excluded from the study. Perceived EE was measured by the Shortened Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (SLEES) and blood sugar regulation was assessed by HbA1c levels. The adolescents with T1DM showed a significant difference in perceived EE (p=0.020) and LES (p=0.014) when compared with the control group. When diabetic adolescents were compared among themselves, the diabetic adolescents with poor glycemic control perceived greater EE (p=0.033) and less emotional support (p=0.049). In regression analyses, the predictive power of mother's educational level, the employment status of mothers and the subscale "LES" of SLEES combined to explain HbA1c level was determined to be 37.8%. The strong relationship between perceived EE and glycemic control showed us that perceived EE can hinder treatment compliance without causing psychopathology. For this reason, it is recommended that not only patients with psychopathology, but all diabetic adolescents receive psychosocial support and family interventions.

  17. EFFECTS OF COOKED LENTILS ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND BLOOD LIPIDS OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Shams

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes control is one of the main conflict issues in diabetes management. Scientists, recently, recommend [increasing low glycemic index (LGI foods in dietary regimen. The effects of cooked lentil as a low glycemic index food on serum blood glucose and lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients has been investigated in this study.    METHODS: In a randomized cross-over clinical trial which was performed on 30 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A followed the normal diet and Group B followed normal diet with 50gm cooked lentil and 6gm canula oil substitute of 30gm bread and 20gm cheese. After  6 weeks, groups stopped their diets and put on wash out period for 3 weeks and later the  diets where switched between the them. Diet continued for another 6 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum lipids and glucose levels were determined at the beginning and the end of each test period. Data were analyzed by Food Processor II and SPSS-13.    RESULTS: BMI, LDL_C, HDL_C, TG and serum Fructozamine were not significantly affected by dietary regimens. But Total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased significantly in regimen containing lentil (P<0.05.    CONCLUSION: Consumption of cooked lentil as a LGI food in breakfast led to reduction of FBS and TC and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients.      Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Lentil, Lipid profiles, Blood glucose, Glycemic index, Clinical Trial.

  18. Associations of Glycemic Control With Cardiovascular Outcomes Among US Hemodialysis Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jinnie J; Zheng, Yuanchao; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Chang, Tara I; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2017-06-07

    There is a lack of data on the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular end points in hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. We included adult Medicare-insured patients with diabetes mellitus who initiated in-center hemodialysis treatment from 2006 to 2008 and survived for >90 days. Quarterly mean time-averaged glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) values were categorized into diabetes mellitus. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. IMPACT OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress due to enhanced free - radical generation and/or a decrease in antioxidant defense mechanisms has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. This study was conducted to study the impact of glycemic control on oxidative stress and antioxidant balance in diab etic neuropathy. METHOD S : fifty patients with diabetic neuropathy and fifty age matched healthy controls were included in the study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c was estimated to assess the severity of diabetes and the glycemic control. Serum malondiaal dehyde (MDA levels were assessed as a marker of lipid peroxidation and hence oxidative stress. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD levels were assessed for antioxidant status. RESULTS: Significant positive correlation was found between serum MDA levels and hba1c ( r = 0.276, p < 0.0001 in patients with diabetic neuropathy. There was statistically significant reduction in the Glutathione peroxidase levels. Further, SOD levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (r= - 0.603, p<0.0001 levels. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY: oxidative stress is greatly increased in patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy and is inversely related to glycemic control. This may be due to depressed antioxidant enzyme levels and may also be responsible for further depletion of antioxidant enzym e GPx. This worsens the oxidative stress and creates a vicious cycle of imbalance of free radical generation and deficit of antioxidant status in these patients which may lead to nervous system damage causing diabetic neuropathy. A good glycemic control is essential for prevention of diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Gastritis in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy: Prevalence, ethnic distribution, and impact on glycemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables.One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications.Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP.There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of D-Tagatose in Glycemic Control in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ensor, Mark; Banfield, Amy B.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Williams, Jarrod; Lodder, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the treatment effect of D-tagatose on glycemic control, determined by a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and safety profile of D-tagatose compared to placebo. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the treatment effects on fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, changes in BMI, and the proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of

  2. Metformin regulates glycemic homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an NO donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of metformin on nitric oxide bioavailability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM regarding glycemic homeostasis, and to investigate a correlation between metformin dosage and NO levels in vivo. Materials and Methods. Two groups ? primary and control ? were assembled for the clinical section of this study. Patients with newly diagnosed T2DM on metformin therapy were included to the primary group, while drug-naive T2DM patients were enrolled as control subjects. Glycemic parameters and NO bioavailability was tested in both groups prior to and after the follow-up period. Experimental section was dedicated to the elucidation of potential dose-dependent effects of metformin on NO bioavailability. Mice were intraperitoneally infused with metformin at 0.5; 1.1; 5.6 mg per subject. Tissue detection of NO was performed with diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC iron complexes to form mononitrosyl iron compounds (MIC with paramagnetic properties. Control rodents were intraperitoneally infused with metformin without spin trapping. Results. We found nitrite and methaemoglobin (a marker for NO bioavailability to increase in parallel along with glycemic compensation in the primary but not control group. In vivo rodent models showed linear correlation between accumulation of DETC/MIC and dose of metformin, as well as formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes, known as endogenous NO transporters. Conclusion. Our data suggests that metformin benefits glycemic homeostasis in T2DM as an NO donor via formation of dinitrosyl iron complexes.

  3. Association among individual deprivation, glycemic control, and diabetes complications: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Hélène; Laurent, Silvana; Sass, Catherine; Nguyen, Gérard; Huot, Caroline; Moulin, Jean Jacques; Guegen, René; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Le Clésiau, Hervé; La Rosa, Emilio; Reach, Gérard; Cohen, Régis

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have related poor glycemic control and/or some diabetes complications to low socioeconomic status. Some aspects of socioeconomic status have not been assessed in these studies. In the present study, we used an individual index of deprivation, the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examens de Santé (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES]) score, to determine the relationship among glycemic control, diabetes complications, and individual conditions of deprivation. We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence study in 135 consecutive diabetic patients (age 59.41 +/- 13.2 years [mean +/- SD]) admitted in the hospitalization unit of a French endocrine department. Individual deprivation was assessed by the EPICES score, calculated from 11 socioeconomic questions. Glycemic control, lipid levels, blood pressure, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were assessed. HbA(1c) level was significantly correlated with the EPICES score (r = 0.366, P < 0.001). The more deprived patients were more likely than the less deprived patients to have poor glycemic control (beta = 1.984 [SE 0.477], P < 0.001), neuropathy (odds ratio 2.39 [95% CI 1.05-5.43], P = 0.037), retinopathy (3.66 [1.39-9.64], P = 0.009), and being less often admitted for 1-day hospitalization (0.32 [0.14-0.74], P = 0.008). No significant relationship was observed with either nephropathy or cardiovascular risk factors. Deprivation status is associated with poor metabolic control and more frequent microvascular complications, i.e., retinopathy and neuropathy. The medical and economic burden of deprived patients is high.

  4. Factors Related to the Glycemic Control in Lithuanian Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kassem, Salem

    2017-01-01

    1) Adolescent female patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have better glycemic control and higher levels of diabetes distress than male patients. 2) Parents of adolescents using insulin pumps experience higher diabetes distress than parents of adolescents using multiple daily injections. 3) No differences in diabetes-related factors, emotional state, diabetes-related distress (in adolescent patients and in their primary care-givers) and social factors in groups of adolescent patients ...

  5. Seasonal variations in glycemic control of type 2 diabetes in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Sungwha; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Moon-Gi

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in lifestyle, such as food intake and physical activity, have been reported. Glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be affected by such changes. We investigated seasonal variations in glycemic control, food intake, and physical activity in type 2 diabetic patients. This prospective observational study included 37 Korean female patients who had food intake (kcal/day), HbA1c, and anthropometry every 3 months (August, November, February, May, and August in the Northern Hemisphere) over 1 year. When anti-diabetic drugs were changed, we analyzed the data just before the changes. The mean HbA1c levels (%) of August and November in 2008, and February, May, and August in 2009 were 7.0 ± 0.1, 6.9 ± 0.1, 7.2 ± 0.2, 7.4 ± 0.2, and 7.2 ± 0.2, respectively (P = 0.018). The change of HbA1c was nearly 0.5 % for the 1-year period. From August to May of the following year, there were also seasonal variations in food intake (1,872 ± 143, 1,739 ± 97, 1,673 ± 86, 1,561 ± 132, respectively; P = 0.013), and total physical activity [7.7 (3.7-14.6), 6.3 (2.8-10.4), 5.1 (2.7-12.6), and 11.2 (4.7-20.5), respectively; P = 0.048]. However, the seasonal variations of HbA1c and total physical activity became non-significant when farmers were excluded. These data suggested that glycemic control, total physical activity, and food intake varied seasonally in Korean T2DM patients. These seasonal variations should be considered in education for glycemic control.

  6. Predictors of glycemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philis-Tsimikas Athena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death and results in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine what demographic, health status, treatment, access/quality of care, and behavioral factors are associated with poor glycemic control in a Type 2 diabetic, low-income, minority, San Diego population. Methods Longitudinal observational data was collected on patients with Type 2 diabetes from Project Dulce, a program in San Diego County designed to care for an underserved diabetic population. The study sample included 573 patients with a racial/ethnic mix of 53% Hispanic, 7% black, 18% Asian, 20% white, and 2% other. We utilized mixed effects models to determine the factors associated with poor glycemic control using hemoglobin A1C (A1C as the outcome of interest. A multi-step model building process was used resulting in a final parsimonious model with main effects and interaction terms. Results Patients had a mean age of 55 years, 69% were female, the mean duration of diabetes was 7.1 years, 31% were treated with insulin, and 57% were obese. American Diabetes Association (ADA recommendations for blood pressure and total cholesterol were met by 71% and 68%, respectively. Results of the mixed effects model showed that patients who were uninsured, had diabetes for a longer period of time, used insulin or multiple oral agents, or had high cholesterol had higher A1C values over time indicating poorer glycemic control. The younger subjects also had poorer control. Conclusion This study provides factors that predict glycemic control in a specific low-income, multiethnic, Type 2 diabetic population. With this information, subgroups with high risk of disease morbidity were identified. Barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored to improve health outcomes.

  7. Association of reduced zinc status with poor glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Verônica da Silva; Pires, Liliane Viana; Hashimoto, Leila Leiko; Alencar, Luciane Luca de; Almondes, Kaluce Gonçalves Sousa; Lottenberg, Simão Augusto; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the zinc-related nutritional status and glycemic and insulinemic markers in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 82 individuals with T2DM aged between 29 and 59 years were evaluated. The concentration of zinc in the plasma, erythrocytes, and urine was determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day 24-h recall. In addition, concentrations of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin percentage, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and serum insulin were determined. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA- β) were calculated. The markers of zinc status (plasma: 83.3±11.9μg/dL, erythrocytes: 30.1±4.6μg/g Hb, urine: 899.1±622.4μg Zn/24h, and dietary: 9.9±0.8mg/day) were classified in tertiles and compared to insulinemic and glycemic markers. The results showed that lower zinc concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes, as well as its high urinary excretion, were associated with higher percentages of glycated hemoglobin, reflecting a worse glycemic control in individuals with T2DM (pzinc levels and glycated hemoglobin percentage (r=-0.325, p=0.003), and a positive correlation between urinary zinc excretion and glycemia (r=0.269, p=0.016), glycated hemoglobin percentage (r=0.318, p=0.004) and HOMA-IR (r=0.289, p=0.009). According to our study results, conclude that T2DM individuals with reduced zinc status exhibited poor glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. A Study Examining the Effect of a Short Bout of Postprandial Walking on the Glycemic Effect of a Meal: Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Samantha L; Heiss, Cynthia J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether 15 minutes of postprandial walking has an effect on the glycemic response to a breakfast beverage in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Seven participants, aged 22.3 ± 4.3 years, with T1DM using intensive insulin therapy completed 2 days of data collection. On day 1, participants measured baseline fasting blood glucose (BG) with a glucometer, consumed an 8-ounce Boost® beverage (41 grams carbohydrate), administered a bolus of insulin according to the carbohydrate load and fasting BG, and sat quietly, repeating BG measurements 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after consumption. On day 2, participants repeated the protocol, but walked 15 minutes at 50% to 60% maximum heart rate immediately after beverage consumption. The difference between peak and baseline (peak - baseline) BG and incremental glucose area under the curve (iAUC) were lower in all but one participant on the walking compared to the sedentary day. Mean peak - baseline BG was significantly lower on the walking day compared to the sedentary day (6.4 ± 1.2 vs 14.4 ± 3.4 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.016) as was the iAUC, (241.1 ± 155.8 vs 468.6 ± 94.5 mmol/L/120 min, respectively, p = 0.031). Fifteen minutes of postprandial walking can blunt the spike in BG and overall glycemic response to a breakfast beverage in young adults with T1DM and may be an effective and realistic component in the management of T1DM.

  9. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  10. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Leukocyte peroxidase and leptin: an associated link of glycemic tolerance and bronchial asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sergio ParcoImmunopathology Unit, Laboratory of the Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Recent observations suggest the presence of an interaction between leptin and the inflammatory system during bronchial asthma. Although there is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and children, little is yet known about the role of serum leptin, as a potential mediator for bronchial epithelial homeostasis, and intraleukocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO, a hemoprotein with a molecular weight of 140 kDa, expression of the inflammatory system, in asthmatic children. Glycemic tolerance is an important pathogenetic element in developing type 2 mellitus diabetes and a confirmed predictor of incident asthma-like symptoms in adults. This work is aimed at assessing a possible correlation between basal leukocyte myeloperoxidase levels, basal leptin and insulin-glycemic tolerance in obese children. Thirty obese children aged between 7 and 15 years were examined. The analyzed data showed a normal response to the insulinemic stimulus in children of both sexes whose basal leptin and MPO values, expressed as MPO intracellular index, werewithin the normal range.Keywords: leptin, myeloperoxidase, glycemic tolerance, asthma

  12. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Woo; Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients

  13. Hemorheological and Glycemic Parameters and HDL Cholesterol for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Woo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of Cardiology - Department of Medicine - Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Byung Ok; Byun, Young Sup; Goh, Choong Won; Rhee, Kun Joo [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Lee, Byoung Kwon, E-mail: cardiobk@yuhs.ac [Division of Cardiology - Department of Internal Medicine - Gangnam Severance Hospital - Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Hemorheological and glycemic parameters and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are used as biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To investigate the association and clinical relevance of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and HDL cholesterol in the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in an outpatient population. 708 stable patients who visited the outpatient department were enrolled and followed for a mean period of 28.5 months. Patients were divided into two groups, patients without MACE and patients with MACE, which included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, newly diagnosed CHD, and cerebral vascular accident. We compared hemorheological and glycemic parameters and lipid profiles between the groups. Patients with MACE had significantly higher ESR, fibrinogen, fasting glucose, and HbA1c, while lower HDL cholesterol compared with patients without MACE. High ESR and fibrinogen and low HDL cholesterol significantly increased the risk of MACE in multivariate regression analysis. In patients with MACE, high fibrinogen and HbA1c levels increased the risk of multivessel CHD. Furthermore, ESR and fibrinogen were significantly positively correlated with HbA1c and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol, however not correlated with fasting glucose. Hemorheological abnormalities, poor glycemic control, and low HDL cholesterol are correlated with each other and could serve as simple and useful surrogate markers and predictors for MACE and CHD in outpatients.

  14. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  15. Association between Responsible Pet Ownership and Glycemic Control in Youths with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Maranda

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM a chronic characterized by an absolute insulin deficiency requires conscientious patient self-management to maintain glucose control within a normal range. Family cohesion and adaptability, positive coping strategies, social support and adequate self-regulatory behavior are found to favorably influence glycemic control. Our hypothesis was that the responsible care of a companion animal is associated with these positive attributes and correlated with the successful management of a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. We recruited 223 youths between 9 and 19 years of age from the Pediatric Diabetes clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, reviewed the status of their glycemic control (using three consecutive A1c values and asked them questions about the presence of a pet at home, and their level of involvement with its care. Multivariate analyses show that children who care actively for one or more pets at home are 2.5 times more likely to have control over their glycemic levels than children who do not care for a pet, adjusting for duration of disease, socio-economic status, age and self-management [1.1 to 5.8], pWald = 0.032. A separate model involving the care of a petdog only yielded comparable results (ORa = 2.6 [1.1 to 5.9], pWald = 0.023.

  16. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad

    2015-06-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20-60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting. Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (-19.41 ± 18.83 vs. 1.63 ± 4.28 mg/dL, p ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. The glycemic index: methodological aspects related to the interpretation of health effects and to regulatory labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is an experimental system that classifies carbohydrates (CHO) and CHO-containing foods according to their blood glucose-raising potential. It is based on the glycemic response following the ingestion of a test food containing a defined amount of available CHO relative to that of an equi-carbohydrate portion of either white bread or glucose. The concept has been extended to mixed meals and whole diets where the GI of the meal/diet is expressed as the weighted average of the GI of each food, based on the percentage of the total mealldiet CHO provided by each food. Over the last few decades, a substantial number of epidemiological and interventional studies have reported beneficial associationsleffects of lower GI diets across a wide spectrum of pathophysiological conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and certain forms of cancer. This has prompted proponents of the GI to recommend its use for dietary planning and labeling purposes. However, the currently recommended GI methodology is not well standardized and has several flaws, which brings into question the strength of evidence attributed to the health effects of low-GI diets. This review focuses exclusively on the methodological aspects of the GI, how they might impact the interpretation of data related to the purported health benefits of low GI diets, and the considerations for the use of the GI in food labeling. In addition, alternative systems for classifying the glycemic effects of CHO-containing foods are briefly discussed.

  18. Glycemic control and periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic, noncommunicable disease with concomitant oral manifestations that impact on dental care. Aim: To determine the correlation between glycemic control and periodontitis among 35-45 years aged patients with DM type 2 (DM2. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 40 subjects aged 35-45 years with DM2 on oral medication were recruited for the study. Glycosylated, hemoglobin(HbA1c, probing pocket depth (PPD, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, and the relevant drug history were recorded. The data were analyzed using unpaired student t-test to compare the means of PPD, GI, PI between different HbA1c levels, gender, and duration of drug, and the Pearson correlation was used to find correlation between HbA1c and PPD, GI, PI, duration of drug. Results: With the increase in HbA1c values there was a significant rise in PPD, PI scores, and GI scores (P < 0.001. Diabetic males had a higher PPD, PI, and GI score as compared to females. With the increase in duration of the drug, there was an increase in PPD, which was found to be statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Patients are having poor glycemic level had more severe periodontitis as compared to patients having a fair glycemic level.

  19. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, IBP3 and A2GL by blood protein precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Bache, Nicolai; Callesen, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    aggravated when using fast high-throughput methods, which are necessary for analysis of hundreds and thousands of samples in clinical laboratories. The blood proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, IBP3 and A2GL have been proposed as indirect biomarkers for detection of GH administration and as putative biomarkers...

  20. Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, F; Klaus, S; Petzke, K J; Loddenkemper, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Weickert, M O

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to high vs. low glycemic index (GI) diets increases fat mass and insulin resistance in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. However, the longer-term effects and potentially involved mechanisms are largely unknown. We exposed four groups of male C57BL/6J mice (n = 10 per group) to long-term (20 wk) or short-term (6 wk) isoenergetic and macronutrient matched diets only differing in starch type and as such GI. Body composition, liver fat, molecular factors of lipid metabolism, and markers of insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility were investigated in all four groups of mice. Mice fed the high GI diet showed a rapid-onset (from week 5) marked increase in body fat mass and liver fat, a gene expression profile in liver consistent with elevated lipogenesis, and, after long-term exposure, significantly reduced glucose clearance following a glucose load. The long-term high-GI diet also led to a delayed switch to both carbohydrate and fat oxidation in the postprandial state, indicating reduced metabolic flexibility. In contrast, no difference in carbohydrate oxidation was observed after short-term high- vs. low-GI exposure. However, fatty acid oxidation was significantly blunted as early as 3 wk after beginning of the high-GI intervention, at a time where most measured phenotypic markers including body fat mass were comparable between groups. Thus long-term high-GI feeding resulted in an obese, insulin-resistant, and metabolically inflexible phenotype in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Early onset and significantly impaired fatty acid oxidation preceded these changes, thereby indicating a potentially causal involvement.

  1. Correlation between quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate and obesity in a group of women from Ahvaz

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    Farideh Shishehbor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Obesity and being overweight are one of current nutritional disorders found in many developed and developing countries such as Iran, it seems that recently the role of carbohydrates in the formation of such illness has been considered. Studies conducted in the field of obesity and quality and quantity of carbohydrate (glycemic index and glycemic load have had inconsistent results. Therefore, This study evaluates the relationship between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and some indicators of obesity. Material & Methods: The subjects were 95 healthy Iranian females aged 25-55 y .dietary GI, GL assessed from six24 hour food recalls. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standard methods. Information such as history of disease and genetics was collected by a questionnaire. Independent sample t test, correlation confident ، one–way ANOVA Were used to investigate the correlation between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and anthropometric measurements. Results: The mean dietary GI was 72.8 and the mean dietary GL was 154.4. After making the necessary adjustments for potential dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, no significant association was seen between dietary GI, GL and BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio in healthy women. Conclusion: The fact that there was no relation between dietary GI and GL and anthropometric measurements in healthy women may be due to the fact that results obtained from overweight samples were not reported in the current study.

  2. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

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    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  3. Identification of ergosterol and inhibition of sterol synthesis by Δ5-sterols in GL7, an auxotrophic mutant of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanuka, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis of ergosterol was demonstrated in the GL7 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This sterol auxotroph has been thought to lack the ability to synthesize sterols due both to the absence of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase and to a heme deficiency eliminating cytochrome P-450 which is required in demethylation at C-14. However, when the exogenous sterol was 5α-cholestan-3β-ol, 5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol, or 24β-methyl-5α-cholest-8(14)-en-3β-ol, sterol synthesis was found to proceed yielding 1-3 fg/cell of ergosterol. Ergosterol was identified by mass spectroscopy, gas and high performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and radioactive labelling from [ 3 H]acetate. Except for some cholest-5-en-3β-ol (cholesterol) which was derived from the 5α-cholestan-3β-ol, the stanol and the two 8(14)-stenols were not significantly metabolized confirming the absence of an isomerase for migration of the double bond from C-8(14) to C-7. Drastic reduction of ergosterol synthesis to not more than 0.06 fg/cell was observed when the exogenous sterol either had a double bond at C-5, as in the case of cholesterol, or could be metabolized to a sterol with such a bond. Thus, both 5α-cholest-8(9)-en-3β-ol and 5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol (lathosterol) were converted to cholesta-5,7-dien-3β-ol (7-dehydrocholesterol), and the presence of the latter dienol depressed the level of ergosterol

  4. Batch and multi-step fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse at high solid loadings for high sugar and ethanol titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Dong, Lei; Chen, Liang; Liu, Dehua

    2013-05-01

    Formiline pretreatment pertains to a biomass fractionation process. In the present work, Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with cellulases by batch and multi-step fed-batch processes at 20% solid loading. For wet pulp, after 144 h incubation with cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g dry solid, fed-batch process obtained ~150 g/L glucose and ~80% glucan conversion, while batch process obtained ~130 g/L glucose with corresponding ~70% glucan conversion. Solid loading could be further increased to 30% for the acetone-dried pulp. By fed-batch hydrolysis of the dried pulp in pH 4.8 buffer solution, glucose concentration could be 247.3±1.6 g/L with corresponding 86.1±0.6% glucan conversion. The enzymatic hydrolyzates could be well converted to ethanol by a subsequent fermentation using Saccharomices cerevisiae with ethanol titer of 60-70 g/L. Batch and fed-batch SSF indicated that Formiline-pretreated substrate showed excellent fermentability. The final ethanol concentration was 80 g/L with corresponding 82.7% of theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The prevalence and determinants of poor glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

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    Alzaheb RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Riyadh A Alzaheb,1 Abdullah H Altemani2 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia Background: Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is rising sharply in Saudi Arabia, data on glycemic control, crucial to reducing diabetes mellitus complications, remain scarce. This study therefore investigated glycemic control status and the factors influencing poor glycemic control among adult T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 423 T2DM patients at a diabetic center in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between September 2016 and July 2017. Glycemic levels were measured via fasting blood glucose (FBG levels, and “poor glycemic control” was defined as FBG >130 mg/dL. Poor glycemic control’s risk factors were identified using a logistic regression.Results: In the sample, 74.9% of the patients had poor blood glycemic control. Logistic regression revealed that T2DM patients had an increased chance of poorly controlled diabetes if they had family histories of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =7.38, 95% CI 4.09–13.31, longer diabetic durations (AOR =2.33, 95% CI 1.14–4.78 for 5–10 years and AOR =5.19, 95% CI 2.50–10.69 for >10 years, insufficient physical exercise (AOR =19.02, 95% CI 6.23–58.06, or were overweight (AOR =3.79, 95% CI 2.00–7.18, or obese (AOR =5.35, 95% CI 2.72–12.59.Conclusion: A high proportion of the sampled patients had poor glycemic control, therefore, health care professionals should manage the associated risk factors to limit disease complications and improve the health of patients with diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glycemic control, Saudi Arabia

  6. Enhancement of ethanol production from green liquor-ethanol-pretreated sugarcane bagasse by glucose-xylose cofermentation at high solid loadings with mixed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanzhi; Li, Pengfei; Lei, Fuhou; Xing, Yang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Efficient cofermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we demonstrate pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-Ethanol) by adding different GL amounts. The common Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CSC) and thermophilic S. cerevisiae (TSC) strains were used and different yeast cell mass ratios (CSC to TSC) were compared. The simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSF/SSCF) process was performed by 5-20% (w/v) dry substrate (DS) solid loadings to determine optimal conditions for the co-consumption of glucose and xylose. Compared to previous studies that tested fermentation of glucose using only the CSC, we obtained higher ethanol yield and concentration (92.80% and 23.22 g/L) with 1.5 mL GL/g-DS GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB at 5% (w/v) solid loading and a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Using 10% (w/v) solid loading under the same conditions, the ethanol concentration increased to 42.53 g/L but the ethanol yield decreased to 84.99%. In addition, an increase in the solid loading up to a certain point led to an increase in the ethanol concentration from 1.5 mL GL/g-DS-pretreated SCB. The highest ethanol concentration (68.24 g/L) was obtained with 15% (w/v) solid loading, using a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:3 (w/w). GL-Ethanol pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method for improving both glucan and xylan conversion efficiencies of SCB. There was a competitive relationship between the two yeast strains, and the glucose and xylose utilization ability of the TSC was better than that of the CSC. Ethanol concentration was obviously increased at high solid loading, but the yield decreased as a result of an increase in the viscosity and inhibitor levels in the fermentation system. Finally, the SSCF of GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB with mixed S. cerevisiae strains increased ethanol concentration and was an

  7. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (pmeter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (pMeter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  9. What does germane load mean? An empirical contribution to the cognitive load theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDebue

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While over the last decades, much attention has been paid to the mental workload in the field of human computer interactions, there is still a lack of consensus concerning the factors that generate it as well as the measurement methods that could reflect workload variations. Based on the multifactorial Cognitive Load Theory, our study aims to provide some food for thought about the subjective and objective measurement that can be used to disentangle the intrinsic, extraneous and germane load. The purpose is to provide insight into the way cognitive load can explain how users’ cognitive resources are allocated in the use of hypermedia, such as an online newspaper. A two-phase experiment has been conducted on the information retention from online news stories. Phase 1 (92 participants examined the influence of multimedia content on performance as well as the relationships between cognitive loads and cognitive absorption. In Phase 2 (36 participants, eye-tracking data were collected in order to provide reliable and objective measures. Results confirmed that performance in information retention was impacted by the presence of multimedia content such as animations and pictures. The higher number of fixations on these animations suggests that users’ attention could have been attracted by them. Results showed the expected opposite relationships between Germane and Extraneous Load, a positive association between GL and cognitive absorption and a nonlinear association between Intrinsic and Germane Load. The trends based on eye-tracking data analysis provide some interesting findings about the relationships between longer fixations, shorter saccades and cognitive load. Some issues are raised about the respective contribution of mean pupil diameter and Index of Cognitive Activity.

  10. A Journey to Improved Inpatient Glycemic Control by Redesigning Meal Delivery and Insulin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Martha; Ferguson, Allison; Fields, Willa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to redesign a hospital meal delivery process in order to shorten the time between blood glucose monitoring and corresponding insulin administration and improve glycemic control. This process change redesigned the workflow of the dietary and nursing departments. Modifications included nursing, rather than dietary, delivering meal trays to patients receiving insulin. Dietary marked the appropriate meal trays and phoned each unit prior to arrival on the unit. The process change was trialed on 2 acute care units prior to implementation hospital wide. Elapsed time between blood glucose monitoring and insulin administration was analyzed before and after process change as well as evaluation of glucometrics: percentage of patients with blood glucose between 70 and 180 mg/dL (percent perfect), blood glucose greater than 300 mg/dL (extreme hyperglycemia), and blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL (hypoglycemia). Percent perfect glucose results improved from 45% to 53%, extreme hyperglycemia (blood glucose >300 mg/dL) fell from 11.7% to 5%. Hypoglycemia demonstrated a downward trend line, demonstrating that with improving glycemic control hypoglycemia rates did not increase. Percentage of patients receiving meal insulin within 30 minutes of blood glucose check increased from 35% to 73%. In the hospital, numerous obstacles were present that interfered with on-time meal insulin delivery. Establishing a meal delivery process with the nurse performing the premeal blood glucose check, delivering the meal, and administering the insulin improves overall blood glucose control. Nurse-led process improvement of blood glucose monitoring, meal tray delivery, and insulin administration does lead to improved glycemic control for the inpatient population.

  11. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  12. Frozen desserts and glycemic response in well-controlled NIDDM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, J; Mezitis, N H; Saitas, V; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1990-04-01

    Fructose is known to elicit a lower glycemic response than sucrose, and high-fructose desserts have been recommended for a diabetic diet. We compared a cholesterol-free tofu-based frozen dessert (TFD) containing high-fructose corn syrups with a dairy-based sucrose-sweetened ice cream (IC). Six male and six female non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age 51 yr, mean ideal body weight 143%, fasting blood glucose less than 160 mg/dl) with well-controlled diabetes and managed on oral hypoglycemic agents were studied. Subjects underwent three trials. In the first trial they ingested 50 g glucose, and in the next two trials they ingested 50-g carbohydrate equivalents of either TFD or IC in random sequence. Venous blood was drawn at intervals during the 3-h trials for glucose and insulin determinations. Fasting plasma glucose was not statistically different between IC and TFD trials (130 vs. 121 mg/dl). Peak glucose responses were at 120 min in both trials (190 mg/dl for IC and 222 mg/dl for TFD), with those for TFD being significantly higher (P less than 0.01). Mean glucose area and glycemic index for TFD were significantly greater than for IC (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference between mean insulin areas. In summary, the TFD, which contains soybean curd and high-fructose corn syrup, might have been expected to produce more satisfactory postprandial blood glucose levels than IC, which contains sucrose, yet a higher glycemic response was elicited. This is related to the substantial amount of total glucose in this "fructose" dessert.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O

    2018-01-01

    People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences ( p   .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.

  14. Metabolic changes after a hypocaloric, low-glycemic-index diet in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parillo, M; Licenziati, M R; Vacca, M; De Marco, D; Iannuzzi, A

    2012-07-01

    A low glycemic index (LGI) diet has been proposed as a treatment for obesity in adults; few studies have evaluated LGI diets in obese children. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two diets, with similar energy intakes, but different glycemic indexes in a pediatric outpatient setting. A parallel- group, randomized controlled trial was conducted, and 22 obese outpatient children with a body mass index (BMI) Z-score >2 (11 females and 11 males, BMI 28.9±2.9 kg/m²) were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to a hypocaloric LGI (GI:60), or to a hypocaloric high glycemic index (HGI) diet (GI:90). The LGI and HGI diets were almost equivalent for macronutrient composition. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 months. In both groups there were significant decreases in BMI, BMI Z-score, blood pressure, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Only LGI diets produced a significant decrease in waist circumference and homeostasis model assessment. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the BMI Z-score decrease from baseline values was significantly greater after the LGI diet than after the HGI diet [-0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.29 to -0.10) vs -0.34 (95%CI -0.43 to -0.24)], mean difference between groups -0.14 (95%CI -0.27 to -0.01), pdiet (phypocaloric LGI diet has beneficial metabolic effects in comparison to a hypocaloric HGI diet in obese children.

  15. Glycemic Effects of Rebaudioside A and Erythritol in People with Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hee Shin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRebaudioside A and erythritol are nonnutritive sweeteners. There have been several studies of their glycemic effects, but the outcomes remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the glycemic effects of rebaudioside A and erythritol as a sweetener in people with glucose intolerance.MethodsThis trial evaluated the glycemic effect after 2 weeks of consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol as sweeteners in a pre-diabetic population. The patients were evaluated for fructosamine, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and 2-hour plasma glucose before and after consumption of sweetener. The primary outcome was a change in fructosamine levels from the baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary outcomes were the changes in levels of fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose.ResultsFrom the baseline to the end of experiment, the changes in fructosamine levels after consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol, did not differ significantly (244.00±19.57 vs. 241.68±23.39 µmol/L, P=0.366. The change in levels from the baseline to end of the study for rebaudioside A and erythritol were fasting plasma glucose (102.56±10.72 vs. 101.32±9.20 mg/dL, 2-hour plasma glucose (154.92±54.53 vs. 141.92±42.22 mg/dL, insulin (7.56±4.29 vs. 7.20±5.12 IU/mL, and C-peptide (2.92±1.61 vs. 2.73±1.31 ng/mL, respectively, and also did not differ significantly (P>0.05 for all.ConclusionOur study suggests that consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol does not alter the glucose homeostasis in people with glucose intolerance.

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus: glycemic control during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of twin and singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Sacoto, María Augusta; Barquiel, Beatriz; Hillman, Natalia; Burgos, María Ángeles; Herranz, Lucrecia

    2018-04-20

    To assess the impact of glycemic control in gestational on neonatal weight and metabolic complications of twin and singleton pregnancies. An observational, retrospective study to monitor 120 twin and 240 singleton pregnancies in women with GDM. Maternal glycemic parameters during pregnancy (oral glucose tolerance test results, treatment, insulinization rate, mean HbA1c in the third trimester), and neonatal complications and weight were recorded. A higher infant birth weight ratio (IBWR 1.02±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.12, P<.001) and a lower rate of newborns small for gestational age (severe SGA 2.5% vs. 8.3%, P=.012) were seen after singleton pregnancies as compared to twin pregnancies. The rates of newborns large for gestational age (LGA 12.6% vs. 12.5%, P=.989); macrosomic (6.7% vs. 7.5%, P=.777); or small for gestational age (SGA 6.7% vs. 10.8%, P=.175) were similar in both groups. Neonates from twin pregnancies had a higher risk of hypoglycemia (adjusted OR 4.71; 1.38-16.07, P=.013) and polycythemia (adjusted OR 10.05; 1.82-55.42, P=0.008). A linear relationship was seen between third trimester HbA1c levels and IBWR in singleton (r=.199, P=.003), but not in twin pregnancies (r=0.049, P=0.610). Risk of severe SGA, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia was significantly higher in twin pregnancies of women with GDM. Neonatal weight outcomes and metabolic complications in twin pregnancies of women with GDM were not related to glycemic control. Moreover, in our study population, fasting glucose at diagnosis and mean HbA1c in the third trimester showed a linear relationship with higher birth weights in singleton, but not in twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Intensive gestational glycemic management and childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, L; Durksen, A; Rabbani, R; Zarychanski, R; Abou-Setta, A M; Duhamel, T A; McGavock, J M; Wicklow, B

    2017-07-01

    Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of offspring childhood obesity. Treatment reduces macrosomia; however, it is unclear if this effect translates into a reduced risk of childhood obesity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intensive glycemic management in pregnancy in preventing childhood obesity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov up to February 2016 and conference abstracts from 2010 to 2015. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials evaluating intensive glycemic management interventions for hyperglycemia in pregnancy and included four of the 383 citations initially identified. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and evaluated internal validity of the studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using the I 2 test. The primary outcome was age- and sex-adjusted childhood obesity. Secondary outcomes included childhood weight and waist circumference and maternal hypoglycemia during the trial (safety outcome). The four eligible trials (n=767 children) similarly used lifestyle and insulin to manage gestational hyperglycemia, but only two measured offspring obesity and waist circumference and could be pooled for these outcomes. We found no association between intensive gestational glucose management and childhood obesity at 7-10 years of age (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.22; two trials; n=568 children). Waist circumference also did not differ between treatment and control arms (mean difference, -2.68 cm; 95% CI, -8.17 to 2.81 cm; two trials; n=568 children). Intensive gestational glycemic management is not associated with reduced childhood obesity in offspring, but randomized data is scarce. Long-term follow-up of trials should be prioritized and comprehensive

  18. The relationship between breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hood, Megan M; Crowley, Stephanie J; Morgan, Mary K; Teodori, Marsha; Knutson, Kristen L

    2014-02-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Later chronotypes, individuals who have a preference for later bed and wake times, often skip breakfast. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships among breakfast skipping, chronotype, and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. We collected sleep timing and 24-h dietary recall from 194 non-shift-working type 2 diabetes patients who were being followed in outpatient clinics. Mid-sleep time on free days (MSF) was used as an indicator of chronotype. Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) values were obtained from medical records. Hierarchical linear regression analyses controlling for demographic, sleep, and dietary variables were computed to determine whether breakfast skipping was associated with HbA1C. Additional regression analyses were performed to test if this association was mediated by chronotype. There were 22 participants (11.3%) who self-reported missing breakfast. Breakfast skippers had significantly higher HbA1C levels, higher body mass indices (BMI), and later MSF than breakfast eaters. Breakfast skipping was significantly associated with higher HbA1C values (B = 0.108, p = 0.01), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, number of diabetes complications, insulin use, depressive symptoms, perceived sleep debt, and percentage of daily caloric intake at dinner. The relationship between breakfast skipping and HbA1C was partially mediated by chronotype. In summary, breakfast skipping is associated with a later chronotype. Later chronotype and breakfast skipping both contribute to poorer glycemic control, as indicated by higher HbA1C levels. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether behavioral interventions targeting breakfast eating or sleep timing may improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Using a mentoring approach to implement an inpatient glycemic control program in United States hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushakoff, Robert J; Sullivan, Mary M; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Sadhu, Archana; O'Malley, Cheryl W; Manchester, Carol; Peterson, Eric; Rogers, Kendall M

    2014-09-01

    establishing an inpatient glycemic control program is challenging, requires years of work, significant education and coordination of medical, nursing, dietary, and pharmacy staff, and support from administration and Performance Improvement departments. We undertook a 2 year quality improvement project assisting 10 medical centers (academic and community) across the US to implement inpatient glycemic control programs. the project was comprised of 3 interventions. (1) One day site visit with a faculty team (MD and CDE) to meet with key personnel, identify deficiencies and barriers to change, set site specific goals and develop strategies and timelines for performance improvement. (2) Three webinar follow-up sessions. (3) Web site for educational resources. Updates, challenges, and accomplishments for each site were reviewed at the time of each webinar and progress measured at the completion of the project with an evaluation questionnaire. as a result of our intervention, institutions revised and simplified formularies and insulin order sets (with CHO counting options); implemented glucometrics and CDE monitoring of inpatient glucoses (assisting providers with orders); added new protocols for DKA and perinatal treatment; and implemented nursing, physician and patient education initiatives. Changes were institution specific, fitting the local needs and cultures. As to the extent to which Institution׳s goals were satisfied: 2 reported "completely", 4 "mostly," 3 "partially," and 1 "marginally". Institutions continue to move toward fulfilling their goals. an individualized, structured, performance improvement approach with expert faculty mentors can help facilitate change in an institution dedicated to implementing an inpatient glycemic control program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  1. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  3. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  4. Aspectos generales de la histología de la glándula salival de las garrapatas con énfasis en Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mora Hernández.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta elementos de histología de las glándulas salivales de los artrópodos plagas. Se plantea que si bien las glándulas salivales han sido estudiadas en detalle, aún se sabe poco sobre los mecanismos de transmisión de agentes patógenos, y acerca de las sustancias biológicamente activas que mantienen al "huésped" altamente sensible y posibilitan de esta forma la entrada de otros patógenos no relacionados con vectores. El conocimiento que aportan el estudio de estos procesos permite la elaboración de programas de control epidemiológicos eficientes.

  5. Expression of phage-transposons of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cells of Pseudomonas putida PpGl. II. Zygotic induction, an essential condition for the emergence of defective lysogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, S.A.; Akhverdyan, V.Z.; Krylov, V.N.

    1986-06-01

    The presence of a large number of clones, which have lost the ability to produce phase, is a feature of PpGl exconjugants, which have acquired markers of the hybrid plasmid containing the genome of the PAO1 phage transposon. Analysis of these clones indicates that they contain plasmids with different defects in the phage genome (point mutations and different deletion lengths which may have an effect on both the phage genome and also plasmid RP4). Mutations of a particular region are selected, the region of early prophage genes. The process of zygotic induction is an essential condition for the arisal of mutants (including deletion mutants). The results of the experiment, which was based on the Luria-Delbruik test, showed that a significant proportion of the mutations, including deletion mutations, arise in the recipient cells PpGl.

  6. Structural investigation of composite wind turbine blade considering various load cases and fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, C.; Bang, J.; Sugiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a structural design for developing a medium scale composite wind turbine blade made of E-glass/epoxy for a 750 kW class horizontal axis wind turbine system. The design loads were determined from various load cases specified at the IEC61400-1 international specification and GL regulations for the wind energy conversion system. A specific composite structure configuration, which can effectively endure various loads such as aerodynamic loads and loads due to accumulation of ice, hygro-thermal and mechanical loads, was proposed. To evaluate the proposed composite wind turbine blade, structural analysis was performed by using the finite element method. Parametric studies were carried out to determine an acceptable blade structural design, and the most dominant design parameters were confirmed. In this study, the proposed blade structure was confirmed to be safe and stable under various load conditions, including the extreme load conditions. Moreover, the blade adapted a new blade root joint with insert bolts, and its safety was verified at design loads including fatigue loads. The fatigue life of a blade that has to endure for more than 20 years was estimated by using the well-known S-N linear damage theory, the service load spectrum, and the Spera's empirical equations. With the results obtained from all the structural design and analysis, prototype composite blades were manufactured. A specific construction process including the lay-up molding method was applied to manufacturing blades. Full-scale static structural test was performed with the simulated aerodynamic loads. From the experimental results, it was found that the designed blade had structural integrity. In addition, the measured results of deflections, strains, mass, and radial center of gravity agreed well with the analytical results. The prototype blade was successfully certified by an international certification institute, GL (Germanisher Lloyd) in Germany

  7. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  8. Serum glycated albumin as a new glycemic marker in pediatric diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woo Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeSerum glycated albumin (GA has been recently used as another glycemic marker that reflects shorter term glycemic control than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Insulin secretory function and glycemic fluctuation might be correlated with the ratio of GA to HbA1c (GA/HbA1c in diabetic adult patients. This study investigated the association of GA and GA/HbA1c ratio with the levels of fasting C-peptide, fasting plasma glucose in type 1 and type 2 pediatric diabetes.MethodsTotal 50 cases from 42 patients were included. The subjects were classified into type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM (n=30 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (n=20 group. The associations among HbA1c, GA, and GA/HbA1c ratio were examined. The relationship between the three glycemic indices and fasting glucose, fasting C-peptide were analyzed.ResultsMean values of GA, the GA/HbA1c ratio were significantly higher in T1DM than T2DM. GA (r=0.532, P=0.001, HbA1c (r=0.519, P=0.002 and the GA/HbA1c ratio (r=0.409, P=0.016 were correlated with the fasting plasma glucose. Fasting C-peptide level arranged 4.22±3.22 ng/mL in T2DM, which was significantly above the values in T1DM (0.26±0.49 ng/mL. There were no significant correlation between HbA1c and fasting C-peptide level. However, GA and the GA/HbA1c ratio exhibited inverse correlations with fasting C-peptide level (r=-0.214, P=0.002; r=-0.516, P<0.001.ConclusionGA seems to more accurately reflects fasting plasma glucose level than HbA1c. GA, GA/HbA1c ratio appear to reflect insulin secretory function.

  9. IMPROVING GLYCEMIC CONTROL SAFELY IN CRITICAL CARE PATIENTS: A COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH IN NINE HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Gregory A; Holdych, Janet; Kendall, Heather; Harrison, Karen; Montgomery, Patricia A; Kulasa, Kristen

    2017-05-01

    Safely improve glycemic control in the critical care units of nine hospitals. Critical care adult inpatients from nine hospitals with ≥4 point-of-care blood glucose (BG) readings over ≥2 days were targeted by collaborative improvement efforts to reduce hyper- and hypoglycemia. Balanced glucometric goals for each hospital were set targeting improvement from baseline or goals deemed desirable from Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) benchmarking data. Collaborative interventions included standardized insulin infusion protocols, hypoglycemia prevention bundles, audit and feedback, education, and measure-vention (coupling measurement of patients "off protocol" with concurrent interventions to correct suboptimal care). All sites improved glycemic control. Six reached prespecified levels of improvement of the day-weighted mean BG. The day-weighted mean BG for the cohort decreased by 7.7 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 mg/dL to 8.4 mg/dL) to 151.3 mg/dL. Six of nine sites showed improvement in the percent intensive care unit (ICU) days with severe hyperglycemia (any BG >299 mg/dL). ICU severe hyperglycemic days declined from 8.6 to 7.2% for the cohort (relative risk, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.88). Patient days with any BG <70 mg/dL were reduced by 0.4% (95% CI, 0.06% to 0.6%), from 4.5 to 4.1%, for a small but statistically significant reduction in hypoglycemia. Seven of nine sites showed improvement. Multihospital improvements in ICU glycemic control, severe hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia are feasible. Balanced goals for glycemic control and hypoglycemia in the ICU using SHM benchmarks and metrics enhanced successful improvement efforts with good staff acceptance and sustainability. BG = blood glucose CMI = case-mix index CY = calendar year DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMR = electronic medical record GBMF = Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ICU = intensive care unit IIP = insulin infusion protocol SHM = Society of z Hospital Medicine.

  10. Glycemic control strategies and the occurrence of surgical site infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Caroline Maria Herrero; Iida, Luciana Inaba Senyer; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the evidence available in the scientific literature regarding the relationship between the glycemic control strategies used and the occurrence of surgical site infection in adult patients undergoing surgery. This is a systematic review performed through search on the databases of CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and EMBASE. Eight randomized controlled trials were selected. Despite the diversity of tested interventions, studies agree that glycemic control is essential to reduce rates of surgical site infection, and should be maintained between 80 and 120 mg/dL during the perioperative period. Compared to other strategies, insulin continuous infusion during surgery was the most tested and seems to get better results in reducing rates of surgical site infection and achieving success in glycemic control. Tight glycemic control during the perioperative period benefits the recovery of surgical patients, and the role of the nursing team is key for the successful implementation of the measure. Analisar as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica sobre a relação entre as estratégias de controle glicêmico efetuadas e a ocorrência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico em pacientes adultos submetidos à cirurgia. Trata-se de revisão sistemática, por meio das bases de dados CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews e EMBASE. Foram selecionados oito ensaios clínicos randomizados. Apesar da diversidade de intervenções testadas, os estudos concordam que o controle glicêmico é essencial para a redução das taxas de infecção do sítio cirúrgico e deve ser mantido entre 80 e 120 mg/dL durante o perioperatório. A infusão contínua de insulina no transoperatório foi a mais testada e parece obter melhores resultados na redução das taxas de infecção do sítio cirúrgico e sucesso no controle glicêmico comparada às demais estratégias. O controle glicêmico rigoroso durante o perioperat

  11. The Influence of Glycemic Index on Cognitive Functioning: A Systematic Review of the Evidence1

    OpenAIRE

    Philippou, Elena; Constantinou, Marios

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the rate of carbohydrate absorption, as measured by the carbohydrate’s glycemic index (GI) on cognitive performance, is not clear. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the relevant research studies. A systematic review of English-language articles using Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES (up to July 2012) using the search terms “glyc(a)emic index” or “glycaemic load” combined with “cognitive function” or “co...

  12. Glycemic indices of five varieties of dates in healthy and diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to determine the glycemic indices of five commonly used varieties of dates in healthy subjects and their effects on postprandial glucose excursions in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Composition analysis was carried out for five types of dates (Tamer stage. The weights of the flesh of the dates equivalent to 50 g of available carbohydrates were calculated. The study subjects were thirteen healthy volunteers with a mean (± SD age of 40.2 ± 6.7 years and ten participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (controlled on lifestyle measures and/or metformin with a mean HbA1c (± SD of 6.6 ± (0.7% and a mean age (± SD of 40.8 ± 5.7 years. Each subject was tested on eight separate days with 50 g of glucose (on 3 occasions and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the 5 varieties of date (each on one occasion. Capillary glucose was measured in the healthy subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min and for the diabetics at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. The glycemic indices were determined as ratios of the incremental areas under the response curves for the dates compared to glucose. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean glycemic indices ± SEM of the dates for the healthy individuals were 54.0 ± 6.1, 53.5 ± 8.6, 46.3 ± 7.1, 49.1 ± 3.6 and 55.1 ± 7.7 for Fara'd, Lulu, Bo ma'an, Dabbas and Khalas, respectively. Corresponding values for those with type 2 diabetes were very similar (46.1 ± 6.2, 43.8 ± 7.7, 51.8 ± 6.9, 50.2 ± 3.9 and 53.0 ± 6.0. There were no statistically significant differences in the GIs between the control and the diabetic groups for the five types of dates, nor were there statistically significant differences among the dates' GIs (df = 4, F = 0.365, p = 0.83. Conclusion The results show low glycemic indices for the five types of dates included in the study and

  13. Glycemic Control by Exercise and Urtica Dioica Supplements in Men With Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease in which hyperglycemia is a major symptom, and is associated with numerous vascular and non-vascular complications. People with diabetes use medicinal treatment to exert glycemic control, as well as exercise training and herbal remedies, such as urtica dioica (UD. Objectives This study aimed to compare the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic training and UD supplementation alone, and in combination, on glycemic control in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients and Methods This semi-experimental study was conducted in 2014, in the city of Dezful, Iran. A total of 40 males (aged 30 - 50 years with T2DM were selected and randomly divided into one of four groups in equal numbers (n = 10: 1 - aerobic training (Ae, 2 - UD supplements (UD, 3 - a combination of aerobic training and UD supplements (Ae + UD, and 4 - a control group. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before and 48 hours after the intervention period, following 10 - 12 hours of fasting. A t-test and analysis of variance was used to analyze the changes in the measured parameters, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (FBS was observed in the Ae group (-9.50 ± 6.96 mg/dl; P = 0.002, the UD group (-7.60 ± 6.04 mg/dL; P = 0.001, and the Ae + UD group (-18.30 ± 6.63 mg/dL; P < 0.001 after 8 weeks. There was a significant difference in FBS between the three intervention groups and the control group. In addition, a significant difference in FBS (P < 0.05 was shown between the UD and Ae + UD groups. Conclusions The findings confirmed the positive influence of UD supplements and aerobic training on glycemic control in males with T2DM. When aerobic training was combined with a UD supplement, a greater degree of glycemic control was observed.

  14. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W

    2015-01-01

    a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients......, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40-0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure...

  15. The combination of colesevelam with sitagliptin enhances glycemic control in diabetic ZDF rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Quan; Liu, Matthew K; Saumoy, Monica

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study, we tested whether adding sitagliptin (Januvia) (SIT), which prolongs bioactive GLP-1 half life, to COL would further enhance glycemic control. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were assigned to four groups: diabetic model without treatment (the model), the model treated with 2% COL or 0...... to levels similar to the model. Histological examination of the pancreatic ß-cell islets showed that islet sizes were larger, proliferation enhanced, and cell apoptosis reduced in the COL+SIT but not the SIT alone group compared with the model. We hypothesize that the combination of COL with SIT extends...

  16. The Influence of Diabetes, Glycemic Control, and Diabetes-Related Comorbidities on Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen Yuan; Bai, Kuan Jen; Lin, Hsien Ho; Chien, Shun Tien; Lee, Jen Jyh; Enarson, Donald A.; Lee, Ting-I; Yu, Ming-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM), glycemic control, and diabetes-related comorbidities on manifestations and outcome of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Methodology/Principal Findings Culture positive pulmonary TB patients notified to health authorities in three hospitals in Taiwan from 2005–2010 were investigated. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and diabetic patients were categorized into 3 groups: HbA1C9%. 1,473 (705 with DM and 768 without DM) patients were enrolled. Of the 705 diabetic patients, 82 (11.6%) had pretreatment HbA1C9%, and 195 (27.7%) had no information of HbA1C. The proportions of patients with any symptom, cough, hemoptysis, tiredness and weight loss were all highest in diabetic patients with HbA1C>9%. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and drug resistance, diabetic patients with HbA1C>9% (adjOR 3.55, 95% CI 2.40–5.25) and HbA1C 7–9% (adjOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07–2.44) were significantly more likely to be smear positive as compared with non-diabetic patients, but not those with HbA1C<7% (adjOR 1.16, 95% CI 0.70–1.92). The influence of DM on outcome of TB treatment was not proportionately related to HbA1C, but mainly mediated through diabetes-related comorbidities. Patients with diabetes-related comorbidities had an increased risk of unfavorable outcome (adjOR 3.38, 95% CI 2.19–5.22, p<0.001) and one year mortality (adjOR 2.80, 95% CI 1.89–4.16). However, diabetes was not associated with amplification of resistance to isoniazid (p = 0.363) or to rifampicin (p = 0.344). Conclusions/Significance Poor glycemic control is associated with poor TB treatment outcome and improved glycemic control may reduce the influence of diabetes on TB. PMID:25822974

  17. Glycemic variability in patients with Wolfram syndrome is lower than in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyslowska, A; Fendler, W; Szadkowska, A; Borowiec, M; Mysliwiec, M; Baranowska-Jazwiecka, A; Buraczewska, M; Fulmanska-Anders, M; Mianowska, B; Pietrzak, I; Rzeznik, D; Mlynarski, W

    2015-12-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is diagnosed as coexistence of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, where pancreatic beta cell destruction is associated with neurodegeneration. Typically, WFS necessitates insulin treatment similar to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the mechanism of beta cell mass reduction leading to hyperglycemia is different. The aim of the study was to assess glycemic variability using the continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system in seven pediatric patients with genetically confirmed WFS and compare the results with data obtained from 21 propensity score-matched patients with T1D. The "GlyCulator" application was used for the calculation of glycemic variability indices. CGM recordings showed similarities in glycemic variability among WFS patients, but differing from those of the T1D group. Coefficient of variation (%CV), CONGA4h, and GONGA6h were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in WFS patients (28.08 ± 7.37, 54.96 ± 11.92, and 55.99 ± 10.58) than in T1D patients (37.87 ± 14.24, 74.12 ± 28.74, p = 0.02, and 80.26 ± 35.05, respectively). In WFS patients, the percentage of values above 126 mg/dL was 69.79 (52.08-77.43), whereas in patients with T1D, the percentage was significantly lower-47.22 (35.07-62.85, p = 0.018). Curiously, a tendency toward a lower percentage of measurements below 70 mg/dL was noted in the WFS group [0 (0-7.29)] in comparison with the T1D group [6.25 (0-18.06), p = 0.122]. WFS patients had a significantly higher C-peptide level (0.31 ± 0.2 ng/mL) than T1D patients (0.04 ± 0.04 ng/mL; p = 0.006). Patients with WFS show smaller glycemic variability than individuals with T1D, and this may be associated with persistent residual insulin secretion.

  18. Correlation between glycemic variability and gastroesophageal reflux in adolescentswith type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I L Alimova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To estimate an impact of glycemic variability on the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Materials and methods. We enrolled 33 patients with T1DM aged from 12 to 17 years. 24-h pH-monitoring was performed with ?Gas- troskan 24? system (Istok-Sistema, Fryazino; 24-h continuous glucose monitoring utilized CGMS MMT-7310 (Medtronic Minimed, USA with subsequent night-time analysis. Results. As compared to stable night-time glycemia controls (SD 2.0 mmol/L showed longer period of esophageal acidification (17% [2?58]; p

  19. Vascularização arterial da glândula mamária em caprinos sem raça definida (Capra hircus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Rosemberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a distribuição e o arranjo vascular arterial dos ramos à glândula mamária em 30 caprinos sem raça definida, adultos, oriundos dos estados do Ceará e Minas Gerais, mediante a análise de esquemas de modelos obtidos pela injeção de látex "neoprene" 450, fixação em formol a 10% e dissecção. O suprimento sangüíneo de cada metade do úbere faz-se pela A. pudenda externa, complementado por conexões com ramos das Aa. pudenda interna e torácica interna. Próximo ao úbere a A. pudenda externa curva-se cranialmente, emite o ramo mamário superficial, torna-se A. mamária até a sua bifurcação; emite ainda ramos aos linfonodos mamários e à região labial ventral da vulva. Ao penetrar na glândula a A. mamária bifurca-se dando origem às Aa. mamárias cranial e medial que enviam diversos ramos à glândula em geral e pele da região. A A. mamária cranial percorre cranialmente a parede abdominal ventral como A. epigástrica caudal superficial. Não existem diferenças significativas entre os arranjos vasculares dos dois antímeros da mama. Ocorrem anastomoses entre as Aa. mamárias mediais e seus ramos. Fizemos uma análise comparativa do nosso trabalho em relação a outros estudos a respeito da irrigação da glândula mamária em ruminantes.

  20. Evaluasi Sifat Ovisidal dan Nimfasidal Insektisida Buprofezin 100 g/l terhadap Telur dan Nimfa Wereng Coklat, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    BAEHAKI SUHERLAN EFFENDI; EKO HARI ISWANTO; AMIR HAMZAH

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of ovicidal and nymphcidal properties of buprofezin 100 g/linsecticide to eggs and nymphs of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Stal.) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Research was carried out in screen house ofSukamandi, Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR) in the wet season of 2013. Theresearch used randomized block design with 5 doses levels insecticide treatment of buprofezin100 g/l and four replications. The buprofezin treatments were 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1500ml/ha compa...

  1. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Franz, Mary

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIV...... in this population. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a lower risk of diabetes and heart disease in persons who consume diets high in whole grains.......BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIVE......-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and interleukin 6). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of the relations of whole grains, bran, and germ intakes with homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation in 938 healthy men and women. RESULTS: Whole-grain intake was inversely associated...

  2. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss......: In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight maintenance. The determination of the lipid composition during an LCD enables...

  3. Mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica D; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Drotar, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship of mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management to diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. One hundred thirty-six mothers and fathers of youth with Type 1 diabetes reported on the youth's diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and amount of paternal involvement in diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used to measure glycemic control. As hypothesized, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management were positively associated with frequency of diabetes-specific family conflict. Contrary to hypotheses, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management predicted poorer glycemic control for youth with less involved fathers only. Results highlight the importance of caregivers being consistent about pediatric illness management and support the idea that informant discrepancies represent an important window into the functioning of the family system. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program: The Irish DAFNE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna; O'Hara, Mary Clare; Meehan, Ben; Byrne, Molly; Dinneen, Sean F.; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explain the factors affecting glycemic control (measured by HbA1c) following the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) program. Background: DAFNE is a structured education program designed to assist persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus achieve optimal glycemic control. However, not all participants reach this goal. Few studies…

  5. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; ...

  6. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  7. Developing a Tile-Based Rendering Method to Improve Rendering Speed of 3D Geospatial Data with HTML5 and WebGL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokchan Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated plug-in has been installed to visualize three-dimensional (3D city modeling spatial data in web-based applications. However, plug-in methods are gradually becoming obsolete, owing to their limited performance with respect to installation errors, unsupported cross-browsers, and security vulnerability. Particularly, in 2015, the NPAPI service was terminated in most existing web browsers except Internet Explorer. To overcome these problems, the HTML5/WebGL (next-generation web standard, confirmed in October 2014 technology emerged. In particular, WebGL is able to display 3D spatial data without plug-ins in browsers. In this study, we attempted to identify the requirements and limitations of displaying 3D city modeling spatial data using HTML5/WebGL, and we propose alternative ways based on the bin-packing algorithm that aggregates individual 3D city modeling data including buildings in tile units. The proposed method reduces the operational complexity and the number and volume of transmissions required for rendering processing to improve the speed of 3D data rendering. The proposed method was validated on real data for evaluating its effectiveness in 3D visualization of city modeling data in web-based applications.

  8. GL-1196 Suppresses the Proliferation and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells via Targeting PAK4 and Inhibiting PAK4-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer, which is the most common malignant gastrointestinal tumor, has jumped to the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It is of great importance to identify novel and potent drugs for gastric cancer treatment. P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4 has emerged as an attractive target for the development of anticancer drugs in consideration of its vital functions in tumorigenesis and progression. In this paper, we reported that GL-1196, as a small molecular compound, effectively suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells through downregulation of PAK4/c-Src/EGFR/cyclinD1 pathway and CDK4/6 expression. Moreover, GL-1196 prominently inhibited the invasion of human gastric cancer cells in parallel with blockage of the PAK4/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. Interestingly, GL-1196 also inhibited the formation of filopodia and induced cell elongation in SGC7901 and BGC823 cells. Taken together, these results provided novel insights into the potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

  9. Da-Cruz Triple Tool: cómo hacer simple y precisa la cirugía de implante glúteo intramuscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Da-Cruz

    Full Text Available El Da-Cruz Triple Tool es un instrumento multifuncional diseñado para la colocación de implantes glúteos intramusculares. Tiene 3 funciones; a saber: disector, separador y medidor. Consiste en 2 piezas para su uso articulado o por separado. Como disector logra la profundidad y el grosor deseables del músculo glúteo mayor a través de maniobras precisas que provocan menos trauma; por consiguiente, ayuda a obtener una mejor recuperación y resultados. Al mismo tiempo faculta para elevar los espacios abiertos y controlar adherencias o sangrados. La función de medidor permite calcular la dimensión cefalocaudal y la anchura del espacio para escoger el implante adecuado. Con el entrenamiento adecuado en el uso de esta herramienta y la implementación de medidas pre, trans y postoperatorias bien definidas, cualquier cirujano plástico puede obtener resultados consistentemente exitosos en la colocación de implantes glúteos intramusculares.

  10. The Fallacy of Average: How Using HbA1c Alone to Assess Glycemic Control Can Be Misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roy W; Connor, Crystal G; Mullen, Deborah M; Wesley, David M; Bergenstal, Richard M

    2017-08-01

    HbA 1c is a v aluable metric for comparing treatment groups in a randomized trial, for assessing glycemic trends in a population over time, or for cross-sectional comparisons of glycemic control in different populations. However, what is not widely appreciated is that HbA 1c may not be a good indicator of an individual patient's glycemic control because of the wide range of mean glucose concentrations and glucose profiles that can be associated with a given HbA 1c level. To illustrate this point, we plotted mean glucose measured with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) versus central laboratory-measured HbA 1c in 387 participants in three randomized trials, showing that not infrequently HbA 1c may underestimate or overestimate mean glucose, sometimes substantially. Thus, if HbA 1c is to be used to assess glycemic control, it is imperative to know the patient's actual mean glucose to understand how well HbA 1c is an indicator of the patient's glycemic control. With knowledge of the mean glucose, an estimated HbA 1c (eA1C) can be calculated with the formula provided in this article to compare with the measured HbA 1c . Estimating glycemic control from HbA 1c alone is in essence applying a population average to an individual, which can be misleading. Thus, a patient's CGM glucose profile has considerable value for optimizing his or her diabetes management. In this era of personalized, precision medicine, there are few better examples with respect to the fallacy of applying a population average to a specific patient rather than using specific information about the patient to determine the optimal approach to treatment. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Inclusão de fibra alimentar em pães isentos de glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Luciane Ceccon Saueressig

    Full Text Available Resumo Foram desenvolvidas quatro formulações de pães, isentos de glúten e com a inclusão de fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel, avaliando suas propriedades físicas, composição química, aceitação e intenção de compra do consumidor. O padrão (1 teve a farinha de arroz, fécula de mandioca, ovo, leite em pó, óleo de girassol, sal, açúcar, fermento biológico seco e água como ingredientes. Nos demais, a fécula foi parcialmente substituída por inulina (2, farelo de arroz desengordurado e inulina (3, e farelo de arroz desengordurado (4. A cor do pão 2 diferiu apenas na casca, que ficou menos vermelha e amarela que o 1. A inclusão do farelo de arroz proporcionou coloração mais escura, vermelha e amarela à crosta e miolo dos pães 3 e 4. A perda de peso e rendimento variaram apenas em relação ao pão 2, que teve maior perda de peso e menor rendimento, provavelmente devido ao colapso da massa, que não foi capaz de manter a estrutura na fase de crescimento. O custo dos pães com inulina foi maior, pois este ingrediente é um reconhecido prebiótico, adquirido em estabelecimentos farmacêuticos; enquanto que o custo do pão apenas com farelo diminuiu, já que se trata de um subproduto industrial, obtido da extração do óleo de arroz. Na composição química, houve incremento nos teores de cinzas, proteínas e fibra alimentar, principalmente insolúvel, nos pães 3 e 4; enquanto que o pão 2 apresentou menor teor proteico e maior teor de fibra alimentar, principalmente solúvel. Nutricionalmente, admite-se incremento do valor nutricional em detrimento de carboidratos digeríveis e do valor calórico. Sensorialmente, os pães 3 e 4 tiveram menor aceitação nos atributos cor e sabor, mas não diferiram dos pães 1 e 2 nos atributos odor e textura, e na intenção de compra dos consumidores. Conclui-se que o consumo dos pães que tiveram substituição parcial da fécula é garantia de alimento com qualidade funcional

  12. Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes – A Narrative Review?

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Rebecca B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Saldanha, Leila; Bailey, Regan L.; Merkel, Joyce; Wambogo, Edwina

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) has been suggested to help patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieve better glycemic control although conclusions from meta-analyses are mixed. To evaluate whether the use of cinnamon dietary supplements by adults with T2DM had clinically meaningful effects on glycemic control, as measured by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed. Eleven RCTs were identified meeting our in...

  13. Morfologia e vascularização arterial das glândulas tireóides em gansos domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheston César Honorato Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a morfologia e o comportamento das artérias que se destinam às glândulas tireóides, abordando seu número, origem e ordenação em 30 gansos domésticos (Anser domestica, injetados com Neoprene látex 450 corado e fixados em solução aquosa de formalina a 10%. As glândulas tireóides apresentam-se pares, ovóides e localizam-se na extremidade cranial da cavidade tóraco-abdominal, relacionam-se com o nervo vago, veia jugular e artéria carótida comum, e possuem em média de 0,97; 0,69 e 0,43 cm no antímero direito e 1,04; 0,62 e 0,38 cm no antímero esquerdo, para comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. As glândulas tireóides recebem colaterais das artérias: carótida comum, cervical cutânea ascendente, esofagotraqueobronquial, esofágica ascendente, comum do nervo vago ipsilateralmente e ramo esofágico, sendo estes dois últimos somente para a glândula direita. O número de vasos variou de 1 a 5 vasos, sendo 2 vasos (15 casos, 50% ± 10 para o antímero direito e 3 vasos (12 casos, 40% ± 9,8 para o antímero esquerdo, o padrão mais freqüentemente observado. As artérias tireóideas cranial, média cranial, média, média caudal e caudal estiveram presentes no antímero direito em 29, 8, 8, 14 e 29 gansos respectivamente, e no antímero esquerdo em 28, 5, 14, 5 e 28 gansos respectivamente. Um único ramo, a artéria tireóidea, destinou-se a glândula em um animal à direita e em dois animais a esquerda.

  14. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  15. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  16. Evaluation of finger millet incorporated noodles for nutritive value and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamini; Srivastava, Sarita

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop finger millet incorporated noodles for diabetic patients. Finger millet variety VL-149 was taken. The finger millet flour and refined wheat flour (RWF) were evaluated for nutrient composition. The finger millet flour (FMF) was blended in various proportions (30 to 50%) in refined wheat flour and used for the preparation of noodles. Control consisted of RWF noodles. Sensory quality and nutrient composition of finger millet noodles was evaluated. The 30% finger millet incorporated noodles were selected best on the basis of sensory evaluation. Noodles in that proportion along with control were evaluated for glycemic response. Nutrient composition of noodles showed that 50% finger millet incorporated noodles contained highest amount of crude fat (1.15%), total ash (1.40%), crude fiber (1.28%), carbohydrate (78.54%), physiological energy (351.36 kcal), insoluble dietary fiber (5.45%), soluble dietary fiber (3.71%), iron (5.58%) and calcium (88.39%), respectively. However, control RWF noodles contained highest amount of starch (63.02%), amylose (8.72%) and amylopectin (54.29%). The glycemic index (GI) of 30% finger millet incorporated noodles (best selected by sensory evaluation) was observed significantly lower (45.13) than control noodles (62.59). It was found that finger millet flour incorporated noodles were found nutritious and showed hypoglycemic effect.

  17. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  18. In vitro starch hydrolysis and estimated glycemic index of tef porridge and injera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumoy, Habtu; Raes, Katleen

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro starch digestibility of injera and porridge from seven tef varieties and to estimate their glycemic index. The total starch, free glucose, apparent amylose, resistant, slowly digestible and rapidly digestible starches of the varieties ranged between 66 and 76, 1.8 and 2.4g/100g flour dry matter (DM), 29 and 31%, 17 and 68, 19 and 53, 12 and 30g/100g starch DM, respectively. After processing into injera and porridge, the rapidly digestible starch content increased by 60-85% and 3-69%, respectively. The estimated glycemic index of porridge and injera of the varieties ranged 79-99 and 94-137 when estimated based on model of Goni et al. (1997) whereas from 69 to 100 and 94 to 161, respectively based on Granfeldtet al. (1992). Tef porridge and injera samples studied here can be classified as medium- high GI foods, not to be considered as a proper food ingredient for diabetic people and patients in weight gain control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Moderate glycemic control safe in critically ill adult burn patients: A 15 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecklin, Patricia; Delodder, Frederik; Pantet, Olivier; Berger, Mette M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperglycemia is a metabolic alteration in major burn patients associated with complications. The study aimed at evaluating the safety of general ICU glucose control protocols applied in major burns receiving prolonged ICU treatment. 15 year retrospective analysis of consecutive, adult burn patients admitted to a single specialized centre. death or length of stay burned surface (TBSA), severity scores, infections, ICU stay, outcome. Metabolic variables: total energy, carbohydrate and insulin delivery/24h, arterial blood glucose and CRP values. Analysis of 4 periods: 1, before protocol; 2, tight doctor driven; 3, tight nurse driven; 4, moderate nurse driven. 229 patients, aged 45 ± 20 years (mean ± SD), burned 32 ± 20% TBSA were analyzed. SAPSII was 35 ± 13. TBSA, Ryan and ABSI remained stable. Inhalation injury increased. A total of 28,690 blood glucose samples were analyzed: the median value remained unchanged with a narrower distribution over time. After the protocol initiation, the normoglycemic values increased from 34.7% to 65.9%, with a reduction of hypoglycaemic events (no extreme hypoglycemia in period 4). Severe hyperglycemia persisted throughout with a decrease in period 4 (9.25% in period 4). Energy and glucose deliveries decreased in periods 3 and 4 (pprotocol improved the glycemic control in adult burn patients, reducing glucose variability. Moderate glycemic control in burns was safe specifically related to hypoglycemia, reducing the incidence of hypoglycaemic events compared to the period before. Hyperglycemia persisted at a lower level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Ramadan fasting on glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, A; Mohajeri, S M R; Shakeri, S; Yari, F; Sabery, M; Philippou, E; Varasteh, A-R; Nematy, M

    2012-09-01

    Although Muslim patients with Type 2 diabetes may be exempt from fasting during Ramadan for medical reasons, a high proportion of them fast. To investigate the association between Ramadan fasting and glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes. A prospective cohort clinical trial was designed. Eighty-eight patients with Type 2 diabetes (45 male, 43 female, age 51±10 yr) who opted to fast for at least 10 days during the month of Ramadan were recruited. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of Ramadan, and 1 month after Ramadan, to assess fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, full blood count, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting lipid profile. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were also measured. There was a significant deterioration in FBG and HbA(1c) (p=0.002 and p≤0.001, respectively) and significant improvements in HDL and LDL cholesterol and body mass index after Ramadan (pRamadan (9.4±2% at the end of Ramadan vs 8.4±2.5% 1 month after Ramadan; pRamadan deteriorated the glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes patients. This was more evident in patients using oral hypoglycemic medication than diet- controlled patients. However, Ramadan fasting had small positive effects on lipid profile and body weight.

  1. Endocrinology Telehealth Consultation Improved Glycemic Control Similar to Face-to-Face Visits in Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Winnie; Saxon, David R; McNair, Bryan; Sanagorski, Rebecca; Rasouli, Neda

    2016-09-01

    Rates of diabetes for veterans who receive health care through the Veterans Health Administration are higher than rates in the general population. Furthermore, many veterans live in rural locations, far from Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals, thus limiting their ability to readily seek face-to-face endocrinology care for diabetes. Telehealth (TH) technologies present an opportunity to improve access to specialty diabetes care for such patients; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding the ability of TH to improve glycemic control in comparison to traditional face-to-face consultations. This was a retrospective cohort study of all new endocrinology diabetes consultations at the Denver VA Medical Center over a 1-year period. A total of 189 patients were included in the analysis. In all, 85 patients had received face-to-face (FTF) endocrinology consultation for diabetes and 104 patients had received TH consultation. Subjects were mostly males (94.7%) and the mean age was 62.8 ± 10.1 years old. HbA1c improved from 9.76% (9.40% to 10.11%) to 8.55% (8.20% to 8.91%) (P Endocrinology TH consultations improved short-term glycemic control as effectively as traditional FTF visits in a veteran population with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  3. Relationship between depression and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, R.; Yunanda, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Depression is a mental problem whichifnot handled properly will cause uncontrolled diabetes that affects the quality of life and increase the risk of complications. This study aimed to determine the relationship between depressionwith glycemic control among patients with type 2 Diabetes in Amplas Primary Health Care (PHC) Medan. The study design was a cross-sectional analytic approach. The study population was patients with Type 2 diabetes that is in the region Amplas PHC with a sample of 100 people with consecutive sampling method. We collected data by interviewing and blood analysis. Adapted CES-D questionnaire assessed the depression status. AFull Automatic Spectrophotometer Colorimeter method measured the Blood Sugar Level (BSL),and a Modified HPLC with Doronad affinity measured the HbA1c in avenous blood sample. We used Chi-square test and SPP to analyze and process the data. The results showed 57 (57%) subjects had depression, based on BSL as many as 69 subjects (69%) were not well-controlled diabetes, HbA1c levels showed that 79 subjects (79%) were uncontrolled diabetes. Chi-Square test found a significant relationship between the incidence of depression with glycemic control in diabetic patients in the Amplas PHC (p <0.05).

  4. Diet, Inflammation, and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y. Nowlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a growing national health problem affecting 35% of adults ≥20 years of age in the United States. Recently, diabetes has been categorized as an inflammatory disease, sharing many of the adverse outcomes as those reported from cardiovascular disease. Medical nutrition therapy is recommended for the treatment of diabetes; however, these recommendations have not been updated to target the inflammatory component, which can be affected by diet and lifestyle. To assess the current state of evidence for which dietary programs contain the most anti-inflammatory and glycemic control properties for patients with T2D, we conducted an integrative review of the literature. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to May 2012 yielded 786 articles. The final 16 studies met the selection criteria including randomized control trials, quasiexperimental, or cross-sectional studies that compared varying diets and measured inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean and DASH diets along with several low-fat diets were associated with lower inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean diet demonstrated the most clinically significant reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Information on best dietary guidelines for inflammation and glycemic control in individuals with T2D is lacking. Continued research is warranted.

  5. Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Tal; Zeevi, David; Zmora, Niv; Weissbrod, Omer; Bar, Noam; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Avnit-Sagi, Tali; Kosower, Noa; Malka, Gal; Rein, Michal; Suez, Jotham; Goldberg, Ben Z; Weinberger, Adina; Levy, Avraham A; Elinav, Eran; Segal, Eran

    2017-06-06

    Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention. We demonstrate statistically significant interpersonal variability in the glycemic response to different bread types, suggesting that the lack of phenotypic difference between the bread types stems from a person-specific effect. We further show that the type of bread that induces the lower glycemic response in each person can be predicted based solely on microbiome data prior to the intervention. Together, we present marked personalization in both bread metabolism and the gut microbiome, suggesting that understanding dietary effects requires integration of person-specific factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Bailey, Regan L.

    2016-01-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  7. Trends in Drug Utilization, Glycemic Control, and Rates of Severe Hypoglycemia, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Kasia J; Yao, Xiaoxi; Herrin, Jeph; McCoy, Rozalina G; Ross, Joseph S; Steinman, Michael A; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Gill, Thomas M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Shah, Nilay D

    2017-04-01

    To examine temporal trends in utilization of glucose-lowering medications, glycemic control, and rate of severe hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Using claims data from 1.66 million privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients with T2DM from 2006 to 2013, we estimated the annual 1 ) age- and sex-standardized proportion of patients who filled each class of agents; 2 ) age-, sex-, race-, and region-standardized proportion with hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) use increased for metformin (from 47.6 to 53.5%), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (0.5 to 14.9%), and insulin (17.1 to 23.0%) but declined for sulfonylureas (38.8 to 30.8%) and thiazolidinediones (28.5 to 5.6%; all P use of glucose-lowering drugs has changed dramatically among patients with T2DM. Overall glycemic control has not improved and remains poor among nearly a quarter of the youngest patients. The overall rate of severe hypoglycemia remains largely unchanged. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an extension of our previous work carried out on Cynodon dactylon. This study deals with the critical evaluation of glycemic potential of ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon. The doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg kg−1 bw of the extract were administered orally to normal as well as Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to study its glycemic potential. The effect of repeated oral administration of the same doses of ethanolic extract was also studied on serum lipid profile of severely diabetic (SD) rats. The dose of 500 mg kg−1 bw was identified as the most effective dose as it lowered the blood glucose levels of normal by 42.12% and of diabetic by 43.42% during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test respectively. The SD rats were also treated daily with this identified dose of 500 mg kg−1 bw for 2 weeks and a significant reduction of 56.34% was observed in FBG level. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were also decreased by 32.94, 64.06 and 48.46% respectively in SD rats whereas, cardioprotective high density lipoprotein increased by 16.45%. The reduced urine sugar level and increased body weight are additional advantages. These evidences clearly indicate that the ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with good hypolipidemic profile. PMID:18955211

  9. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase 2® is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread. Methods An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests to the white bread control. Results For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023 Conclusion Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345

  10. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Preuss, Harry G

    2009-10-28

    Phase 2((R)) is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI) of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread). An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests) to the white bread control. For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023) Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345.

  11. Work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control among working adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content.

  13. Psychological aspects of glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gennad'evich Motovilin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To elucidate the relationship between glycemic control (assessed by the level of HbA1c and psychological status of the patients. Materials and methods. The study included 115 patients with type 1 diabetes aged 13-27 years. The following tests were used to assess the psychological statusof the patients status (emotional state, social relations, attitude toward disease: State-trait-anxiety Inventory (Spielberger C.D., Hanin Y.L, Center for EpidemiologicStudies Depression Scale (CES-D, Social ajustment scale by A.K. Osnizkiy based on Q-Sort Adjustment Scale developed by R. Dymond andC.R. Rogers (1954, Lusher colour test , Colour attitudes test, A.M. Etkind original technique, method for the assessment of attitude toward disease developedin V.M. Bekhterev Research Psychoneurologic Institute, Sankt-Peterburg. The patients were allocated to 3 groups differing in terms of 33.3% percentile ofHbA1c levels. Results. Patients with good glycemic control (mean HbA1c level 7.4% show the lowest level of social adaptation and emotional well-being. The reason for thisphenomenon is the excessive focus of patient on the disease and narrow scope of interests, which suggest psychological dependence on diabetes. Patients withpoor glycemic control (mean HbA1c level 13.1% also experience emotional discomfort due to increased anxiety. Despite the fact they exhibit a higher degreeof social adaptation than the patients of the above group, the main concern is the low level of communicative autonomy and the feeling of being unable to copewith the disease. Such personal characteristics also create a psychological dependence on diabetes, although of a different type than in the first group of patients.Patients with average glycemic control (mean HbA1c level 9.5% in the sample have the most favorable psychological state in comparison with the other twogroups. Their emotional state and social adaptation are significantly better than in the other two groups. These patients

  14. Estudo da adição de vital glúten à farinha de arroz, farinha de aveia e amido de trigo na qualidade de pães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEDRUS Guilherme de A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Farinhas de arroz e de aveia e amido de trigo foram adicionados de vital glúten e avaliados pelo Teste de Panificação. Usou-se como padrão uma amostra de farinha de trigo com características adequadas para produção de pão. Os níveis de adição de vital glúten foram de 10, 15, 17,5, 20 e 30% para a farinha de arroz e de 10, 20 e 30% para a farinha de aveia. Ao amido de trigo, extraído da farinha de trigo utilizada como padrão, foi adicionado vital glúten de forma a reconstituir o teor de glúten original da farinha. Os melhores resultados do teste de panificação foram obtidos com 17,5% de vital glúten na farinha de arroz e 20% de vital glúten na farinha de aveia. Foram obtidos pães com volumes específicos inferiores aos de trigo (2,67cm³/g para vital glúten + farinha de arroz, 3,07cm³/g para vital glúten + farinha de aveia e 4,14cm³/g para vital glúten + amido de trigo contra 5,15cm³/g para os de farinha de trigo. As melhores misturas foram analisadas quanto às suas características reológicas e comparadas com a farinha de trigo original. A mistura de amido de trigo e vital glúten apresentou características farinográficas extensográficas inferiores à farinha de trigo e deu origem a pães de menor volume e com estrutura compacta. No geral, a adição de vital glúten propiciou a obtenção de pães com características aceitáveis, embora inferiores às do pão de farinha de trigo. As características dos pães contendo vital glúten foram: pouca simetria e quebra praticamente inexistente. São necessários novos estudos sobre a interação do vital glúten com os demais componentes da farinha de trigo e sua influência na qualidade do produto final.

  15. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  16. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  17. Association Between PAI-1 Activity Levels and t-PA Antigen with Glycemic Status in Prediabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Fachruddin Benyamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate an association between fibrinolysis defect and glycemic status in prediabetic population by assessing the levels of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity. Methods: it was an observational study with cross-sectional approach. There were 72 subjects aged 30-50 years who had met the inclusion criteria. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM and glycemic index were determined based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. The PAI-1 and t-PA antigen levels were measured quantitatively using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Analysis between the levels of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity was performed using ANOVA. Results: the t-PA antigen level was significantly higher in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG as well as subject with impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT (p=0.047. The PAI-1 activity was significantly higher in subjects with IGT, IFBG and subjects with IFBG than NGT (p=0.024. There was a significant association between glycemic status in prediabetic subjects and PAI-1 activity (p=0.04. Conclusion: the level of t-PA antigen and PAI-1 activity were significantly higher in prediabetic subjects than those with NGT; and there was a significant association between glycemic status in prediabetic subjects and PAI-1 activity.

  18. Glycemic Allostasis during Mental Activities on Fasting in Non-alcohol Users and Alcohol Users with Different Durations of Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Mo; Pereverzev, Va

    2014-09-01

    Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors. This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non-alcohol users and alcohol users with different periods of abstinence. Referred articles for this review were searched in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, DOAJ and AJOL. The search was conducted in 2013 between January 20 and July 31. The following keywords were used in the search: alcohol action on glycemia OR brain glucose OR cognitive functions; dynamics of glycemia, dynamics of glycemia during mental activities; dynamics of glycemia on fasting; dynamics of glycemia in non-alcohol users OR alcohol users; glycemic regulation during sobriety. Analysis of the selected articles showed that glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting is poorly regulated in alcohol users even after a long duration of sobriety (1-4 weeks after alcohol consumption), compared to non-alcohol users. The major contributor to the maintenance of euglycemia during mental activities after the night's rest (during continuing fast) is gluconeogenesis.

  19. Do eating behaviors in the general population account for country variance in glycemic control among adolescents with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; de Beaufort, Carine; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2013-01-01

    . The frequency of intake of fruit, vegetables, sweets, sugary soft drinks, and daily breakfast was compared between the two groups. The glycemic control of the adolescents in the HSG cohort was determined by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). RESULTS: Across countries in the HSBC survey...

  20. Quality of life and glycemic profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of Indonesian: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, R.; Lelo, A.; Lindarto, D.; Mutiara, E.

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes type 2 is increasing globally. Quality of life (QOL) in diabetic patients is the primary goal of care. Today, there is an increasing awareness suggesting that patient’sQOLand treatment satisfaction were improved after good glycemic control. This study aimed to demonstrate the quality of life and the glycemic profiles of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. This study was a descriptive study of across-sectional design. A sample of 115 out-patients attending eight public health centers in Binjai City, Indonesia. Patient’s quality of life was assessedin four domains of role limitation due to physical health, psychosocial, social and environment in a four Likert point. Two glycemic profiles which are blood sugar level and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by Spectrophotometer Colorimeter + Full Automatic method and affinity Doronad + Modified HPLC technique, respectively. In the results, we confirmed that almost 80.0% of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients are in good QOL(score 81-100) in three QOL dimensions; Physical health, Social relationship and Environment health but not in Psychological health dimension. The blood sugar level and HbA1clevel are beyond the normal value, 267.5±103.2mg/dLand9.9±2.3%,respectively. The better controlled glycemic index, the better patient’s QOL.

  1. Orange pomace improves postprandial glycemic responses: an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial in overweight men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-co...

  2. The Glycemic Response Does Not Reflect the In Vivo Starch Digestibility of Fiber-Rich Wheat Products in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, C.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wang, H.W.; Schepers, M.; Preston, T.; Boer, T.; Vonk, R.J.; Schierbeek, H.; Priebe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Starchy food products differ in the rate of starch digestion, which can affect their metabolic impact. In this study, we examined how the in vivo starch digestibility is reflected by the glycemic response, because this response is often used to predict starch digestibility. Ten healthy male

  3. Family Density and SES Related to Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Laura J; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2015-06-01

    Youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) from single-parent families have poorer glycemic control; a finding confounded with socioeconomic status (SES). Family density (FD), or youth:adult ratio, may better characterize family risk status. Structural equation modeling assessed the relation of single-parent status, SES, and FD to parenting stress, diabetes-related conflict, parental monitoring, adherence, and glycemic control using cross-sectional parent and youth data (n = 257). Single-parent status exhibited similar relations as SES and was removed. Lower FD was associated with better glycemic control (β = -.29, p = .014) via less conflict (β = .17, p = .038) and greater adherence (β = -.54, p single-parent status were indistinguishable from those of SES. FD provides distinct information related to adolescent glycemic control. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet. PMID:23036993

  5. Do Perceptions of Empowerment Affect Glycemic Control and Self-Care Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Amirtharaj, Anandhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Arab adult with T2DM is understudied with less known facts about the perception of empowerment and its relationship with self-care and glycemic control. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perception of empowerment by Arab adults living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) was associated with better glycemic control and self-care management. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was led among 300 Arab adults living in Oman with T2DM in an outpatient diabetes clinic. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), glycosylated haemaglobin (HbA1c) and Body mass index was assessed. The DES was found to be valid and reliable for the population. ANOVA, Regression analysis, and Structural equation modeling was used for analysis. Results: The composite score and three subscales of DES were a significant and strong predictor of good glycemic control among Omani adults with T2DM (pempowerment and tailor interventions to increase empowerment for better glycemic control. Patient empowerment plays an essential role in maintaining self-care behaviours and HbA1c. PMID:26156908

  6. HOMA-IR Values are Associated With Glycemic Control in Japanese Subjects Without Diabetes or Obesity: The KOBE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Higashiyama, Aya; Kubota, Yoshimi; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kadota, Aya; Nishida, Yoko; Imano, Hironori; Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: β = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: β = 0.49, P HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (β = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men. HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.

  7. Islet Transplantation Provides Superior Glycemic Control With Less Hypoglycemia Compared With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion or Multiple Daily Insulin Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Walker, Deborah Jane; Gunton, Jenny E; Hawthorne, Wayne; Payk, Marlene; Anderson, Patricia; Donath, Susan; Loudovaris, Tom; Ward, Glenn M; Kay, Thomas Wh; OʼConnell, Philip J

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to compare efficacy of multiple daily injections (MDI), continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and islet transplantation to reduce hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in type 1 diabetes subjects with severe hypoglycemia. This was a within-subject, paired comparison of MDI and CSII and CSII with 12 months postislet transplantation in 10 type 1 diabetes subjects referred with severe hypoglycemia, suitable for islet transplantation. Individuals were assessed with HbA1c, Edmonton Hypoglycemia Score (HYPOscore), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and in 8 subjects measurements of glucose variability using standard deviation of glucose (SD glucose) from CGM and continuous overlapping net glycemic action using a 4 hour interval (CONGA4). After changing from MDI to CSII before transplantation, 10 subjects reduced median HYPOscore from 2028 to 1085 (P transplantation, there were significant reductions in all baseline parameters versus CSII, respectively, HbA1c (6.4% cf 8.2%), median HYPOscore (0 cf 1085), mean glucose (7.1 cf 8.6 mmol L), SD glucose (1.7 cf 3.2 mmol/L), and CONGA4 (1.6 cf 3.0). In subjects with severe hypoglycemia suitable for islet transplantation, CSII decreased hypoglycemia frequency and glycemic variability compared with MDI whereas islet transplantation resolved hypoglycemia and further improved glycemic variability regardless of insulin independence.

  8. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes...

  9. Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Robert A.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Montasser, May E.; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Rehnberg, Emil; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Yengo, Loïc; Lecoeur, Cecile; Shungin, Dmitry; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Johnson, Toby; Mahajan, Anubha; Verweij, Niek; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Shah, Sonia; Smith, Albert V.; Sennblad, Bengt; Gieger, Christian; Salo, Perttu; Perola, Markus; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Wu, Ying; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Hui, Jennie; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Isaacs, Aaron; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Vitart, Veronique; Hayward, Caroline; Esko, Tõnu; Mihailov, Evelin; Fraser, Ross M.; Fall, Tove; Voight, Benjamin F.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Chen, Han; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Willems, Sara M.; Chines, Peter S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Kang, Hyun Min; Stringham, Heather M.; Song, Kijoung; Tanaka, Toshiko; Peden, John F.; Goel, Anuj; Hicks, Andrew A.; An, Ping; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Folkersen, Lasse; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Pankow, James S.; North, Kari E.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Hallmans, Göran; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Kong, Augustine; Kumari, Meena; Gigante, Bruna; Herder, Christian; Munroe, Patricia B.; Caulfield, Mark; Antti, Jula; Mangino, Massimo; Small, Kerrin; Miljkovic, Iva; Liu, Yongmei; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; James, Alan L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Polasek, Ozren; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Hercberg, Serge; Dimitriou, Maria; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Kovacs, Peter; Lindström, Jaana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bandinelli, Stefania; Wild, Sarah H.; Basart, Hanneke V.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Grallert, Harald; Maerz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Province, Michael A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Watanabe, Richard M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Metspalu, Andres; Uusitupa, Matti; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Price, Jackie F.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Meneton, Pierre; Lind, Lars; Boehnke, Michael; Shuldiner, Alan R.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Morris, Andrew D.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Beilby, John P.; Körner, Antje; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Adair, Linda S.; Smith, George Davey; Spector, Tim D.; Illig, Thomas; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Stefansson, Kari; van der Harst, Pim; Dupuis, Josée; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Sattar, Naveed; Harris, Tamara B.; Cucca, Francesco; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Mohlke, Karen L.; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Pouta, Anneli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; McCarthy, Mark I.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Florez, Jose C.; Langenberg, Claudia; Ingelsson, Erik; Prokopenko, Inga; Barroso, Inês

    2012-01-01

    Through genome-wide association meta-analyses of up to 133,010 individuals of European ancestry without diabetes, including individuals newly genotyped using the Metabochip, we have increased the number of confirmed loci influencing glycemic traits to 53, of which 33 also increase type 2 diabetes

  10. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  11. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Egede, Leonard E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Does knowledge on diabetes management influence glycemic control? A nationwide study in patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes MB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilia Brito Gomes,1 Deborah Conte Santos,1 Marcela H Pizarro,1 Bianca Senger V Barros,1 Laura G Nunes de Melo,2 Carlos A Negrato3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Unit, State University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bauru’s Diabetics Association, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil Objective: The purpose of this study is to establish demographic and clinical data associated with the knowledge on diabetes management and its influence on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter study conducted with 1,760 patients between August 2011 and August 2014 in 10 cities of Brazil.Results: Overall, 1,190 (67.6% patients knew what glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c means. These patients were older, had longer disease duration, longer follow-up in each center, reported lower frequency of self-reported hypoglycemia, and were more frequently Caucasians and at glycemic goal. Multivariate analysis showed that knowledge on what HbA1c means was related to more years of school attendance, self-reported ethnicity (Caucasians, severe hypoglycemia, economic status, follow-up time in each center, and participation on diabetes educational programs. Good glycemic control was related to older age, more years of school attendance, higher frequency of daily self-monitoring of blood glucose, higher adherence to diet, and knowledge on what HbA1c means.Conclusion: Patients with a knowledge on what HbA1c means had a better chance of reaching an adequate glycemic control that was not found in the majority of our patients. Diabetes care teams should rethink the approaches to patients and change them to more proactive schedules, reinforcing education, patients’ skills, and empowerment to have positive attitudes toward reaching and maintaining a better glycemic control. Finally, the glucocentric

  13. Adaptação nutricional diante da doença celíaca desencadeada pela intolerância ao glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francileuda Batista de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A intolerância ao glúten que desencadeia a doença celíaca DC tem analises e estudo a mais de dois séculos, glúten proteína presente nas farinhas, o doente celíaco tem como sintomas distúrbios gastrointestinais ente outros problemas de saúde decorrente de dietas a parti de alimentos que contem glúten. A partir de tais pressupostos, pretendeu-se com o trabalho de revisão, analisar a necessidade de adaptações nutricionais mediante a doença celíaca desencadeada pela intolerância ao glúten. Neste sentido, tem-se que os sintomas apesentam de formas típicas e atípicas. Fatores intrínsecos também contribuem para o problema tais com os imunológicos, genéticos e ambientais. Estudos comprovam que para melhor convivência com o problema o paciente celíaco deve obter todas as informações tanto do corpo clínico que lhe assiste quanto dos exames realizados como e o caso da biopsia do intestino. O tratamento se baseia em ingestão de dieta sem glúten, antes era difícil encontrar no mercado mais hoje já existem formulações sem glúten bolos goma xantana e biscoito de farrinha de palmeia real. Este trabalho descreve em formato de revisão bibliográfica este assunto.Nutritional adaptation faced with celiac disease triggered by intolerance to glutenAbstract: The intolerance to gluten that triggers the DC celiac disease has analysis and study more than two centuries, gluten protein found in flour, the patient celiac has the symptoms gastrointestinal being disorders other health problems due to diet the left of foods containing gluten. Based on these assumptions, it was intended with the revision work, examine the need for nutritional adaptations by celiac disease triggered by intolerance to gluten-. In this sense, it has to be apesentam symptoms of typical and atypical forms. Intrinsic factors also contribute to the problem with such immunological, genetic and environmental. Studies show that for better interaction with the patient

  14. Predictors of Glycemic Control in Adolescents of Various Age Groups With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Li; Lo, Fu-Sung; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the predictors of glycemic control in adolescents of various age groups with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is crucial for nurses to cultivate developmental-specific interventions to improve glycemic control in this age group. However, research has rarely addressed this issue, particularly in the context of Asian populations. We explored the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, self-care behaviors, family conflict, and parental involvement on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels 6 months after the baseline measurement in adolescents of various age groups with T1D in Taiwan. A prospective survey design was applied. At baseline, adolescents with T1D completed a self-care behavior scale. Parents or guardians finished scales of parental involvement and family conflict. The HbA1C levels 6 months after baseline measurement were collected from medical records. Two hundred ten adolescent-parent/guardian pairs were enrolled as participants. Multiple stepwise regressions examined the significant predictors of HbA1C levels 6 months after the baseline measurement in the three adolescent age groups: 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years. Family conflict was a significant predictor of HbA1C level within the 10-12 years of age group 6 months after the baseline measurement. Self-care behaviors were a significant predictor of HbA1C level within the 13-15 years of age group 6 months after the baseline measurement. Being female and self-care behaviors were each significant predictors of HbA1C level in the 16-18 years of age group 6 months after the baseline measurement. Nurses should design specific interventions to improve glycemic control in adolescents of various age groups with T1D that are tailored to their developmental needs. For adolescents with T1D aged 10-12 years, nurses should actively assess family conflict and provide necessary interventions. For adolescents with T1D aged 13-18 years, nurses should exert special efforts to improve their self

  15. Correlation between glycemic control and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Saudi type II diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy RM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rania M Fahmy,1,2 Ramesa S Bhat,3 Manar Al-Mutairi,4 Feda S Aljaser,5 Afaf El-Ansary4 1Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; 3Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Central Laboratory, Female Center for Medical Studies and Scientific Section, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM, diabetic retinopathy, and degree of glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT using optical coherence tomography.Methods: The study included 126 eyes of healthy controls (n=32 and diabetics patients (n=31, whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 years. The diabetic group was divided into: Subgroup 1: with HbA1c <7% and Subgroup 2: with HbA1c ≥7%. All patients underwent full ophthalmic examination. HbA1c level was obtained with the A1cNow+ system and the peripapillary RNFLT was measured using 3D-OCT 2000 Topcon (360-degree circular scan with 3.4 mm diameter centered on optic disc.Results: The obtained data demonstrates significant decrease in peripapillary RNFLT in superior and inferior quadrants of the right eye (p=0.000 and p=0.039, respectively, and in superior quadrant of the left eye (p=0.002 with impairment of glycemic control. Pearson’s correlation test showed significant negative correlation of RNFLT with HbA1c in the superior quadrant in both eyes.Conclusion: Impairment of glycemic control affects the peripapillary RNFLT mainly in the superior quadrant. This thickness also tends to decrease with long-standing DM, use of DM medications, and development of diabetic retinopathy. The measurement of peripapillary RNFLT

  16. Prediction of Adolescents’ Glycemic Control 1 Year After Diabetes-Specific Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test adherence to blood glucose monitoring (BGM) as a mediator between diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels) for 1 year. Design Three waves of prospective data spanning 1 year. Setting Diabetes clinic in a large tertiary care children’s hospital in the Midwestern United States. Participants One hundred forty-five dyads composed of an adolescent (aged 13–18 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and a parent. Main Exposures Adolescent- and parent-rated diabetes-specific family conflict and mean daily BGM frequency obtained through meter downloads. Main Outcome Measure Levels of HbA1c, abstracted from the medical record. Results In separate general linear models, higher adolescent-rated family conflict scores at baseline predicted less frequent BGM at 6 months (β=−0.08 [P=.01]) and higher HbA1c levels at 12 months (β=0.08 [P=.02]). In the multivariate model including baseline conflict and BGM as predictors of HbA1c levels, BGM was a significant predictor (β=−0.24 [P=.007]) and conflict was no longer significant (β=0.05 [P=.11]), supporting the mediation hypothesis. Post hoc probing showed that BGM explained 24% of the variance in the conflict-HbA1c link. The mediation between parent-reported conflict andHbA1c levels via BGM adherence was partially supported (conflict predicting HbA1c in the zero-order equation, β=−0.24 [P=.004]; multivariate equation, β=0.06 [P=.02]), and BGM frequency explained 16% of the conflict-HbA1c link. Conclusions Diabetes-specific family conflict in adolescence predicts deteriorations in BGM and subsequent glycemic control for at least 1 year. Results support ongoing intervention research designed to reduce family conflict and thus prevent a trajectory of declining adherence and glycemic control across adolescence. PMID:21727273

  17. Impact of overall treatment time on local control of slow growing human GL squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice treated by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Petersen, C.; Schulz, P.; Baisch, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The impact of overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on local control of slow growing human GL squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was determined. Materials and methods: Moderately well differentiated and keratinizing human GL SCC with a volume doubling time of 8 days were transplanted subcutaneously into the right hindleg of NMRI (nu/nu) mice and irradiated with 30 fractions under ambient conditions over 2, 3, 4.5, 6 and 10 weeks. Endpoint of the experiments was local tumor control at day 180 after end of treatment.Results: The tumor control dose 50% (TCD 50) increased from 40 to 57 Gy when the treatment time was extended from 2 to 10 weeks. The data can be well described by a linear increase in TCD 50 with time. The recovered dose per day (D r ) was 0.28 Gy (95% confidence interval 0.06; 0.48). The fit to the data was not significantly improved by assuming a biphasic (dog-leg) time course with constant TCD 50 values in the initial part of treatment followed by a more rapid increase of TCD 50 thereafter.Conclusions: D r in GL SCC was significantly less than the value of 1.0 Gy (0.7; 1.3 ) previously reported for poorly differentiated, non-keratinizing and fast growing human FaDu SCC (Baumann M, Liertz C, Baisch H, Wiegel T, Lorenzen J, Arps H. Impact of overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on local control of human FaDu squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. Radiother. Oncol. 1994;32:137-143), indicating important heterogeneity of the time factor between different tumors of the same histological type. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. A genomic library-based amplification approach (GL-PCR) for the mapping of multiple IS6110 insertion sites and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouchi, Amine; Mardassi, Helmi

    2006-11-01

    Evidence suggests that insertion of the IS6110 element is not without consequence to the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. Thus, mapping of multiple IS6110 insertion sites in the genome of biomedically relevant clinical isolates would result in a better understanding of the role of this mobile element, particularly with regard to transmission, adaptability and virulence. In the present paper, we describe a versatile strategy, referred to as GL-PCR, that amplifies IS6110-flanking sequences based on the construction of a genomic library. M. tuberculosis chromosomal DNA is fully digested with HincII and then ligated into a plasmid vector between T7 and T3 promoter sequences. The ligation reaction product is transformed into Escherichia coli and selective PCR amplification targeting both 5' and 3' IS6110-flanking sequences are performed on the plasmid library DNA. For this purpose, four separate PCR reactions are performed, each combining an outward primer specific for one IS6110 end with either T7 or T3 primer. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the PCR products generated from a single ligation reaction allowed mapping of 21 out of the 24 IS6110 copies of two 12 banded M. tuberculosis strains, yielding an overall sensitivity of 87,5%. Furthermore, by simply comparing the migration pattern of GL-PCR-generated products, the strategy proved to be as valuable as IS6110 RFLP for molecular typing of M. tuberculosis complex strains. Importantly, GL-PCR was able to discriminate between strains differing by a single IS6110 band.

  19. Correlations of the glycemic variability with oxidative stress and erythrocytes membrane stability in patients with type 1 diabetes under intensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo; Alves de Medeiros, Luciana; Moreira Cunha, Lucas; da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Tannus Jorge, Paulo; Santos Resende, Elmiro; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2018-02-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlations of glycemic variability with erythrocyte membrane stability parameters and oxidative stress markers in patients with DM1 under intensive treatment. 90 patients with DM1 and under intensive treatment of the disease were evaluated in relation to anthropometric indices, records of glycemic averages and parameters of glycemic variability, biochemical dosages (glucose, uric acid, lipidogram, glycated hemoglobin, microalbuminuria, creatinine and iron) reticulocyte count, erythrocyte membrane stability parameters and oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and glutathione reductase, GR). Indicators of glycemic variability in the short and long term showed correlations with parameters of membrane stability and markers of oxidative stress (GR). In addition, the comparison of these same parameters between the subgroups consisting of quartiles of GV or glycemic control also showed significant differences. In the DM1 patients studied here, glycemic variability showed correlations with oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane stability variables. This corroborates the hypothesis that glycemic fluctuations interfere with lipid peroxidation and cell membrane behavior, emphasizing its participation in mechanisms related to the development of chronic complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yechang Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence suggests that social support, self-efficacy, and adherence significantly, independently, and together affect glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but the pathway from social support to glycemic control remains unclear. This study hypothesized that the effect of social support on glycemic control was mediated sequentially by self-efficacy and adherence. Patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China, from January 1 to July 31, 2014, and their sociodemographic clinical data and their assessments on social support, self-efficacy, and adherence were obtained from medical records and self-completed questionnaires. Of the 532 patients who participated, 35% achieved glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c < 7%. Social support, self-efficacy, and adherence had significant correlations with each other and with glycemic control (P<0.05. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling showed that better social support was associated to better patient self-efficacy, which, in turn, was associated with better medical adherence, which was associated with improved glycemic control, and the relationship between social support and glycemic control was sequentially and completely mediated by self-efficacy and adherence. The five goodness-of-fit indices confirmed that our data fitted the hypothesized pathway model strongly.